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Shiva (above) is the primary deity of Shaivism.

SHAIVISM ( IAST : ŚAIVISM) or "Saivam" is one of the major traditions in Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being or its metaphysical concept of Brahman . The followers of Shaivism are called "Shaivites" or "Saivites". Like much of Hinduism, the Shaiva have many sub-traditions, ranging from devotional dualistic theism such as Shaiva Siddhanta to yoga-oriented monistic non-theism such as Kashmiri Shaivism . It considers both the Vedas and the Agama texts as important sources of theology.

Shaivism has ancient roots, traceable in the Vedic literature of 2nd millennium BCE, but this is in the form of the Vedic deity Rudra . The ancient text _ Shvetashvatara Upanishad _ dated to late 1st millennium BCE mentions terms such as Rudra, Shiva and Maheshwaram, but its interpretation as a theistic or monistic text of Shaivism is disputed. In the early centuries of the common era is the first clear evidence of Pāśupata Shaivism. Both devotional and monistic Shaivism became popular in the 1st millennium CE, rapidly becoming the dominant religious tradition of many Hindu kingdoms. It arrived in Southeast Asia shortly thereafter, leading to thousands of Shaiva temples on the islands of Indonesia as well as Cambodia and Vietnam, co-evolving with Buddhism in these regions. In the contemporary era, Shaivism is one of the major aspects of Hinduism.

Shaivism theology ranges from Shiva being the creator, preserver, destroyer to being the same as the Atman (self, soul) within oneself and every living being. It is closely related to Shaktism , and some Shaiva worship in Shiva and Shakti temples. It is the Hindu tradition that most accepts ascetic life and emphasizes yoga , and like other Hindu traditions encourages an individual to discover and be one with Shiva within. Shaivism is one of the largest traditions within Hinduism.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology and nomenclature * 2 Overview

* 3 Origins and history

* 3.1 Vedic evidence * 3.2 Emergence of Shaivism * 3.3 Puranic Shaivism * 3.4 South India * 3.5 Southeast Asia

* 4 Beliefs and practices

* 4.1 Vedic, puranic and esoteric Shavism * 4.2 Shaivism versus other Hindu traditions

* 5 Texts

* 5.1 Vedas and Principal Upanishads * 5.2 Shaiva minor Upanishads * 5.3 Shaiva Agamas

* 6 Traditions

* 6.1 Sannyasi Shaiva: Atimarga

* 6.1.1 Pashupata Atimargi * 6.1.2 Lakula Atimargi

* 6.2 Grihastha and Sannyasi Shaiva: Mantramarga

* 6.2.1 Shaiva Siddhanta * 6.2.2 Nayanmars * 6.2.3 Tantra Diksha traditions * 6.2.4 Kashmir Shaivism

* 6.3 Nath * 6.4 Lingayatism

* 7 Demography

* 8 Influence

* 8.1 Shaktism * 8.2 Smarta Tradition * 8.3 Vaishnavism * 8.4 Sauraism (Sun deity) * 8.5 Yoga movements * 8.6 Hindu performance arts * 8.7 Buddhism * 8.8 Jainism

* 9 Temples and pilgrimage * 10 See also * 11 Notes

* 12 References

* 12.1 Citations * 12.2 Bibliography

* 13 External links

ETYMOLOGY AND NOMENCLATURE

Shiva ( IAST : _śiva_, Sanskrit : शिव) literally means kind, friendly, gracious, or auspicious. As a proper name, it means "The Auspicious One".

The word Shiva is used as an adjective in the Rig Veda, as an epithet for several Rigvedic deities , including Rudra . The term Shiva also connotes "liberation, final emancipation" and "the auspicious one", this adjective sense of usage is addressed to many deities in Vedic layers of literature. The term evolved from the Vedic _Rudra-Shiva_ to the noun _Shiva_ in the Epics and the Puranas, as an auspicious deity who is the "creator, reproducer and dissolver".

The Sanskrit word _śaiva_ or Shaiva means "relating to the god Shiva", while the related beliefs, practices, history, literature and sub-traditions constitute Shaivism.

