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The Shaolin Monastery
Shaolin Monastery
(Chinese: 少林寺; pinyin: Shàolín sì), also known as the Shaolin Temple, is a Chan ("Zen") Buddhist temple
Buddhist temple
in Dengfeng
Dengfeng
County, Henan
Henan
Province, China. Dating back 1,500 years when founded by Fang Lu-Hao, Shaolin Temple
Shaolin Temple
is the main temple of the Shaolin school of Buddhism
Buddhism
to this day. Shaolin Monastery
Shaolin Monastery
and its Pagoda
Pagoda
Forest were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 2010 as part of the "Historic Monuments of Dengfeng".[1]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Establishment 1.2 Destructions and renovations 1.3 Recent history

2 Shaolin temple buildings 3 Southern and Northern Shaolin Monasteries 4 References 5 Sources

History[edit] See also: Shaolin Kung Fu Establishment[edit] The name refers to the forests of Shaoshi (少室; Shǎo Shì) mountain, one of the seven peaks of the Song mountains. The first Shaolin Monastery
Shaolin Monastery
abbot was Batuo
Batuo
(also called Fotuo or Buddhabhadra), a dhyāna master who came to China
China
from India[2] or from Greco-Buddhist
Greco-Buddhist
Central Asia[3] in 464 AD to spread Buddhist teachings. According to the Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks (645 AD) by Daoxuan, Shaolin Monastery
Shaolin Monastery
was built on the north side of Shaoshi, the central peak of Mount Song, one of the Sacred Mountains of China, by Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei
Northern Wei
dynasty in 477 AD, to accommodate the India
India
master beside the capital Luoyang
Luoyang
city. Yang Xuanzhi, in the Record of the Buddhist Monasteries of Luoyang
Luoyang
(547 AD), and Li Xian, in the Ming Yitongzhi (1461), concur with Daoxuan's location and attribution. The Jiaqing Chongxiu Yitongzhi (1843) specifies that this monastery, located in the province of Henan, was built in the 20th year of the Taihe era of the Northern Wei
Northern Wei
dynasty, that is, the monastery was built in 495 AD. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
was a supporter of Shaolin Temple, and he wrote the calligraphic inscriptions that still hang over the Heavenly King Hall and the Buddha Hall today.[4]

Picture of Bodhidharma
Bodhidharma
at Himeji Castle.

Traditionally Bodhidharma
Bodhidharma
is credited as founder of the martial arts at the Shaolin Temple. However, martial arts historians have shown this legend stems from a 17th-century qigong manual known as the Yijin Jing.[5] The authenticity of the Yi Jin Jing has been discredited by some historians including Tang Hao, Xu Zhen and Ryuchi Matsuda. This argument is summarized by modern historian Lin Boyuan in his Zhongguo wushu shi:

As for the "Yi Jin Jing" (Muscle Change Classic), a spurious text attributed to Bodhidharma
Bodhidharma
and included in the legend of his transmitting martial arts at the temple, it was written in the Ming dynasty, in 1624, by the Daoist priest Zining of Mt. Tiantai, and falsely attributed to Bodhidharma. Forged prefaces, attributed to the Tang general Li Jing and the Southern Song general Niu Gao were written. They say that, after Bodhidharma
Bodhidharma
faced the wall for nine years at Shaolin temple, he left behind an iron chest; when the monks opened this chest they found the two books "Xi Sui Jing" (Marrow Washing Classic) and "Yi Jin Jing" within. The first book was taken by his disciple Huike, and disappeared; as for the second, "the monks selfishly coveted it, practicing the skills therein, falling into heterodox ways, and losing the correct purpose of cultivating the Real. The Shaolin monks have made some fame for themselves through their fighting skill; this is all due to having obtained this manuscript". Based on this, Bodhidharma
Bodhidharma
was claimed to be the ancestor of Shaolin martial arts. This manuscript is full of errors, absurdities and fantastic claims; it cannot be taken as a legitimate source.[6]

The oldest available copy was published in 1827.[7] The composition of the text itself has been dated to 1624.[6] Even then, the association of Bodhidharma
Bodhidharma
with martial arts only became widespread as a result of the 1904–1907 serialization of the novel The Travels of Lao Ts'an in Illustrated Fiction Magazine:[8]

One of the most recently invented and familiar of the Shaolin historical narratives is a story that claims that the Indian monk Bodhidharma, the supposed founder of Chinese Chan (Zen) Buddhism, introduced boxing into the monastery as a form of exercise around a.d. 525. This story first appeared in a popular novel, The Travels of Lao T’san, published as a series in a literary magazine in 1907. This story was quickly picked up by others and spread rapidly through publication in a popular contemporary boxing manual, Secrets of Shaolin Boxing Methods, and the first Chinese physical culture history published in 1919. As a result, it has enjoyed vast oral circulation and is one of the most “sacred” of the narratives shared within Chinese and Chinese-derived martial arts. That this story is clearly a twentieth-century invention is confirmed by writings going back at least 250 years earlier, which mention both Bodhidharma
Bodhidharma
and martial arts but make no connection between the two.[9]

