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William Shakespeare
Shakespeare
(/ˈʃeɪkspɪər/; 26 April 1564 (baptised) – 23 April 1616)[a] was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.[2][3][4] He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon".[5][b] His extant works, including collaborations, consist of approximately 39 plays,[c] 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems and a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.[7] Shakespeare
Shakespeare
was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna and twins Hamnet and Judith. Some time between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part-owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later known as the King's Men. At age 49 around 1613, he appears to have retired to Stratford, where he died three years later. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive, which has stimulated considerable speculation about such matters as his physical appearance, sexuality, religious beliefs and whether the works attributed to him were written by others.[8][9][10] These speculations are often criticized for failing to point out the fact that few records survive of most commoners of his period. Shakespeare
Shakespeare
produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613.[11][12][d] His early plays were primarily comedies and histories, which are regarded as some of the best work ever produced in these genres. He then wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, Othello, King Lear
King Lear
and Macbeth, considered some of the finest works in the English language.[2][3][4] In his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, also known as romances and collaborated with other playwrights. Many of his plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy during his lifetime. However, in 1623 John Heminges
John Heminges
and Henry Condell, two friends and fellow actors of Shakespeare, published a more definitive text known as the First Folio, a posthumous collected edition of his dramatic works that included all but two of the plays now recognised as Shakespeare's.[13] It was prefaced with a poem by Ben Jonson, in which Shakespeare
Shakespeare
is hailed, presciently, as "not of an age, but for all time".[13] In the 20th and 21st centuries, his works have been repeatedly adapted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance. His plays remain highly popular and are constantly studied, performed, and reinterpreted in diverse cultural and political contexts throughout the world.

Contents

1 Life

1.1 Early life 1.2 London and theatrical career 1.3 Later years and death

2 Plays

2.1 Performances 2.2 Textual sources

3 Poems

3.1 Sonnets

4 Style 5 Influence 6 Critical reputation 7 Works

7.1 Classification of the plays

8 Speculation about Shakespeare

8.1 Authorship 8.2 Religion 8.3 Sexuality 8.4 Portraiture

9 See also 10 Notes and references

10.1 Notes 10.2 References

11 Sources 12 External links

Life Main article: Shakespeare's life Early life William Shakespeare
Shakespeare
was the son of John Shakespeare, an alderman and a successful glover originally from Snitterfield, and Mary Arden, the daughter of an affluent landowning farmer.[14] He was born in Stratford-upon-Avon
Stratford-upon-Avon
and baptised there on 26 April 1564. His actual date of birth remains unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April, Saint George's Day.[15] This date, which can be traced back to an 18th-century scholar's mistake, has proved appealing to biographers because Shakespeare
Shakespeare
died on 23 April 1616.[16][17] He was the third child of eight and the eldest surviving son.[18]

John Shakespeare's house, believed to be Shakespeare's birthplace, in Stratford-upon-Avon

Although no attendance records for the period survive, most biographers agree that Shakespeare
Shakespeare
was probably educated at the King's New School in Stratford,[19][20][21] a free school chartered in 1553,[22] about a quarter-mile (400 m) from his home. Grammar schools varied in quality during the Elizabethan era, but grammar school curricula were largely similar: the basic Latin
Latin
text was standardised by royal decree,[23][24] and the school would have provided an intensive education in grammar based upon Latin
Latin
classical authors.[25] At the age of 18, Shakespeare
Shakespeare
married 26-year-old Anne Hathaway. The consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November 1582. The next day, two of Hathaway's neighbours posted bonds guaranteeing that no lawful claims impeded the marriage.[26] The ceremony may have been arranged in some haste since the Worcester chancellor allowed the marriage banns to be read once instead of the usual three times,[27][28] and six months after the marriage Anne gave birth to a daughter, Susanna, baptised 26 May 1583.[29] Twins, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed almost two years later and were baptised 2 February 1585.[30] Hamnet died of unknown causes at the age of 11 and was buried 11 August 1596.[31]

Shakespeare's coat of arms, as it appears on the rough draft of the application to grant a coat-of-arms to John Shakespeare. It features a spear as a pun on the family name.[e]

After the birth of the twins, Shakespeare
Shakespeare
left few historical traces until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in 1592. The exception is the appearance of his name in the "complaints bill" of a law case before the Queen's Bench court at Westminster dated Michaelmas Term 1588 and 9 October 1589.[32] Scholars refer to the years between 1585 and 1592 as Shakespeare's "lost years".[33] Biographers attempting to account for this period have reported many apocryphal stories. Nicholas Rowe, Shakespeare's first biographer, recounted a Stratford legend that Shakespeare
Shakespeare
fled the town for London to escape prosecution for deer poaching in the estate of local squire Thomas Lucy. Shakespeare
Shakespeare
is also supposed to have taken his revenge on Lucy by writing a scurrilous ballad about him.[34][35] Another 18th-century story has Shakespeare
Shakespeare
starting his theatrical career minding the horses of theatre patrons in London.[36] John Aubrey reported that Shakespeare
Shakespeare
had been a country schoolmaster.[37] Some 20th-century scholars have suggested that Shakespeare
Shakespeare
may have been employed as a schoolmaster by Alexander Hoghton of Lancashire, a Catholic landowner who named a certain "William Shakeshafte" in his will.[38][39] Little evidence substantiates such stories other than hearsay collected after his death, and Shakeshafte was a common name in the Lancashire
Lancashire
area.[40][41] London and theatrical career It is not known definitively when Shakespeare
Shakespeare
began writing, but contemporary allusions and records of performances show that several of his plays were on the London stage by 1592.[42] By then, he was sufficiently known in London to be attacked in print by the playwright Robert Greene in his Groats-Worth of Wit:

... there is an upstart Crow, beautified with our feathers, that with his Tiger's heart wrapped in a Player's hide, supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blank verse as the best of you: and being an absolute Johannes factotum, is in his own conceit the only Shake-scene in a country.[43]

Scholars differ on the exact meaning of Greene's words,[43][44] but most agree that Greene was accusing Shakespeare
Shakespeare
of reaching above his rank in trying to match such university-educated writers as Christopher Marlowe, Thomas Nashe, and Greene himself (the so-called "university wits").[45] The italicised phrase parodying the line "Oh, tiger's heart wrapped in a woman's hide" from Shakespeare's Henry VI, Part 3, along with the pun "Shake-scene", clearly identify Shakespeare as Greene's target. As used here, Johannes Factotum ("Jack of all trades") refers to a second-rate tinkerer with the work of others, rather than the more common "universal genius".[43][46] Greene's attack is the earliest surviving mention of Shakespeare's work in the theatre. Biographers suggest that his career may have begun any time from the mid-1580s to just before Greene's remarks.[47][48][49] After 1594, Shakespeare's plays
Shakespeare's plays
were performed only by the Lord Chamberlain's Men, a company owned by a group of players, including Shakespeare, that soon became the leading playing company in London.[50] After the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603, the company was awarded a royal patent by the new King James I, and changed its name to the King's Men.[51]

"All the world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players: they have their exits and their entrances; and one man in his time plays many parts ..."

—As You Like It, Act II, Scene 7, 139–142[52]

In 1599, a partnership of members of the company built their own theatre on the south bank of the River Thames, which they named the Globe. In 1608, the partnership also took over the Blackfriars indoor theatre. Extant records of Shakespeare's property purchases and investments indicate that his association with the company made him a wealthy man,[53] and in 1597, he bought the second-largest house in Stratford, New Place, and in 1605, invested in a share of the parish tithes in Stratford.[54] Some of Shakespeare's plays
Shakespeare's plays
were published in quarto editions, beginning in 1594, and by 1598, his name had become a selling point and began to appear on the title pages.[55][56][57] Shakespeare continued to act in his own and other plays after his success as a playwright. The 1616 edition of Ben Jonson's Works names him on the cast lists for Every Man in His Humour
Every Man in His Humour
(1598) and Sejanus His Fall (1603).[58] The absence of his name from the 1605 cast list for Jonson's Volpone
Volpone
is taken by some scholars as a sign that his acting career was nearing its end.[47] The First Folio
First Folio
of 1623, however, lists Shakespeare
Shakespeare
as one of "the Principal Actors in all these Plays", some of which were first staged after Volpone, although we cannot know for certain which roles he played.[59] In 1610, John Davies of Hereford wrote that "good Will" played "kingly" roles.[60] In 1709, Rowe passed down a tradition that Shakespeare
Shakespeare
played the ghost of Hamlet's father.[35] Later traditions maintain that he also played Adam in As You Like It, and the Chorus in Henry V,[61][62] though scholars doubt the sources of that information.[63] Throughout his career, Shakespeare
Shakespeare
divided his time between London and Stratford. In 1596, the year before he bought New Place
New Place
as his family home in Stratford, Shakespeare
Shakespeare
was living in the parish of St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, north of the River Thames.[64][65] He moved across the river to Southwark
Southwark
by 1599, the same year his company constructed the Globe Theatre
Globe Theatre
there.[64][66] By 1604, he had moved north of the river again, to an area north of St Paul's Cathedral
St Paul's Cathedral
with many fine houses. There, he rented rooms from a French Huguenot
Huguenot
named Christopher Mountjoy, a maker of ladies' wigs and other headgear.[67][68] Later years and death

Shakespeare's funerary monument
Shakespeare's funerary monument
in Stratford-upon-Avon

Rowe was the first biographer to record the tradition, repeated by Johnson, that Shakespeare
Shakespeare
retired to Stratford "some years before his death".[69][70] He was still working as an actor in London in 1608; in an answer to the sharers' petition in 1635, Cuthbert Burbage
Cuthbert Burbage
stated that after purchasing the lease of the Blackfriars Theatre
Blackfriars Theatre
in 1608 from Henry Evans, the King's Men "placed men players" there, "which were Heminges, Condell, Shakespeare, etc.".[71] However, it is perhaps relevant that the bubonic plague raged in London throughout 1609.[72][73] The London public playhouses were repeatedly closed during extended outbreaks of the plague (a total of over 60 months closure between May 1603 and February 1610),[74] which meant there was often no acting work. Retirement from all work was uncommon at that time.[75] Shakespeare
Shakespeare
continued to visit London during the years 1611–1614.[69] In 1612, he was called as a witness in Bellott v. Mountjoy, a court case concerning the marriage settlement of Mountjoy's daughter, Mary.[76][77] In March 1613, he bought a gatehouse in the former Blackfriars priory;[78] and from November 1614, he was in London for several weeks with his son-in-law, John Hall.[79] After 1610, Shakespeare
Shakespeare
wrote fewer plays, and none are attributed to him after 1613.[80] His last three plays were collaborations, probably with John Fletcher,[81] who succeeded him as the house playwright of the King's Men.[82] Shakespeare
Shakespeare
died on 23 April 1616, at the age of 52.[f] He died within a month of signing his will, a document which he begins by describing himself as being in "perfect health". No extant contemporary source explains how or why he died. Half a century later, John Ward, the vicar of Stratford, wrote in his notebook: "Shakespeare, Drayton, and Ben Jonson
Ben Jonson
had a merry meeting and, it seems, drank too hard, for Shakespeare
Shakespeare
died of a fever there contracted",[83][84] not an impossible scenario since Shakespeare
Shakespeare
knew Jonson and Drayton. Of the tributes from fellow authors, one refers to his relatively sudden death: "We wondered, Shakespeare, that thou went'st so soon / From the world's stage to the grave's tiring room."[85][g]

Holy Trinity Church, Stratford-upon-Avon, where Shakespeare
Shakespeare
was baptised and is buried

He was survived by his wife and two daughters. Susanna had married a physician, John Hall, in 1607,[86] and Judith had married Thomas Quiney, a vintner, two months before Shakespeare's death.[87] Shakespeare
Shakespeare
signed his last will and testament on 25 March 1616; the following day, his new son-in-law, Thomas Quiney
Thomas Quiney
was found guilty of fathering an illegitimate son by Margaret Wheeler, who had died during childbirth. Thomas was ordered by the church court to do public penance, which would have caused much shame and embarrassment for the Shakespeare
Shakespeare
family.[87] Shakespeare
Shakespeare
bequeathed the bulk of his large estate to his elder daughter Susanna[88] under stipulations that she pass it down intact to "the first son of her body".[89] The Quineys had three children, all of whom died without marrying.[90][91] The Halls had one child, Elizabeth, who married twice but died without children in 1670, ending Shakespeare's direct line.[92][93] Shakespeare's will
Shakespeare's will
scarcely mentions his wife, Anne, who was probably entitled to one-third of his estate automatically.[h] He did make a point, however, of leaving her "my second best bed", a bequest that has led to much speculation.[95][96][97] Some scholars see the bequest as an insult to Anne, whereas others believe that the second-best bed would have been the matrimonial bed and therefore rich in significance.[98]

Shakespeare's grave, next to those of Anne Shakespeare, his wife, and Thomas Nash, the husband of his granddaughter

Shakespeare
Shakespeare
was buried in the chancel of the Holy Trinity Church two days after his death.[99][100] The epitaph carved into the stone slab covering his grave includes a curse against moving his bones, which was carefully avoided during restoration of the church in 2008:[101]

Good frend for Iesvs sake forbeare, To digg the dvst encloased heare. Bleste be man spares thes stones, And cvrst be he moves my bones.[102][i]

(Modern spelling: Good friend, for Jesus' sake forbear, / To dig the dust enclosed here. / Blessed be the man that spares these stones, / And cursed be he that moves my bones.) Some time before 1623, a funerary monument was erected in his memory on the north wall, with a half-effigy of him in the act of writing. Its plaque compares him to Nestor, Socrates, and Virgil.[103] In 1623, in conjunction with the publication of the First Folio, the Droeshout engraving was published.[104] Shakespeare
Shakespeare
has been commemorated in many statues and memorials around the world, including funeral monuments in Southwark
Southwark
Cathedral and Poets' Corner
Poets' Corner
in Westminster Abbey.[105][106] Plays Main articles: Shakespeare's plays
Shakespeare's plays
and William Shakespeare's collaborations

Procession of Characters from Shakespeare's Plays by an unknown 19th-century artist

Most playwrights of the period typically collaborated with others at some point, and critics agree that Shakespeare
Shakespeare
did the same, mostly early and late in his career.[107] Some attributions, such as Titus Andronicus and the early history plays, remain controversial while The Two Noble Kinsmen and the lost Cardenio have well-attested contemporary documentation. Textual evidence also supports the view that several of the plays were revised by other writers after their original composition. The first recorded works of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
are Richard III and the three parts of Henry VI, written in the early 1590s during a vogue for historical drama. Shakespeare's plays
Shakespeare's plays
are difficult to date precisely, however,[108][109] and studies of the texts suggest that Titus Andronicus, The Comedy of Errors, The Taming of the Shrew, and The Two Gentlemen of Verona may also belong to Shakespeare's earliest period.[110][108] His first histories, which draw heavily on the 1587 edition of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles
Holinshed's Chronicles
of England, Scotland, and Ireland,[111] dramatise the destructive results of weak or corrupt rule and have been interpreted as a justification for the origins of the Tudor dynasty.[112] The early plays were influenced by the works of other Elizabethan dramatists, especially Thomas Kyd
Thomas Kyd
and Christopher Marlowe, by the traditions of medieval drama, and by the plays of Seneca.[113][114][115] The Comedy of Errors
The Comedy of Errors
was also based on classical models, but no source for The Taming of the Shrew
The Taming of the Shrew
has been found, though it is related to a separate play of the same name and may have derived from a folk story.[116][117] Like The Two Gentlemen of Verona, in which two friends appear to approve of rape,[118][119][120] the Shrew's story of the taming of a woman's independent spirit by a man sometimes troubles modern critics, directors, and audiences.[121]

Oberon, Titania
Titania
and Puck with Fairies Dancing. By William Blake, c. 1786. Tate Britain.

