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SHANDONG (Chinese : 山東; formerly romanized as SHANTUNG) is a coastal province of the People\'s Republic of China
China
, and is part of the East China
China
region.

Shandong
Shandong
has played a major role in Chinese history from the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River
Yellow River
and served as a pivotal cultural and religious site for Taoism
Taoism
, Chinese Buddhism
Buddhism
, and Confucianism
Confucianism
. Shandong's Mount Tai
Mount Tai
is the most revered mountain of Taoism
Taoism
and one of the world's sites with the longest history of continuous religious worship. The Buddhist temples in the mountains to the south of the provincial capital of Jinan
Jinan
were once among the foremost Buddhist sites in China. The city of Qufu
Qufu
is the birthplace of Confucius
Confucius
, and was later established as the center of Confucianism.

Shandong's location at the intersection of ancient as well as modern north–south and east–west trading routes have helped to establish it as an economic center. After a period of political instability and economic hardship that began in the late 19th century, Shandong
Shandong
has emerged as one of the most populous (95,793,065 inhabitants at the 2010 Census) and most affluent provinces in the People's Republic of China
China
with a GDP of CNY
CNY
¥5.942 trillion in 2014, or USD
USD
$967 billion, making it China's third wealthiest province.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name * 2 Location

* 3 History

* 3.1 Ancient history * 3.2 Early Imperial history * 3.3 Modern history

* 4 Geography

* 4.1 Geology

* 5 Politics

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Wine industry * 6.2 Economic and technological development zones

* 7 Demographics

* 7.1 Religion * 7.2 Famous View and Arts

* 8 Administrative divisions * 9 Culture * 10 Transport * 11 Tourism

* 12 Education

* 12.1 Colleges and universities * 12.2 Senior high schools

* 13 Sports

* 13.1 Events held in Shandong
Shandong
* 13.2 Professional sports teams based in Shandong
Shandong
include * 13.3 Former professional sports teams based in Shandong
Shandong
include

* 14 See also * 15 Notes

* 16 References

* 16.1 Notes * 16.2 Sources

* 17 External links

NAME

Individually, the two Chinese characters in the name "Shandong" mean "mountain" (山) and "east" (东). Shandong
Shandong
could hence be translated literally as "east of the mountains" and refers to the province's location to the east of the Taihang Mountains. A common nickname for Shandong
Shandong
is _Qílǔ_ (simplified Chinese: 齐鲁; traditional Chinese: 齊魯), after the States of Qi and Lu that existed in the area during the Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
. Whereas the State of Qiwas a major power of its era, the State of Lu
State of Lu
played only a minor role in the politics of its time. Lu, however, became renowned for being the home of Confucius
Confucius
and hence its cultural influence came to eclipse that of the State of Qi. The cultural dominance of the State of Lu
State of Lu
heritage is reflected in the official abbreviation for Shandong
Shandong
which is "鲁" (Chinese: 魯; pinyin: _Lǔ_). English speakers in the 19th century called the province _Shan-tung_.

LOCATION

The province is on the eastern edge of the North China
China
Plain and in the lower reaches of the Yellow River
Yellow River
(Huang He), and extends out to sea as the Shandong Peninsula
Shandong Peninsula
. Shandong
Shandong
borders the Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea
to the north, Hebei
Hebei
to the northwest, Henan
Henan
to the west, Jiangsu
Jiangsu
to the south, and the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
to the southeast; it also shares a very short border with Anhui
Anhui
, between Henan
Henan
and Jiangsu.

HISTORY

ANCIENT HISTORY

A Song -era monument to a legendary native of Shandong, the Yellow Emperor
Yellow Emperor
, at his supposed birthplace Remains of Ancient Linzi city sewer passing underneath the former city wall

With its location on the eastern edge of the North China
China
Plain , Shandong
Shandong
was home to a succession of Neolithic
Neolithic
cultures for millennia, including the Houli culture(6500–5500 BCE), the Beixin culture (5300–4100 BCE), the Dawenkou culture(4100–2600 BCE), the Longshan culture
Longshan culture
(3000–2000 BCE), and the Yueshi culture (1900–1500 BCE).

The earliest dynasties (the Shang dynastyand Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
) exerted varying degrees of control over western Shandong, while eastern Shandong
Shandong
was inhabited by the Dongyi
Dongyi
peoples who were considered "barbarians". Over subsequent centuries, the Dongyi
Dongyi
were eventually sinicized .

During the Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
and the Warring States period
Warring States period
, regional states became increasingly powerful. At this time, Shandong was home to two major states: the state of Qi at Linzi and the state of Lu at Qufu
Qufu
. Lu is noted for being the home of Confucius
Confucius
. The state was, however, comparatively small, and eventually succumbed to the larger state of Chu from the south. The state of Qi was, on the other hand, was a major power throughout the period. Cities it ruled included Linzi, Jimo(north of modern Qingdao
Qingdao
) and Ju .

EARLY IMPERIAL HISTORY

The Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
conquered Qi and founded the first centralized Chinese state in 221 BCE. The Han dynasty
Han dynasty
that followed created a number of commanderies supervised by two regions (刺史部) in what is now modern Shandong: Qingzhou(青州) in the north and Yanzhou (兗州) in the south. During the division of the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
, Shandong
Shandong
belonged to the Cao Wei
Cao Wei
, which ruled over northern China.

After the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period, a brief period of unity under the Western Jin dynasty
Western Jin dynasty
gave way to invasions by nomadic peoples from the north. Northern China, including Shandong, was overrun. Over the next century or so Shandong
Shandong
changed hands several times, falling to the Later Zhao, then Former Yan, then Former Qin
Former Qin
, then Later Yan, then Southern Yan, then the Liu Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
, and finally the Northern Wei Dynasty , the first of the Northern Dynasties during the Northern and Southern Dynasties Period. Shandong
Shandong
stayed with the Northern Dynasties for the rest of this period.

