The SHAOLIN MONASTERY (Chinese : 少林寺; pinyin : _Shàolín sì_), also known as the SHAOLIN TEMPLE, is a Chan ("Zen") Buddhist temple in Dengfeng County , Henan Province , China . Dating back 1,500 years when founded by Fang Lu-Hao, Shaolin Temple is the main temple of the Shaolin school of Buddhism to this day.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Establishment * 1.2 Destructions and renovations * 1.3 Recent history
* 2 Shaolin temple buildings * 3 Southern and Northern Shaolin Monasteries * 4 References * 5 Sources
See also: Shaolin Kung Fu
The name refers to the forests of Shaoshi (少室; _Shǎo Shì_) mountain, one of the seven peaks of the Song mountains . The first Shaolin Monastery abbot was Batuo (also called _Fotuo_ or _Buddhabhadra_), a dhyāna master who came to China from India or from Greco-Buddhist Central Asia in 464 AD to spread Buddhist teachings.
According to the _Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks_ (645 AD) by Daoxuan , Shaolin Monastery was built on the north side of Shaoshi, the central peak of Mount Song , one of the Sacred Mountains of China , by Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei dynasty in 477 AD, to accommodate the India master beside the capital Luoyang city. Yang Xuanzhi , in the _Record of the Buddhist Monasteries of Luoyang _ (547 AD), and Li Xian, in the _Ming Yitongzhi_ (1461), concur with Daoxuan's location and attribution. The _Jiaqing Chongxiu Yitongzhi_ (1843) specifies that this monastery, located in the province of Henan, was built in the 20th year of the _Taihe_ era of the Northern Wei dynasty , that is, the monastery was built in 495 AD.
The Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty was a supporter of Shaolin Temple, and he wrote the calligraphic inscriptions that still hang over the Heavenly King Hall and the Buddha Hall today. Picture of Bodhidharma at Himeji Castle .
Traditionally Bodhidharma is credited as founder of the martial arts at the Shaolin Temple. However, martial arts historians have shown this legend stems from a 17th-century qigong manual known as the _ Yijin Jing _.
The authenticity of the _Yi Jin Jing_ has been discredited by some historians including Tang Hao , Xu Zhen and Ryuchi Matsuda . This argument is summarized by modern historian Lin Boyuan in his _Zhongguo wushu shi_:
As for the "Yi Jin Jing" (Muscle Change Classic), a spurious text attributed to Bodhidharma and included in the legend of his transmitting martial arts at the temple, it was written in the Ming dynasty, in 1624, by the Daoist priest Zining of Mt. Tiantai, and falsely attributed to Bodhidharma. Forged prefaces, attributed to the Tang general Li Jing and the Southern Song general Niu Gao were written. They say that, after Bodhidharma faced the wall for nine years at Shaolin temple, he left behind an iron chest; when the monks opened this chest they found the two books "Xi Sui Jing" (Marrow Washing Classic) and "Yi Jin Jing" within. The first book was taken by his disciple Huike, and disappeared; as for the second, "the monks selfishly coveted it, practicing the skills therein, falling into heterodox ways, and losing the correct purpose of cultivating the Real. The Shaolin monks have made some fame for themselves through their fighting skill; this is all due to having obtained this manuscript". Based on this, Bodhidharma was claimed to be the ancestor of Shaolin martial arts. This manuscript is full of errors, absurdities and fantastic claims; it cannot be taken as a legitimate source.
The oldest available copy was published in 1827. The composition of the text itself has been dated to 1624. Even then, the association of Bodhidharma with martial arts only became widespread as a result of the 1904–1907 serialization of the novel _The Travels of Lao Ts'an_ in _Illustrated Fiction Magazine_:
One of the most recently invented and familiar of the Shaolin historical narratives is a story that claims that the Indian monk Bodhidharma, the supposed founder of Chinese Chan (Zen) Buddhism, introduced boxing into the monastery as a form of exercise around a.d. 525. This story first appeared in a popular novel, _The Travels of Lao T’san_, published as a series in a literary magazine in 1907. This story was quickly picked up by others and spread rapidly through publication in a popular contemporary boxing manual, Secrets of Shaolin Boxing Methods, and the first Chinese physical culture history published in 1919. As a result, it has enjoyed vast oral circulation and is one of the most “sacred” of the narratives shared within Chinese and Chinese-derived martial arts. That this story is clearly a twentieth-century invention is confirmed by writings going back at least 250 years earlier, which mention both Bodhidharma and martial arts but make no connection between the two.
