Shantinatha
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Shantinatha was the sixteenth
Jain Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion and the method of acquiring omniscience, perfect knowledge of Jīva (Jainism), self and Jain cosmology, universe and perfect joy through Extrasensory perception, ...

Jain
tirthankar of the present age (Avasarpini). Shantinatha was born to King Vishvasena and Queen Aiira at
Hastinapur Hastinapur is a city in the Meerut district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; 'Northern Province') is a state in northern India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South A ...
in the
Ikshvaku dynasty In Indian epics, the Solar dynasty or the Ikshvaku dynasty was founded by the legendary king Ikshvaku.Geography of Rigvedic India, M.L. Bhargava, Lucknow 1964, pp. 15-18, 46-49, 92-98, 100-/1, 136 The dynasty is also known as ("Solar dynasty" ...
. His birth date is the thirteenth day of the Jyest Krishna month of the Indian calendar. He was also a
Chakravartin In Indian religions, a ''chakravarti'' (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branc ...
and a
Kamadeva Kamadeva ( sa, कामदेव, ), Kāma or Manmatha or Madan is the Hindu god of human love or desire, often portrayed along with his female counterpart Rati. Kamadeva is the son of the god Brahma. Pradyumna, the son of Vishnu's avatar Krish ...

Kamadeva
. He ascended to the throne when he was 25 years old. After over 25,000 years at the throne, he became a
Jain monk Jain monasticism refers to the order of monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European la ...
and started his penance. According to Jain beliefs, he became a
siddha ''Siddha'' (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European la ...

siddha
, a liberated soul which has destroyed all of its
karma Karma (; sa, कर्म}, ; pi, kamma, italic=yes) means action, work, or deed. The term also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect, often descriptively called the principle of karma, wherein intent and actions of an indi ...
.


Biography in Jain tradition

Shantinatha was the sixteenth Jain '' Tīrthankara'' of the 24 tirthankars of the present age ('' avasarpini'').


Life before renunciation

He was born to King Vishvasena and Queen Achira at
Hastinapur Hastinapur is a city in the Meerut district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; 'Northern Province') is a state in northern India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South A ...
on 13th day of
Jestha Jyeshtha or Jyēṣṭha ( sa, ज्येष्ठ; ne, जेठ ''jēṭ''; as, জেঠ ''zeth''; or, ଜ୍ୟେଷ୍ଠ ''Jyeṣṭha'') is a month A month is a unit of time, used with calendars, which is approximately as long as a nat ...
Krishna in the
Ikshvaku In ancient India, Ikshvaku (Sanskrit; ,) ; one of the ten sons of Shraddhadeva Manu, was the first king of the Ikshvaku dynasty In Indian epics, the Solar dynasty or the Ikshvaku dynasty was founded by the legendary king Ikshvaku.Geography ...
clan. Before the birth of Shantinatha, Queen Achira dreamt the sixteen most auspicious dreams. Shantinatha spent 25,000 years as a youth (''kumāra kāla'') and married a beautiful princess. He ruled his kingdom for 50,000 years. During his rule, armoury was blessed with divine chakraratna. During his reign he conquered all six divisions of earth in all directions, acquiring elephants, horses, nine-fold most precious treasures and fourteen ''ratna'' (jewels). Shantinatha became the fifth
Chakravartin In Indian religions, a ''chakravarti'' (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branc ...
. During his time, an epidemic of
epilepsy Epilepsy is a group of non-communicable neurological disorder A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system In Biology, biology, the nervous system is a Complex system, highly complex part of an animal that coordinates it ...

epilepsy
broke out and he helped to control it. Shantinath became the idea of peace and tranquility by averting epidemics, fire, famine, foreign invasions, robbers, etc., giving him the name of ''Shantinath''. He is also associated with special right known as ''Shantikarma''. According to Acharya
Hemachandra Acharya Hemachandra was an Indian Jainism, Jain scholar, poet, mathematician and polymath who wrote on grammar, philosophy, Prosody (linguistics), prosody, mathematics and contemporary history. Noted as a prodigy by his contemporaries, he gained ...

Hemachandra
, epidemics, evils and misery were destroyed when Shantinatha was in his mother's womb.