In 412 CE, the Chinese Buddhist monk Faxian
Faxian
landed at Laoshan , on the southern edge of the Shandong
Shandong
peninsula, and proceeded to Qingzhou to edit and translate the scriptures he had brought back from India
India
.

The Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
reestablished unity in 589, and the Tang dynasty (618-907) presided over the next golden age of China. For the earlier part of this period Shandong
Shandong
was ruled as part of Henan
Henan
Circuit , one of the circuits (a political division). Later on China
China
splintered into warlord factions, resulting in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Shandong
Shandong
was part of the Five Dynasties, all based in the north.

The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
reunified China
China
in the late tenth century. In 1996, the discovery of over two hundred buried Buddhist statues at Qingzhou was hailed as a major archaeological find. The statues included early examples of painted figures, and are thought to have been buried due to Emperor Huizong 's repression of Buddhism
Buddhism
(he favored Taoism
Taoism
).

The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
was forced to cede northern China
China
to the Jurchen Jin dynasty in 1142. Shandong
Shandong
was administered by the Jin as Shandong
Shandong
East Circuit and Shandong
Shandong
West Circuit – the first use of its current name.

MODERN HISTORY

Street market in the city, photographed by members of the Fragata Sarmiento 's crew in the late 19th century.

The modern province of Shandong
Shandong
was created by the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
, where it had a more expansive territory including the agricultural part of Liaoning
Liaoning
. After the Ming-Qing Transitionin 1644, Shandong acquired (more or less) its current borders.

During the nineteenth century, China
China
became increasingly exposed to Western influence, and Shandong, a coastal province, was especially affected. Qingdao
Qingdao
was leased to Germany
Germany
in 1897 and Weihaito Britain in 1898. The rest of Shandong
Shandong
was generally considered to be part of the German sphere of influence . As a result of foreign pressure from the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, which had annexed Outer Manchuria
Outer Manchuria
by 1860, the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
encouraged settlement of Shandong peopleto what remained of northeast China
China
.

Shandong
Shandong
was one of the first places in which the Boxer Rebellion started and became one of the centers of the uprising. In 1899, the Qing general Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
was appointed as governor of the province to suppress the uprising. He held the post for 3 years.

As a consequence of the First World War
First World War
, Germany
Germany
lost Qingdao
Qingdao
and its sphere of influence in Shandong. The Treaty of Versailles transferred the German concessions in Shandong
Shandong
to Japan
Japan
instead of restoring Chinese sovereignty over the area. Popular dissatisfaction with this outcome, referred to as the Shandong Problem
Shandong Problem
, led to the May Fourth Movement. Among the reservations to the Treaty that the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
approved was "to give Shantung to China," the treaty with reservations was not approved. Finally, Shandong
Shandong
reverted to Chinese control in 1922 after mediation by the United States during the Washington Naval Conference . Weihaifollowed in 1930.

The return of control over Shandong
Shandong
fell into the Warlord era
Warlord era
of the Republic of China. Shandong
Shandong
was handed over to the Zhili clique
Zhili clique
of warlords, but after the Second Zhili-Fengtian Warof 1924, the northeast China-based Fengtian clique
Fengtian clique
took over. In April 1925, the Fengtian clique
Fengtian clique
installed the warlord Zhang Zongchang, nicknamed the "Dogmeat General", as military governor of Shandong
Shandong
Province. _Time_ dubbed him China's "basest warlord". He ruled over the province until 1928, when he was ousted in the wake of the Northern Expedition . He was succeeded by Han Fuju
Han Fuju
, who was loyal to the warlord Feng Yuxiang but later switched his allegiance to the Nanjing government headed by Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
. Han Fuju
Han Fuju
also ousted the warlord Liu Zhennian, nicknamed the "King of Shandong
Shandong
East", who ruled eastern Shandong Province, hence unifying the province under his rule. Qingdao, The largest city of Shandong
Shandong
Province, 2016.

In 1937 Japan
Japan
began its invasion of China
China
proper in the Second Sino-Japanese War , which would eventually become part of the Pacific theatre of the Second World War
Second World War
. Han Fuju
Han Fuju
was made Deputy Commander in Chief of the 5th War Area and put in charge defending the lower Yellow River
Yellow River
valley. However, he abandoned his base in Jinan
Jinan
when the Japanese crossed the Yellow River. He was executed for not following orders shortly thereafter.

Shandong
Shandong
was occupied in its entirety by Japan, with resistance continuing in the countryside, and was one of the provinces where a scorched earth policy (" Three Alls Policy": "kill all", "burn all", "loot all") was implemented by general Yasuji Okamura
Yasuji Okamura
. This lasted until the surrender of Japan
Japan
in 1945.

By 1945, communist forces already held some parts of Shandong. Over the next four years of the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
, they expanded their holdings, eventually driving the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(government of the Republic of China
China
) out of Shandong
Shandong
by June 1949. The People\'s Republic of China
China
was founded in October of the same year.

Under the new government, parts of western Shandong
Shandong
were initially given to the short-lived Pingyuan Province, but this did not last. Shandong
Shandong
also acquired the Xuzhou
Xuzhou
and Lianyungangareas from Jiangsu province, but this did not last either. For the most part Shandong
Shandong
has kept the same borders that it has today.

In recent years Shandong, especially eastern Shandong, has enjoyed significant economic development, becoming one of the richest provinces of the People's Republic of China.

GEOGRAPHY

The sacred Mount Tai
Mount Tai
.