Other scholars see an earlier connection between Da Mo and the Shaolin Monastery. Scholars generally accept the historicity of Da Mo (Bodhidharma) who arrived in China
China
from his country India
India
around 480. Da Mo (Bodhidharma) and his disciples are said to have lived a spot about a mile from the Shaolin Temple
Shaolin Temple
that is now a small nunnery.[10] In the 6th century, around 547, The Record of the Buddhist Monasteries says Da Mo visited the area near Mount Song.[11][12] In 645 The Continuation of the Biographies of Eminent Monks describes him as being active in the Mount Song
Mount Song
region.[12][13] Around 710 Da Mo is identified specifically with the Shaolin Temple
Shaolin Temple
(Precious Record of Dharma's Transmission or Chuanfa Baoji) [12][14] and writes of his sitting facing a wall in meditation for many years. It also speaks of Huikes many trials in his efforts to receive instruction from Da Mo. In the 11th century a (1004) work embellishes Da Mo legends with great detail. A stele inscription at the Shaolin Monastery
Shaolin Monastery
dated 728 reveals Da Mo residing on Mount Song.[15] Another stele in 798 speaks of Huike seeking instruction from Da Mo. Another engraving dated 1209 depicts the barefoot saint holding a shoe according to the ancient legend of Da Mo. A plethora of 13th- and 14th-century steles feature Da Mo in Various roles. One 13th-century image shows him riding a fragile stalk across the Yangtze River.[16] In 1125 a special temple was constructed in his honor at the Shaolin Monastery.[17] Destructions and renovations[edit] The monastery has been destroyed and rebuilt many times. During the Red Turban Rebellion
Red Turban Rebellion
in the 14th century, bandits ransacked the monastery for its real or supposed valuables, destroying much of the temple and driving the monks away. The monastery was likely abandoned from 1351 or 1356 (the most likely dates for the attack) to at least 1359, when government troops retook Henan. The events of this period would later figure heavily in 16th-century legends of the temple's patron saint Vajrapani, with the story being changed to claim a victory for the monks, rather than a defeat.[18] In 1641, rebel forces led by Li Zicheng
Li Zicheng
sacked the monastery due to the monks' support of the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
and the possible threat they posed to the rebels. This effectively destroyed the temple's fighting force.[19] The temple fell into ruin and was home to only a few monks until the early 18th century, when the government of the Qing dynasty patronized and restored the temple.[20] Perhaps the best-known story of the Temple's destruction is that it was destroyed by the Qing government for supposed anti-Qing activities. Variously said to have taken place in 1647 under the Shunzhi Emperor, in 1674, 1677, or 1714 under the Kangxi Emperor, or in 1728 or 1732 under the Yongzheng Emperor, this destruction is also supposed to have helped spread Shaolin martial arts through China
China
by means of the five fugitive monks. Some accounts claim that a supposed southern Shaolin Temple
Shaolin Temple
was destroyed instead of, or in addition to, the temple in Henan: Ju Ke, in the Qing bai lei chao (1917), locates this temple in Fujian
Fujian
province. These stories commonly appear in legendary or popular accounts of martial history, and in wuxia fiction. While these latter accounts are popular among martial artists, and often serve as origin stories for various martial arts styles, they are viewed by scholars as fictional. The accounts are known through often inconsistent 19th-century secret society histories and popular literature, and also appear to draw on both Fujianese folklore and popular narratives such as the classical novel Water Margin. Modern scholarly attention to the tales is mainly concerned with their role as folklore.[21][22][23][24] Recent history[edit]

Part of a series on

Chinese martial arts
Chinese martial arts
(Wushu)

Styles of Chinese martial arts

List of Chinese martial arts

Terms

Kung fu (功夫) Shifu (師傅) Waijia
Waijia
(外家) Chin Na
Chin Na
(擒拿) Fa jin (發勁) Neigong
Neigong
(內功) Neijia
Neijia
(內家) Qi (氣) Qigong
Qigong
(氣功) Yin and yang

Wushu in the world

Historical locations

Chen Village (陳家溝) Kunlun Mountains
Kunlun Mountains
(崑崙山) Mount Emei
Mount Emei
(峨嵋山) Mount Hua
Mount Hua
(華山) Shaolin Monastery
Shaolin Monastery
(少林寺) Wudang Mountains
Wudang Mountains
(武當山)

Wushu athletes/practitioners

Legendary figures

Bodhidharma
Bodhidharma
(菩提達摩) Eight Immortals (八仙) Five Elders
Five Elders
(五祖) Fong Sai-yuk
Fong Sai-yuk
(方世玉) Yim Wing-chun (嚴詠春) Zhang Sanfeng
Zhang Sanfeng
(張三丰) Li Ching-Yuen
Li Ching-Yuen
(李清雲)