OVERVIEW

The reverence for Shiva is one of the pan- Hindu traditions, found widely across India, Sri Lanka and Nepal. While Shiva is revered broadly, Hinduism itself is a complex religion and a way of life, with a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions. It has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet(s) nor any binding holy book; Hindus can choose to be polytheistic, pantheistic, monotheistic, monistic, agnostic, atheistic or humanist.

Shaivism is a major tradition within Hinduism, with a theology that is predominantly related to the Hindu god Shiva. Shaivism has many different sub-traditions with regional variations and differences in philosophy. Shaivism has a vast literature with different philosophical schools, ranging from nondualism , dualism , and mixed schools .

ORIGINS AND HISTORY

See also: Shiva The Pashupati seal from the 3rd millennium BCE Indus Valley civilization.

The origins of Shaivism are unclear and a matter of debate among scholars. Some trace the origins to the Indus Valley civilization , which reached its peak around 2500–2000 BCE. Archeological discoveries show seals that suggest a deity that somewhat appears like Shiva. Of these is the " Pashupati seal", which early scholars interpreted as someone seated in a meditating yoga pose surrounded by animals, and with horns. This "Pashupati" (Lord of Animals, Sanskrit _paśupati_) seal has been interpreted by these scholars as a prototype of Shiva. Gavin Flood characterizes these views as "speculative", saying that it is not clear from the seal if the figure has three faces, or is seated in a yoga posture, or even that the shape is intended to represent a human figure.

Other scholars state that the Indus Valley script remains undeciphered, and the interpretation of the Pashupati seal is uncertain. According to Srinivasan, the proposal that it is proto- Shiva may be a case of projecting "later practices into archeological findings". Similarly, Asko Parpola states that other archaeological finds such as the early Elamite seals dated to 3000-2750 BCE show similar figures and these have been interpreted as "seated bull" and not a yogi, and the bull interpretation is likely more accurate.

VEDIC EVIDENCE

The _ Rigveda _ (~1500–1200 BCE) has the earliest clear mention of Rudra and Shiva in its hymns such as 2.33, 1.43 and 1.114. The text also includes a _Satarudriya_, an influential hymn with embedded hundred epithets for Rudra, that is cited in many medieval era Shaiva texts as well as recited in major Shiva temples of Hindus in contemporary times. Yet, the Vedic literature only present scriptural theology, but does not attest to the existence of Shaivism.

The _ Shvetashvatara Upanishad _, likely composed before the _Bhagavad Gita _ about the 4th-century BCE, contains the theistic foundations of Shaivism wrapped in a monistic structure. It contains the key terms and ideas of Shaivism, such as Shiva, Rudra, Maheswara, Guru, Bhakti, Yoga, Atman, Brahman and self-knowledge.

EMERGENCE OF SHAIVISM

See also: Rudra and Shiva

According to Gavin Flood , "the formation of Śaiva traditions as we understand them begins to occur during the period from 200 BC to 100 AD." According to Chakravarti, Shiva rose to prominence as he was identified to be the same as Purusha , Rudra , Agni , Indra , Prajāpati , Vāyu , among others. 2nd century CE Kushan coins with one side showing a deity with a bull. Some scholars consider the deity as Shiva because he holds a trident , is in ithyphallic state and next to Nandi bull his mount, as in Shaivism. Others suggest him to be Zoroastrian Oesho , not Shiva.

Patanjali 's _Mahābhasya_, dated to the 2nd century BCE, mentions the term _Shiva-bhagavata_ in section 5.2.76. Patanjali, while explaining Panini's rules of grammar, states that this term refers to a devotee clad in animal skins and carrying an _ayah sulikah_ (iron spear, trident lance) as an icon representing his god.

The _ Mahabharata _ is another ancient Sanskrit text that mentions Shaiva ascetics, such as in chapters 4.13 and 13.140. Other evidence that is possibly linked to the importance of Shaivism in ancient times are in epigraphy and numismatics, such as in the form of prominent Shiva-like reliefs on Kushan Empire era gold coins. However, this is controversial, as an alternate hypothesis for these reliefs is based on Zoroastrian Oesho. According to Flood, coins dated to the ancient Greek, Saka and Parthian kings who ruled parts of the Indian subcontinent after the arrival of Alexander the Great also show Shiva iconography, but this evidence is weak and subject to competing inferences.