The northwestern, western, and southwestern parts of the province are all part of the vast North China
China
Plain . The center of the province is more mountainous, with Mount Tai
Mount Tai
being the most prominent. The east of the province is the hilly Shandong Peninsula
Shandong Peninsula
extending into the sea; it separates Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea
in the northwest from the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
to the east and south. The highest peak of Shandong
Shandong
is the highest peak in the Taishan area: Jade Emperor Peak, with a height of 1,545 metres (5,069 ft).

The Yellow River
Yellow River
passes through Shandong's western areas, entering the sea along Shandong's northern coast; in its traversal of Shandong it flows on a levee , higher than the surrounding land, and dividing western Shandong
Shandong
into the Hai He
Hai He
watershed in the north and the Huai River watershed in the south. The Grand Canal of China
China
enters Shandong from the northwest and leaves on the southwest. Weishan Lakeis the largest lake of the province. Shandong's coastline is 3,000 kilometres (1,900 mi) long. Shandong Peninsula
Shandong Peninsula
has a rocky coastline with cliffs, bays, and islands; the large Laizhou Bay
Laizhou Bay
, the southernmost of the three bays of Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea
, is found to the north, between Dongying
Dongying
and Penglai ; Jiaozhou Bay, which is much smaller, is found to the south, next to Qingdao
Qingdao
. The Miaodao Islands extend northwards from the northern coast of the peninsula.

Shandong
Shandong
has a temperate climate , lying in the transition between the humid subtropical (_Cwa_ under the Köppen climate classification ) and humid continental (Köppen _Dwa_) zones with four distinct seasons. Summers are hot and rainy (except for a few coastal areas), while winters are cold and dry. Average temperatures are −5 to 1 °C (23 to 34 °F) in January and 24 to 28 °C (75 to 82 °F) in July. Annual precipitation is 550 to 950 mm (22 to 37 in), the vast majority of which occurs during summer, due to monsoonal influences.

With Jinan
Jinan
serving as the province's economic and cultural centre, the province's economic prowess has led to the development of modern coastal cities located at Qingdao
Qingdao
, Weihai, and Yantai.

GEOLOGY

Shandong
Shandong
is part of the Eastern Block of the North China
China
craton . Beginning in the Mesozoic, Shandong
Shandong
has undergone a crustal thinning that is unusual for a craton and that has reduced the thickness of the crust from 200 km (120 mi) to as little as 80 km (50 mi). Shandong
Shandong
has hence experienced extensive volcanism in the Tertiary.

Some geological formations in Shandong
Shandong
are rich in fossils. For example, Zhucheng
Zhucheng
, which is located in southeastern Shandong, has been the site of many discoveries of dinosaur fossils. A major find of 7,600 dinosaur bones that including tyrannosaurus and ankylosaurus remains was announced in 2008, and is believed to be the largest collection ever found.

POLITICS

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Many generations of the senior-branch direct descendants of Confucius
Confucius
ruled the Qufu
Qufu
area as its feudal rulers . Here, the tomb of the 59th generation senior descendant, Kong Yanjin Main articles: Politics of Shandong
Politics of Shandong
and List of provincial leaders of the People\'s Republic of China
China

The politics of Shandong
Shandong
is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Shandongis the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Shandong. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Shandong
Shandong
Communist Party of China
China
Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the " Shandong
Shandong
CPC Party Chief". This province is third richest in China
China
and maintained close relationship with Japan and South Korea
South Korea
.

ECONOMY

As of 1832, Shandong
Shandong
was exporting fruits, vegetables, wine, drugs, and deer skin, often heading to Guangzhou
Guangzhou
in exchange for clothing and fabrics.

Shandong
Shandong
ranks first among the provinces in the production of a variety of products, including cotton and wheat as well as precious metals such as gold and diamonds . It also has one of the biggest sapphire deposits in the world. Other important crops include sorghum and maize . Shandong
Shandong
has extensive petroleum deposits as well, especially in the Dongying
Dongying
area in the Yellow River
Yellow River
delta, where the Shengli Oil Field(lit. Victory Oilfield) is one of the major oilfields of China. Shandong
Shandong
also produces bromine from underground wells and salt from sea water. It is the largest agricultural exporter in China.

Shandong
Shandong
is one of the richer provinces of China, and its economic development focuses on large enterprises with well-known brand names. Shandong
Shandong
is the biggest industrial producer and one of the top manufacturing provinces in China. Shandong
Shandong
has also benefited from South Korean and Japanese investment and tourism, due to its geographical proximity to those countries. The richest part of the province is the Shandong Peninsula
Shandong Peninsula
, where the city of Qingdao
Qingdao
is home to three of the most well-known brand names of China: Tsingtao Beer
Beer
, Haierand Hisense
Hisense
. In addition, Dongying
Dongying
's oil fields and petroleum industries form an important component of Shandong's economy. Despite the primacy of Shandong's energy sector, the province has also been plagued with problems of inefficiency and ranks as the largest consumer of fossil fuels in all of China.

In 2011, the nominal GDP for Shandong
Shandong
was ¥ 4.50 trillion (US$711 billion), ranking third in the country (behind Guangdong
Guangdong
and Jiangsu ). Its GDP per capita was ¥42,014 (US$6,365), ranking eighth.

WINE INDUSTRY

See also: Wine in China
China
Shandong
Shandong
Coastal
Coastal
Vineyards

The production of wine is the second largest industry in the Shandong Province, second only to agriculture.

Geographically, the southern hills average an elevation of 200 meters (660 ft), while the coastal areas remain relatively flat. Most of the soil is loose, well-ventilated, and rich in minerals and organic matter that enable full development of the root systems.