Historical individuals

Yue Fei
Yue Fei
(岳飛; 1103–1142) Hung Hei-gun
Hung Hei-gun
(洪熙官; 1745–1825) Dong Haichuan
Dong Haichuan
(董海川; 1797/1813–1882) Yang Luchan
Yang Luchan
(楊露禪; 1799–1872) Chan Heung
Chan Heung
(陳享; 1806–1875) Wu Quanyou
Wu Quanyou
(吳全佑; 1834–1902) Wong Fei-hung
Wong Fei-hung
(黃飛鴻; 1847–1924) Sun Lu-t'ang
Sun Lu-t'ang
(孫祿堂; 1860–1933) Li Shuwen (李书文; 1864–1934) Huo Yuanjia
Huo Yuanjia
(霍元甲; 1868–1910) Wang Zi-Ping
Wang Zi-Ping
(王子平; 1881–1973) Chen Fake
Chen Fake
(陳發科; 1887–1957) Yip Man
Yip Man
(葉問; 1893–1972) Ten Tigers of Canton
Ten Tigers of Canton
(廣東十虎)

Modern celebrities

Bruce Lee
Bruce Lee
(李小龍 1940–1973) Bolo Yeung
Bolo Yeung
(楊斯; b. 1946) Sammo Hung
Sammo Hung
(洪金寶; b. 1952) Jackie Chan(成龍; b. 1954) Jet Li
Jet Li
(李連杰; b. 1963) Donnie Yen
Donnie Yen
(甄子丹; b. 1963) Vincent Zhao (趙文卓 b. 1972) Zhang Jin
Zhang Jin
(張晉 b. 1974)

Wushu influence

Related

Hong Kong action cinema Kung fu film Wushu (sport) Wuxia
Wuxia
(武俠)

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There is evidence of Shaolin martial arts being exported to Japan since the 18th century. Martial arts such as Okinawan Shōrin-ryū (小林流) style of Karate, for example, has a name meaning "Shaolin School"[25] and the Japanese Shorinji Kempo
Shorinji Kempo
(少林寺拳法) is translated as " Shaolin Temple
Shaolin Temple
Fist Method". Other similarities can be seen in centuries-old Chinese and Japanese martial arts manuals.[26] In 1928, the warlord Shi Yousan
Shi Yousan
set fire to the monastery, burning it for over 40 days, destroying a significant percent of the buildings, including many manuscripts of the temple library.[27] The Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
launched in 1966 targeted religious orders including the monastery. The five monks who were present at the monastery when the Red Guards attacked were shackled and made to wear placards declaring the crimes charged against them.[27] The monks were jailed after publicly being flogged and paraded through the street as people threw rubbish at them.[27] The government purged Buddhist materials from within the monastery walls, leaving it barren for years. Martial arts groups from all over the world have made donations for the upkeep of the temple and grounds, and are subsequently honored with carved stones near the entrance of the temple. According to legend, Emperor Taizong granted the Shaolin Temple
Shaolin Temple
extra land and a special "imperial dispensation" to consume meat and alcohol during the Tang dynasty. If true, this would have made Shaolin the only temple in China
China
that did not prohibit alcohol. Regardless of historical veracity, these rituals are not practiced today.[28] This legend is not corroborated in any period documents, such as the Shaolin Stele erected in 728. The stele does not list any such imperial dispensation as reward for the monks' assistance during the campaign against Wang Shichong, only land and a water mill are granted.[29] In the past, many have tried to capitalise on Shaolin Monastery
Shaolin Monastery
fame by building their own schools on Mount Song. However, the Chinese government eventually outlawed this; the schools were moved to the nearby towns. A dharma gathering was held from August 19 to August 20, 1999, in Shaolin Monastery
Shaolin Monastery
for Shi Yongxin's assumption of office as abbot. In March 2006, Russian President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
became the first foreign leader to visit the monastery. In 2007, the Chinese government partially lifted the 300-year ban of the Jieba, the ancient ceremony of the nine marks which are burned onto the head with sticks of incense. The ban was lifted only for those who were mentally and physically prepared to participate in the tradition. Two modern bathrooms were recently added to the temple for use by monks and tourists. The new bathrooms reportedly cost three million yuan to build.[30] Films have also been released like Shaolin Temple[31] and more recently, Shaolin starring Andy Lau. In 1994 the temple registered its name as a trademark. In the late 2000s, Shi Yongxin began authorizing Shaolin branches outside of mainland China
China
in what has been called a franchise scheme. The branches are run by current and former monks and allow dispersion of Shaolin culture and study of Shaolin kung fu around the world.[32] As of January, 2011, Yongxin and the temple operated over 40 companies in cities across the world, including London and Berlin, which have purchased land and property.[33] Shaolin temple buildings[edit] The temple's inside area is 160 by 360 meters (520 ft × 1,180 ft), that is, 57,600 square meters (620,000 sq ft). It has 7 main halls on the axis and 7 other halls around, with several yards around the halls. The temple structure includes:

Mountain Gate (山门; shan men) (built 1735; The entrance tablet written with golden characters "Shaolin Temple" (少林寺; shao lin si) in black background by the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in 1704). Forest of Steles (碑林; bei lin) Ciyun Hall (慈雲堂; ci yun tang) (built 1686; changed 1735; reconstructed 1984). It includes Corridor of Steles (碑廊; bei lang), which has 124 stone tablets of various dynasties since the Northern Qi dynasty (550-570). West Arrival Hall (西来堂; xi lai tang) a.k.a. Kung fu Hall (锤谱堂; chui pu tang) (built 1984). Heavenly Kings (Devaraja) Palace Hall (天王殿; tian wang dian) (built in Yuan dynasty; repaired in Ming, Qing dynasties). Bell Tower (钟楼; zhong lou) (built 1345; reconstructed 1994; the bell was built in 1204). Drum Tower (鼓楼; gu lou) (built 1300; reconstructed 1996). Kimnara
Kimnara
Palace Hall (紧那罗殿; jin na luo dian) (reconstructed 1982). Six Patriarchs Hall (六祖堂; liu zu tang) Mahavira Palace Hall (大雄宝殿; da xiong bao dian) a.k.a. Main Hall or Great Hall (built maybe 1169; reconstructed 1985). Dining Hall: (built in Tang dynasty; reconstructed 1995). Sutra
Sutra
Room Dhyana Halls: (reconstructed 1981). Guest Reception Hall Dharma
Dharma
(Sermon) Hall (法堂; fa tang) a.k.a. Scripture Room (藏经阁; zang jing ge): (reconstructed 1993). East & West Guests Rooms Abbot's Room (方丈室; fang zhang shi) (built in early Ming dynasty). Standing in Snow Pavilion (立雪亭; li xue ting) a.k.a. Bodhidharma Bower (达摩庭; da mo ting): (reconstructed 1983). Manjusri
Manjusri
Palace Hall (wen shu dian) (reconstructed 1983). Samantabhadra
Samantabhadra
Palace Hall White Robe (Avalokitesvara) Palace Hall (白衣殿; bai yi (Guan yin) dian) a.k.a. Kung fu Hall (quan pu dian) (built in Qing dynasty). Ksitigarbha
Ksitigarbha
Palace Hall (地臧殿; di zang dian): (built in early Qing dynasty; reconstructed 1979). 1000 Buddha Palace Hall (千佛殿; qian fo dian) a.k.a. Vairocana Pavilion (毗庐阁; pi lu ge): (built 1588; repaired 1639,1776). Ordination Platform (built 2006). Monks' Rooms Shaolin Pharmacy Bureau (built 1217; reconstructed 2004). Bodhidharma
Bodhidharma
Pavilion (chu zu an) (built first in Song dynasty) Bodhidharma
Bodhidharma
Cave Forest of Pagodas Yard (塔林院; ta lin yuan): (built before 791). It has 240 tomb pagodas of various sizes from the Tang, Song, Jin, Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties (618–1911). Shaolin Temple
Shaolin Temple
Wushu Guan (Martial arts hall)

A mural painting in the temple (early 19th century)

Shaolin Monastery
Shaolin Monastery
Stele on Mount Song
Mount Song
(皇唐嵩岳少林寺碑), erected in 728 AD

A tree within the Shaolin Monastery
Shaolin Monastery
used by the monks to practice finger-punching

The Pagoda
Pagoda
forest (wide view)

The Pagoda
Pagoda
forest (close view), located about 300 meters (980 ft) west of the Shaolin Monastery
Shaolin Monastery
in Henan

Southern and Northern Shaolin Monasteries[edit] A number of traditions make reference to a Southern Shaolin Monastery located in Fujian
Fujian
province.[34] There has also been a Northern Shaolin monastery in northern China. Associated with stories of the supposed burning of Shaolin by the Qing government and with the tales of the Five Elders, this temple, sometimes known by the name Changlin, is often claimed to have been either the target of Qing forces or a place of refuge for monks displaced by attacks on the Shaolin Monastery
Shaolin Monastery
in Henan. Besides the debate over the historicity of the Qing-era destruction, it is currently unknown whether there was a true southern temple, with several locations in Fujian
Fujian
given as the location for the monastery. Fujian
Fujian
does have a historic monastery called Changlin, and a monastery referred to as a "Shaolin cloister" has existed in Fuqing, Fujian, since the Song dynasty, but whether these have an actual connection to the Henan
Henan
monastery or a martial tradition is still unknown.[35] The Southern Temple has been a popular subject of wuxia fiction, first appearing in the 1893 novel Shengchao Ding Sheng Wannian Qing, where it is attacked by the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
with the help of the White Eyebrow Taoist.[36] References[edit]