Other scholars see an earlier connection between Da Mo and the Shaolin Monastery. Scholars generally accept the historicity of Da Mo (Bodhidharma) who arrived in China from his country India around 480. Da Mo (Bodhidharma) and his disciples are said to have lived a spot about a mile from the Shaolin Temple that is now a small nunnery. In the 6th century, around 547, The Record of the Buddhist Monasteries says Da Mo visited the area near Mount Song. In 645 The Continuation of the Biographies of Eminent Monks describes him as being active in the Mount Song region. Around 710 Da Mo is identified specifically with the Shaolin Temple (Precious Record of Dharma's Transmission or Chuanfa Baoji) and writes of his sitting facing a wall in meditation for many years. It also speaks of Huikes many trials in his efforts to receive instruction from Da Mo. In the 11th century a (1004) work embellishes Da Mo legends with great detail. A stele inscription at the Shaolin Monastery dated 728 reveals Da Mo residing on Mount Song. Another stele in 798 speaks of Huike seeking instruction from Da Mo. Another engraving dated 1209 depicts the barefoot saint holding a shoe according to the ancient legend of Da Mo. A plethora of 13th- and 14th-century steles feature Da Mo in Various roles. One 13th-century image shows him riding a fragile stalk across the Yangtze River. In 1125 a special temple was constructed in his honor at the Shaolin Monastery.
DESTRUCTIONS AND RENOVATIONS
The monastery has been destroyed and rebuilt many times. During the Red Turban Rebellion in the 14th century, bandits ransacked the monastery for its real or supposed valuables, destroying much of the temple and driving the monks away. The monastery was likely abandoned from 1351 or 1356 (the most likely dates for the attack) to at least 1359, when government troops retook Henan. The events of this period would later figure heavily in 16th-century legends of the temple's patron saint Vajrapani , with the story being changed to claim a victory for the monks, rather than a defeat.
In 1641, rebel forces led by Li Zicheng sacked the monastery due to the monks' support of the Ming dynasty and the possible threat they posed to the rebels. This effectively destroyed the temple's fighting force. The temple fell into ruin and was home to only a few monks until the early 18th century, when the government of the Qing dynasty patronized and restored the temple.
Perhaps the best-known story of the Temple's destruction is that it was destroyed by the Qing government for supposed anti-Qing activities. Variously said to have taken place in 1647 under the Shunzhi Emperor , in 1674, 1677, or 1714 under the Kangxi Emperor , or in 1728 or 1732 under the Yongzheng Emperor , this destruction is also supposed to have helped spread Shaolin martial arts through China by means of the five fugitive monks . Some accounts claim that a supposed southern Shaolin Temple was destroyed instead of, or in addition to, the temple in Henan: Ju Ke, in the _Qing bai lei chao_ (1917), locates this temple in Fujian province. These stories commonly appear in legendary or popular accounts of martial history, and in _wuxia _ fiction.
While these latter accounts are popular among martial artists, and often serve as origin stories for various martial arts styles, they are viewed by scholars as fictional. The accounts are known through often inconsistent 19th-century secret society histories and popular literature, and also appear to draw on both Fujianese folklore and popular narratives such as the classical novel _ Water Margin _. Modern scholarly attention to the tales is mainly concerned with their role as folklore.