Presently, there are more than 140 wineries in the region, mainly distributed in the Nanwang Grape Valley and along the Yan-Peng Sightseeing Highway. The region produced more than 40% of China's grape wine production. Main varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon
Cabernet Sauvignon
, Cabernet Gernischt, Merlot
Merlot
, Riesling
Riesling
and Chardonnay
Chardonnay
are all at 20 years of age, considered to be the golden stage for these grapes. Most of them maintain an average saccharinity of above 20%.

MAJOR PRODUCERS

* Changyu
Changyu
Pioneer Wine Co. * China
China
Great Wall Wine
Great Wall Wine
Co. Ltd.

ECONOMIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT ZONES

* Jinan
Jinan
High-tech Industrial Development Zone

Founded in 1991, the Jinan
Jinan
High-tech Industrial Development zone was one of the first of its kind approved by the State Council. The zone is located to the east of the city and covers a total planning area of 83 km2 (32 sq mi) that is divided into a central area covering 33 km2 (13 sq mi), an export processing district of 10 km2 (3.9 sq mi), and an eastern extension area of 40 km2 (15 sq mi). Since its foundation, the Jinan
Jinan
High-tech Industrial Development Zone has attracted enterprises as LG, Panasonic, Volvo, and Sanyo. In 2000, it joined the world science and technology association and set up a China-Ukraine High-tech Cooperation Park. The Qilu Software Park became the sister park of Bangalore park of India.

* Jinan
Jinan
Export Processing Zone

The export processing zone is located in the eastern suburbs of Jinan, to the east of the Jinan
Jinan
High-tech Industrial Development Zone and to the north of the Jiwang highway. The distances to the Jiqing Highway and the Jinan
Jinan
Airport are 9 and 18 km (5.6 and 11.2 mi) respectively.

* Qingdao
Qingdao
Economic the total industrial output value is ¥60.6 billion, increased by 31%. There have been 48 projects invested by companies listed among the Global Fortune 500 in the zone. With the fast development of reform and opening-up, Haier, Hisense, Aucma, Sinopec, CSIC, CNOOC, CIMC etc. all locate in the zone.

* Qingdao
Qingdao
Free Trade Zone

Qingdao
Qingdao
Free Trade Zone was established by the State Council in 1992. The zone is 60 km (37 mi) away from Qingdao
Qingdao
Liuting Airport. It is also close to Qingdao
Qingdao
Qianwan Harbor. At present, more than 40 foreign-invested enterprises have moved in and 2000 projects have been approved. It is one of the special economic areas which enjoys the most favorable investment policies on customs, foreign exchange, foreign trade and taxation in China.

* Qingdao
Qingdao
High-tech Industrial Zone

Qingdao
Qingdao
High-Tech Industrial Development Zone was approved the State Council in 1992. The zone is located close to Qingdao
Qingdao
Liuting Airport and Qingdao
Qingdao
Harbor. Encouraged industries include electronic information, biotechnology, medicine, new materials, new energy, advanced equipment manufacturing, marine science & technology, national defense technology.

* Weifang
Weifang
Binhai Economic & Technological Development Area (BEDA)

Established in August 1995, Weifang
Weifang
Binhai Economic & Technological Development Area (BEDA) is a national economic and technological development area approved by the State Council. Covering an area of 677 km2 (261 sq mi), BEDA has a population of 100,000. BEDA possesses a large state-owned industrial land for use with an area of 400 km2 (150 sq mi). The land can be transacted conveniently which would guarantee the demand of any project construction and provide broad development space for the enterprises in the area. Continuously, BEDA has been accredited as National Demonstration Zone invigorating the Sea by Science and Technology, National Innovation Base for Rejuvenating Trade through Science and Technology and National Demonstration Eco-Industry Park.

* WeihaiEconomic & Technological Development Zone

WeihaiEconomic and Technological Development Zone is a state-level development zone approved by the State Council on Oct 21, 1992. The administrative area has an area of 194 km2 (75 sq mi), including the programmed area of 36 km2 (14 sq mi) and an initial area of 11.88 km2 (4.59 sq mi). Its nearest port is WeihaiPort, and the airport closest to the zone is WuhaiAirport.

* WeihaiExport Processing Zone

WeihaiExport & Processing Zone (EPZ) was set up by the approval of the State Council on April 27, 2000. WeihaiEPZ is located in Weihai Economic & Technological Development Zone with programmed area of 2.6 km2 (1.0 sq mi). WeihaiEPZ belongs to comprehensive export & processing zone. The EPZ is located 30 km (19 mi) to WeihaiAirport, 3 km (1.9 mi) to WeihaiRailway Station and 4 km (2.5 mi) to Weihai Harbor.

* WeihaiTorch Hi-Tech Science Park

WeihaiTorch Hi-Tech Science Park is a state-level development zone approved by the State Council on March 1991. Located in Weihai's northwest zone of culture, education and science, the Park has the total area of 111.9 square kilometers (43.2 sq mi), the coastal line of 30.5 kilometers (19.0 mi) and 150,000 residents. It is 3 km (1.9 mi) away from the city center, 4 km (2.5 mi) away from WeihaiPort, 10 km (6.2 mi) away from WeihaiRailway Station, 30 km (19 mi) away from WeihaiAirport and 80 km (50 mi) away from YantaiAirport.

* YantaiEconomic and Technological Development Area

YantaiEconomic and Technological Development Area is one of the earliest approved state level economic development zones in China. It now has planned area of 10 km2 (3.9 sq mi) and a population of 115,000. It lies on the tip of the Shandong Peninsula
Shandong Peninsula
facing the Huanghai Sea. It adjoins to downtown Yantai, merely 6 km (3.7 mi) away from YantaiPort, 6 km (3.7 mi) away from YantaiRailway Station, and a 30-minute drive to YantaiInternational Airport.