^ China's Shaolin Temple, Danxia Landform Added To World Heritage Sites ^ Shahar, Meir. The Shaolin Monastery: History, Religion, and the Chinese Martial Arts. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2008 (ISBN 0824831101), p. 9 ^ Broughton, Jeffrey L. (1999), The Bodhidharma
Bodhidharma
Anthology: The Earliest Records of Zen, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-21972-4. pp. 54-55. ^ Shahar, The Shaolin Monastery, p. 190 ^ Shahar 2008, pp. 165–173. ^ a b Lin 1996, p. 183. ^ Ryuchi 1986. ^ Henning 1994. ^ Henning 2001, p. 129. ^ Ferguson, Andy, Tracking Bodhidharma: A Journey to the Heart of Chinese Culture, pg. 267 ^ Louyang Quilan Ji ^ a b c Shahar, Meir, The Shaolin Monastery: History, Religion, and the Chinese Martial Arts, pg 13 ^ Xu Gaoseng Zhuan ^ Record of Dharma's Transmission of Chuanfa Baoji ^ Shahar, Meir, The Shaolin Monastery: History, Religion, and the Chinese Martial Arts, pg 14 ^ Shahar, Meir, The Shaolin Monastery: History, Religion, and the Chinese Martial Arts, pg 15 ^ Shahar, Meir, The Shaolin Monastery: History, Religion, and the Chinese Martial Arts, pg 16 ^ Shahar, The Shaolin Monastery, pp. 83–85 ^ Shahar, The Shaolin Monastery, pp. 185–188 ^ Shahar, The Shaolin Monastery, pp. 182–183, 190 ^ Shahar, The Shaolin Monastery, pp. 183–185 ^ Kennedy, Brain and Elizabeth Guo, Chinese Martial Arts Training Manuals: A Historical Survey, Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 2005 (ISBN 1-55643-557-6), p. 70 ^ McKeown, Trevor W., " Shaolin Temple
Shaolin Temple
Legends, Chinese Secret Societies, and the Chinese Martial Arts", in Martial Arts of the World: An Encyclopedia of History and Innovation, ed. Green and Svinth, pp, 112–113 ^ Murry, Dian and Qin Baoqi, The Origins of the Tiandihui: The Chinese Triads in Legend and History, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995, (ISBN 978-0804723244), pp. 154-156 ^ Bishop, Mark (1989). Okinawan Karate: Teachers, Styles and Secret Techniques. A&C Black, London. ISBN 0-7136-5666-2.  ^ Leff, Norman. Martial Arts Legends (magazine). "Atemi Waza", CFW Enterprises, April 1999. ^ a b c Gene Ching. Kungfumagazine.com, Bak Sil Lum vs. Shaolin Temple. ^ Polly, Matthew. American Shaolin: Flying Kicks, Buddhist Monks, and the Legend of Iron Crotch: An Odyssey in the New China
China
Gotham Books, 2007, Page 37; Google Books, Accessed November 7, 2010. ^ Tonami, Mamoru. 1990. "The Shaolin Monastery
Shaolin Monastery
Stele on Mount Song (tr. by P.A. Herbert)". Kyoto: Istituto Italiano di Cultura / Scuola di Studi sull' Asia Orientale p.17-18, 35 ^ Jiang Yuxia. Xinhuanet.com, Luxurious toilets debut in Shaolin Temple. Xinhua. 8 April 2008. ^ Shahar, The Shaolin Monastery, p. 46 ^ Moore, Malcolm ^ China's Shaolin Temple
Shaolin Temple
builds business empire - AsiaOne Business ^ 南少林之谜:两百多年前为何突然消失无影踪(4) ^ Shahar, The Shaolin Monastery, pp. 184, 234–235 ^ Hamm, John Christopher, Paper Swordsmen: JIn Yong and the Modern Chinese Martial Arts Novel. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2006 (ISBN 0-8248-2895-X) pp. 34–36

Sources[edit]

China
China
portal Buddhism
Buddhism
portal Martial arts portal Architecture portal

Henning, Stanley (1994), "Ignorance, Legend and Taijiquan" (PDF), Journal of the Chenstyle Taijiquan Research Association of Hawaii, 2 (3): 1–7  Henning, Stan; Green, Tom (2001), Folklore in the Martial Arts. In: Green, Thomas A., "Martial Arts of the World: An Encyclopedia", Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO  Lin, Boyuan (1996), Zhōngguó wǔshù shǐ 中國武術史, Taipei 臺北: Wǔzhōu chūbǎnshè 五洲出版社  Ryuchi, Matsuda 松田隆智 (1986), Zhōngguó wǔshù shǐlüè 中國武術史略 (in Chinese), Taipei 臺北: Danqing tushu  Shahar, Meir (2008), The Shaolin Monastery: history, religion, and the Chinese martial arts, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-3110-3 .

v t e

National Key Buddhist Temples in Han Chinese Area

Chinese Buddhism

North China

Beijing

Guangji Temple, Fayuan Temple, Lingguang Temple, Guanghua Temple, Tongjiao Temple, Yonghe Temple, Xihuang TempIe

Tianjin

Temple of Great Compassion

Hebei

Zhengding County: Linji Temple Chengde: Puning Temple

Shanxi

Taiyuan: Chongshan Temple Datong: Huayan
Huayan
Temple Jiaocheng County: Xuanzhong Temple Mount Wutai: (Xiantong Temple, Tayuan Temple, Pusading, Shuxiang Temple, Luohou Temple, Jinge Temple, Guangzong Temple, Bishan Temple, Shifang Temple, Dailuo Temple, Xixian Temple)