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Bruce Lee (李小龍 1940—1973) Bolo Yeung (楊斯; b. 1946) Sammo Hung (洪金寶; b. 1952) Jackie Chan (成龍; b. 1954) Jet Li (李連杰; b. 1963) Donnie Yen (甄子丹; b. 1963) Vincent Zhao (趙文卓 b. 1972) Zhang Jin (張晉 b. 1974)
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There is evidence of Shaolin martial arts being exported to Japan since the 18th century. Martial arts such as Okinawan Shōrin-ryū (小林流) style of Karate , for example, has a name meaning "Shaolin School" and the Japanese Shorinji Kempo (少林寺拳法) is translated as "Shaolin Temple Fist Method". Other similarities can be seen in centuries-old Chinese and Japanese martial arts manuals.
In 1928, the warlord Shi Yousan set fire to the monastery, burning it for over 40 days, destroying a significant percent of the buildings, including many manuscripts of the temple library.
The Cultural Revolution launched in 1966 targeted religious orders including the monastery. The five monks who were present at the monastery when the Red Guards attacked were shackled and made to wear placards declaring the crimes charged against them. The monks were jailed after publicly being flogged and paraded through the street as people threw rubbish at them. The government purged Buddhist materials from within the monastery walls, leaving it barren for years.
Martial arts groups from all over the world have made donations for the upkeep of the temple and grounds, and are subsequently honored with carved stones near the entrance of the temple.
According to legend, Emperor Taizong granted the Shaolin Temple extra land and a special "imperial dispensation" to consume meat and alcohol during the Tang dynasty . If true, this would have made Shaolin the only temple in China that did not prohibit alcohol. Regardless of historical veracity, these rituals are not practiced today. This legend is not corroborated in any period documents, such as the Shaolin Stele erected in 728. The stele does not list any such imperial dispensation as reward for the monks' assistance during the campaign against Wang Shichong , only land and a water mill are granted.
In the past, many have tried to capitalise on Shaolin Monastery fame by building their own schools on Mount Song. However, the Chinese government eventually outlawed this; the schools were moved to the nearby towns. A dharma gathering was held from August 19 to August 20, 1999, in Shaolin Monastery for Shi Yongxin 's assumption of office as abbot. In March 2006, Russian President Vladimir Putin became the first foreign leader to visit the monastery. In 2007, the Chinese government partially lifted the 300-year ban of the Jieba, the ancient ceremony of the nine marks which are burned onto the head with sticks of incense. The ban was lifted only for those who were mentally and physically prepared to participate in the tradition.
Two modern bathrooms were recently added to the temple for use by monks and tourists. The new bathrooms reportedly cost three million yuan to build. Films have also been released like _Shaolin Temple _ and more recently, _Shaolin _ starring Andy Lau .
SHAOLIN TEMPLE BUILDINGS
The temple's inside area is 160×360 meters, that is, 57,600 square meters. It has 7 main halls on the axis and 7 other halls around, with several yards around the halls. The temple structure includes:
* MOUNTAIN GATE (山门; _shan men_) (built 1735; The entrance tablet written with golden characters "Shaolin Temple" (少林寺; _shao lin si_) in black background by the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty in 1704). * FOREST OF STELES (碑林; _bei lin_) * CIYUN HALL (慈雲堂; _ci yun tang_) (built 1686; changed 1735; reconstructed 1984). It includes CORRIDOR OF STELES (碑廊; _bei lang_), which has 124 stone tablets of various dynasties since the Northern Qi dynasty (550-570). * WEST ARRIVAL HALL (西来堂; _xi lai tang_) a.k.a. KUNG FU HALL (锤谱堂; _chui pu tang_) (built 1984). * HEAVENLY KINGS (DEVARAJA) PALACE HALL (天王殿; _tian wang dian_) (built in Yuan dynasty; repaired in Ming, Qing dynasties). * BELL TOWER (钟楼; _zhong lou_) (built 1345; reconstructed 1994; the bell was built in 1204). * DRUM TOWER (鼓楼; _gu lou_) (built 1300; reconstructed 1996). * KIMNARA PALACE HALL (紧那罗殿; _jin na luo dian_) (reconstructed 1982). * SIX PATRIARCHS HALL (六祖堂; _liu zu tang_) * MAHAVIRA PALACE HALL (大雄宝殿; _da xiong bao dian_) a.k.a. MAIN HALL or GREAT HALL (built maybe 1169; reconstructed 1985). * DINING HALL: (built in Tang dynasty; reconstructed 1995). * SUTRA ROOM * DHYANA HALLS: (reconstructed 1981). * GUEST RECEPTION HALL * DHARMA (SERMON ) HALL (法堂; _fa tang_) a.k.a. SCRIPTURE ROOM (藏经阁; _zang jing ge_): (reconstructed 1993). * EAST _fang zhang shi_) (built in early Ming dynasty). * STANDING IN SNOW PAVILION (立雪亭; _li xue ting_) a.k.a. BODHIDHARMA BOWER (达摩庭; _da mo ting_): (reconstructed 1983). * MANJUSRI PALACE HALL (_wen shu dian_) (reconstructed 1983). * SAMANTABHADRA PALACE HALL * WHITE ROBE (AVALOKITESVARA ) PALACE HALL (白衣殿; _bai yi (Guan yin ) dian_) a.k.a. KUNG FU HALL (_quan pu dian_) (built in Qing dynasty). * KSITIGARBHA PALACE HALL (地臧殿; _di zang dian_): (built in early Qing dynasty; reconstructed 1979). * 1000 BUDDHA PALACE HALL (千佛殿; _qian fo dian_) a.k.a. VAIROCANA PAVILION (毗庐阁; _pi lu ge_): (built 1588; repaired 1639,1776). * ORDINATION PLATFORM (built 2006). * MONKS\' ROOMS * SHAOLIN PHARMACY BUREAU (built 1217; reconstructed 2004). * BODHIDHARMA PAVILION (_chu zu an_) (built first in Song dynasty) * BODHIDHARMA CAVE * FOREST OF PAGODAS YARD (塔林院; _ta lin yuan_): (built before 791). It has 240 tomb pagodas of various sizes from the Tang, Song, Jin, Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties (618–1911). * SHAOLIN TEMPLE WUSHU GUAN (Martial arts hall)
A mural painting in the temple (early 19th century) *
A tree within the Shaolin Monastery used by the monks to practice finger-punching *
The Pagoda forest (wide view) *
SOUTHERN AND NORTHERN SHAOLIN MONASTERIES
A number of traditions make reference to a Southern Shaolin Monastery located in Fujian province. There has also been a Northern Shaolin monastery in northern China. Associated with stories of the supposed burning of Shaolin by the Qing government and with the tales of the Five Elders , this temple, sometimes known by the name Changlin, is often claimed to have been either the target of Qing forces or a place of refuge for monks displaced by attacks on the Shaolin Monastery in Henan. Besides the debate over the historicity of the Qing-era destruction, it is currently unknown whether there was a true southern temple, with several locations in Fujian given as the location for the monastery. Fujian does have a historic monastery called Changlin, and a monastery referred to as a "Shaolin cloister" has existed in Fuqing , Fujian , since the Song dynasty , but whether these have an actual connection to the Henan monastery or a martial tradition is still unknown. The Southern Temple has been a popular subject of _wuxia _ fiction, first appearing in the 1893 novel _Shengchao Ding Sheng Wannian Qing_, where it is attacked by the Qianlong Emperor with the help of the White Eyebrow Taoist .