* YantaiExport Processing Zone

YantaiExport Processing Zone (YTEPZ) is one of the first 15 export processing zones approved by the State Council. The total construction area of YTEPZ is 4.17 m2 (44.9 sq ft), in which the initial zone covers 3 km2 (1.2 sq mi). After developing for several years, YTEPZ is completely constructed. At present, the infrastructure has been completed, standard workshops of 120,000 m2 (140,000 sq yd) and bonded warehouses of 40,000 m2 (430,000 sq ft) have been built up. Up to now, owning perfect investment environment and conditions, YTEPZ has attracted investors both from foreign countries and regions such as Japan, Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Sweden, the United States, Canada, etc. and from the domestic to invest and operate in the zone.

* Zibo
Zibo
National New font-size:85%;text-align:left"> Qingdao
Qingdao
was part of Shandong
Shandong
Province until 1929; dissolved in 1949 and incorporated into Shandong
Shandong
Province. Weihaialso known as Weihaiwei. Established in 1930; dissolved in 1945 and incorporated into Shandong
Shandong
Province.

Shandong
Shandong
is the second most populous province of China, after Guangdong
Guangdong
, just slightly ahead of Henan
Henan
, with a population of more than 95,793,000 at the 2010 Census. Over 99% of Shandong's population is Han Chinese
Han Chinese
. Minority groups include the Hui and the Manchus . Shandong
Shandong
citizens are also known to have the highest average height of any Chinese province.

RELIGION

Religion in Shandong
Shandong
Chinese ancestral religion
Chinese ancestral religion
(25.28%) Christianity
Christianity
(1.21%) Islam
Islam
(0.55%) Other religions or not religious people (80.05%)

The predominant religions in Shandong
Shandong
are Chinese folk religions , Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism
Buddhism
. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 25,28% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration , while 1.21% of the population identifies as Christian, decreasing from 1.30% in 2004. The Christians were 1.89% of the province's population in 1949, the largest proportion in China
China
at that time. According to a survey of the year 2010, Muslims constitute 0.55% of the population of Shandong.

The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 80.05% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities , Buddhism, Confucianism
Confucianism
, Taoism
Taoism
and folk religious sects . Shandong
Shandong
is the province where Confucius
Confucius
was born in the year 551 B.C.

Confucianism
Confucianism
: The most well known humanity of Shandong
Shandong
is Confucianism. Each year thousands of people come to Shandong
Shandong
to visit and learn about Confucius' culture. Confucius, according to Chinese tradition, he was a thinker, political figure, educator, and founder of the Ru School of Chinese thought. His teachings, preserved in the Lunyu or Analects, form the foundation of much of subsequent Chinese speculation on the education and comportment of the ideal man, how such an individual should live his life and interact with others, and the forms of society and government in which he should participate. Additionally, there are many famous books about Confucius
Confucius
the most famous one is Analects which is written by his students. Confucius also helped edited The Five Classics(五经) . The Five Classics includeThe Book of Songs, History, Changes and Rites.

FAMOUS VIEW AND ARTS

* Seven Star Northern Shaolin Praying Mantis Style of Kung fu is also taught in this province. It is also said that Northern Mantis had originated here and not in the shaolin Temple in the Henan
Henan
Province which is always stated in books. * Guandi is also known for Guangong, Guanyu. He is a famous general in the book Romance of the Three Kingdoms. In Daojiao (a traditional Chinese Religion) Guangong is also one of the four Protector. * Temple and Cemetery of Confucius
Confucius
and the Kong is a very famous temple in China
China
and it is also a 5A Tourist Attraction. Lying to the east of the Temple, the Kong Family Mansion developed from a small family house linked to the temple into an aristocratic mansion in which the male direct descendants of Confucius
Confucius
lived and worked.

*

Altar of the Temple of Guandi in Jinan
Jinan
. *

Hall of the Great Perfection of the Temple of Confucius
Confucius
in Qufu
Qufu
. *

Temple of Mazu in Qingdao
Qingdao
.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Main articles: List of administrative divisions of Shandongand List of township-level divisions of Shandong
Shandong

Shandong
Shandong
is divided into seventeen prefecture-level divisions : all prefecture-level cities (including two sub-provincial cities ):

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS OF SHANDONG

№ DIVISION CODE ENGLISH NAME CHINESE PINYIN AREA IN KM2 POPULATION 2010 SEAT DIVISIONS

DISTRICTS COUNTIES CL CITIES

370000 SHANDONG 山东省 Shāndōng Shěng 157100.00 95,793,065 Jinan
Jinan
51 58 28

1 370100 JINAN 济南市 Jǐnán Shì 8000.80 6,814,000 Lixia District
Lixia District
6 3 1

2 370200 QINGDAO 青岛市 Qīngdǎo Shì 11175.30 8,715,100 Shinan District
Shinan District
6

4

17 370300 ZIBO 淄博市 Zībó Shì 5965.17 4,530,600 Zhangdian District 5 3

16 370400 ZAOZHUANG 枣庄市 Zǎozhuāng Shì 4563.22 3,729,300 Xuecheng District 5

1

5 370500 DONGYING 东营市 Dōngyíng Shì 7923.26 2,035,300 Dongying
Dongying
District 2 3

15 370600 YANTAI 烟台市 Yāntái Shì 13746.47 6,968,200 Laishan District 4 1 7

13 370700 WEIFANG 潍坊市 Wéifāng Shì 16143.14 9,086,200 Kuiwen District 4 2 6

7 370800 JINING 济宁市 Jǐníng Shì 11186.98 8,081,900 Rencheng District 2 7 2

12 370900 TAI\\'AN 泰安市 Tài'ān Shì 7761.83 5,494,200 Taishan District 2 2 2

14 371000 WEIHAI 威海市 Wēihǎi Shì 5796.98 2,804,800 Huancui District 2

2

11 371100 RIZHAO 日照市 Rìzhào Shì 5347.99 2,801,100 Donggang District 2 2

8 371200 LAIWU 莱芜市 Láiwú Shì 2246.21 1,298,500 Laicheng District 2

10 371300 LINYI 临沂市 Línyí Shì 17191.21 10,039,400 Lanshan District 3 9

4 371400 DEZHOU 德州市 Dézhōu Shì 10356.32 5,568,200 Decheng District 2 7 2

9 371500 LIAOCHENG 聊城市 Liáochéng Shì 8714.57 5,789,900 Dongchangfu District 1 6 1