Northeast China

Liaoning

Shenyang: (Banruo Temple, Shenyang, Ci'en Temple)

Jilin

Changchun: (Banruo Temple, Dizang Temple) Jilin
Jilin
City: Guanyin
Guanyin
Temple

Heilongjiang

Harbin: Jile Temple

East China

Shanghai

Jade Buddha Temple, Jing'an Temple, Longhua Temple, Chenxiang Ge, Yuanming Jiangtang

Jiangsu

Nanjing: (Linggu Temple, Qixia Temple) Suzhou: (Xiyuan Temple, Hanshan Temple, Lingyanshan Temple) Zhenjiang: (Jinshan Temple, Dinghui Temple) Changshu: (Tianing Temple, Xingfu Temple) Nantong: Guangjiao Temple Yangzhou: (Daming Temple, Gaomin Temple) Jurong: Longchang Temple

Zhejiang

Hangzhou: (Lingyin Temple, Jingci Temple) Ningbo: (Qita Temple, Tiantong Temple, The Temple of King Ashoka) Xinchang County: Dafo Temple Mount Putuo: (Puji Temple, Fayu Temple, Huiji Temple) Tiantai
Tiantai
County: (Guoqing Temple, Gaoming Temple, Fangguang Temple) Wenzhou: Jiangxin Temple

Anhui

Hefei: Mingjiao Temple Anqing: Yingjiang Temple Qianshan County: Sanzu Temple Chuzhou: Langya Temple Wuhu: Guangji Temple
Guangji Temple
(Wuhu) Mount Jiuhua: (Huacheng Temple, Shrine of Living Buddha, Baisui Temple, Ganlu Temple, Zhiyuan Temple, Tiantai
Tiantai
Temple, Danchanlin, Huiju Temple, Shangchan Temple)

Shandong

Jinan: Xingguo Temple Qingdao: Zhanshan Temple

Southeast China

Jiangxi

Jiujiang: (Nengren Temple, Donglin Temple) Yongxiu County: Zhenru Temple Ji'an: Jingju Temple

Fujian

Fuzhou: (Yongquan Temple, Xichan Temple, Linyang Temple, Dizang Temple) Minhou County: Chongsheng Temple Xiamen: South Putuo Temple Putian: (Guanghua Temple, Cishou Temple, Guangxiao Temple) Fuqing: Wanfu Temple Quanzhou: Kaiyuan Temple Jinjiang: Longshan Temple (Jinjiang) Zhangzhou: Nanshan Temple (Zhangzhou) Ningde: Huayan
Huayan
Temple

South Central China

Henan

Luoyang: White Horse Temple Dengfeng: Shaolin Temple

Hubei

Wuhan: (Guiyuan Temple, Baotong Temple) Huangmei County: Wuzu Temple Dangyang: Yuquan Temple

Hunan

Changsha: (Lushan Temple, Kaifu Temple) Mount Heng: (Zhusheng Temple, Fuyan Temple, Nantai Temple, Shangfeng Temple)

Guangdong

Guangzhou: Temple of the Six Banyan Trees Shaoguan: Nanhua Temple Ruyuan County: Yunmen Temple Zhaoqing: Qingyun Temple Shantou: Lingshan Temple Chaozhou: Kaiyuan Temple (Chaozhou)

Southwest China

Guangxi

Guiping: Xishi Temple.

Chongqing

Chongqing: (Luohan Temple, Ciyun Temple) Liangping County: Shuanggui Temple

Sichuan

Chengdu: (Zhaojue Temple, Wenshu Temple, Baoguang Temple) Leshan: Wuyou Temple Mount Emei: ( Baoguo Temple
Baoguo Temple
(Mount Emei), Wannian Temple, Hongchun Terrace, Xixiang Chi, Jinding)

Guizhou

Guiyang: Hongfu Temple, Qianming Temple

Yunnan

Kunming: (Yuantong Temple, Qiongzhu Temple, Huating Temple) Binchuan County: (Zhusheng Temple, Tongwadian.)

Northwest China

Shaanxi

Xi'an: (Daci'en Temple, Daxingshan Temple, Wolong Temple, Guangren Temple, Xingjiao Temple, Xiangji Temple, Jingye Temple) Hu County: Caotang Temple

Ningxia

Yinchuan: Pagoda
Pagoda
Temple

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Buddhism
Buddhism
topics

Glossary Index Outline

Foundations

Three Jewels

Buddha Dharma Sangha

Four Noble Truths Noble Eightfold Path Nirvana Middle Way

The Buddha

Tathāgata Birthday Four sights Physical characteristics Footprint Relics Iconography in Laos and Thailand Films Miracles Family

Suddhodāna (father) Māyā (mother) Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother) Yasodhara (wife) Rāhula
Rāhula
(son) Ānanda (cousin) Devadatta
Devadatta
(cousin)