Renunciation

Shantinatha, when made aware of his previous incarnations, renounced his worldly life and became a Jain ascetic. After his sixteen year of asceticism, on the ninth bright day of the month of
Pausha Pausha ( sa, पौष ; hi, पूस ; ta, தை ) is a month A month is a unit of time, used with calendars, which is approximately as long as a natural Orbital period, period related to the motion of the Moon; ''month'' and ''Moon'' are cog ...
(December–January), he achieved ''kevala jnana'' (omniscience) under a
nandi tree
nandi tree
. According to Jain texts, Shantinatha neither slept nor ate during his penance. After achieving ''kevala jnana'' he visited Somanasapur, and was offered first ''ahara'' food by King Dharma Mitra and his wife. He is said to have lived 1 lakh () years and spent many years spreading his knowledge. On the 13th day of the dark half of the month Jyestha (May–June), he attained
nirvana ' ( , , ; sa, निर्वाण} ''nirvāṇa'' ; Pali: ''nibbāna''; Prakrit: ''ṇivvāṇa'', literally "blown out", as in an oil lamp Richard Gombrich, ''Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benāres to Modern Colombo ...
at Sammed Shikharji, known contemporaneously as the
Parasnath Hills Parasnath is a mountain peak in the Parasnath Range. It is located towards the eastern end of the Chota Nagpur Plateau in the Giridih district of the Indian state of Jharkhand, India. The hill is named after Lord Parshvanatha, the 23rd Tirthanka ...
in northern
Jharkhand Jharkhand (; ; meaning 'the land of forests') is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (n ...

Jharkhand
. The
''yaksha''
''yaksha''
and
''yakshi''
''yakshi''
of Shantinatha are Kimpurusha and Mahamanasi according to
Digambara ''Digambara'' (; "sky-clad") is one of the two major schools of Jainism, the other being '' Śvētāmbara'' (white-clad). The Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classi ...

Digambara
tradition and
Garuda Garuda (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It ...

Garuda
and Nirvani according to
Śvētāmbara The "Śvētāmbara" or ''Shwethambara (''; ''śvētapaṭa''; also spelled ''Svetambar'', ''Shvetambara'' or ''Swetambar'') is one of the two main branches of Jainism Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian ...
tradition.


Previous births

* King Srisena * Yugalika in Uttar
Kurukshetra Kurukshetra (, ) is a city in the Indian state of Haryana. It is also known as Dharmakshetra ("Realm of duty ") and as the "Land of the Bhagavad Gita". Legends According to the Puranas, Kurukshetra is a region named after King Kuru, the an ...

Kurukshetra
*
Deva Deva may refer to: Entertainment * ''Deva'' (1989 film), a 1989 Kannada film * ''Deva'' (1995 film), a 1995 Tamil film * ''Deva'' (2002 film), a 2002 Bengali film * Deva (2007 Telugu film) * ''Deva'' (2017 film), a 2017 Marathi film * Deva ( ...
in Saudharma heaven * Amitateja, prince of Arkakirti * Heavenly deva in 10th heaven Pranat (20 ''sagars'' life span) * Aparajit Baldeva in East Mahavideha (life span of 84,00, 000 ''
purva The Fourteen Purvaja translated as ancient or prior knowledge, are a large body of Jain texts, Jain scriptures that was preached by all Tirthankaras (omniscient teachers) of Jainism encompassing the entire gamut of knowledge available in this unive ...
'') * Heavenly
Indra Indra (; Sanskrit: इन्द्र) is an Historical Vedic religion, ancient Vedic deity in Hinduism. He is the king of Svarga (Heaven) and the Deva (Hinduism), Devas (gods). He is associated with lightning, thunder, storms, rains, river flo ...

Indra
in 12th heaven Achyuta (22 ''sagars'' life span) * Vajrayudh Chakri, the son of Tirthankar Kshemanakar in East Mahvideha * Heavenly deva in Navgraivayak heaven * Megharath, the son of Dhanarath in East Mahavideh in the area where
Simandhar Swami Simandhara is a ''Tirthankara, Tīrthaṅkara'', an arihant (Jainism), arihant, who is said to be currently living in another world in the Jain Cosmology, Jain cosmological universe. Residence in Jain cosmology ''Tirthankara'' Simandhar Swami r ...
is moving at present * Heavenly deva in Sarvartha Siddha Heaven (33 ''sagars'' life span)


Disciples

According to Jain texts, Cakrayudha Svami was the leader of the Shantinatha disciples.