Shakespeare's early classical and Italianate comedies, containing tight double plots and precise comic sequences, give way in the mid-1590s to the romantic atmosphere of his most acclaimed comedies.[122] A Midsummer Night's Dream
A Midsummer Night's Dream
is a witty mixture of romance, fairy magic, and comic lowlife scenes.[123] Shakespeare's next comedy, the equally romantic Merchant of Venice, contains a portrayal of the vengeful Jewish moneylender Shylock, which reflects Elizabethan views but may appear derogatory to modern audiences.[124][125] The wit and wordplay of Much Ado
Much Ado
About Nothing,[126] the charming rural setting of As You Like It, and the lively merrymaking of Twelfth Night
Twelfth Night
complete Shakespeare's sequence of great comedies.[127] After the lyrical Richard II, written almost entirely in verse, Shakespeare
Shakespeare
introduced prose comedy into the histories of the late 1590s, Henry IV, parts 1 and 2, and Henry V. His characters become more complex and tender as he switches deftly between comic and serious scenes, prose and poetry, and achieves the narrative variety of his mature work.[128][129][130] This period begins and ends with two tragedies: Romeo
Romeo
and Juliet, the famous romantic tragedy of sexually charged adolescence, love, and death;[131][132] and Julius Caesar—based on Sir Thomas North's 1579 translation of Plutarch's Parallel Lives—which introduced a new kind of drama.[133][134] According to Shakespearean scholar James Shapiro, in Julius Caesar, "the various strands of politics, character, inwardness, contemporary events, even Shakespeare's own reflections on the act of writing, began to infuse each other".[135]

Hamlet, Horatio, Marcellus, and the Ghost of Hamlet's Father. Henry Fuseli, 1780–1785. Kunsthaus Zürich.

In the early 17th century, Shakespeare
Shakespeare
wrote the so-called "problem plays" Measure for Measure, Troilus
Troilus
and Cressida, and All's Well That Ends Well and a number of his best known tragedies.[136][137] Many critics believe that Shakespeare's greatest tragedies represent the peak of his art. The titular hero of one of Shakespeare's greatest tragedies, Hamlet, has probably been discussed more than any other Shakespearean character, especially for his famous soliloquy which begins "To be or not to be; that is the question".[138] Unlike the introverted Hamlet, whose fatal flaw is hesitation, the heroes of the tragedies that followed, Othello
Othello
and King Lear, are undone by hasty errors of judgement.[139] The plots of Shakespeare's tragedies often hinge on such fatal errors or flaws, which overturn order and destroy the hero and those he loves.[140] In Othello, the villain Iago
Iago
stokes Othello's sexual jealousy to the point where he murders the innocent wife who loves him.[141][142] In King Lear, the old king commits the tragic error of giving up his powers, initiating the events which lead to the torture and blinding of the Earl of Gloucester and the murder of Lear's youngest daughter Cordelia. According to the critic Frank Kermode, "the play offers neither its good characters nor its audience any relief from its cruelty".[143][144][145] In Macbeth, the shortest and most compressed of Shakespeare's tragedies,[146] uncontrollable ambition incites Macbeth
Macbeth
and his wife, Lady Macbeth, to murder the rightful king and usurp the throne until their own guilt destroys them in turn.[147] In this play, Shakespeare
Shakespeare
adds a supernatural element to the tragic structure. His last major tragedies, Antony and Cleopatra and Coriolanus, contain some of Shakespeare's finest poetry and were considered his most successful tragedies by the poet and critic T. S. Eliot.[148][149][150] In his final period, Shakespeare
Shakespeare
turned to romance or tragicomedy and completed three more major plays: Cymbeline, The Winter's Tale, and The Tempest, as well as the collaboration, Pericles, Prince of Tyre. Less bleak than the tragedies, these four plays are graver in tone than the comedies of the 1590s, but they end with reconciliation and the forgiveness of potentially tragic errors.[151] Some commentators have seen this change in mood as evidence of a more serene view of life on Shakespeare's part, but it may merely reflect the theatrical fashion of the day.[152][153][154] Shakespeare
Shakespeare
collaborated on two further surviving plays, Henry VIII and The Two Noble Kinsmen, probably with John Fletcher.[155] Performances Main article: Shakespeare
Shakespeare
in performance It is not clear for which companies Shakespeare
Shakespeare
wrote his early plays. The title page of the 1594 edition of Titus Andronicus
Titus Andronicus
reveals that the play had been acted by three different troupes.[156] After the plagues of 1592–3, Shakespeare's plays
Shakespeare's plays
were performed by his own company at The Theatre
The Theatre
and the Curtain in Shoreditch, north of the Thames.[157] Londoners flocked there to see the first part of Henry IV, Leonard Digges recording, "Let but Falstaff
Falstaff
come, Hal, Poins, the rest ... and you scarce shall have a room".[158] When the company found themselves in dispute with their landlord, they pulled The Theatre down and used the timbers to construct the Globe Theatre, the first playhouse built by actors for actors, on the south bank of the Thames at Southwark.[159][160] The Globe opened in autumn 1599, with Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
one of the first plays staged. Most of Shakespeare's greatest post-1599 plays were written for the Globe, including Hamlet, Othello, and King Lear.[159][161][162]

The reconstructed Globe Theatre, London

After the Lord Chamberlain's Men
Lord Chamberlain's Men
were renamed the King's Men in 1603, they entered a special relationship with the new King James. Although the performance records are patchy, the King's Men performed seven of Shakespeare's plays
Shakespeare's plays
at court between 1 November 1604, and 31 October 1605, including two performances of The Merchant of Venice.[62] After 1608, they performed at the indoor Blackfriars Theatre
Blackfriars Theatre
during the winter and the Globe during the summer.[163] The indoor setting, combined with the Jacobean fashion for lavishly staged masques, allowed Shakespeare
Shakespeare
to introduce more elaborate stage devices. In Cymbeline, for example, Jupiter descends "in thunder and lightning, sitting upon an eagle: he throws a thunderbolt. The ghosts fall on their knees."[164][165] The actors in Shakespeare's company included the famous Richard Burbage, William Kempe, Henry Condell
Henry Condell
and John Heminges. Burbage played the leading role in the first performances of many of Shakespeare's plays, including Richard III, Hamlet, Othello, and King Lear.[166] The popular comic actor Will Kempe played the servant Peter in Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet
and Dogberry
Dogberry
in Much Ado
Much Ado
About Nothing, among other characters.[167][168] He was replaced around 1600 by Robert Armin, who played roles such as Touchstone in As You Like It
As You Like It
and the fool in King Lear.[169] In 1613, Sir Henry Wotton
Henry Wotton
recorded that Henry VIII "was set forth with many extraordinary circumstances of pomp and ceremony".[170] On 29 June, however, a cannon set fire to the thatch of the Globe and burned the theatre to the ground, an event which pinpoints the date of a Shakespeare
Shakespeare
play with rare precision.[170] Textual sources

Title page
Title page
of the First Folio, 1623. Copper engraving of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout.

In 1623, John Heminges
John Heminges
and Henry Condell, two of Shakespeare's friends from the King's Men, published the First Folio, a collected edition of Shakespeare's plays. It contained 36 texts, including 18 printed for the first time.[171] Many of the plays had already appeared in quarto versions—flimsy books made from sheets of paper folded twice to make four leaves.[172] No evidence suggests that Shakespeare
Shakespeare
approved these editions, which the First Folio
First Folio
describes as "stol'n and surreptitious copies".[173] Nor did Shakespeare
Shakespeare
plan or expect his works to survive in any form at all; those works likely would have faded into oblivion but for his friends' spontaneous idea, after his death, to create and publish the First Folio.[174] Alfred Pollard termed some of the pre-1623 versions as "bad quartos" because of their adapted, paraphrased or garbled texts, which may in places have been reconstructed from memory.[172][173][175] Where several versions of a play survive, each differs from the other. The differences may stem from copying or printing errors, from notes by actors or audience members, or from Shakespeare's own papers.[176][177] In some cases, for example, Hamlet, Troilus
Troilus
and Cressida, and Othello, Shakespeare
Shakespeare
could have revised the texts between the quarto and folio editions. In the case of King Lear, however, while most modern editions do conflate them, the 1623 folio version is so different from the 1608 quarto that the Oxford Shakespeare
Shakespeare
prints them both, arguing that they cannot be conflated without confusion.[178] Poems In 1593 and 1594, when the theatres were closed because of plague, Shakespeare
Shakespeare
published two narrative poems on sexual themes, Venus and Adonis
Adonis
and The Rape of Lucrece. He dedicated them to Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton. In Venus and Adonis, an innocent Adonis
Adonis
rejects the sexual advances of Venus; while in The Rape of Lucrece, the virtuous wife Lucrece is raped by the lustful Tarquin.[179] Influenced by Ovid's Metamorphoses,[180] the poems show the guilt and moral confusion that result from uncontrolled lust.[181] Both proved popular and were often reprinted during Shakespeare's lifetime. A third narrative poem, A Lover's Complaint, in which a young woman laments her seduction by a persuasive suitor, was printed in the first edition of the Sonnets in 1609. Most scholars now accept that Shakespeare
Shakespeare
wrote A Lover's Complaint. Critics consider that its fine qualities are marred by leaden effects.[182][183][184] The Phoenix and the Turtle, printed in Robert Chester's 1601 Love's Martyr, mourns the deaths of the legendary phoenix and his lover, the faithful turtle dove. In 1599, two early drafts of sonnets 138 and 144 appeared in The Passionate Pilgrim, published under Shakespeare's name but without his permission.[182][184][185] Sonnets Main article: Shakespeare's sonnets

Title page
Title page
from 1609 edition of Shake-Speares Sonnets

Published in 1609, the Sonnets were the last of Shakespeare's non-dramatic works to be printed. Scholars are not certain when each of the 154 sonnets was composed, but evidence suggests that Shakespeare
Shakespeare
wrote sonnets throughout his career for a private readership.[186][187] Even before the two unauthorised sonnets appeared in The Passionate Pilgrim
The Passionate Pilgrim
in 1599, Francis Meres had referred in 1598 to Shakespeare's "sugred Sonnets among his private friends".[188] Few analysts believe that the published collection follows Shakespeare's intended sequence.[189] He seems to have planned two contrasting series: one about uncontrollable lust for a married woman of dark complexion (the "dark lady"), and one about conflicted love for a fair young man (the "fair youth"). It remains unclear if these figures represent real individuals, or if the authorial "I" who addresses them represents Shakespeare
Shakespeare
himself, though Wordsworth believed that with the sonnets " Shakespeare
Shakespeare
unlocked his heart".[188][187]

"Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate ..."

—Lines from Shakespeare's Sonnet 18.[190]

The 1609 edition was dedicated to a "Mr. W.H.", credited as "the only begetter" of the poems. It is not known whether this was written by Shakespeare
Shakespeare
himself or by the publisher, Thomas Thorpe, whose initials appear at the foot of the dedication page; nor is it known who Mr. W.H. was, despite numerous theories, or whether Shakespeare
Shakespeare
even authorised the publication.[191] Critics praise the Sonnets as a profound meditation on the nature of love, sexual passion, procreation, death, and time.[192]

Style Main article: Shakespeare's style Shakespeare's first plays were written in the conventional style of the day. He wrote them in a stylised language that does not always spring naturally from the needs of the characters or the drama.[193] The poetry depends on extended, sometimes elaborate metaphors and conceits, and the language is often rhetorical—written for actors to declaim rather than speak. The grand speeches in Titus Andronicus, in the view of some critics, often hold up the action, for example; and the verse in The Two Gentlemen of Verona
The Two Gentlemen of Verona
has been described as stilted.[194][195]

Pity by William Blake, 1795, Tate Britain, is an illustration of two similes in Macbeth:

"And pity, like a naked new-born babe, Striding the blast, or heaven's cherubim, hors'd Upon the sightless couriers of the air."[196]

However, Shakespeare
Shakespeare
soon began to adapt the traditional styles to his own purposes. The opening soliloquy of Richard III has its roots in the self-declaration of Vice in medieval drama. At the same time, Richard's vivid self-awareness looks forward to the soliloquies of Shakespeare's mature plays.[197][198] No single play marks a change from the traditional to the freer style. Shakespeare
Shakespeare
combined the two throughout his career, with Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet
perhaps the best example of the mixing of the styles.[199] By the time of Romeo
Romeo
and Juliet, Richard II, and A Midsummer Night's Dream
A Midsummer Night's Dream
in the mid-1590s, Shakespeare
Shakespeare
had begun to write a more natural poetry. He increasingly tuned his metaphors and images to the needs of the drama itself. Shakespeare's standard poetic form was blank verse, composed in iambic pentameter. In practice, this meant that his verse was usually unrhymed and consisted of ten syllables to a line, spoken with a stress on every second syllable. The blank verse of his early plays is quite different from that of his later ones. It is often beautiful, but its sentences tend to start, pause, and finish at the end of lines, with the risk of monotony.[200] Once Shakespeare
Shakespeare
mastered traditional blank verse, he began to interrupt and vary its flow. This technique releases the new power and flexibility of the poetry in plays such as Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
and Hamlet. Shakespeare
Shakespeare
uses it, for example, to convey the turmoil in Hamlet's mind:[201]

Sir, in my heart there was a kind of fighting That would not let me sleep. Methought I lay Worse than the mutines in the bilboes. Rashly— And prais'd be rashness for it—let us know Our indiscretion sometimes serves us well ...