* ^ China\'s Shaolin Temple, Danxia Landform Added To World Heritage Sites * ^ Shahar, Meir. _The Shaolin Monastery: History, Religion, and the Chinese Martial Arts_. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2008 (ISBN 0824831101 ), p. 9 * ^ Broughton, Jeffrey L. (1999), The Bodhidharma Anthology: The Earliest Records of Zen, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-21972-4 . pp. 54-55. * ^ Shahar, _The Shaolin Monastery_, p. 190 * ^ Shahar 2008 , pp. 165–173. * ^ _A_ _B_ Lin 1996 , p. 183. * ^ Ryuchi 1986 . * ^ Henning 1994 . * ^ Henning 2001 , p. 129. * ^ Ferguson, Andy, Tracking Bodhidharma: A Journey to the Heart of Chinese Culture, pg. 267 * ^ Louyang Quilan Ji * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Shahar, Meir, The Shaolin Monastery: History, Religion, and the Chinese Martial Arts, pg 13 * ^ Xu Gaoseng Zhuan * ^ Record of Dharma's Transmission of Chuanfa Baoji * ^ Shahar, Meir, The Shaolin Monastery: History, Religion, and the Chinese Martial Arts, pg 14 * ^ Shahar, Meir, The Shaolin Monastery: History, Religion, and the Chinese Martial Arts, pg 15 * ^ Shahar, Meir, The Shaolin Monastery: History, Religion, and the Chinese Martial Arts, pg 16 * ^ Shahar, _The Shaolin Monastery_, pp. 83–85 * ^ Shahar, _The Shaolin Monastery_, pp. 185–188 * ^ Shahar, _The Shaolin Monastery_, pp. 182–183, 190 * ^ Shahar, _The Shaolin Monastery_, pp. 183–185 * ^ Kennedy, Brain and Elizabeth Guo, _Chinese Martial Arts Training Manuals: A Historical Survey_, Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 2005 (ISBN 1-55643-557-6 ), p. 70 * ^ McKeown, Trevor W., "Shaolin Temple Legends, Chinese Secret Societies, and the Chinese Martial Arts", in _Martial Arts of the World: An Encyclopedia of History and Innovation_, ed. Green and Svinth, pp, 112–113 * ^ Murry, Dian and Qin Baoqi, _The Origins of the Tiandihui: The Chinese Triads in Legend and History_, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995, (ISBN 978-0804723244 ), pp. 154-156 * ^ Bishop, Mark (1989). _Okinawan Karate: Teachers, Styles and Secret Techniques_. A&C Black, London. ISBN 0-7136-5666-2 . * ^ Leff, Norman. Martial Arts Legends (magazine). "Atemi Waza", CFW Enterprises, April 1999. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Gene Ching. Kungfumagazine.com, Bak Sil Lum vs. Shaolin Temple. * ^ Polly, Matthew. _American Shaolin: Flying Kicks, Buddhist Monks, and the Legend of Iron Crotch: An Odyssey in the New China_ Gotham Books, 2007, Page 37; Google Books , Accessed November 7, 2010. * ^ Tonami, Mamoru. 1990. "The Shaolin Monastery Stele on Mount Song (tr. by P.A. Herbert)". Kyoto: Istituto Italiano di Cultura / Scuola di Studi sull' Asia Orientale p.17-18, 35 * ^ Jiang Yuxia. Xinhuanet.com, Luxurious toilets debut in Shaolin Temple. Xinhua. 8 April 2008. * ^ Shahar, _The Shaolin Monastery_, p. 46 * ^ 南少林之谜：两百多年前为何突然消失无影踪(4) * ^ Shahar, _The Shaolin Monastery, pp. 184, 234–235_ * ^ Hamm, John Christopher, _Paper Swordsmen: JIn Yong and the Modern Chinese Martial Arts Novel_. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2006 (ISBN 0-8248-2895-X ) pp. 34–36
* Henning, Stanley (1994), "Ignorance, Legend and Taijiquan" (PDF), Journal of the Chenstyle Taijiquan Research Association of Hawaii_, 2 (3): 1–7 * Henning, Stan; Green, Tom (2001), _Folklore in the Martial Arts. In: Green, Thomas A., "Martial Arts of the World: An Encyclopedia"_, Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO * Lin, Boyuan (1996), _Zhōngguó wǔshù shǐ_ 中國武術史_,_ Taipei 臺北: Wǔzhōu chūbǎnshè 五洲出版社 * Ryuchi, Matsuda 松田隆智 (1986), _Zhōngguó wǔshù shǐlüè 中國武術史略_ (in Chinese), Taipei 臺北: Danqing tushu * Shahar, Meir (2008), _The Shaolin Monastery: history, religion, and the Chinese martial arts_, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-3110-3 .