Legacy


Worship

Along with
Rishabhanatha Rishabhanatha ( Bengali:ঋষভনাথ), also (Hindi Hindi ( Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST/ ISO 15919: ''Hindī''), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi ( Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST/ ISO 15919: ...
,
Neminatha Neminatha, also known as Nemi and Arishtanemi, is the twenty-second ''tirthankara In Jainism, a ''Tirthankara'' (Sanskrit: '; English language, English: literally a 'Ford (crossing), ford-maker') is a saviour and spiritual teacher of th ...

Neminatha
,
Parshvanatha ''Parshvanatha'' (), also known as ''Parshva'' () and ''Parasnath'', was the 23rd of 24 ''Tirthankara In Jainism, a ''Tirthankara'' (Sanskrit: '; English language, English: literally a 'Ford (crossing), ford-maker') is a saviour and spiri ...

Parshvanatha
and
Mahavira Mahavira ( sa, महावीर:), also known as Vardhamana, was the 24th ''Tirthankara In Jainism, a ''Tirthankara'' (Sanskrit: '; English language, English: literally a 'Ford (crossing), ford-maker') is a saviour and spiritual teache ...

Mahavira
, Shantinatha is one of the five tirthankars who attract the most devotional worship among the Jains. According to ''Santistava'' compiled by Acharya Manadevasuri, the head of Shvetambar in the third century, mere recitation of Shantinath negates all bad omens, brings peace and protects devotees from problems. Santistava is considered one of the four most beautifully written ''stavans''. The ''Laghnu-Shantistavaa'', compiled by Acharya Manadevisuri in the seventh century, is a hymn to Shantinatha full of Tantra#Jainism_and_other_religions, tantric usage. The ''yakshi'' Nirvani devi is also known as ''Shanti-devi'' and prayed to with Shantinatha for peace.


Literature

* The Shantinatha Charitra, by Acharya Ajitprabhasuri, describes the life of the 16th Jain tirthankara Shantinatha. This text is the oldest example of miniature painting and has been declared as a global treasure by UNESCO. * ''Shantipurana'', written around the 10th century by Sri Ponna, is considered to be one of the three gems of Kannada literature. * ''Santyastaka'' is a hymn in praise of Śāntinātha composed by Acharya Pujyapada in the fifth century. * ''Ajitasanti'', compiled by Nandisena in the seventh century, praises Shantinatha and Ajitnatha. * ''Santikara'' was compiled by Munisundarasuri in the 15th century. * ''Mahapurusha Charitra,'' compiled by Merutunga in the 13th–14th centuries, talks about Shantinatha.


Iconography

Shantinatha is usually depicted in a sitting or standing meditative posture with the symbol of a deer or antelope beneath him. Every has a distinguishing emblem that allows worshippers to distinguish similar-looking idols of the . The deer or antelope emblem of Shantinath is usually carved below the legs of the . Like all , Shantinath is depicted with ''Shrivatsa'' and downcast eyes. File:30 Close-up of a statue of Shantinath.jpg, Shantinatha idol inside Pakbirra Jain temple File:Shantinath Shwetambar Jain temple, Hastinapur - Main Vedi.jpg, Shantinath Shwetambar Jain temple, Hastinapur File:Shantinatha (sedicesimo jina dei tirthankara), da varavan nel circondario nord del distretto di thar e parkar, sind, 1130 dc.jpg, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya, 12th century File:Shantinath idol at Semliya.png, Main idol of Shantinatha Semliya, Shri Semliya Tirth File:Jain shrine from Vikrama Samvat in western India, dated 1459 CE, bronze, HAA.JPG, Honolulu Academy of Arts, 15th century File:Tirthankar Shantinath.jpg, Miniature painting of Shantinatha surrounded by ascetics, devotees and animals, 18th century