— Hamlet, Act 5, Scene 2, 4–8[201]

After Hamlet, Shakespeare
Shakespeare
varied his poetic style further, particularly in the more emotional passages of the late tragedies. The literary critic A. C. Bradley
A. C. Bradley
described this style as "more concentrated, rapid, varied, and, in construction, less regular, not seldom twisted or elliptical".[202] In the last phase of his career, Shakespeare
Shakespeare
adopted many techniques to achieve these effects. These included run-on lines, irregular pauses and stops, and extreme variations in sentence structure and length.[203] In Macbeth, for example, the language darts from one unrelated metaphor or simile to another: "was the hope drunk/ Wherein you dressed yourself?" (1.7.35–38); "... pity, like a naked new-born babe/ Striding the blast, or heaven's cherubim, hors'd/ Upon the sightless couriers of the air ..." (1.7.21–25). The listener is challenged to complete the sense.[203] The late romances, with their shifts in time and surprising turns of plot, inspired a last poetic style in which long and short sentences are set against one another, clauses are piled up, subject and object are reversed, and words are omitted, creating an effect of spontaneity.[204] Shakespeare
Shakespeare
combined poetic genius with a practical sense of the theatre.[205] Like all playwrights of the time, he dramatised stories from sources such as Plutarch
Plutarch
and Holinshed.[206] He reshaped each plot to create several centres of interest and to show as many sides of a narrative to the audience as possible. This strength of design ensures that a Shakespeare
Shakespeare
play can survive translation, cutting and wide interpretation without loss to its core drama.[207] As Shakespeare's mastery grew, he gave his characters clearer and more varied motivations and distinctive patterns of speech. He preserved aspects of his earlier style in the later plays, however. In Shakespeare's late romances, he deliberately returned to a more artificial style, which emphasised the illusion of theatre.[208][209] Influence Main article: Shakespeare's influence

Macbeth
Macbeth
Consulting the Vision of the Armed Head. By Henry Fuseli, 1793–1794. Folger Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Library, Washington.

Shakespeare's work has made a lasting impression on later theatre and literature. In particular, he expanded the dramatic potential of characterisation, plot, language, and genre.[210] Until Romeo
Romeo
and Juliet, for example, romance had not been viewed as a worthy topic for tragedy.[211] Soliloquies had been used mainly to convey information about characters or events, but Shakespeare
Shakespeare
used them to explore characters' minds.[212] His work heavily influenced later poetry. The Romantic poets attempted to revive Shakespearean verse drama, though with little success. Critic George Steiner
George Steiner
described all English verse dramas from Coleridge to Tennyson as "feeble variations on Shakespearean themes."[213] Shakespeare
Shakespeare
influenced novelists such as Thomas Hardy, William Faulkner, and Charles Dickens. The American novelist Herman Melville's soliloquies owe much to Shakespeare; his Captain Ahab in Moby-Dick
Moby-Dick
is a classic tragic hero, inspired by King Lear.[214] Scholars have identified 20,000 pieces of music linked to Shakespeare's works. These include two operas by Giuseppe Verdi, Otello
Otello
and Falstaff, whose critical standing compares with that of the source plays.[215] Shakespeare
Shakespeare
has also inspired many painters, including the Romantics and the Pre-Raphaelites. The Swiss Romantic artist Henry Fuseli, a friend of William Blake, even translated Macbeth
Macbeth
into German.[216] The psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
drew on Shakespearean psychology, in particular, that of Hamlet, for his theories of human nature.[217] In Shakespeare's day, English grammar, spelling, and pronunciation were less standardised than they are now,[218] and his use of language helped shape modern English.[219] Samuel Johnson
Samuel Johnson
quoted him more often than any other author in his A Dictionary of the English Language, the first serious work of its type.[220] Expressions such as "with bated breath" (Merchant of Venice) and "a foregone conclusion" (Othello) have found their way into everyday English speech.[221][222] Critical reputation Main articles: Shakespeare's reputation
Shakespeare's reputation
and Timeline of Shakespeare criticism

"He was not of an age, but for all time."

—Ben Jonson[223]

Shakespeare
Shakespeare
was not revered in his lifetime, but he received a large amount of praise.[224][225] In 1598, the cleric and author Francis Meres singled him out from a group of English writers as "the most excellent" in both comedy and tragedy.[226][227] The authors of the Parnassus plays at St John's College, Cambridge
St John's College, Cambridge
numbered him with Chaucer, Gower, and Spenser.[228] In the First Folio, Ben Jonson called Shakespeare
Shakespeare
the "Soul of the age, the applause, delight, the wonder of our stage", though he had remarked elsewhere that " Shakespeare
Shakespeare
wanted art".[223] Between the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660 and the end of the 17th century, classical ideas were in vogue. As a result, critics of the time mostly rated Shakespeare
Shakespeare
below John Fletcher and Ben Jonson.[229] Thomas Rymer, for example, condemned Shakespeare
Shakespeare
for mixing the comic with the tragic. Nevertheless, poet and critic John Dryden rated Shakespeare
Shakespeare
highly, saying of Jonson, "I admire him, but I love Shakespeare".[230] For several decades, Rymer's view held sway; but during the 18th century, critics began to respond to Shakespeare on his own terms and acclaim what they termed his natural genius. A series of scholarly editions of his work, notably those of Samuel Johnson in 1765 and Edmond Malone
Edmond Malone
in 1790, added to his growing reputation.[231][232] By 1800, he was firmly enshrined as the national poet.[233] In the 18th and 19th centuries, his reputation also spread abroad. Among those who championed him were the writers Voltaire, Goethe, Stendhal, and Victor Hugo.[234][j]

A recently garlanded statue of William Shakespeare
Shakespeare
in Lincoln Park, Chicago, typical of many created in the 19th and early 20th century

During the Romantic era, Shakespeare
Shakespeare
was praised by the poet and literary philosopher Samuel Taylor Coleridge; and the critic August Wilhelm Schlegel translated his plays in the spirit of German Romanticism.[236] In the 19th century, critical admiration for Shakespeare's genius often bordered on adulation.[237] "That King Shakespeare," the essayist Thomas Carlyle
Thomas Carlyle
wrote in 1840, "does not he shine, in crowned sovereignty, over us all, as the noblest, gentlest, yet strongest of rallying signs; indestructible".[238] The Victorians produced his plays as lavish spectacles on a grand scale.[239] The playwright and critic George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw
mocked the cult of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
worship as "bardolatry", claiming that the new naturalism of Ibsen's plays had made Shakespeare
Shakespeare
obsolete.[240] The modernist revolution in the arts during the early 20th century, far from discarding Shakespeare, eagerly enlisted his work in the service of the avant-garde. The Expressionists in Germany and the Futurists in Moscow mounted productions of his plays. Marxist playwright and director Bertolt Brecht
Bertolt Brecht
devised an epic theatre under the influence of Shakespeare. The poet and critic T.S. Eliot
T.S. Eliot
argued against Shaw that Shakespeare's "primitiveness" in fact made him truly modern.[241] Eliot, along with G. Wilson Knight and the school of New Criticism, led a movement towards a closer reading of Shakespeare's imagery. In the 1950s, a wave of new critical approaches replaced modernism and paved the way for "post-modern" studies of Shakespeare.[242] By the 1980s, Shakespeare
Shakespeare
studies were open to movements such as structuralism, feminism, New Historicism, African-American studies, and queer studies.[243][244] In a comprehensive reading of Shakespeare's works and comparing Shakespeare literary accomplishments to accomplishments among leading figures in philosophy and theology as well, Harold Bloom has commented that " Shakespeare
Shakespeare
was larger than Plato and than St. Augustine. He encloses us because we see with his fundamental perceptions."[245] Works Further information: Shakespeare bibliography and Chronology of Shakespeare's plays Classification of the plays

The Plays of William Shakespeare. By Sir John Gilbert, 1849.

Shakespeare's works include the 36 plays printed in the First Folio
First Folio
of 1623, listed according to their folio classification as comedies, histories, and tragedies.[246] Two plays not included in the First Folio, The Two Noble Kinsmen
The Two Noble Kinsmen
and Pericles, Prince of Tyre, are now accepted as part of the canon, with today's scholars agreeing that Shakespeare
Shakespeare
made major contributions to the writing of both.[247][248] No Shakespearean poems were included in the First Folio. In the late 19th century, Edward Dowden
Edward Dowden
classified four of the late comedies as romances, and though many scholars prefer to call them tragicomedies, Dowden's term is often used.[249][250] In 1896, Frederick S. Boas coined the term "problem plays" to describe four plays: All's Well That Ends Well, Measure for Measure, Troilus
Troilus
and Cressida, and Hamlet.[251] "Dramas as singular in theme and temper cannot be strictly called comedies or tragedies", he wrote. "We may, therefore, borrow a convenient phrase from the theatre of today and class them together as Shakespeare's problem plays."[252] The term, much debated and sometimes applied to other plays, remains in use, though Hamlet
Hamlet
is definitively classed as a tragedy.[253][254][255] Speculation about Shakespeare Authorship Main article: Shakespeare
Shakespeare
authorship question Around 230 years after Shakespeare's death, doubts began to be expressed about the authorship of the works attributed to him.[256] Proposed alternative candidates include Francis Bacon, Christopher Marlowe, and Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford.[257] Several "group theories" have also been proposed.[258] Only a small minority of academics believe there is reason to question the traditional attribution,[259] but interest in the subject, particularly the Oxfordian theory of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
authorship, continues into the 21st century.[260][261][262] Religion Main article: Religious views of William Shakespeare Some scholars claim that members of Shakespeare's family were Catholics, at a time when practicing Catholicism in England was against the law.[263] Shakespeare's mother, Mary Arden, certainly came from a pious Catholic family. The strongest evidence might be a Catholic statement of faith signed by his father, John Shakespeare, found in 1757 in the rafters of his former house in Henley Street. However, the document is now lost and scholars differ as to its authenticity.[264][265] In 1591, the authorities reported that John Shakespeare
Shakespeare
had missed church "for fear of process for debt", a common Catholic excuse.[266][267][268] In 1606, the name of William's daughter Susanna appears on a list of those who failed to attend Easter communion in Stratford.[266][267][268] As several scholars have noted, whatever his private views, Shakespeare
Shakespeare
conformed to the official state religion.[k] Also, Shakespeare's will
Shakespeare's will
uses a Protestant formula, and he was a confirmed member of the Church of England, where he was married, his children were baptized, and where he is buried. Other authors argue that there is a lack of evidence about Shakespeare's religious beliefs. Scholars find evidence both for and against Shakespeare's Catholicism, Protestantism, or lack of belief in his plays, but the truth may be impossible to prove.[270][271] Sexuality Main article: Sexuality of William Shakespeare Few details of Shakespeare's sexuality are known. At 18, he married 26-year-old Anne Hathaway, who was pregnant. Susanna, the first of their three children, was born six months later on 26 May 1583. Over the centuries, some readers have posited that Shakespeare's sonnets are autobiographical,[272] and point to them as evidence of his love for a young man. Others read the same passages as the expression of intense friendship rather than romantic love.[273][274][275] The 26 so-called "Dark Lady" sonnets, addressed to a married woman, are taken as evidence of heterosexual liaisons.[276] Portraiture Main article: Portraits of Shakespeare No written contemporary description of Shakespeare's physical appearance survives, and no evidence suggests that he ever commissioned a portrait, so the Droeshout engraving, which Ben Jonson approved of as a good likeness,[277] and his Stratford monument provide perhaps the best evidence of his appearance. From the 18th century, the desire for authentic Shakespeare
Shakespeare
portraits fuelled claims that various surviving pictures depicted Shakespeare. That demand also led to the production of several fake portraits, as well as misattributions, repaintings, and relabelling of portraits of other people.[278] See also

Outline of William Shakespeare English Renaissance
English Renaissance
theatre Spelling of Shakespeare's name World Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Bibliography

