Hinduism , SHAKTI (
Devanagari : शक्ति; from Sanskrit
_shak_, "to be able"), also spelled as SAKTHI, meaning "power" or
"empowerment" is the primordial cosmic energy and represents the
dynamic forces that are thought to move through the entire universe .
Shakti is the concept or personification of divine feminine creative
power, sometimes referred to as 'The Great Divine Mother' in Hinduism
. As the mother she is known as ADI PARASHAKTI or ADISHAKTI. On the
Shakti most actively manifests through female
embodiment and creativity/fertility, though it is also present in
males in its potential, unmanifest form.
Hindus believe that
Shakti is both responsible for creation and the
agent of all change.
Shakti is cosmic existence as well as liberation,
its most significant form being the
Kundalini Shakti, a mysterious
Shakti is worshipped as the
Supreme Being . Shakti
embodies the active feminine energy of
Shiva and is identified as
Tripura Sundari or her avatar
* 1 Evolution
* 4 Bhajans and mantras
* 5 See also
* 6 Notes
* 7 Further reading
* 8 External links
Part of a series on
Deities ADISHAKTI (SUPREME)
Scriptures and texts
Philosophy and practices
* Abhirami Bhattar
Festivals and temples
David Kinsley mentions the "shakti" of Lord Indra's as Sachi
(Indrani), meaning power. Indrani is part of a group of seven or
eight mother goddesses called the
Brahmani , Vaishnavi ,
Maheshvari , Indrani, Kumari, Varahi and
Chamundi and/or Narasimhi),
who are considered shaktis of major
Hindu gods (Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva,
Indra, Skanda, Varaha/Yama and Narasimha respectively). The
Manasa in a dense jungle landscape with a cobra and a swan.
Shakti goddess is also known as Amma (meaning 'mother') in south
India, especially in the states of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala,
Telangana, and Andhra Pradesh. There are many temples devoted to
various incarnations of the
Shakti goddess in most of the villages in
South India . The rural people believe that
Shakti is the protector of
the village, the punisher of evil people, the curer of diseases, and
the one who gives welfare to the village. They celebrate Shakti
Jataras with great interest once a year. Some examples of incarnations
Kamakshi , Kanakadurga ,
Mahalakshmi , Meenakshi,
Yellamma , Poleramma, Gangamma and Perantalamma.
It is believed that the cosmic grand design is theoretically a
triangular structure of equal sides. The three points of the triangle
or the "trine structure of macrocosmic system" are occupied by three
ultimate manifestations of the trinity:
The central point or the ultimate gravitational presence of the trine
structure is occupied by "Shakti" which is self-born, and is unable to
be created or destroyed by any other existence in the cosmos which
motivates the trinity from the ultimate center. This ultimate
indestructible gravity known as "Shakti" in its three transformative
Tridevi ) is connected to the trinity separately. She is
Brahma through her creative motherly form with Rajas
Rudra through her destructive elderly form with Tamas Guna
Vishnu through her neutral meditating form through her Sattva
Guna. Brahma, by the grace of her creative force creates. Rudra, by
the strength of her destructive force destroys. Vishnu, by the
unbiased intellectual force sustains.
One of the oldest representations of the goddess in India is in a
triangular form. The Baghor stone, found in a
Paleolithic context in
Son River valley and dating to 9,000-8,000 years BCE, is
considered an early example of a yantra . Kenoyer , part of the team
that excavated the stone, considered that it was highly probable that
the stone is associated with Shakti.
Sri Guru Amritananda Natha Saraswati, performing the Navavarana
Puja, an important ritual in Srividya Tantric
Shaktism , at the
Sahasrakshi Meru Temple at Devipuram, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Devi (lit., "the Goddess") as the Supreme Brahman
itself with all other forms of divinity considered to be merely Her
diverse manifestations. In the details of its philosophy and practice,
Shaktism resembles Shaivism. However, _Shaktas_ (_Sanskrit: Śakta,
शक्त_), practitioners of Shaktism, focus most or all worship
on Shakti, as the dynamic feminine aspect of the Supreme Divine. Shiva
, the masculine aspect of divinity, is considered solely transcendent
, and Shiva's worship is usually secondary.
By you this universe is borne, By you this world is created, Oh Devi,
by you it is protected.
From _Shaktisangama Tantra_:
Woman is the creator of the universe, the universe is her form; woman
is the foundation of the world, she is the true form of the body.
In woman is the form of all things, of all that lives and moves in
the world. There is no jewel rarer than woman, no condition superior
to that of a woman.
Adi Parashakti , whose material manifestation is
Tripura Sundari , is
Hindu concept of the Ultimate
Shakti or Mahashakti, the ultimate
power inherent in all Creation. This is especially prevalent in the
Shakta denomination within Hinduism, which worships the Goddess Devi
in all her manifestations. Her human or
Shakti swaroop/form, Parvati
was married to
Shiva , while her knowledge/gyan swaroop form,
Saraswati weds Lord
Brahma and wealth/Dhan swaroop form, Lakshmi
becomes the consort of Lord
Advaita sect of Hinduism,
Shakti is considered to be
one of five equal bona fide personal forms of God in the panchadeva
system advocated by
Adi Shankara .