The inscriptions found in the Himalayan region, such as those in the Kathmandu valley of Nepal suggest that Shaivism (particularly Pashupata monism) was established in this region during the Mauryas and the Guptas reign of the Indian subcontinent, by the 5th century. These inscriptions have been dated by modern techniques to between 466 and 645 CE.

PURANIC SHAIVISM

During the Gupta Dynasty (c. 320 - 500 CE) the genre of Purana literature developed in India, and many of these Puranas contain extensive chapters on Shaivism – along with Vaishnavism , Shaktism, Smarta Traditions of Brahmins and other topics – suggesting the importance of Shaivism by then. The most important Shaiva Puranas of this period include the _ Shiva Purana _ and the _ Linga Purana _. Shaiva icons and a Hindu woman praying in River Narmada, Maheshwar , Madhya Pradesh.

In early 7th century the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Xuanzang (Huen Tsang) visited India and wrote a memoir in Chinese that mentions the prevalence of Shiva temples all over North Indian subcontinent , including in the Hindu Kush region such as Nuristan . Between the 5th and 11th century CE, major Shaiva temples had been built in central, southern and eastern regions of the subcontinent, including those at Badami cave temples , Aihole, Elephanta Caves , Ellora Caves (Kailasha, cave 16), Khajuraho , Bhuvaneshwara, Chidambaram, Madurai, Conjeevaram.

Major scholars of competing Hindu traditions from the second half of the 1st millennium CE, such as Adi Shankara of Advaita Vedanta and Ramanuja of Vaishnavism, mention several Shaiva sects, particularly the four groups: Pashupata, Lakulisha, tantric Shaiva and Kapalika. The description is conflicting, with some texts stating the tantric, puranic and Vedic traditions of Shaivism to be hostile to each other while others suggest them to be amicable sub-traditions. Some texts state that Kapalikas reject the Vedas and are involved in extreme experimentation, while others state the Shaiva sub-traditions revere the Vedas but are non-Puranic.

SOUTH INDIA

Shaivism was likely the predominant tradition in South India, co-existing with Buddhism and Jainism, before the Vaishnava Alvars launched the Bhakti movement in the 7th-century and influential Vedanta scholars such as Ramanuja developed a philosophical and organizational framework that helped Vaishnava expand. Though both traditions of Hinduism have ancient roots, given their mention in the Epics such as the _Mahabharata_, Shaivism flourished in South India much earlier.

The Mantramarga of Shaivism, according to Alexis Sanderson, provided a template for the later though independent and highly influential Pancaratrika treatises of Vaishnava. This is evidenced in Hindu texts such as the _Isvarasamhita_, _Padmasamhita_ and _Paramesvarasamhita_. The 7th to 8th-century Shore Temple at Mahabalipuram is a UNESCO World Heritage site. It features thousands of Shaivism-related sculptures.

Along with the Himalayan region stretching from Kashmir through Nepal, the Shaiva tradition in South India has been one of the largest sources of preserved Shaivism-related manuscripts from ancient and medieval India. The region was also the source of Hindu arts, temple architecture, and merchants who helped spread Shaivism into southeast Asia in early 1st millennium CE.

There are tens of thousands of Hindu temples where Shiva is either the primary deity or reverentially included in anthropomorphic or aniconic form (lingam, or svayambhu ). Numerous historic Shaiva temples have survived in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Certain regions have a greater density of Shiva temples, such as in the Thanjavur region of Tamil Nadu , where numerous Shaiva temples were built during the Chola empire era, between 800 and 1200 CE. Gudimallam is the oldest known lingam and has been dated to between 3rd to 1st-century BCE. It is a carved five feet high stone lingam with an anthropomorphic image of Shiva on one side. This ancient lingam is in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh.

SOUTHEAST ASIA

An image collage of 1st millennium CE Shaivism icons and temples from Southeast Asia (top left): Shiva in yoga pose, Nandi, Prambanan temple, Yoni- Linga and Hindu temple layout.