Notes and references Notes

^ Dates follow the Julian calendar, used in England throughout Shakespeare's lifespan, but with the start of the year adjusted to 1 January (see Old Style and New Style dates). Under the Gregorian calendar, adopted in Catholic countries in 1582, Shakespeare
Shakespeare
died on 3 May.[1] ^ The "national cult" of Shakespeare, and the "bard" identification, dates from September 1769, when the actor David Garrick
David Garrick
organised a week-long carnival at Stratford to mark the town council awarding him the freedom of the town. In addition to presenting the town with a statue of Shakespeare, Garrick composed a doggerel verse, lampooned in the London newspapers, naming the banks of the Avon as the birthplace of the "matchless Bard".[6] ^ The exact figures are unknown. See Shakespeare's collaborations
Shakespeare's collaborations
and Shakespeare Apocrypha
Shakespeare Apocrypha
for further details. ^ Individual play dates and precise writing span are unknown. See Chronology of Shakespeare's plays
Shakespeare's plays
for further details. ^ The crest is a silver falcon supporting a spear, while the motto is Non Sanz Droict (French for "not without right"). This motto is still used by Warwickshire
Warwickshire
County Council, in reference to Shakespeare. ^ Inscribed in Latin
Latin
on his funerary monument: AETATIS 53 DIE 23 APR (In his 53rd year he died 23 April). ^ Verse by James Mabbe printed in the First Folio.[85] ^ Charles Knight, 1842, in his notes on Twelfth Night.[94] ^ In the scribal abbreviations ye for the (3rd line) and yt for that (3rd and 4th lines) the letter y represents th: see thorn. ^ Grady cites Voltaire's Philosophical Letters (1733); Goethe's Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship
Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship
(1795); Stendhal's two-part pamphlet Racine et Shakespeare
Shakespeare
(1823–25); and Victor Hugo's prefaces to Cromwell (1827) and William Shakespeare
Shakespeare
(1864).[235] ^ For example, A. L. Rowse, the 20th-century Shakespeare
Shakespeare
scholar, was emphatic: "He died, as he had lived, a conforming member of the Church of England. His will made that perfectly clear – in facts, puts it beyond dispute, for it uses the Protestant formula."[269]

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as Revolution". In Levine, Robert Steven. The Cambridge Companion to Herman Melville. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 65–90. doi:10.1017/CCOL0521554772. ISBN 9781139000376 – via Cambridge Core. (Subscription required (help)).  Carlyle, Thomas (1841). On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and The Heroic in History. London: James Fraser. hdl:2027/hvd.hnlmmi. OCLC 17473532. OL 13561584M.  Casey, Charles (1998). "Was Shakespeare
Shakespeare
gay? Sonnet 20
Sonnet 20
and the politics of pedagogy". College Literature. 25 (3): 35–51. JSTOR 25112402 – via JSTOR. (Subscription required (help)).  Cercignani, Fausto (1981). Shakespeare's Works and Elizabethan Pronunciation. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0198119371.  Chambers, E. K. (1923). The Elizabethan Stage. 2. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-811511-3. OCLC 336379.  Chambers, E. K. (1930a). William Shakespeare: A Study of Facts and Problems. 1. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-811774-4. OCLC 353406.  Chambers, E. K. (1930b). William Shakespeare: A Study of Facts and Problems. 2. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-811774-4. OCLC 353406.  Chambers, E. K. (1944). Shakespearean Gleanings. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-8492-0506-9. OCLC 2364570.  Clemen, Wolfgang (1987). Shakespeare's Soliloquies. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-35277-0.  Clemen, Wolfgang (2005a). Shakespeare's Dramatic Art: Collected Essays. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-35278-9.  Clemen, Wolfgang (2005b). Shakespeare's Imagery. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-35280-0.  Cooper, Tarnya (2006). Searching for Shakespeare. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11611-3.  Craig, Leon Harold (2003). Of Philosophers and Kings: Political Philosophy in Shakespeare's Macbeth
Macbeth
and King Lear. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-8605-5.  Cressy, David (1975). Education in Tudor and Stuart England. New York: St Martin's Press. ISBN 0-7131-5817-4. OCLC 2148260.  Crystal, David (2001). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-40179-8.  de Sélincourt, Basil (1909). William Blake. London: Duckworth & co. hdl:2027/mdp.39015066033914. OL 26411508M.  Dobson, Michael (1992). The Making of the National Poet: Shakespeare, Adaptation and Authorship, 1660–1769. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-818323-5.  Dominik, Mark (1988). Shakespeare–Middleton Collaborations. Beaverton, OR: Alioth Press. ISBN 0-945088-01-9.  Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakspere. New York: D. Appleton & Company. OCLC 8164385. OL 6461529M.  Drakakis, John (1985). "Introduction". In Drakakis, John. Alternative Shakespeares. New York: Methuen. pp. 1–25. ISBN 0-416-36860-3.  Dryden, John (1889). Arnold, Thomas, ed. Dryden: An Essay of Dramatic Poesy. Oxford: Clarendon Press. hdl:2027/umn.31951t00074232s. ISBN 81-7156-323-6. OCLC 7847292. OL 23752217M.  Dutton, Richard; Howard, Jean E. (2003). A Companion to Shakespeare's Works: The Histories. II. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 9780631226338.  Edwards, Phillip (1958). "Shakespeare's Romances: 1900–1957". Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Survey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 11: 1–18. doi:10.1017/CCOL0521064244.001. ISBN 9781139052917 – via Cambridge Core. (Subscription required (help)).  Eliot, T. S. (1934). Elizabethan Essays. London: Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-15-629051-0. OCLC 9738219.  Evans, G. Blakemore, ed. (1996). The Sonnets. The New Cambridge Shakespeare. 26. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521222259.  Foakes, R. A. (1990). "Playhouses and players". In Braunmuller, A. R.; Hattaway, Michael. The Cambridge Companion to English Renaissance Drama. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–52. ISBN 978-0521386623.  Fort, J. A. (October 1927). "The Story Contained in the Second Series of Shakespeare's Sonnets". The Review of English Studies. Original Series. Oxford University Press. III (12): 406–414. doi:10.1093/res/os-III.12.406. eISSN 1471-6968. ISSN 0034-6551 – via Oxford Journals. (Subscription required (help)).  Friedman, Michael D. (2006). "'I'm not a feminist director but…': Recent Feminist Productions of The Taming of the Shrew". In Nelsen, Paul; Schlueter, June. Acts of Criticism: Performance Matters in Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and his Contemporaries. New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. pp. 159–174. ISBN 9780838640593.  Frye, Roland Mushat (2005). The Art of the Dramatist. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-35289-4.  Gibbons, Brian (1993). Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and Multiplicity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511553103. ISBN 9780511553103 – via Cambridge Core. (Subscription required (help)).  Gibson, H. N. (2005). The Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Claimants: A Critical Survey of the Four Principal Theories Concerning the Authorship of the Shakespearean Plays. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-35290-8.  Grady, Hugh (2001a). "Modernity, Modernism and Postmodernism
Postmodernism
in the Twentieth Century's Shakespeare". In Bristol, Michael; McLuskie, Kathleen. Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and Modern Theatre: The Performance of Modernity. New York: Routledge. pp. 20–35. ISBN 9780415219846.  Grady, Hugh (2001b). " Shakespeare
Shakespeare
criticism, 1600–1900". In de Grazia, Margreta; Wells, Stanley. The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 265–278. doi:10.1017/CCOL0521650941.017. ISBN 9781139000109 – via Cambridge Core. (Subscription required (help)).  Greenblatt, Stephen (2005). Will in the World: How Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Became Shakespeare. London: Pimlico. ISBN 9780712600989.  Greenblatt, Stephen; Abrams, Meyer Howard, eds. (2012). Sixteenth/Early Seventeenth Century. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 2. W. W. Norton. ISBN 9780393912500.  Greer, Germaine (1986). Shakespeare. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192875389.  Hales, John W. (26 March 1904). "London Residences of Shakespeare". The Athenaeum. No. 3987. London: John C. Francis. pp. 401–402.  Holland, Peter, ed. (2000). Cymbeline. London: Penguin. ISBN 9780140714722.  Honan, Park (1998). Shakespeare: A Life. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 9780198117926.  Honigmann, E. A. J. (1999). Shakespeare: The 'Lost Years' (Revised ed.). Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 9780719054259.  Jackson, MacDonald P. (2004). Zimmerman, Susan, ed. "A Lover's Complaint revisited". Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Studies. Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses. XXXII. ISSN 0582-9399 – via The Free Library.  Johnson, Samuel (2002) [first published 1755]. Lynch, Jack, ed. Samuel Johnson's Dictionary: Selections from the 1755 Work that Defined the English Language. Delray Beach, FL: Levenger Press. ISBN 1-84354-296-X.  Jonson, Ben (1996) [first published 1623]. "To the memory of my beloued, The AVTHOR MR. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE: AND what he hath left vs". In Hinman, Charlton. The First Folio
First Folio
of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
(2nd ed.). New York: W. W. Norton
W. W. Norton
& Company. ISBN 0-393-03985-4.  Kastan, David Scott (1999). Shakespeare
Shakespeare
After Theory. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-90112-X.  Kermode, Frank (2004). The Age of Shakespeare. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-84881-X.  Kinney, Arthur F., ed. (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Shakespeare. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-956610-5.  Knutson, Roslyn (2001). Playing Companies and Commerce in Shakespeare's Time. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511486043. ISBN 9780511486043 – via Cambridge Core. (Subscription required (help)).  Lee, Sidney (1900). Shakespeare's Life and Work. London: Smith, Elder & Co. OL 21113614M.  Levenson, Jill L., ed. (2000). Romeo
Romeo
and Juliet. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-281496-6.  Levin, Harry (1986). "Critical Approaches to Shakespeare
Shakespeare
from 1660 to 1904". In Wells, Stanley. The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-31841-6.  Love, Harold (2002). Attributing Authorship: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511483165. ISBN 9780511483165 – via Cambridge Core. (Subscription required (help)).  Maguire, Laurie E. (1996). Shakespearean Suspect Texts: The 'Bad' Quartos and Their Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511553134. ISBN 9780511553134 – via Cambridge Core. (Subscription required (help)).  Mays, Andrea; Swanson, James (20 April 2016). " Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Died a Nobody, and then Got Famous by Accident". New York Post. Archived from the original on 21 April 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2017.  McDonald, Russ (2006). Shakespeare's Late Style. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511483783. ISBN 9780511483783 – via Cambridge Core. (Subscription required (help)).  McIntyre, Ian (1999). Garrick. Harmondsworth, England: Allen Lane. ISBN 9780140283235.  McMichael, George; Glenn, Edgar M. (1962). Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and his Rivals: A Casebook on the Authorship Controversy. New York: Odyssey Press. OCLC 2113359.  Meagher, John C. (2003). Pursuing Shakespeare's Dramaturgy: Some Contexts, Resources, and Strategies in his Playmaking. New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. ISBN 9780838639931.  Mowat, Barbara; Werstine, Paul (n.d.). "Sonnet 18". Folger Digital Texts. Folger Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Library. Retrieved 30 December 2017.  Muir, Kenneth (2005). Shakespeare's Tragic Sequence. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-35325-4.  Nagler, A. M. (1958). Shakespeare's Stage. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-02689-7.  "Did He or Didn't He? That Is the Question". The New York Times. 22 April 2007. Retrieved 31 December 2017.  Paraisz, Júlia (2006). "The Author, the Editor and the Translator: William Shakespeare, Alexander Chalmers and Sándor Petofi or the Nature of a Romantic Edition". Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Survey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 59. doi:10.1017/CCOL0521868386.010. ISBN 9781139052719 – via Cambridge Core. (Subscription required (help)).  Pequigney, Joseph (1985). Such Is My Love: A Study of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-65563-6.  Pollard, Alfred W. (1909). Shakespeare
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Quartos and Folios: A Study in the Bibliography of Shakespeare's Plays, 1594–1685. London: Methuen. OCLC 46308204.  Pritchard, Arnold (1979). Catholic Loyalism in Elizabethan England. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-1345-1.  Ribner, Irving (2005). The English History Play in the Age of Shakespeare. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-35314-9.  Ringler, William, Jr. (1997). " Shakespeare
Shakespeare
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The New Cambridge Shakespeare
(2nd revised ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-85551-9.  Rowe, Nicholas (1997) [first published 1709]. Gray, Terry A., ed. "Some Acount of the Life &c. of Mr. William Shakespear". Retrieved 30 July 2007.  Rowse, A. L. (1963). William Shakespeare; A Biography. New York: Harper & Row. OL 21462232M.  Rowse, A. L. (1988). Shakespeare: the Man. Macmillan. ISBN 9780333443545.  Sawyer, Robert (2003). Victorian Appropriations of Shakespeare. New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. ISBN 0-8386-3970-4.  Schanzer, Ernest (1963). The Problem Plays of Shakespeare. London: Routledge
Routledge
and Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-415-35305-X. OCLC 2378165.  Schoch, Richard W. (2002). "Pictorial Shakespeare". In Wells, Stanley; Stanton, Sarah. The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare
Shakespeare
on Stage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CCOL0521792959.004. ISBN 9780511999574 – via Cambridge Core. (Subscription required (help)).  Schoenbaum, S. (1981). William Shakespeare: Records and Images. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-520234-2.  Schoenbaum, S. (1987). William Shakespeare: A Compact Documentary Life (Revised ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505161-0.  Schoenbaum, S. (1991). Shakespeare's Lives. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-818618-5.  Shapiro, James (2005). 1599: A Year in the Life of William Shakespeare. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-21480-0.  Shapiro, James (2010). Contested Will: Who Wrote Shakespeare?. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4165-4162-2.  Smith, Irwin (1964). Shakespeare's Blackfriars Playhouse. New York: New York University Press.  Snyder, Susan; Curren-Aquino, Deborah, eds. (2007). The Winter's Tale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22158-7.  " Shakespeare
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v t e

William Shakespeare

Plays

Tragedies

Antony and Cleopatra Coriolanus Hamlet Julius Caesar King Lear Macbeth Othello Romeo
Romeo
and Juliet Timon of Athens Titus Andronicus Troilus
Troilus
and Cressida

Comedies

All's Well That Ends Well As You Like It The Comedy of Errors Cymbeline Love's Labour's Lost Measure for Measure The Merchant of Venice The Merry Wives of Windsor A Midsummer Night's Dream Much Ado
Much Ado
About Nothing Pericles, Prince of Tyre* The Taming of the Shrew The Tempest Twelfth Night The Two Gentlemen of Verona The Two Noble Kinsmen* The Winter's Tale

Histories

King John Edward III* Richard II Henry IV

1 2

Henry V Henry VI

1* 2 3

Richard III Henry VIII*

See also

Problem plays Late romances Characters

A–K L–Z Ghost character

Chronology Performances Settings Quarto
Quarto
publications First Folio Second Folio