According to some schools, there are four Adi
Shakti Pitha and 51
Shakti centers of worship located in South Asia (four Adi
are also part of 51
Shakti pithas but they are four major parts of
Devi Sati's body. So, they are adi shakti pithas). They can be found
in India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, Tibet and Pakistan. These are
Shakti Peethas . The list of locations varies. A commonly
accepted list of
Shakti Peethas and their temple complexes includes:
* Jwalaji (
* Tara Tarini (Brahmapur ,
Katyayani (Chattarpur ,
Bhadrakali (Kodungallur ,
West Bengal )
Kathmandu, Nepal )
Vishalakshi Temple (
Chandranath Temple (
Other pithas in
Tuljapur (Jagdamba )
Kolhapur (Mahalaxmi )
* Mahurgadh (Renukamata )
BHAJANS AND MANTRAS
There are many ancient
Shakti devotional songs and vibrational chants
Hindu and Sikh traditions (found in
Sarbloh Granth ). The
recitation of the
Sanskrit mantras is commonly used to call upon the
KUNDALINI-SHAKTI-BHAKTI MANTRA Adi Shakti, Adi Shakti, Adi Shakti,
Namo Namo! Sarab Shakti, Sarab Shakti, Sarab Shakti, Namo Namo!
Prithum Bhagvati, Prithum Bhagvati, Prithum Bhagvati, Namo Namo!
Kundalini Mata Shakti, Mata Shakti, Namo Namo!
Translation: _Primal Shakti, I bow to Thee!_ _All-Encompassing
Shakti, I bow to Thee!_ _That through which Divine Creates, I bow to
Thee!_ _Creative Power of the Kundalini, Mother of all Mother Power,
To Thee I Bow!_
"Merge in the Maha Shakti. This is enough to take away your
misfortune. This will carve out of you a woman. Woman needs her own
Shakti, not anybody else will do it... When a woman chants the
Bhakti mantra, God clears the way. This is not a religion,
it is a reality. Woman is not born to suffer, and woman needs her own
power." ~ Yogi Bhajan (Harbhajan Singh)
* ^ Sacred
Sanskrit words, p.111
* ^ Tiwari, Path of Practice, p. 55
* ^ The Shambhala Encyclopedia of Yoga, p.162
* ^ The Shambhala Encyclopedia of Yoga, p.270
Hindu Goddesses: Visions of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu
Tradition by David Kinsley page 17, minor vedic Goddesses
* ^ Insoll, Professor of African and Islamic Archaeology Timothy;
Insoll, Timothy (2002-09-11). _Archaeology and World Religion_.
Routledge. p. 36. ISBN 9781134597987 .
* ^ Harper, Katherine Anne; Brown, Robert L. (2012-02-01). _Roots
of Tantra, The_. SUNY Press. p. 39. ISBN 9780791488904 .
* ^ Kenoyer, J. M.; Clark, J. D.; Pal, J. N.; Sharma, G. R.
(1983-07-01). "An upper palaeolithic shrine in India?". _Antiquity_.
57 (220): 93. ISSN 0003-598X . doi :10.1017/S0003598X00055253 .
* ^ Subramuniyaswami, p. 1211.
* ^ Klostermaier, Klaus K. (1989). _A Survey of Hinduism_. NY, NY:
State University of New York. pp. 261 (fn 1 p 473).
* ^ Yogi Bhajan as quoted in the _Conscious Pregnancy Yoga
Teacher's Manual_ by Tarn Tarn Kaur, Espanola, New Mexico p. 79
* ^ Yogi Bhajan as quoted in the _Conscious Pregnancy Yoga
Teacher's Manual_ by Tarn Tarn Kaur, Espanola, New Mexico
Shakti and Shakta_, by
John Woodroffe , Published by Forgotten
Books, 1910. ISBN 1-60620-145-X .
* _Hymns to the Goddess_, Translated by John George Woodroffe, Ellen
Elizabeth (Grimson) Woodroffe_, Published by Forgotten Books, 1952
(org 1913). ISBN 1-60620-146-8 ._
* _Hymn to Kali: Karpuradi Stotra_, by Sir John Woodroffe. Published
by Forgotten Books. 1922. ISBN 1-60620-147-6 .
* McDaniel, June (2004). _Offering Flowers, Feeding Skulls: Popular
Goddess Worship in West Bengal_. New York: Oxford University Press.
* Datta, Reema and Lowitz, Lisa. _Sacred
Stonebridge Press, Berkeley, 2005.
* Feuerstein, Georg. _The Shambhala Encyclopedia of Yoga_, Shambhala
Publications, Boston, 2000
* Shaw, Miranda. _Passionate Enlightenment: Women in Tantric
Buddhism_, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1994
* Tiwari, Bri. Maya. _The Path of Practice: A Woman's Book of
Ayurvedic Healing_, Motilal Banarsidass Press, 2002
* _Shakti: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Women’s Empowerment
in India_/edited by Ranjana Harish and V. Bharathi Harishankar. New
Delhi, Rawat, 2003, ISBN 81-7033-793-3 .