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Shakta Upanishads
Upanishads
are a group of minor Upanishads
Upanishads
of Hinduism
Hinduism
related to the Shaktism
Shaktism
theology of a Goddess (Devi) as the Supreme Being.[1][2] There are 8 Shakta Upanishads
Upanishads
in the Muktika
Muktika
anthology of 108 Upanishads.[3] They, along with other minor Upanishads, are generally classified separate from the thirteen major Principal Upanishads
Upanishads
considered to be from the ancient Vedic tradition.[4] The Shakta Upanishads
Upanishads
also contrast from other groups of minor Upanishads, such as the Samanya Upanishads
Upanishads
which are of a generic nature, the Sannyasa Upanishads
Upanishads
which focus on the Hindu renunciation and monastic practice, the Yoga
Yoga
Upanishads
Upanishads
related to Yoga, the Shaiva Upanishads
Upanishads
which highlight aspects of Shaivism, and the Vaishnava Upanishads
Upanishads
which highlight Vaishnavism.[4][5] Composed in medieval India, the Shakta Upanishads
Upanishads
are among the most recent minor Upanishads, and constitute an important source of information on Devi
Devi
worship and Tantra-related theology.[6][7] Some Shakta Upanishads
Upanishads
exist in more than one version.[8][9] The Shakta Upanishads
Upanishads
are notable for declaring and revering the feminine as the Supreme, the primal cause and the metaphysical concepts in Hinduism
Hinduism
called Brahman
Brahman
and Atman (soul).[10][11] The philosophical premises in many Shakta Upanishads, states June McDaniel, is syncretism of Samkhya
Samkhya
and Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
schools of Hindu philosophy, called Shaktadavaitavada (literally, the path of monistic Shakti).[12]

Contents

1 Date 2 List of 8 Shakta Upanishads 3 See also 4 References

4.1 Bibliography

Date[edit] The composition dates and authors of the Shakta Upanishads
Upanishads
are unknown. Patrick Olivelle states that sectarian Upanishads
Upanishads
attached to Atharvaveda
Atharvaveda
were likely composed in the second millennium, until about the 16th century.[13] The Shakta Upanishads, states Denise Cush, were composed between the 12th- and 15th-century CE.[14] List of 8 Shakta Upanishads[edit]

List of the Vaishnava Upanishads
Upanishads
according to Muktikā
Muktikā
anthology

Title Muktika
Muktika
serial # Attached Veda Period of creation

Sita Upanishad 45 Atharva Veda 12th and 15th century CE

Tripuratapini Upanishad 80 Atharva Veda 12th and 15th centuries CE

Devi
Devi
Upanishad 81 Atharva Veda 9th to 14th centuries CE

Tripura Upanishad 82 Rigveda 12th and 15th century CE

Bhavana Upanishad 84 Atharva Veda 12th and 15th century CE

Saubhagyalakshmi Upanishad 105 Rigveda Unknown

Sarasvati-rahasya Upanishad 106 Krishna Yajurveda 12th and 15th century CE

Bahvricha Upanishad 107 Rigveda 12th and 15th century CE

See also[edit]

Hindu texts Puranas

References[edit]

^ Brooks 1992, pp. 76–80. ^ McDaniel 2004, p. 90. ^ Deussen 1997, p. 556. ^ a b Mahony 1998, p. 271. ^ Winternitz & Sarma 1996, p. =217–224 with footnotes. ^ Brooks 1990, pp. xiii–xiv. ^ Mahadevan 1975, pp. 235. ^ Gudrun Buhnemann (1996), Review: The Secret of the Three Cities: An Introduction to Hindu Śakta Tantrism, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Volume 116, Number 3, page 606 ^ Brooks 1990, p. 34. ^ McDaniel 2004, pp. 89-90. ^ Brooks 1990, pp. 77–78. ^ McDaniel 2004, pp. 89–91. ^ Olivelle 2008, p. xxxiii. ^ Cush 2007, p. 740.

Bibliography[edit]

Brooks, Douglas Renfrew (1990). The Secret of the Three Cities. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0226075693.  Brooks, Douglas Renfrew (1992). Auspicious Wisdom. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0791411452.  Cush, Denise; et al. (2007). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Routledge. ISBN 978-0700712670.  Deussen, Paul (1997). Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-1467-7.  Mahadevan, T. M. P. (1975). Upaniṣads: Selections from 108 Upaniṣads. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-1611-4.  Mahony, William K. (1998). The Artful Universe: An Introduction to the Vedic Religious Imagination. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-3579-3.  McDaniel, June (2004). Offering Flowers, Feeding Skulls: Popular Goddess Worship in West Bengal. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-534713-5.  Olivelle, Patrick (2008). Upanisads. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-954025-9.  Winternitz, Moriz; Sarma, V. Srinivasa (1996). A History of Indian Literature. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0264-3. 

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The 108 Upanishads

Isha Kena Katha Prashna Mundaka Mandukya Taittiriya Aitareya Chandogya Brihadaranyaka Brahma Kaivalya Jabala Shvetashvatara Hamsa Aruneya Garbha Narayana Paramahamsa Amritabindu Amritanada Atharvashiras Atharvashikha Maitrayaniya Kaushitaki Brihajjabala Nrisimha Tapaniya Kalagni Rudra Maitreya Subala Kshurika Mantrika Sarvasara Niralamba Shukarahasya Vajrasuchi Tejobindu Nadabindu Dhyanabindu Brahmavidya Yogatattva Atmabodha Naradaparivrajaka Trishikhi-brahmana Sita Yogachudamani Nirvana Mandala-brahmana Dakshinamurti Sharabha Skanda Mahanarayana Advayataraka Rama Rahasya Ramatapaniya Vasudeva Mudgala Shandilya Paingala Bhikshuka Maha Sariraka Yogashikha Turiyatita Sannyasa Paramahamsaparivrajaka Akshamalika Avyakta Ekakshara Annapurna Surya Akshi Adhyatma Kundika Savitri Atma Pashupatabrahma Parabrahma Avadhuta Tripuratapini Devi Tripura Kathashruti Bhavana Rudrahridaya Yoga-Kundalini Bhasma Rudraksha Ganapati Darshana Tarasara Mahavakya Pancabrahma Pranagnihotra Gopala-Tapani Krishna Yajnavalkya Varaha Shatyayaniya Hayagriva Dattatreya Garuda Kali-Santarana Jabali Saubhagyalakshmi Sarasvati-rahasya Bahvri

.