Poems

Shakespeare's sonnets

comparison to Petrarch

A Lover's Complaint The Phoenix and the Turtle The Rape of Lucrece Venus and Adonis

Apocrypha

Plays

Arden of Faversham The Birth of Merlin Cardenio* Double Falsehood Edmund Ironside Fair Em Locrine The London Prodigal Love's Labour's Won The Merry Devil of Edmonton Mucedorus The Puritan The Second Maiden's Tragedy Sejanus His Fall Sir John Oldcastle Sir Thomas More* The Spanish Tragedy Thomas Lord Cromwell Thomas of Woodstock Vortigern and Rowena A Yorkshire Tragedy

Poems

The Passionate Pilgrim To the Queen

Life and works

Birthplace and childhood home Bibliography

Complete Works of William Shakespeare Translations

Early editions Editors English Renaissance
English Renaissance
theatre Globe Theatre Handwriting Lord Chamberlain's Men/King's Men

The Theatre Curtain Theatre

New Place Portraits Religious views Sexuality Spelling of his name Stratford-upon-Avon Style

Legacy

Attribution studies Authorship question Influence Memorials Screen adaptations Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Birthplace Trust Folger Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Library

Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Quarterly

Shakespeare's Globe
Shakespeare's Globe
(replica) Bardolatry Titles of works taken from Shakespeare

Family

Anne Hathaway (wife) Susanna Hall
Susanna Hall
(daughter) Hamnet Shakespeare
Hamnet Shakespeare
(son) Judith Quiney
Judith Quiney
(daughter) Elizabeth Barnard
Elizabeth Barnard
(granddaughter) John Shakespeare
John Shakespeare
(father) Mary Arden (mother) Gilbert Shakespeare
Gilbert Shakespeare
(brother) Joan Shakespeare (sister) Edmund Shakespeare (brother) Richard Shakespeare (grandfather) John Hall (son-in-law) Thomas Quiney
Thomas Quiney
(son-in-law) Thomas Nash
Thomas Nash
(grandson-in-law)

* Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and other authors Lost

Links to related articles

v t e

Early editions of William Shakespeare's works

Folios and quartos

Foul papers List of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
plays in quarto Quarto Folio Bad quarto First Quarto First Folio Second Folio False Folio

Early editors

John Heminges Henry Condell Edward Knight

Publishers

Robert Allot William Aspley John Benson Edward Blount Cuthbert Burby Nathaniel Butter Philip Chetwinde Richard Hawkins Henry Herringman William Leake Richard Meighen Thomas Millington Thomas Pavier John Smethwick Thomas Thorpe Thomas Walkley John Waterson Andrew Wise

Printers

Edward Allde Thomas Cotes Thomas Creede George Eld Richard Field William Jaggard Augustine Matthews Nicholas Okes James Roberts Peter Short Valentine Simmes William Stansby

Shakespearean tragedy

v t e

William Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra

Characters

Mark Antony Octavius Caesar Lepidus Cleopatra Sextus Pompey Domitius Enobarbus Ventidius Canidius Scarus Octavia Maecenas Agrippa Taurus Dolabella Gallus Menas Charmian

Sources

Parallel Lives

Stage adaptations

The False One
The False One
(c.1620) All for Love (1677)

Opera

Antony and Cleopatra
Antony and Cleopatra
(1966)

On screen

1908 1913 1959 (TV) The Spread of the Eagle
The Spread of the Eagle
(1963; TV) 1972 1974 (TV) 1981 (TV)

Related

Cultural depictions of Cleopatra Cultural depictions of Augustus Salad days Asp Thomas North Cleopatra
Cleopatra
(1912) Cleopatra
Cleopatra
(1917) Roman Tragedies
Roman Tragedies
(2007)

v t e

William Shakespeare's Coriolanus

Characters

Historical

Caius Martius Coriolanus Menenius Agrippa Cominius Titus Lartius Sicinius Velutus Junius Brutus Tullus Aufidius

Fictional

Volumnia Virgilia

Sources

Roman Antiquities Parallel Lives Ab Urbe Condita Policraticus A Mervalious Combat of Contrarieties (William Averell)

Adaptations

Coriolanus
Coriolanus
(1953) The Spread of the Eagle
The Spread of the Eagle
(1963; TV) The Tragedy of Coriolanus
Coriolanus
(1984; TV) Coriolanus
Coriolanus
(2011)

Related

Veturia Thomas North Roman Tragedies
Roman Tragedies
(2007)

v t e

William Shakespeare's Cymbeline

Characters

Cymbeline Queen Imogen Posthumus Leonatus Cloten Belarius Guiderius Arvirargus Jupiter

Sources

Historia Regum Britanniae
Historia Regum Britanniae
(c. 1136) The Decameron
The Decameron
(c. 1353) Holinshed's Chronicles
Holinshed's Chronicles
(1577)

Adaptations

Cymbeline
Cymbeline
(1982; TV) Cymbeline
Cymbeline
(2014)

Related

Shakespeare's late romances Philaster (c.1609) Deus ex machina Milford Haven

v t e

William Shakespeare's Hamlet

Characters

Hamlet Claudius Gertrude Ghost Polonius Laertes Ophelia Horatio Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Fortinbras The Gravediggers Yorick

Soliloquies

"To be, or not to be"

"Mortal coil"

"What a piece of work is a man" "Speak the speech"

Words and phrases

"The lady doth protest too much, methinks" "Thy name is" "Primrose path"

Terminology

Dumbshow Induction Quiddity Substitution

Sources Criticism

Legend of Hamlet The Spanish Tragedy Ur-Hamlet Critical approaches Bibliographies Horwendill Saxo Grammaticus House of Gonzaga Damon and Pythias

Influence

Common phrases from Hamlet Hamlet
Hamlet
in popular culture References to Ophelia Language
Language
of flowers Human skull symbolism

Performances

Moscow Art Theatre (1911–1912) Richard Burton (1964)

On screen

1900 1907 1908 1912 1913 1917 1921 1935 1948 1954 1961 1964 1969 1974 1990 1996 2000 2011

Adaptations

Films

The Rest Is Silence (1959) The Bad Sleep Well
The Bad Sleep Well
(1960) Ophelia
Ophelia
(1963) Johnny Hamlet
Hamlet
(1968) One Hamlet
Hamlet
Less (1973) The Angel of Vengeance – The Female Hamlet
Hamlet
(1977) Strange Brew
Strange Brew
(1983) Hamlet
Hamlet
Goes Business (1987) The Lion King
The Lion King
(1994) Let the Devil Wear Black (1999) The Banquet (2006) Tardid
Tardid
(2009) Karmayogi (2012) Haider (2014) Hamlet
Hamlet
A.D.D. (2014) Ophelia
Ophelia
(2018) The Lion King
The Lion King
(2019)

Novels

Gertrude and Claudius
Gertrude and Claudius
(2000) Dating Hamlet
Hamlet
(2002) Ophelia's Revenge
Ophelia's Revenge
(2003) The Dead Fathers Club (2006) Something Rotten (2007) Hamlet's Father
Hamlet's Father
(2008) The Story of Edgar Sawtelle
The Story of Edgar Sawtelle
(2008) Hamlet
Hamlet
Had an Uncle

Plays

Hamletmachine
Hamletmachine
(1977) Dogg's Hamlet
Hamlet
(1979) Fortinbras (1991)

Musicals

Rockabye Hamlet
Hamlet
(1973) The Lion King
The Lion King
(1997)

Television

Hamlet
Hamlet
(Australian TV, 1959) Hamlet
Hamlet
at Elsinore (BBC, 1964) Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (BBC, 1980) Hamlet
Hamlet
(BBC 2, animated, 1992) Hamlet
Hamlet
(BBC 2, 2009)

Parodies

15-Minute Hamlet The Complete Works of William Shakespeare
Shakespeare
(Abridged) Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Io, Amleto The Klingon Hamlet "Lyle the Kindly Viking" To Be or Not to Be: That is the Adventure "Tales from the Public Domain"

Songs

"My Robin is to the Greenwood Gone" (16th century) "Pull Me Under" (1992) "Song for Athene" (1997)

Opera/classical

Hamlet
Hamlet
(Thomas) Amleto
Amleto
(Faccio) Hamlet
Hamlet
(Tchaikovsky) Tristia (Berlioz) Die Hamletmaschine (Rihm) Hamlet
Hamlet
(Dean)

Story within a story

Films

To Be or Not to Be (1942) Acting Hamlet
Hamlet
in the Village of Mrdusa Donja (1973) To Be or Not to Be (1983) Rosencrantz & Guildenstern Are Dead (1990) Highlander II: The Quickening (1991) Last Action Hero
Last Action Hero
(1993) Renaissance Man (1994) In the Bleak Midwinter (1995) War (2002) Hamlet
Hamlet
2 (2008) Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Undead (2009) Three Days (2012)

Plays

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead (1966) Stage Blood
Stage Blood
(1974) I Hate Hamlet
Hamlet
(1991) To Be or Not to Be (2008)

Novels

Hamlet, Revenge!
Hamlet, Revenge!
(1937) Theatre of War (1994) "The Undiscovered" (1997) The Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Stealer (1998) Interred with Their Bones
Interred with Their Bones
(2007)

Television

"The Producer" (1966) "The Conscience of the King" (1966) "Born to Be King" (1983) "Terrance and Phillip: Behind the Blow" (2001) Slings & Arrows (2003)

Art

Ophelia Affe mit Schädel

Video game

Last Action Hero
Last Action Hero
(1993) Hamlet
Hamlet
(2010)

Intertextuality

Asterix and the Great Crossing The Seagull Sharpe's Havoc

Related

Hamlet
Hamlet
and Oedipus Hamlet
Hamlet
and His Problems Hebenon Hamlet
Hamlet
Q1 Ostalo je ćutanje The Chronicles of Amber "Symphony No. 65" (Haydn) The Hobart Shakespeareans Gertrude – The Cry Poor Murderer Something Rotten!

v t e

William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar

Characters

Julius Caesar Mark Antony Octavius Lepidus Flavius Marullus Cicero Calpurnia Portia Cinna Titinius Messala Young Cato Volumnius

Conspirators

Marcus Brutus Cassius Casca Decius Brutus Cinna Metellus Cimber Trebonius Caius Ligarius

Sources

Parallel Lives

On screen

1950 1953 The Spread of the Eagle
The Spread of the Eagle
(1963; TV) 1970 1979 (TV) 1994 (TV)

Adaptations

La morte di Cesare
La morte di Cesare
(1788) Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Writing "Julius Caesar" (1907) Caesar (1937) Die Ermordung Cäsars
Die Ermordung Cäsars
(1959) Dead Caesar
Dead Caesar
(2007) The Karaoke King
The Karaoke King
(2007) Roman Tragedies
Roman Tragedies
(2007)

Quotes

"The dogs of war" "Et tu, Brute?" "Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears" "Greek to me"

Music

Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
(overture, 1851)

Related

Cultural depictions of Julius Caesar Assassination of Julius Caesar Caesar's Comet Ides of March Battle of Philippi Me and Orson Welles
Me and Orson Welles
(2008) Caesar Must Die
Caesar Must Die
(2012)

v t e

William Shakespeare's King Lear

Characters

King Lear Cordelia Goneril Regan Edmund

Sources

Historia Regum Britanniae
Historia Regum Britanniae
(1136) The Mirror for Magistrates
The Mirror for Magistrates
(1555) Holinshed's Chronicles
Holinshed's Chronicles
(1577) King Leir
King Leir
(1594) "Water and Salt"

Related

Llŷr Leir of Britain Cordelia of Britain

Adaptations

Plays

The History of King Lear
King Lear
(1681) The Yiddish King Lear
King Lear
(1892) Safed Khoon
Safed Khoon
(1907) Lear (1971)

Novels

La Terre
La Terre
(1887) A Thousand Acres
A Thousand Acres
(1991) Fool (2009)

Opera

Re Lear
Re Lear
(Libretto only) (1896) Lear (1978) Kuningas Lear
Kuningas Lear
(2000)

Films

King Lear
King Lear
(1910) King Lear
King Lear
(1916) Gunasundari Katha
Gunasundari Katha
(1949) King Lear
King Lear
(1971 USSR) King Lear
King Lear
(1971 UK) Ran (1985) King Lear
King Lear
(1987) A Thousand Acres
A Thousand Acres
(1997) Gypsy Lore
Gypsy Lore
(1997) King Lear
King Lear
(1999) My Kingdom (2001) Second Generation (2003) Life Goes On (2009)

Television

King Lear
King Lear
(1953) BBC Television Shakespeare
Shakespeare
(1982) King Lear
King Lear
(1983) King of Texas
King of Texas
(2002) King Lear
King Lear
(2008) King Lear
King Lear
(2018)

Story within a story

The Dresser
The Dresser
(1980 play) The Dresser
The Dresser
(1983 film) The Dresser
The Dresser
(2015 film)

Other

Tiriel (1789, poem) The Prince of the Pagodas
The Prince of the Pagodas
(1957, ballet) The Tragedy of King Lear
King Lear
(screenplay)

v t e

William Shakespeare's Macbeth

Characters

Macbeth Lady Macbeth Banquo Macduff King Duncan Malcolm Donalbain Three Witches Fleance Lady Macduff Macduff's son Third Murderer Young Siward

Inspirations

Macbeth, King of Scotland Gruoch of Scotland Duncan I of Scotland Malcolm III of Scotland Donald III of Scotland Siward, Earl of Northumbria King James VI and I

Sources

Daemonologie
Daemonologie
(1597) The Witch (play) Holinshed's Chronicles Darraðarljóð

Film

1908 1909 (French) 1909 (Italian) 1911 1913 1915 1916 1922 1948 1971 2006 2015 Cancelled (Olivier)

Television

1954 1960 US TV 1960 Australian TV 1961 1979 1982 1983 1992 2005 2010

TV / film adaptations

The Real Thing at Last (1916) Marmayogi
Marmayogi
(1951) Joe MacBeth
Joe MacBeth
(1955) Throne of Blood
Throne of Blood
(1957) Macbeth
Macbeth
(Verdi opera) (1987) Men of Respect
Men of Respect
(1990) Scotland, PA
Scotland, PA
(2001) Makibefo (2001) Maqbool
Maqbool
(2003) Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Must Die (2012) Veeram (2016)

Plays

Voodoo Macbeth
Macbeth
(1936) MacBird! (1967) uMabatha (1970) Macbett (1972) Cahoot's Macbeth
Macbeth
(1979) MacHomer
MacHomer
(1995) Sleep No More (2003) Sleep No More (2009) Dunsinane (2010) Sleep No More (2011) Just Macbeth!