Places where the Buddha stayed Buddha in world religions

Key concepts

Avidyā (Ignorance) Bardo Bodhicitta Bodhisattva Buddha-nature Dhamma theory Dharma Enlightenment Five hindrances Indriya Karma Kleshas Mind Stream Parinirvana Pratītyasamutpāda Rebirth Saṃsāra Saṅkhāra Skandha Śūnyatā Taṇhā
Taṇhā
(Craving) Tathātā Ten Fetters Three marks of existence

Impermanence Dukkha Anatta

Two truths doctrine

Cosmology

Ten spiritual realms Six realms

Deva (Buddhism) Human realm Asura realm Hungry Ghost realm Animal realm Hell

Three planes of existence

Practices

Bhavana Bodhipakkhiyādhammā Brahmavihara

Mettā Karuṇā Mudita Upekkha

Buddhābhiseka Dāna Devotion Dhyāna Faith Five Strengths Iddhipada Meditation

Mantras Kammaṭṭhāna Recollection Smarana Anapanasati Samatha Vipassanā
Vipassanā
(Vipassana movement) Shikantaza Zazen Kōan Mandala Tonglen Tantra Tertön Terma

Merit Mindfulness

Satipatthana

Nekkhamma Pāramitā Paritta Puja

Offerings Prostration Chanting

Refuge Satya

Sacca

Seven Factors of Enlightenment

Sati Dhamma vicaya Pīti Passaddhi

Śīla

Five Precepts Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
vow Prātimokṣa

Threefold Training

Śīla Samadhi Prajñā

Vīrya

Four Right Exertions

Nirvana

Bodhi Bodhisattva Buddhahood Pratyekabuddha Four stages of enlightenment

Sotāpanna Sakadagami Anāgāmi Arhat

Monasticism

Bhikkhu Bhikkhuni Śrāmaṇera Śrāmaṇerī Anagarika Ajahn Sayadaw Zen
Zen
master Rōshi Lama Rinpoche Geshe Tulku Householder Upāsaka and Upāsikā Śrāvaka

The ten principal disciples

Shaolin Monastery

Major figures

Gautama Buddha Kaundinya Assaji Sāriputta Mahamoggallāna Mulian Ānanda Mahākassapa Anuruddha Mahākaccana Nanda Subhuti Punna Upali Mahapajapati Gotamī Khema Uppalavanna Asita Channa Yasa Buddhaghoṣa Nagasena Angulimala Bodhidharma Nagarjuna Asanga Vasubandhu Atiśa Padmasambhava Nichiren Songtsen Gampo Emperor Wen of Sui Dalai Lama Panchen Lama Karmapa Shamarpa Naropa Xuanzang Zhiyi

Texts

Tripiṭaka Madhyamakālaṃkāra Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras Pāli Canon Chinese Buddhist canon Tibetan Buddhist canon

Branches

Theravada Mahayana

Chan Buddhism

Zen Seon Thiền

Pure Land Tiantai Nichiren Madhyamaka Yogachara

Navayana Vajrayana

Tibetan Shingon Dzogchen

Early Buddhist schools Pre-sectarian Buddhism Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna

Countries

Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia China India Indonesia Japan Korea Laos Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Russia

Kalmykia Buryatia

Singapore Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Tibet Vietnam Middle East

Iran

Western countries

Argentina Australia Brazil France United Kingdom United States Venezuela

History

Timeline Ashoka Buddhist councils History of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution Greco-Buddhism Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Roman world Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West Silk Road transmission of Buddhism Persecution of Buddhists Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal Buddhist crisis Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism Buddhist modernism Vipassana movement 969 Movement Women in Buddhism

Philosophy

Abhidharma Atomism Buddhology Creator Economics Eight Consciousnesses Engaged Buddhism Eschatology Ethics Evolution Humanism Logic Reality Secular Buddhism Socialism The unanswered questions

Culture

Architecture

Temple Vihara Wat Stupa Pagoda Candi Dzong architecture Japanese Buddhist architecture Korean Buddhist temples Thai temple art and architecture Tibetan Buddhist architecture

Art

Greco-Buddhist

Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree Budai Buddharupa Calendar Cuisine Funeral Holidays

Vesak Uposatha Magha Puja Asalha Puja Vassa

Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi Kasaya Mahabodhi Temple Mantra

Om mani padme hum

Mudra Music Pilgrimage

Lumbini Maya Devi Temple Bodh Gaya Sarnath Kushinagar

Poetry Prayer beads Prayer wheel Symbolism

Dharmachakra Flag Bhavacakra Swastika Thangka

Temple of the Tooth Vegetarianism

Miscellaneous

Abhijñā Amitābha Avalokiteśvara

Guanyin

Brahmā Dhammapada Dharma
Dharma
talk Hinayana Kalpa Koliya Lineage Maitreya Māra Ṛddhi Sacred languages

Pali Sanskrit

Siddhi Sutra Vinaya

Comparison

Bahá'í Faith Christianity

Influences Comparison

East Asian religions Gnosticism Hinduism Jainism Judaism Psychology Science Theosophy Violence Western philosophy