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Buddhist temples in China
CHINESE BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE
* Hall of Shanmen (Hall of Mount Gate; 山門殿) * Hall of Four Heavenly Kings (天王殿) * Mahavira Hall (大雄寶殿) * Bell tower (鐘樓) * Drum Tower (鼓樓) * Dharma Hall (法堂) * Hall of Sangharama Palace (伽藍殿) * Hall of Guru (祖師殿) * Hall of Kshitigarbha (地藏殿) * Hall of Bhaisajyaguru (藥師殿) * Hall of Guanyin (觀音殿) * Hall of Maitreya (彌勒殿) * Hall of Skanda (韋陀殿) * Arhat Hall (羅漢堂) * Abbot\'s Room (方丈) * Buddhist Texts Library (藏經閣) * Free Life Pond (放生池)
SCHOOLS AND OBJECTS OF WORSHIP
NOTABLE BUDDHIST TEMPLES IN CHINA
* Baoguang Temple * Baoguo Temple * Dabeilou Temple * Dafo Temple, Xinchang * Dafo Temple, Zhangye * Donglin Temple * Famen Temple * Fawang Temple * Fayu Temple * Fengguo Temple * Foguang Temple * Geyuan Temple * Grand Temple of Mount Heng * Guanghua Temple * Gufo Temple * Guiyuan Temple * Guoqing Temple * Hanging Temple * Hanshan Temple * Huacheng Temple * Huqiu Temple * Jade Buddha Temple * Ji Le Temple * Jianfu Temple * Jiming Temple * Jing\'an Temple * Jingci Temple * Jinge Temple * Kaishan Temple * Kumbum Monastery * Linggu Temple * Lingyan Temple * Lingyin Temple * Longhua Temple * Longxing Monastery * Lake Manasarovar * Mimi Temple * Nanchan Temple * Nanhua Temple * Nanputuo Temple * Pagoda Forest at Shaolin Temple * Palpung Monastery * Puji Temple * Puning Temple * Putuo Zongcheng Temple * Qiongzhu Temple * Qixia Temple * Shanhua Temple * Shaolin Monastery * Shuanglin Temple * Spring Temple Buddha * Standard Design for Buddhist Temple Construction * Temple of Bright Filial Piety * Temple of Great Compassion * Temple of the Six Banyan Trees * Tianning Temple * Wa Sau Toi * Wanfu Temple * White Horse Temple * Wolong Temple * Xiangyan Temple * Xi Ming Temple * Xingjiao Temple * Yanqing Temple * Yanshan Temple * Youguo Temple * Zhanshan Temple * Zhenguo Temple * Zunsheng Temple * Daxiangguo Temple
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World Heritage Sites in China
* Classical Gardens of Suzhou * Fujian Tulou * Lushan * Huangshan * Mount Sanqing * Mount Tai * Wuyi Mountains * Temple and Cemetery of Confucius and Kong Family Mansion in Qufu * Xidi , and Hongcun * West Lake * Kulangsu
* Ancient Building Complex in the Wudang Mountains * Historic Centre of Macau * Shennongjia * Kaiping Diaolou and Villages * Longmen Grottoes * Historic Monuments of Dengfeng , including the Shaolin Monastery and Gaocheng Observatory * Zuojiang Huashan Rock Art * Wulingyuan * Yinxu
* Chengjiang Fossil Site * Dazu Rock Carvings * Potala Palace , including the Jokhang and Norbulingka * Honghe Hani Rice Terraces * Huanglong * Jiuzhaigou * Old Town of Lijiang * Mount Emei and Leshan Giant Buddha * Mount Qingcheng and Dujiangyan * Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries * Three Parallel Rivers
* Mount Wutai * Chengde Mountain Resort , including Putuo Zongcheng Temple , Xumi Fushou Temple and Puning Temple * Forbidden City * Zhoukoudian * Pingyao * Summer Palace * Temple of Heaven * Xanadu * Yungang Grottoes
* Koguryo sites * Mukden Palace