Operas

Macbeth
Macbeth
(1847, Verdi)

discography

Macbeth
Macbeth
(1910, Bloch)

Literary adaptations

Wyrd Sisters (1988) The Last King of Scotland
The Last King of Scotland
(1998) The Tragedy of Macbeth
Macbeth
Part II (2008)

Albums

Music from Macbeth
Macbeth
(1972) Macbeth
Macbeth
(1990) Thane to the Throne
Thane to the Throne
(2000) Shakespeare's Macbeth
Macbeth
– A Tragedy in Steel (2003) Lady Macbeth
Macbeth
(2005)

Art

Pity (1795) The Night of Enitharmon's Joy
The Night of Enitharmon's Joy
(1795) Ellen Terry as Lady Macbeth
Macbeth
(1889)

Scenes and speeches

"On the Knocking at the Gate in Macbeth" (1823) Sleepwalking Scene (5.1) "Tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow"

Words and phrases

"What's done is done" "Crack of doom" "Strange but true" The Scottish Play Thane of Cawdor

Story within a story

We Work Again Light Thickens The Deadly Affair "The Movies" "Sleeping with the Enemy" "The Shower Principle" Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine The Scottish Play Burke & Hare

Episodes

"A Witch's Tangled Hare" (1959, Looney Tunes) "The Bellero Shield" (1964, The Outer Limits) "Sense and Senility" (1987, Blackadder the Third) "The Coup" (2006, The Office) "Dial "N" for Nerder" (2008, The Simpsons) "Four Great Women and a Manicure" (2009, The Simpsons) "The Understudy" (2014, Inside No. 9)

Other

Macbeth
Macbeth
(Strauss) The Scottish Play Piano Trios, Op. 70 (Beethoven) The Ruins of Cawdor House of Cards (UK, 1990) House of Cards (US, 2013–present)

v t e

William Shakespeare's Othello

Characters

Othello Desdemona Iago Cassio Emilia Bianca Roderigo Brabantio Other characters

Source

Della descrittione dell’Africa (1550) by Leo Africanus "Un Capitano Moro" from Gli Hecatommithi (1565) by Giovanni Battista Giraldi Sampiero Corso

Opera and ballet adaptations

Otello
Otello
(1816; opera) Otello
Otello
(1887; opera) Othello
Othello
(1892; overture) The Moor's Pavane
The Moor's Pavane
(1949; ballet) Othello
Othello
(1998; ballet score) Bandanna (1999; opera)

Films

1922 1951 1955 1965 1995

TV

1965 1981 1990 1994 2001

Stage adaptations

Masquerade (1835) Othello
Othello
(1951) Catch My Soul
Catch My Soul
(US; 1969) Catch My Soul
Catch My Soul
(UK; 1970)

Film adaptations

Jubal (1956) All Night Long (1962) Catch My Soul
Catch My Soul
(1974) Kaliyattam
Kaliyattam
(1997) O (2001) Eloise (2002) Souli (2004) Omkara (2006) Jarum Halus
Jarum Halus
(2008)

From Verdi

Otello
Otello
(1906; film) Othello
Othello
Ballet Suite/Electronic Organ Sonata No. 1 (1967; ballet suite) Otello
Otello
(1986; film) The Othello
Othello
Syndrome (2008; album)

Art

Othello

Phrases

"Beast with two backs"

Related

Othello
Othello
error Filming Othello Red Velvet The Duke of Milan Love's Sacrifice Desdemona Goodnight Desdemona

Story within a story

Carnival (1921 film) Carnival (1931 film) The Deceiver (1931) Men Are Not Gods
Men Are Not Gods
(1936) A Double Life (1947) Saptapadi (1961) The Dresser
The Dresser
(1980 play) The Dresser
The Dresser
(1983 film) An Imaginary Tale
An Imaginary Tale
(1990) The Dresser
The Dresser
(2015 film)

v t e

William Shakespeare's Romeo
Romeo
and Juliet

Characters

Romeo Juliet Mercutio Tybalt Benvolio Friar Laurence Nurse Paris Rosaline Queen Mab Atomy

Sources

The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet Pyramus and Thisbe Palace of Pleasure Troilus
Troilus
and Criseyde

Ballets

Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet
(1938, Prokofiev) Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet
(1962, Cranko) Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet
(1965, MacMillan) Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet
(1977, Nureyev) Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet
(1965, Lavery) Radio and Juliet
Juliet
(2005) Romeo
Romeo
+ Juliet
Juliet
(2007, Martins) Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet
(2008, Pastor)

Operas

Romeo
Romeo
und Julie (1776, Benda) Giulietta e Romeo
Romeo
(1796, Zingarelli) Giulietta e Romeo
Romeo
(1825, Vaccai) I Capuleti e i Montecchi
I Capuleti e i Montecchi
(1830, Bellini) Gloria (1874, Cilea) Roméo et Juliette
Roméo et Juliette
(1867, Gounod) A Village Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet
(1907, Delius) Romeo
Romeo
und Julia (1940, Sutermeister)

Musicals

The Belle of Mayfair
The Belle of Mayfair
(1906) West Side Story
West Side Story
(1957) Once on This Island
Once on This Island
(1990) Roméo et Juliette, de la Haine à l'Amour (2001) Giulietta e Romeo
Romeo
(2007)

Classical

Beethoven's String Quartet No. 1 (c. 1800) Roméo et Juliette
Roméo et Juliette
(1839, Berlioz) Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet
(1870, Tchaikovsky)

On screen

1900 1908 1916 Metro Pictures 1916 Fox 1936 1953 1954 1955 1964 1968 1978 (TV) 1992 (TV) 1996 2006 2007 2013

Film adaptations

English

Beneath the 12-Mile Reef
Beneath the 12-Mile Reef
(1953) Romanoff and Juliet
Juliet
(1961) West Side Story
West Side Story
(1961) Gonks Go Beat (1965) Lonesome Cowboys
Lonesome Cowboys
(1968) Romie-0 and Julie-8 (TV; 1979) The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet
(1982) Valley Girl (1983) Bullies
Bullies
(1986) China Girl (1987) Romeo. Juliet
Juliet
(1990) Tromeo and Juliet
Juliet
(1996) Love Is All There Is (1996) Rose by Any Other Name...
Rose by Any Other Name...
(1997) The Lion King
The Lion King
II: Simba's Pride (1998) Shakespeare
Shakespeare
in Love (1998) The Magical Legend of the Leprechauns
The Magical Legend of the Leprechauns
(1999) Romeo
Romeo
Must Die (2000) Brooklyn Babylon (2001) Pizza My Heart (TV; 2005) West Bank Story
West Bank Story
(2005) Life and Lyrics
Life and Lyrics
(2006) Romeo
Romeo
& Juliet: Sealed with a Kiss (2006) Rome & Jewel (2006) David & Fatima (2008) The Cross Road
The Cross Road
(2008) Vicious Circle (2008) Gnomeo & Juliet
Juliet
(2011) Private Romeo
Romeo
(2011) Warm Bodies
Warm Bodies
(2013) Make Your Move (2013) Romeo
Romeo
& Juliet
Juliet
(2013)

Hindi

Ek Duuje Ke Liye
Ek Duuje Ke Liye
(1981) Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak
Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak
(1988) Saudagar (1991) Kuch Tum Kaho Kuch Hum Kahein
Kuch Tum Kaho Kuch Hum Kahein
(2002) Bollywood Queen
Bollywood Queen
(2002) Ishaqzaade
Ishaqzaade
(2012) Goliyon Ki Raasleela Ram-Leela
Goliyon Ki Raasleela Ram-Leela
(2013) Issaq
Issaq
(2013)

Telugu

Maro Charitra
Maro Charitra
(1978)

Akkada Ammayi Ikkada Abbayi
Akkada Ammayi Ikkada Abbayi
(1996) Kalisundam Raa
Kalisundam Raa
(2000) Maro Charitra
Maro Charitra
(2010)

Spanish

Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet
(1940) Los Tarantos (1963) 30:e november (Swedish/Spanish 1995) Amar te duele (2002)

Italian

Fury of Johnny Kid
Fury of Johnny Kid
(1967) Ma che musica maestro
Ma che musica maestro
(1971)

Portuguese

Mônica e Cebolinha: No Mundo de Romeu e Julieta (1979) O Casamento de Romeu e Julieta
O Casamento de Romeu e Julieta
(2005)

Other

Ambikapathy (Tamil 1937) Les amants de Vérone (French 1949) Romeo, Juliet
Juliet
and Darkness (Czech 1960) The Phantom Lover
The Phantom Lover
(Mandarin 1995) Chicken Rice War (Cantonese/English 2000) Ondagona Baa (Kannada 2003) Mamay (Ukrainian 2003) The District!
The District!
(Hungarian 2004) In Fair Palestine: A Story of Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet
(2006) The Bubble (Hebrew/Arabic 2006) Priyatama (Marathi 2014) Arshinagar
Arshinagar
(Bengali 2015) Eeda
Eeda
(Malayalam 2017) The Sea Prince and the Fire Child
The Sea Prince and the Fire Child
(Japanese 1981)

TV series

Sons and Daughters (1982) Family and Friends (1990) Villa Quintana
Villa Quintana
(1995) Yo amo a Paquita Gallego (1998) Skin (2003) A Touch Away (2006) Dangerous (2007) Romeo
Romeo
× Juliet
Juliet
(2007) Romeo
Romeo
y Julieta (2007) Saints & Sinners (2007) Harina de otro costal
Harina de otro costal
(2010) Villa Quintana
Villa Quintana
(2013) Westside (2013 pilot) Star-Crossed (2014) Still Star-Crossed
Still Star-Crossed
(2017)

Plays

Romanoff and Juliet
Juliet
(1956) Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet
(2013)

Songs

Lan và Điệp (1930s) "Montagues and Capulets" (1935) "Fever" (1956) Love Theme from Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet
(1968) "(Don't Fear) The Reaper" (1976) "Angelo" (1978) " Romeo
Romeo
and Juliet" (1978) " Romeo
Romeo
and Juliet" (1981) "Cherish" (1989) "Amor Prohibido" (1994) "Kissing You" (1996) "Exit Music" (1997) " Romeo
Romeo
and Juliet" (1998) "Starcrossed" (2004) "Peut-être toi" (2006) "Mademoiselle Juliette" (2007) "Love Story" (2008) "Love Me Again" "Laal Ishq" "Mor Bani Thanghat Kare" "Nagada Sang Dhol" "Ram Chahe Leela" (2013)

Albums

Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet
(1968) Romeo
Romeo
+ Juliet
Juliet
(1996) Romeo
Romeo
& Julia (2006) Tragic Lovers
Tragic Lovers
(2008)

Literature

Les Chouans The Wandering Jew (1844) The Stolen Dormouse (1941) The Faraway Lurs
The Faraway Lurs
(1963) Romiette and Julio (2001) New Moon (2006) Warm Bodies
Warm Bodies
(2010)

Art

Romeo
Romeo
and Juliet: the Tomb Scene (1790) Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet
(1978)

Phrases

"Star-crossed" "A rose by any other name would smell as sweet"

Story within a story

Nicholas Nickleby

1912 film 1947 film 1980 play 2001 film 2002 film

The Picture of Dorian Gray

1910 film 1913 film 1915 film 1916 film 1917 film 1918 film 1945 film 1976 TV special 2009 film

Harlequinade W Juliet "Nothing Broken but My Heart" Panic Button Bare: A Pop Opera ""Into the Light" Bolji život The Sky Is Everywhere Pay as You Exit The White Mercedes She Died a Lady "Moonshine River" Rendez-vous Fame "I Am Unicorn" The Frog Prince Molly Smart Girls Get What They Want Tumbleweeds "The Thief of Baghead" The Songs of a Sentimental Bloke Prince Charming Km. 0 Phileine Says Sorry Hamateur Night "Say You'll Be Mine" Into the Gauntlet Wandering Son K-On!