Lists

Bodhisattvas Books Buddhas

named

Buddhists Suttas Temples

Category Portal

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Buddhist temples in China

Chinese Buddhist architecture

Architectonic elements

Chiwen
Chiwen
(鴟吻) Hip-and-gable roof (歇山頂) Dougong
Dougong
(斗拱) Huilang (迴廊) Bi (壁) Denglong (石燈籠) Terrace (台) Kiosk (亭) Stupa
Stupa
(舍利塔) Chinese guardian lions
Chinese guardian lions
(石狮子)

Men (gates)

Shanmen
Shanmen
(Mount gate) (山門) Paifang
Paifang
(牌門)

Buildings

Hall of Shanmen
Shanmen
(Hall of Mount Gate; 山門殿) Hall of Four Heavenly Kings
Hall of Four Heavenly Kings
(天王殿) Mahavira Hall
Mahavira Hall
(大雄寶殿) Bell tower (鐘樓) Drum Tower (鼓樓) Dharma
Dharma
Hall (法堂) Hall of Sangharama Palace (伽藍殿) Hall of Guru
Hall of Guru
(祖師殿) Hall of Kshitigarbha
Hall of Kshitigarbha
(地藏殿) Hall of Bhaisajyaguru (藥師殿) Hall of Guanyin
Guanyin
(觀音殿) Hall of Maitreya
Maitreya
(彌勒殿) Hall of Skanda (韋陀殿) Arhat
Arhat
Hall (羅漢堂) Abbot's Room (方丈) Buddhist Texts Library
Buddhist Texts Library
(藏經閣) Free Life Pond (放生池)

Schools and objects of worship

Major schools

Chan Tiantai Huayan Pure Land Weishi Sanlun Tangmi

Chan schools

Linji school Caodong school Weiyang school Yunmen school Fayan school

Notable Buddhist temples in China

Baoguang Temple Baoguo Temple Dabeilou Temple Dafo Temple, Xinchang Dafo Temple, Zhangye Donglin Temple Famen Temple Fawang Temple Fayu Temple Fengguo Temple Foguang Temple Geyuan Temple Grand Temple of Mount Heng Guanghua Temple Gufo Temple Guiyuan Temple Guoqing Temple Hanging Temple Hanshan Temple Huacheng Temple Huqiu Temple Jade Buddha Temple Ji Le Temple Jianfu Temple Jiming Temple Jing'an Temple Jingci Temple Jinge Temple Kaishan Temple Kumbum Monastery Linggu Temple Lingyan Temple Lingyin Temple Longhua Temple Longxing Temple Lake Manasarovar Mimi Temple Nanchan Temple Nanhua Temple Nanputuo Temple Pagoda
Pagoda
Forest at Shaolin Temple Palpung Monastery Puji Temple Puning Temple Putuo Zongcheng Temple Qiongzhu Temple Qixia Temple Shanhua Temple Shaolin Monastery Shuanglin Temple Spring Temple Buddha Standard Design for Buddhist Temple Construction Temple of Bright Filial Piety Temple of Great Compassion Temple of the Six Banyan Trees Tianning Temple Wa Sau Toi Wanfu Temple White Horse Temple Wolong Temple Xiangyan Temple Xi Ming Temple Xingjiao Temple Yanqing Temple Yanshan Temple Youguo Temple Zhanshan Temple Zhenguo Temple Zunsheng Temple Daxiangguo Temple

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World Heritage Sites in China

East

Classical Gardens of Suzhou Fujian
Fujian
Tulou Lushan Huangshan Mount Sanqing Mount Tai Wuyi Mountains Temple and Cemetery of Confucius
Cemetery of Confucius
and Kong Family Mansion in Qufu Xidi, and Hongcun West Lake Kulangsu

South Central

Ancient Building Complex in the Wudang Mountains Historic Centre of Macau Shennongjia Kaiping Diaolou
Diaolou
and Villages Longmen Grottoes Historic Monuments of Dengfeng, including the Shaolin Monastery
Shaolin Monastery
and Gaocheng Observatory Zuojiang Huashan Rock Art Wulingyuan Yinxu

Southwest

Chengjiang Fossil Site Dazu Rock Carvings Potala Palace, including the Jokhang
Jokhang
and Norbulingka Honghe Hani Rice Terraces Huanglong Jiuzhaigou Old Town of Lijiang Mount Emei
Mount Emei
and Leshan
Leshan
Giant Buddha Mount Qingcheng
Mount Qingcheng
and Dujiangyan Sichuan
Sichuan
Giant Panda Sanctuaries Three Parallel Rivers

North

Mount Wutai Chengde
Chengde
Mountain Resort, including Putuo Zongcheng Temple, Xumi Fushou Temple and Puning Temple Forbidden City Zhoukoudian Pingyao Summer Palace Temple of Heaven Xanadu Yungang Grottoes

Northeast

Koguryo sites Mukden Palace

Northwest

Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor Mogao Caves Xinjiang Tianshan Qinghai Hoh Xil

Multiple regions

Great Wall China
China
Danxia Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties South China
China
Karst Grand Canal Sil

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