3 371600 BINZHOU 滨州市 Bīnzhōu Shì 9444.65 3,748,500 Bincheng District 2 5

6 371700 HEZE 菏泽市 Hézé Shì 12193.85 8,287,800 Mudan District 1 8

Sub-provincial cities

The seventeen prefecture-level divisions of Shandong
Shandong
are subdivided into 137 county-level divisions (51 districts , 28 county-level cities , and 58 counties ). Those are in turn divided into 1941 township-level divisions (1223 towns , 293 townships , two ethnic townships , and 423 subdistricts ).

CULTURE

Mandarin dialects
Mandarin dialects
are spoken in Shandong. Linguists classify these dialects into three broad categories: Ji Lu Mandarinspoken in the northwest (as well as in neighbouring Hebei
Hebei
), such as the Jinan dialect ; Zhongyuan Mandarin
Zhongyuan Mandarin
spoken in the southwest (as well as in neighbouring Henan
Henan
); and Jiao Liao Mandarin
Jiao Liao Mandarin
spoken in the Shandong Peninsula (as well as the Liaodong Peninsula
Liaodong Peninsula
across the sea), such as the Qingdao
Qingdao
dialect . When people speak of the " Shandong
Shandong
dialect" (山東話), it is generally the first or the second that is meant; the Jiao Liao dialects of Shandong
Shandong
are commonly called the "Jiaodong dialect" (膠東話).

Shandong cuisine
Shandong cuisine
(鲁菜) is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine
Chinese cuisine
. It can be more finely divided into inland Shandong cuisine (e.g. Jinan
Jinan
cuisine ); the seafood -centered Jiaodong cuisine in the peninsula; and Confucius\'s Mansion cuisine , an elaborate tradition originally intended for imperial and other important feasts.

Shandong
Shandong
Bangzi and Lüjuare popular types of Chinese opera
Chinese opera
in Shandong; both originated from southwestern Shandong.

TRANSPORT

The Jingjiu Railway( Beijing
Beijing
- Kowloon
Kowloon
) and Jinghu Railway
Jinghu Railway
(Beijing - Shanghai
Shanghai
) are both major arterial railways that pass through the western part of Shandong. The Jingjiu passes through Liaochengand Heze
Heze
; the Jinghu passes through Dezhou
Dezhou
, Jinan
Jinan
, Tai\'an , Yanzhou (the Jinghu high-speed railway will through Qufu
Qufu
). and Tengzhou. The Jiaoji Railwayis an important railway of Shandong, linking its two largest cities of Qingdao
Qingdao
and Jinan
Jinan
, with the longest history of all.

Shandong
Shandong
has one of the densest and highest quality expressway networks among all Chinese provinces. At over 3,000 km (1,900 mi), the total length of Shandong's expressways is the highest among the provinces. These National Trunk Highway System (NTHS) expressways pass through or begin in Shandong. Expressways that begin in Shandong
Shandong
are in BOLD:

* G2 Jinghu Expressway( Beijing
Beijing
Shanghai
Shanghai
) * G3 Jingtai Expressway(Beijing– Taipei
Taipei
, Taiwan
Taiwan
) * G15 Shenhai Expressway( Shenyang
Shenyang
, Liaoning
Liaoning
Haikou
Haikou
, Hainan
Hainan
) * G18 RONGWU EXPRESSWAY (Rongcheng – Wuhai, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
) * G20 QINGYIN EXPRESSWAY ( Qingdao
Qingdao
Yinchuan
Yinchuan
, Ningxia
Ningxia
) * G22 QINGLAN EXPRESSWAY (Qingdao– Lanzhou
Lanzhou
, Gansu
Gansu
) * G25 Changshen Expressway ( Changchun
Changchun
, Jilin
Jilin
Shenzhen
Shenzhen
, Guangdong
Guangdong
)

There are also many shorter regional expressways within Shandong.

The Shandong Peninsula
Shandong Peninsula
, with its bays and harbours, has many important ports, including Qingdao
Qingdao
, Yantai, Weihai, Rizhao , Dongying
Dongying
and Longkou
Longkou
. Many of these ports have historical significance as well, as the sites of former foreign naval bases or historical battles. Ferries link the cities on the north coast of the peninsula with the Liaodong Peninsula
Liaodong Peninsula
, further north across the sea.

Important airports include Jinan
Jinan
Yaoqiang Airport and Qingdao
Qingdao
Liuting International Airport . Other airports are Dongying
Dongying
Shengli Airport , Jining Qufu
Qufu
Airport , Linyi
Linyi
Shubuling Airport , Weifang
Weifang
Airport , WeihaiDashuibo Airport and YantaiLaishan International Airport .

TOURISM

Tourist attractions in Shandong
Shandong
include:

* Jinan
Jinan
, the capital city of Shandong
Shandong
since Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
, renowned for its 72 Famous Springs .