Foreign stories

Adam Khan and Durkhanai Tum Teav Yusuf Khan and Sherbano Solomon & Gaenor Butterfly Lovers Hani and Sheh Mureed Lục Vân Tiên

film

Teav Aek Layla and Majnun Lovers of Teruel

film

Lord Saltoun and Auchanachie Ishaqzaade

Other

Such Tweet Sorrow Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet
effect After Juliet "Upper West Side Story" (2012) Millennium Dome Show Inge Sylten and Heinz Drosihn Boys Don't Cry My Wedding and Other Secrets Donkey in Lahore Upside Down Letters to Juliet Sherlock Gnomes

Book: Romeo
Romeo
and Juliet

v t e

William Shakespeare's Timon of Athens

Characters

Timon Alcibiades Apemantus

Sources

Palace of Pleasure (1566)

Adaptations

Timon (1973) Timon of Athens
Timon of Athens
(1981)

Revisions

The History of Timon of Athens
Timon of Athens
the Man-hater (1677)

v t e

William Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus

Characters

Titus Andronicus Tamora Aaron Lavinia Emperor Saturninus Marcus Lucius

Sources

Ab Urbe Condita (c.26 BC) Metamorphoses
Metamorphoses
(c.AD 8) Thyestes
Thyestes
(first century AD) Gesta Romanorum (late third century AD)

Adaptations

Titus Andronicus
Titus Andronicus
(1985; TV) Titus (1999) "Scott Tenorman Must Die" (2001; TV) The Hungry
The Hungry
(2017)

Related

Peacham drawing Authorship question Themes "Titus Andronicus' Complaint" George Peele Philomela Thyestes Revenge play Grand Guignol Gorboduc (1561) Edmund Ironside (1590) Jan Vos Titus (soundtrack)

v t e

William Shakespeare's Troilus
Troilus
and Cressida

Characters

Trojans

Priam Hector Deiphobus Helenus Paris Troilus Cassandra Andromache Aeneas Pandarus Cressida Calchas Helen

Greeks

Agamemnon Menelaus Nestor Ulysses Achilles Patroclus Diomedes Ajax Thersites Myrmidons

Sources

Troilus
Troilus
and Criseyde Troy
Troy
Book Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye

Adaptations

The Face of Love (1954, TV) Troilus and Cressida
Troilus and Cressida
(1981, TV)

Related

Trojan War Trojan War
Trojan War
in popular culture Achilles
Achilles
and Patroclus Shakespearean problem play "Bitch"

Shakespearean comedy

v t e

William Shakespeare's All's Well That Ends Well

Characters

Bertram Countess of Roussillon Helen Rinaldo Lavatch Paroles King of France Lafeu Duke of Florence Widow Diana Mariana

Sources

The Decameron
The Decameron
(c.1353) Palace of Pleasure (1566)

Adaptations

All's Well That Ends Well
All's Well That Ends Well
(1981; TV)

Related

Shakespearean problem play Diana Alazôn Bed trick

v t e

William Shakespeare's As You Like It

Characters

Rosalind Orlando Celia Jaques Touchstone

Screen

1912 1936 1978 (TV) 1994 (TV) 2006

Related

"All the world's a stage"

v t e

William Shakespeare's The Comedy of Errors

Characters

Antipholus of Syracuse Antipholus of Ephesus Dromio of Syracuse Dromio of Ephesus Adriana Luciana Egeon Emilia Solinus

Sources

Menaechmi Amphitryon Apollonius of Tyre

Opera and musicals

Gli equivoci
Gli equivoci
(1786) The Boys from Syracuse
The Boys from Syracuse
(1938) Pozdvižení v Efesu
Pozdvižení v Efesu
(1943) The Comedy of Errors
The Comedy of Errors
(1976) The Bomb-itty of Errors
The Bomb-itty of Errors
(2000)

Film/TV

The Boys from Syracuse
The Boys from Syracuse
(1940) Bhranti Bilas
Bhranti Bilas
(1963) Do Dooni Char
Do Dooni Char
(1968) Angoor (1982) The Comedy of Errors
The Comedy of Errors
(1983; TV) Big Business (1988) Ulta Palta
Ulta Palta
(1997) Bade Miyan Chote Miyan
Bade Miyan Chote Miyan
(1998) Dam Dama Dam
Dam Dama Dam
(1998) Ulta Palta
Ulta Palta
(1998) Heeralal Pannalal (1999) Double Di Trouble
Double Di Trouble
(2014)

Related

Classical unities Gesta Grayorum (1688) The Flying Karamazov Brothers

v t e

William Shakespeare's Love's Labour's Lost

Characters

King Ferdinand of Navarre Lord Berowne Lord Longaville Lord Dumaine Princess of France Lady Rosaline Lady Maria Lady Katharine Boyet Don Adriano de Armado Moth Sir Nathaniel Holofernes Dull Costard Jaquenetta Marcadé

Adaptations

Love's Labor Lost (animated; 1920) Love's Labour's Lost
Love's Labour's Lost
(opera; 1973) Love's Labour's Lost
Love's Labour's Lost
(TV; 1985) Love's Labour's Lost
Love's Labour's Lost
(film; 2000)

Related

Love's Labour's Won Honorificabilitudinitatibus Nine Worthies The School of Night Robert Tofte The Princess (poem; 1847)

v t e

William Shakespeare's Measure for Measure

Characters

Angelo

Adaptations

The Law Against Lovers
The Law Against Lovers
(1662) Das Liebesverbot
Das Liebesverbot
(1834) Round Heads and Pointed Heads (1936) Measure for Measure
Measure for Measure
(1943) Measure for Measure
Measure for Measure
(1979; TV) Desperate Measures (2004)

Art

Mariana (Millais)

Related

Mariana (Tennyson) Bletting Bed trick Shakespearean problem play

v t e

William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice

Characters

Shylock Antonio Portia Jessica

Sources

Gesta Romanorum (late 13th century) Il Pecorone
Il Pecorone
(late 14th century) by Giovanni Fiorentino The Jew of Malta
The Jew of Malta
(1590) by Christopher Marlowe

On screen

1914 1916 1923 Shylock
Shylock
(1941) 1961 1969 1980 (TV) 2004

One Man Band (unfinished)

Adaptations

Le marchand de Venise
Le marchand de Venise
(1935, opera) Shylock
Shylock
(1987, musical) The Merchant of Venice
The Merchant of Venice
(1982, opera)

Derivative works

Serenade to Music
Serenade to Music
(1938) Shylock
Shylock
(1996) Yasser (2001) The Maori Merchant of Venice
The Maori Merchant of Venice
(2002)

Related

"All that glitters is not gold" "All the world's a stage" "Between you and I" Quibble Letter and spirit of the law "Ding Dong Bell" "The quality of mercy"

v t e

William Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor

Characters

Falstaff Mistress Quickly Ancient Pistol Bardolph Robert Shallow Corporal Nym

Film/Television

The Merry Wives of Windsor
The Merry Wives of Windsor
(1950) Overture to The Merry Wives of Windsor
The Merry Wives of Windsor
(1953) The Merry Wives of Windsor
The Merry Wives of Windsor
(1982; TV)

Opera/Musical

Falstaff
Falstaff
(1799) The Merry Wives of Windsor
The Merry Wives of Windsor
(1849) Falstaff
Falstaff
(1893) Sir John in Love
Sir John in Love
(1929) Lone Star Love
Lone Star Love
(2004)

v t e

William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream

Characters

Lovers

Theseus
Theseus
and Hippolyta Oberon
Oberon
and Titania Hermia
Hermia
and Lysander Helena and Demetrius

Mechanicals

Nick Bottom Peter Quince Francis Flute Robin Starveling Tom Snout Snug

Other characters

Puck Egeus Philostrate

Film

1909 1935 1959 1968 1999

Television

1969 1980 1992 1994 2016

Stage

A Midsummer Night's Dream
A Midsummer Night's Dream
(1970, play) The Park (1983, play) The Donkey Show (1999, musical) The Dreaming (2001, musical)

Ballet

A Midsummer Night's Dream
A Midsummer Night's Dream
(1962) The Dream (1964)

Opera

The Fairy-Queen
The Fairy-Queen
(1692) Pyramus and Thisbe
Pyramus and Thisbe
(1745) Puck (1949) A Midsummer Night's Dream
A Midsummer Night's Dream
(1960, opera) The Enchanted Island (2011)

Film adaptations

Wood Love (1925) Dream of a Summer Night
Dream of a Summer Night
(1983) Get Over It (2001) A Midsummer Night's Rave (2002) Midsummer Dream (2005) Were the World Mine
Were the World Mine
(2008) Strange Magic (2015)

Other adaptations

The Triumph of Beauty (1646) St. John's Eve (1852) "Fascination" (1994)

Literature

A Midsummer Tempest
A Midsummer Tempest
(1974) A Midsummer Night's Gene (1997) A Midsummer's Nightmare (1997) Lords and Ladies (1992) The Great Night
The Great Night
(2011)

Comics

Auberon Faerie Titania

Music

A Midsummer Night's Dream
A Midsummer Night's Dream
(1842, Mendelssohn) Wedding March (1842, Mendelssohn) Three Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Songs (1951) Symphony No. 8 (1992, Henze) Il Sogno
Il Sogno
(2004)

Art

Hermia
Hermia
and Lysander The Quarrel of Oberon
Oberon
and Titania Scene from A Midsummer Night's Dream

Related

The Sandman: Dream Country (1991) Pyramus and Thisbe Mechanical Love-in-idleness The Apartment (1996) Wicker Park (2004)

v t e

William Shakespeare's Much Ado
Much Ado
About Nothing

Characters

Don Pedro Dogberry

Adaptations

Screen

1984 (TV) 1993 2005 (TV) 2012

Opera

Béatrice et Bénédict
Béatrice et Bénédict
(1862) Much Ado About Nothing
Much Ado About Nothing
(opera) (1901)

Musical

Much Ado
Much Ado
(1995) The Boys Are Coming Home
The Boys Are Coming Home
(2005)

Adaptations

The Law Against Lovers
The Law Against Lovers
(1662) Dil Chahta Hai
Dil Chahta Hai
(2001)

Related

Dogberryism "Curiosity killed the cat" Pleaching

v t e

William Shakespeare's Pericles, Prince of Tyre

Characters

John Gower Diana

Sources

Confessio Amantis
Confessio Amantis
(1390) The Pattern of Painful Adventures (1576)

Adaptations

Pericles, Prince of Tyre
Pericles, Prince of Tyre
(1984; TV)

Related

George Wilkins Shakespeare's late romances Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Apocrypha Apollonius of Tyre The Pattern of Painful Adventures (2008; radio) First water

v t e

William Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew

Characters

Katherina Minola Petruchio Bianca Minola Baptista Minola Christopher Sly

Stage adaptations

The Woman's Prize
The Woman's Prize
(c1611) Catharine and Petruchio
Petruchio
(1754) Las bravías
Las bravías
(1896) Der Widerspänstigen Zähmung
Der Widerspänstigen Zähmung
(1872) Sly, ovvero La leggenda del dormiente risvegliato (1927) Kiss Me, Kate
Kiss Me, Kate
(1948) The Taming of the Shrew
The Taming of the Shrew
(1953) Ukroshchenye Stroptivoy (1957) Christopher Sly
Christopher Sly
(1963)

Direct adaptations

1908 1929 1962 (TV) 1967 1980 (TV) 1994 (TV)

Other adaptations

Daring Youth
Daring Youth
(1924) You Made Me Love You (1933) Second Best Bed
Second Best Bed
(1938) Kiss Me Kate (1953) Abba Aa Hudugi
Abba Aa Hudugi
(1959) Gundamma Katha
Gundamma Katha
(1962) Manithan Maravillai
Manithan Maravillai
(1962) McLintock!
McLintock!
(1963) Arivaali
Arivaali
(1963) Pattikada Pattanama
Pattikada Pattanama
(1972) Il Bisbetico Domato
Il Bisbetico Domato
(1980) Nanjundi Kalyana
Nanjundi Kalyana
(1989) 10 Things I Hate About You
10 Things I Hate About You
(1999) O Cravo e a Rosa
O Cravo e a Rosa
(2000; TV) Deliver Us from Eva
Deliver Us from Eva
(2003) The Taming of the Shrew
The Taming of the Shrew
(2005; TV) Frivolous Wife
Frivolous Wife
(2008) 10 Things I Hate About You
10 Things I Hate About You
(2009; TV) Isi Life Mein
Isi Life Mein
(2010)

Related

The Taming of the Shrew
The Taming of the Shrew
in performance The Taming of the Shrew
The Taming of the Shrew
on screen Shrew (stock character) Induction Love-in-idleness

v t e

William Shakespeare's The Tempest

Characters

Prospero Miranda Ariel Caliban Sycorax Ferdinand Gonzalo Stephano

Sources

A True Reportory
True Reportory
of the Wracke and Redemption of Sir Thomas Gates, Knight Decades of the New World Montaigne's Essays Ovid's Metamorphoses Erasmus's Naufragium Commedia dell'arte Sea Venture

Films

1911 1963 1979 1980 1992 2010

Adaptations

Music

Three Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Songs (Vaughan Williams) The Tempest
The Tempest
(Sullivan) The Tempest
The Tempest
(Sibelius) The Tempest
The Tempest
(Tchaikovsky) The Tempest
The Tempest
(ballet) (Nordheim) "Don't Pay the Ferryman" (1982)

Screen

Yellow Sky
Yellow Sky
(1948) Forbidden Planet
Forbidden Planet
(1956) Tempest (1982) The Journey to Melonia
The Journey to Melonia
(1989) Prospero's Books
Prospero's Books
(1991)

Painting

Scene from Shakespeare's The Tempest
The Tempest
(Hogarth) Ferdinand Lured by Ariel
Ferdinand Lured by Ariel
(Millais)

Musicals

Beach Blanket Tempest Return to the Forbidden Planet Amaluna

Plays

The Tempest
The Tempest
(Dryden) The Sea Voyage The Mock Tempest
The Mock Tempest
(1674 Duffet) Une Tempête
Une Tempête
(1969 Césaire) The Sea (play)
The Sea (play)
(1973) I'll Be The Devil
I'll Be The Devil
(2008)

Opera

The Tempest
The Tempest
(1756 Smith) Die Geisterinsel
Die Geisterinsel
(libretto 1796) Die Geisterinsel
Die Geisterinsel
(1798 Reichardt) Die Geisterinsel
Die Geisterinsel
(1805 Zumsteeg) Der Sturm (1955 Martin) Noises, Sounds & Sweet Airs (1991 Nyman) The Tempest
The Tempest
(Adès 2004) The Enchanted Island (2011 Sams)

Poetry and prose fiction

Caliban
Caliban
upon Setebos (Browning) The Sea and the Mirror
The Sea and the Mirror
(Auden) Indigo (Warner) A Midsummer Tempest
A Midsummer Tempest
(Anderson) Island (Rogers) Hag-Seed (Atwood)

Phrases

"Ariel's Song" "Brave new world" "Ding Dong Bell" "Full fathom five" "Sea change" "What's past is prologue"

Sculpture

The Tempest
The Tempest
(1966)

v t e

William Shakespeare's Twelfth Night

Characters

Viola Orsino Olivia Sebastian Malvolio Maria Sir Toby Belch Sir Andrew Aguecheek Feste

On screen

1933 1955 1966 1980 (TV) 1986 1988 (TV) 1992 (TV) 1996

Musical

Your Own Thing
Your Own Thing
(1968) Music Is
Music Is
(1976) Play On!
Play On!
(1997) Illyria (2004) All Shook Up (2004)