Famous temples

* Shantinatha temple, Khajuraho, Shantinatha Temple, Khajuraho – a UNESCO World Heritage Site * Digamber Jain Mandir Hastinapur, Prachin Bada Mandir,
Hastinapur Hastinapur is a city in the Meerut district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; 'Northern Province') is a state in northern India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South A ...
– birthplace of Shantinatha * Shantinath Temple, Deogarh, Shantinath Temple, Deogarh, Uttar Pradesh, Deogarh * Shantinatha Basadi, Jinanathapura * Shantinath Jain Teerth * Shantinatha temple, Halebidu – tentative list for UNESCO World Heritage Site * Aharji Jain Teerth * Shantinath Jain temple, Kothara * Odegal basadi * Shantinath Jain Temple in Leicester (first Jain temple in Europe and the western world); see Jainism in the United Kingdom File:Rear view of Shantinatha basadi at Jinanathapura.JPG, Shantinatha Basadi, Jinanathapura File:Kanch Mandir, Indore.jpg, Kanch Mandir, Indore File:Shri_1008_Shantinath_Jain_Temple.JPG, Shantinath Jain Teerth File:Vishal-singh-dwaar-big.jpg, 'Singh Dwaar' of Digamber Jain Mandir Hastinapur, Prachin Bada Mandir,
Hastinapur Hastinapur is a city in the Meerut district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; 'Northern Province') is a state in northern India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South A ...
File:Inde-0987.jpg, Shantinatha temple, Khajuraho File:Summit of Shantinath Jain Mandir, Ramtek. - panoramio.jpg, Ramtek, Shantinath Jain temple, Ramtek File:Shringar Chori (Shringar Chauri) CHITTORGARH FORT.jpg, Shringar Chori, Chittor Fort


Colossal statues

* In 2016, the tallest statue of Shantinatha, with a height of , was erected in Ajmer * The statue of Shantinath at Shri Mahavirji#Shantinath Jinalaya, Shantinath Jinalaya, Shri Mahavirji * The statue of Shantinath at Digamber Jain Mandir Hastinapur, Prachin Bada Mandir,
Hastinapur Hastinapur is a city in the Meerut district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; 'Northern Province') is a state in northern India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South A ...
* The image at Aggalayya Gutta, Warangal * The statue of Shantinath at Bhojpur, Madhya Pradesh#Jain temples, Bhojpur Jain Temple * The idol at Aharji Jain Teerth, Aharji * The sculpture at Jain temples, Halebidu, Shantinatha basadi, Halebidu * The statue in Naugaza Digambar Jain temple * The image at Shantinatha temple, Khajuraho * The image inside Shantinath Basadi, Chandragiri Hill, Chandragiri * The statue in Bahuriband, built in the 12th century File:Mahaveerji_Shantinath_Statue.png, Shri Mahavirji#Shantinath Jinalaya, Shantinath Jinalaya, Shri Mahavirji File:Jain Prachin Bada Mandir - Shantinath Statue (2) (cropped).jpg, Digamber Jain Mandir Hastinapur, Prachin Bada Mandir,
Hastinapur Hastinapur is a city in the Meerut district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; 'Northern Province') is a state in northern India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South A ...
File:JainTempleIdols.jpg, Bhojpur, Madhya Pradesh#Jain temples, Bhojpur Jain Temple File:Eighteen feet tall sculpture of Shantinatha in the Shantinatha basadi at Halebidu.JPG, Jain temples, Halebidu, Shantinatha basadi, Halebidu File:18 ft tall idol of Lord Shantinath at ahaar ji near Tikamgarh(1180 ad).jpg, Aharji Jain Teerth, Aharji File:Jain statue of Parshvanath, Naugaza temple, Alwar district, Rajasthan.jpg, Naugaza Digambar Jain temple File:Shantinath Jain Temple, Khajuraho India.JPG, Shantinatha temple, Khajuraho File:Shantinath Basadi, Chandragiri.jpg, Shantinath Basadi, Chandragiri Hill, Chandragiri


See also

*God in Jainism *Arihant (Jainism) *Jainism and non-creationism


Notes


References


Citations


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * {{Authority control Tirthankaras, Shantinath