* Baotu Spring
Baotu Spring
, a culturally significant artesian karst spring, declared as "Number One Spring under the Heaven" (天下第一泉) by the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
. * Daming Lake
Daming Lake
, the largest lake in Jinan, whose water is from the springs of the area. Marco Polo
Marco Polo
described its beauty in his works. * Thousand Buddha Mountain, renowned for its numerous Buddha images which have been carved out of the hill's rock faces or free-standing structures erect since the times of the Sui Dynasty
Sui Dynasty
and its Xingguochan Temple. * Lingyan Temple , one of the 4 most famous temples (四大名刹) in Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
, in which there are 11th century Pizhi Pagodaand the Thousand Buddha Hall which houses a Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
bronze Buddha statue as well as 40 painted clay statues of life-size luohan from the Song Dynasty . * remant of Great Wall of Qi, the oldest existing Great Wall in China, which is built in 685 BCE and stretches from Jinan
Jinan
to Qingdao
Qingdao
.

* Penglai , a town on the north of the Shandong
Shandong
peninsula famed in Taoism
Taoism
.

* Qingdao
Qingdao
(a former German port city), is a beach resort city on the south of the peninsula that has German -era architecture and is also famous for its Tsingtao beer.

* Ba Da Guan, made up of eight streets named after the eight great military forts of the ancient times. * Zhan Qiao, a long strip pier stretches into the sea and was the first wharf at Qingdao. * Laoshan , a scenic area and Daoist
Daoist
centre to the east of Qingdao.

* Qingzhou, an ancient trading and administrative centre with some famous archaeological discoveries. * Weihai, a former British port city important in the second Sino-Japanese War has British -era architecture .

* World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites
:

* Temple and Cemetery of Confucius
Confucius
, and the Kong Family Mansion in Qufu
Qufu
* Tai Shan , sacred mountain, in Tai\'an

* Weifang,(潍坊) is a prefecture-level city in central Shandong
Shandong
province. It is made up of four urban districts (Kuiwen, Weicheng, Hanting and Fangzi) and Changle Countylargely being urbanized. Weifang
Weifang
has numerous natural and historic sites, such as Shihu Garden (from the Late Ming and early Qing Dynasty), Fangong Pavilion (from the Song Dynasty), fossil sites (including dinosaur fossils, in Shanwang, Linqu), Mount Yi National Forest Park and Mount Qingyun. Yangjiabu are painted New Year woodcuts which is also famous all around China.

EDUCATION

COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

See also: List of universities and colleges in Shandong

* Shandong University
Shandong University
(Jinan) * Ocean University of China
China
(Qingdao) * China
China
University of Petroleum
Petroleum
( Dongying
Dongying
and Qingdao) * University of Jinan
Jinan
(Jinan) * Shandong Normal University * Shandong Agricultural University(Tai'an) * Shandong University
Shandong University
of Finance and Economics (Jinan) * Shandong University
Shandong University
of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Jinan) * Harbin Institute of Technology
Harbin Institute of Technology
(Weihai) * China
China
Agricultural University (Yantai) * Harbin University of Science and Technology(Weihai) * YantaiUniversity (Yantai) * Qufu
Qufu
Normal University (Qufu) * Qingdao
Qingdao
University (Qingdao) * Shandong University
Shandong University
of Science and Technology (Qingdao) * Shandong University
Shandong University
of Technology (Zibo) * LiaochengUniversity (Liaocheng) * Linyi
Linyi
University (Linyi) * Qingdao
Qingdao
Agricultural University (Qingdao) * Binzhou
Binzhou
Medical College (Binzhou) * JiningMedical University (Jining) * Weifang
Weifang
Medical University (Weifang) * Weifang
Weifang
University (Weifang) * Shandong Institute of Business and Technology(Yantai) * Shandong
Shandong
Women\'s University (Jinan) * Qingdao
Qingdao
Technical College (Qingdao) * Rizhao
Rizhao
Polytechnic (Rizhao) * Zibo
Zibo
Vocational Institute (Zibo) * Qingdao
Qingdao
Binhai University (Qingdao) * Shandong Foreign Languages Vocational College(Rizhao)

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS

Qingdao
Qingdao
No.2 Middle School is one of the best senior high schools in Shandong.

* Shandong
Shandong
Experimental High School (山东省实验中学) * Jinan
Jinan
Foreign Language School(济南外国语学校) * Senior High School Attached to Shandong
Shandong
Normal University (山东师范大学附属中学) * Zibo
Zibo
Experimental High School(淄博实验中学) * ShengLi NO.1 Senior High school of Dongying (东营市胜利第一中学(原胜利油田第一中学)) * Shandong
Shandong
Tai\'an No.1 Senior High School (山东省泰安第一中学) * Weifang
Weifang
NO.1 Middle School(山东省潍坊市第一中学) * Zouping NO.1 High School(山东省邹平县第一中学)

SPORTS

EVENTS HELD IN SHANDONG

* 2009 National Games of China
China
* 2002 Table Tennis World Cup * 2004 AFC Asian Cup * 2007 A3 Champions Cup * Sailing at the 2008 Summer Olympicsand Paralympics * 2011 Sudirman Cup * 2012 Badminton Asia Championships * 2012 Asian Beach Games

PROFESSIONAL SPORTS TEAMS BASED IN SHANDONG INCLUDE

* Chinese Basketball Association
Chinese Basketball Association

* Shandong Golden Stars * Qingdao
Qingdao
DoubleStar

* Chinese Super League
Chinese Super League

* Shandong Luneng
Shandong Luneng

* China
China
League One

* Qingdao
Qingdao
Zhongneng * Qingdao
Qingdao
Huanghai

FORMER PROFESSIONAL SPORTS TEAMS BASED IN SHANDONG INCLUDE

* Qingdao
Qingdao
Haisha * Qingdao
Qingdao
Sunrise * Qingdao
Qingdao
Hailifeng * YantaiYiteng F.C. * JiningDranix * Shandong
Shandong
Tengding

SEE ALSO

* Major national historical and cultural sites in Shandong
Shandong
* Shandong people * Shantung Problem * East Asian snowstorms of 2009-2010 * East Asian snowstorms of late 2009

NOTES

* ^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines ). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China
China
(deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang. The number of Muslims is taken from a survey reported in the year 2010.