Adaptations

Just One of the Guys
Just One of the Guys
(1985) Motocrossed
Motocrossed
(2001) She's the Man
She's the Man
(2006) Dil Bole Hadippa!
Dil Bole Hadippa!
(2009)

Opera

Viola (unfinished)

Story within a story

"Grace" (2011)

v t e

William Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona

Characters

Valentine Proteus Julia Silvia Launce Speed Crab

Sources

The Boke Named the Governour (1531) Los Siete Libros de la Diana (1559) Euphues, The Anatomy of Wit (1578) The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia
The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia
(1580)

Theatrical adaptations

Two Gentlemen of Verona (1971)

Screen adaptations

A Spray of Plum Blossoms
A Spray of Plum Blossoms
(1931) The Two Gentlemen of Verona
The Two Gentlemen of Verona
(TV; 1983)

Related

Proteus Jorge de Montemor Stuart Draper "An Sylvia" (1826) Shakespeare
Shakespeare
in Love (1998) The Goat, or Who Is Sylvia?
The Goat, or Who Is Sylvia?
(2002)

v t e

William Shakespeare's The Two Noble Kinsmen

Characters

Theseus Hippolyta Emilia Pirithous Palamon Arcite Hymen Lafeu Artesius Valerius Jailer Doctor Gerald Nell Timothy

Sources

"The Knight's Tale"

The Canterbury Tales

Related

Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Apocrypha Shakespeare's late romances John Fletcher Creon William Davenant Stoolball The Masque of the Inner Temple and Gray's Inn
The Masque of the Inner Temple and Gray's Inn
(1613)

v t e

William Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale

Characters

Leontes Perdita Florizel

Sources

The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia
The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia
(c.1580) Pandosto
Pandosto
(1588) Oberon, the Faery Prince (1611)

Adaptations

The Winter's Tale
The Winter's Tale
(1910) The Winter's Tale
The Winter's Tale
(1967) The Winter's Tale
The Winter's Tale
(1981) "The Winter's Tale" (1994)

Operas

The Winter's Tale
The Winter's Tale
(2017)

Shakespearean history

v t e

William Shakespeare's King John

Characters

King John Queen Eleanor Prince Henry Blanche of Castile Earl of Essex Earl of Salisbury Earl of Pembroke Lord Bigot Philip Faulconbridge King Philip of France Louis the Dauphin Lady Constance Arthur Cardinal Pandulf Hubert

Sources

Holinshed's Chronicles
Holinshed's Chronicles
(1577) The Troublesome Reign of King John
The Troublesome Reign of King John
(c.1589)

Adaptations

King John (1899) The Life and Death of King John (1984; TV)

Related

King Johan Cultural depictions of John of England Anglo-French War (1213–14)

v t e

William Shakespeare's Edward III

Characters

English

Edward III Queen Philippa Edward, the Black Prince Earl of Salisbury Countess of Salisbury Earl of Warwick Sir William Montague Earl of Derby Lord Audley Lord Percy Robert of Artois Lord Montfort

French

King John II of France Prince Charles Prince Philip Duke of Lorraine King of Bohemia

Scottish

King David of Scotland Sir William Douglas

Sources

Froissart's Chronicles
Froissart's Chronicles
(c.1370) Palace of Pleasure (1566) Holinshed's Chronicles
Holinshed's Chronicles
(1577)

Related

Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Apocrypha Thomas Kyd George Peele Robert Greene Hundred Years' War Battle of Halidon Hill Siege of Calais Battle of Crécy Battle of Poitiers

v t e

William Shakespeare's Henriad

Richard II Henry IV, Part 1 Henry IV, Part 2 Henry V

Characters and events

Richard II

Richard II Henry Bolingbroke Duke of York Earl of Northumberland Duke of Aumerle John of Gaunt Queen (unnamed composite of Anne of Bohemia
Anne of Bohemia
and Isabella of Valois) Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Duchess of York (unnamed composite of Infanta Isabella of Castile and Joan Holland) Duchess of Gloucester Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk Bishop of Carlisle Duke of Surrey Bushy Bagot Green Lord Ross Earl of Salisbury Lord Berkeley

1 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Mistress Quickly Bardolph Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester Earl of Douglas Sir Walter Blunt Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland Lady Percy Earl of Westmorland Owen Glendower Edmund Mortimer Lady Mortimer Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Battle of Humbleton Hill Battle of Shrewsbury

2 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Ancient Pistol Bardolph Mistress Quickly Doll Tearsheet Robert Shallow Earl of Westmorland Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Earl of Warwick Lord Chief Justice Lord Bardolf Earl of Northumberland Lord Mowbray Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Surrey Rumour

Henry V

Henry V King of France Louis the Dauphin Fluellen Ancient Pistol Mistress Quickly Bardolph Corporal Nym Katharine Constable of France Chorus Duke of Exeter John, Duke of Bedford Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Westmorland Duke of Orléans Duke of Burgundy Duke of York Earl of Salisbury Earl of Warwick Duke of Bourbon Archbishop of Canterbury Bishop of Ely Queen Isabel Earl of Cambridge Lord Scroop Sir Thomas Grey Michael Williams Sir Thomas Erpingham Duke of Berry Battle of Agincourt

On screen

Richard II

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) The Life and Death of King Richard II (1960; TV) King Richard the Second (1978; TV) Richard the Second (2001) The Hollow Crown: Richard II (2012; TV)

1 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The First Part of King Henry the Fourth, with the life and death of Henry surnamed Hotspur (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
(2012; TV)

2 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Second Part of King Henry the Fourth containing his Death: and the Coronation of King Henry the Fift (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
(2012)

Henry V

Henry V (1944) An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Life of Henry the Fift (1979; TV) Henry V (1989) The Hollow Crown: Henry V (2012)

Sources

Holinshed's Chronicles The Famous Victories of Henry V
The Famous Victories of Henry V
(c.1585) Thomas of Woodstock/Richard the Second, Part One (c.1593)

Related plays

The Merry Wives of Windsor
The Merry Wives of Windsor
(c.1597) Sir John Oldcastle
Sir John Oldcastle
(1599) Falstaff's Wedding
Falstaff's Wedding
(1760)

Related music

Falstaff
Falstaff
(1913) At the Boar's Head
At the Boar's Head
(1925) Suite from Henry V (1963)

Historical context

Hundred Years' War Wars of the Roses Divine right of kings Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex John Oldcastle

v t e

William Shakespeare's first historical tetralogy

Henry VI, Part 1 Henry VI, Part 2 Henry VI, Part 3 Richard III

Characters and events

1 Henry VI

Henry VI Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Duke of Exeter Lord Talbot Duke of Bedford Richard, Duke of York Bishop of Winchester Earl of Suffolk Duke of Somerset (conflation of John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset and Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset) Earl of Warwick Earl of Salisbury John Talbot Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March (conflation of Sir Edmund Mortimer and Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March) Sir John Fastolf Charles the Dauphin Joan la Pucelle Margaret of Anjou Reignier, Duke of Anjou Duke of Alençon Bastard of Orléans Duke of Burgundy Jacques d'Arc Siege of Orléans Battle of Patay

2 Henry VI

Henry VI Queen Margaret Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Richard, Duke of York Earl of Salisbury Earl of Warwick Cardinal of Winchester Duke of Suffolk Duke of Buckingham Jack Cade Duke of Somerset (conflation of John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset and Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset) Duchess of Gloucester Edward Plantagenet Richard Plantagenet Lord Clifford Young Clifford Margery Jourdayne Lord Saye Lord Scales First Battle of St Albans Peasants' Revolt

3 Henry VI

Henry VI Queen Margaret Richard, Duke of York Earl of Warwick Edward IV Richard, Duke of Gloucester George, Duke of Clarence Edward, Prince of Wales Lord Clifford Lady Grey Montague Earl of Oxford Duke of Somerset (conflation of Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset and Edmund Beaufort, 4th Duke of Somerset) Lord Hastings Sir William Stanley Earl of Northumberland Duke of Exeter Duke of Norfolk Earl of Westmorland Lord Rivers Edmund, Earl of Rutland Henry, Earl of Richmond Louis XI of France Bona of Savoy Prince Edward Earl of Pembroke Lord Stafford Lord Bourbon Battle of Towton Battle of Barnet Battle of Wakefield Second Battle of St Albans Battle of Tewkesbury

Richard III

Richard III Duke of Buckingham Queen Elizabeth Duchess of York Queen Margaret Lady Neville George, Duke of Clarence Edward IV Lord Hastings Lord Stanley, Earl of Derby Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond Sir William Catesby Sir Richard Ratcliffe Lord Rivers Marquis of Dorset Sir James Tyrrell Lord Richard Grey Prince Edward Richard, Duke of York Earl of Warwick Countess of Salisbury Duke of Norfolk Archbishop of Canterbury Archbishop of York Earl of Surrey Sir Thomas Vaughan Sir Christopher Robert Brackenbury Lord Lovel Ghost of Henry VI Ghost of Edward, Prince of Wales Lord Mayor of London Earl of Oxford Sir James Blunt Sir William Brandon Bishop of Ely Sheriff of Wiltshire Wars of the Roses Princes in the Tower Battle of Bosworth Field

On screen

1 Henry VI

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) The Wars of the Roses
Wars of the Roses
(1965; TV) The First Part of Henry the Sixt (1983; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry VI, Part 1
Henry VI, Part 1
(2016; TV)

2 Henry VI

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) The Wars of the Roses
Wars of the Roses
(1965; TV) The Second Part of Henry the Sixt (1983; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry VI, Part 1
Henry VI, Part 1
& Henry VI, Part 2
Henry VI, Part 2
(2016; TV)

3 Henry VI

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) The Wars of the Roses
Wars of the Roses
(1965; TV) The Third Part of Henry the Sixt (1983; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry VI, Part 2
Henry VI, Part 2
(2016; TV)

Richard III

The Life and Death of King Richard III (1912) Richard III (1955) An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) The Wars of the Roses
Wars of the Roses
(1965; TV) The Tragedy of Richard III (1983; TV) "The Foretelling" (1983; TV) "King Richard III" (1994; TV) Richard III (1995) Looking for Richard
Looking for Richard
(1996) Richard III (2008) The Hollow Crown: Richard III (2016; TV)

Sources

The Mirror for Magistrates
The Mirror for Magistrates
(1559) Holinshed's Chronicles
Holinshed's Chronicles
(1577) Richardus Tertius (1580) The Spanish Tragedy The True Tragedy of Richard III
The True Tragedy of Richard III
(c.1590)

Historical context

Hundred Years' War Wars of the Roses House of Plantagenet House of York House of Lancaster

Related

"Even a worm will turn" The Tragical History of King Richard the Third (1699) David Garrick
David Garrick
as Richard III (1745)

v t e

William Shakespeare's Henry VIII

Characters

Henry VIII Cardinal Wolsey Queen Katherine Anne Bullen Duke of Buckingham Thomas Cranmer Stephen Gardiner Lord Chamerlain Duke of Norfolk Duke of Suffolk Earl of Surrey Cardinal Campeius Capucius Thomas Cromwell Lord Sands Lord Abergavenny Lord Chancellor Bishop of Lincoln Thomas Lovell Henry Guildford Nicholas Vaux Anthony Denny Dr. Butts Garter King-of-Arms

Sources

Thomas Wolsey, Late Cardinall, his Lyffe and Deathe (1558) Holinshed's Chronicles
Holinshed's Chronicles
(1577)

Adaptations

Henry VIII (1911) The Famous History of the Life of King Henry the Eight (1979)

Related

John Fletcher Cultural depictions of Henry VIII of England Globe Theatre

v t e

Shakespeare's sonnets

"Fair Youth" sonnets

Procreation sonnets

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77

Rival Poet
Poet
sonnets

78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86

87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125

"Envoy"

126

"Dark Lady" sonnets

127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152

"Anacreontics"

153 154

v t e

The "Beaumont and Fletcher" Canon

Francis Beaumont John Fletcher Philip Massinger

Nathan Field William Shakespeare James Shirley Thomas Middleton William Rowley John Ford Ben Jonson George Chapman John Webster

Plays (some attributions conjectural)

Beaumont

The Knight of the Burning Pestle The Masque of the Inner Temple and Gray's Inn

Beaumont and Fletcher

The Woman Hater Cupid's Revenge The Coxcomb Philaster The Captain The Maid's Tragedy A King and No King Love's Pilgrimage The Scornful Lady The Noble Gentleman

Fletcher

The Faithful Shepherdess The Woman's Prize Valentinian Bonduca Monsieur Thomas The Mad Lover The Chances The Loyal Subject Women Pleased The Humorous Lieutenant The Island Princess The Pilgrim The Wild Goose Chase A Wife for a Month Rule a Wife and Have a Wife

Fletcher and Massinger

†Barnavelt The Little French Lawyer The False One The Double Marriage The Custom of the Country The Lovers' Progress The Spanish Curate The Prophetess The Sea Voyage The Elder Brother †A Very Woman

Fletcher and others

with Beaumont & Massinger Thierry and Theodoret Beggars' Bush Love's Cure with Massinger & Field The Honest Man's Fortune The Queen of Corinth The Knight of Malta with Field Four Plays, or Moral Representations, in One with Shakespeare †Henry VIII The Two Noble Kinsmen with Shirley The Night Walker Wit Without Money with Rowley The Maid in the Mill with Massinger, Chapman & Jonson Rollo, Duke of Normandy with Massinger, Ford & Webster The Fair Maid of the Inn

Others

The Nice Valour (Middleton) Wit at Several Weapons (Middleton & Rowley) The Laws of Candy (Ford) The Coronation (Shirley)

Performance and Publication

English Renaissance
English Renaissance
theatre King's Men Beaumont and Fletcher folios Humphrey Moseley Humphrey Robinson

Related

The History of Cardenio ( Shakespeare
Shakespeare
& Fletcher?) † Double Falsehood
Double Falsehood
(possibly based on Cardenio)

† = Not published in the Beaumont and Fletcher folios

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