* ^ This may include:

* Buddhists ; * Confucians ; * Deity worshippers ; * Taoists ; * Members of folk religious sects ; * And people not bounded to, nor practicing any, institutional or diffuse religion.

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ "Doing Business in China
China
- Survey". Ministry Of Commerce - People's Republic Of China. Retrieved 5 August 2013. * ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People\'s Republic of China
China
on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census (No. 2)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2013. * ^ http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/business/2011-02/14/content_12004550.htm * ^ 《2013中国人类发展报告》 (PDF) (IN CHINESE). UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME CHINA. 2013. RETRIEVED 2014-01-05. * ^ (in Chinese) Origin of the Names of China\'s Provinces, People\'s Daily Online . * ^ _A_ _B_ Roberts, Edmund (1837). _Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat_. New York: Harper & Brothers. pp. 122–123. * ^ Stephen G. Craft, "John Bassett Moore, Robert Lansing, and the Shandong
Shandong
Question." _Pacific Historical Review_ 66.2 (1997): 231-249. online * ^ "CHINA: Basest War Lord" * ^ China
China
finds major dinosaur site * ^ http://www.china-sapphire.com/about1.asp * ^ _A_ _B_ http://www.thechinaperspective.com/topics/province/shandong-province/ * ^ http://www.wines-info.com/Newshtml/200812/2282008123011241759.html * ^ RightSite.asia Jinan
Jinan
High-tech Industrial Development Zone * ^ RightSite.asia Jinan
Jinan
Export Processing Zone * ^ RightSite.asia Qingdao
Qingdao
Economic & Technological Development Area * ^ RightSite.asia Qingdao
Qingdao
Free Trade Zone * ^ RightSite.asia Qingdao
Qingdao
High-tech Industrial Zone * ^ RightSite.asia WeihaiEconomic & Technological Development Zone * ^ RightSite.asia WeihaiExport Processing Zone * ^ RightSite.asia WeihaiTorch Hi-Tech Science Park * ^ RightSite.asia YantaiEconomic and Technological Development Area * ^ RightSite.asia YantaiExport Processing Zone * ^ "1912年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014. * ^ "1928年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014. * ^ "1936-37年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014. * ^ "1947年全国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014. * ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China
China
. * ^ "第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字". National Bureau of Statistics of China
China
. * ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China
China
. * ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九〇年人口普查主要数据的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China
China
. * ^ "现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下". National Bureau of Statistics of China
China
. * ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People\'s Republic of China
China
on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China
China
. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ China
China
General Social Survey 2009, Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) * ^ _A_ _B_ Min Junqing. _The Present Situation and Characteristics of Contemporary Islam
Islam
in China_. JISMOR, 8. 2010 Islam
Islam
by province, page 29. Data from: Yang Zongde, _Study on Current Muslim Population in China_, Jinan
Jinan
Muslim, 2, 2010. * ^ "Confucius". _Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy_. Retrieved 7 December 2016. * ^ " Confucius
Confucius
(551—479 B.C.E.)". _IEP_. Retrieved 7 December 2016. * ^ "关羽". _关羽_. Retrieved 7 December 2016. * ^ "Temple and Cemetery of Confucius
Confucius
and the Kong Family Mansion in Qufu". _UNESCO_. Retrieved 7 December 2016. * ^ "The Confucian Temple, Cemetery and Family Mansion in Qufu". _China.org_. Retrieved 7 December 2016. * ^ "中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码". 中华人民共和国民政部. * ^ 深圳市统计局. _《深圳统计年鉴2014》_. _深圳统计网_. 中国统计出版社. Retrieved 2015-05-29. * ^ shi, Guo wu yuan ren kou pu cha ban gong; council, Guo jia tong ji ju ren kou he jiu ye tong ji si bian = Tabulation on the 2010 population census of the people's republic of China
China
by township / compiled by Population census office under the state; population, Department of; statistics, employment statistics national bureau of (2012). _Zhongguo 2010 nian ren kou pu cha fen xiang, zhen, jie dao zi liao_ (Di 1 ban. ed.). Beijing
Beijing
Shi: Zhongguo tong ji chu ban she. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2 . * ^ 中华人民共和国民政部 (2014.08). _《中国民政统计年鉴2014》_. 中国统计出版社. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9 . Check date values in: date= (help )

http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/bizchina/2012-12/19/content_16031295.htm

SOURCES

* Economic profile for Shandong
Shandong
at HKTDC

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to SHANDONG _.

* _ Shandong
Shandong
travel guide from Wikivoyage * (in Chinese) Shandong
Shandong
Government website * (in English) (in Chinese) Complete Map of the Seven Coastal Provinces from 1821-1850 * Shandong
Shandong
Article Encyclopædia Britannica

‹ The template below (Geographic location _) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›

_ Hebei
Hebei

Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea
_

SHANDONG

Henan
Henan
Anhui
Anhui
Jiangsu
Jiangsu
_ Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
_

* v * t * e

Shandong
Shandong
topics

Jinan
Jinan
(capital )

GENERAL

* History * Politics * Economy

GEOGRAPHY

* Cities * North China
China
Plain * North China
China
craton * Mount Tai
Mount Tai
* Shandong Peninsula
Shandong Peninsula
* Yellow River
Yellow River
* Hai He
Hai He
* Grand Canal of China
China
* Weishan Lake * Laizhou Bay
Laizhou Bay
* Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea
* Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea

EDUCATION

* Shandong University
Shandong University
* Ocean University of China
China

.