Shaivism arrived in a major way in southeast Asia from south India, and to much lesser extent into China and Tibet from the Himalayan region. It co-developed with Buddhism in this region, in many cases. For example, in the Caves of the Thousand Buddhas , a few caves include Shaivism ideas. The epigraphical and cave arts evidence suggest that Shaiva Mahesvara and Mahayana Buddhism had arrived in Indo-China region in the Funan period, that is in the first half of the 1st millennium CE. In Indonesia, temples at archaeological sites and numerous inscription evidence dated to the early period (400 to 700 CE), suggest that Shiva was the highest god. This co-existence of Shaivism and Buddhism in Indonesian islands continued through about 1500 CE when both Hinduism and Buddhism were replaced with Islam.

The Shaivism and Buddhism tradition overlapped significantly in southeast Asia, particularly in Indonesia, Cambodia and Vietnam between the 5th and the 15th-century. Shaivism and Shiva held the paramount position in ancient Java, Sumatra, Bali and neighboring islands, though the sub-tradition that developed creatively integrated more ancient beliefs that pre-existed. In the centuries that followed, the merchants and monks who arrived in southeast Asia, brought Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Buddhism, and these developed into a syncretic, mutually supporting form of traditions.

BELIEFS AND PRACTICES

Shaivism centers around Shiva, but it has many sub-traditions whose theological beliefs and practices vary significantly. They range from dualistic devotional theism to monistic meditative discovery of Shiva within oneself. Within each of these theologies, there are two sub-groups. One sub-group is called Vedic-Puranic, who use the terms such as "Shiva, Mahadeva, Maheshvara and others" synonymously, and they use iconography such as the Linga , Nandi , Trishula (trident), as well as anthropomorphic statues of Shiva in temples to help focus their practices. Another sub-group is called esoteric, which fuses it with abstract _Sivata_ (feminine energy) or _Sivatva_ (neuter abstraction), wherein the theology integrates the goddess (Shakti) and the god (Shiva) with Tantra practices and Agama teachings. There is a considerable overlap between these Shaivas and the Shakta Hindus.

VEDIC, PURANIC AND ESOTERIC SHAVISM

Scholars such as Alexis Sanderson discuss Shaivism in three categories: vedic, puranic and non-puranic (esoteric, tantric). They place Vedic and Puranic together given the significant overlap, while placing Non-Puranic esoteric sub-traditions as a separate category. _ Two female Shaiva ascetics (18th century painting)

* Vedic-Puranic_. The majority within Shaivism follow the Vedic-Puranic traditions. They revere the Vedas, the Puranas and have beliefs that span dualistic theism style Shiva Bhakti (devotionalism) to monistic non-theism dedicated to yoga and meditative lifestyle sometimes with renouncing householder life for monastic pursuits of spirituality. The Yoga practice is particularly pronounced in nondualistic Shaivism, with the practice refined into a methodology such as four-fold _upaya_: being pathless (anupaya, iccha-less, desire-less), being divine (sambhavopaya, _jnana_, knowledge-full), being energy (saktopaya, _kriya_, action-full) and being individual (anavopaya). * _Non-Puranic_. These are esoteric, minority sub-traditions wherein devotees are initiated (_dīkṣa_) into a specific cult they prefer. Their goals vary, ranging from liberation in current life (_mukti_) to seeking pleasures in higher worlds (_bhukti_). Their means also vary, ranging from meditative _atimarga_ or "outer higher path" versus those who means is recitation-driven _mantras_. The _atimarga_ sub-traditions include Pashupatas and Lakula. According to Sanderson, the Pashupatas have the oldest heritage, likely from the 2nd century CE, as evidenced by ancient Hindu texts such as the Shanti Parva book of the _ Mahabharata _ epic. The tantric sub-tradition in this category is traceable to post-8th to post-11th century depending on the region of Indian subcontinent, paralleling the development of Buddhist and Jain tantra traditions in this period. Among these are the dualistic Saiva Siddhanta and Bhairava Shaivas (non-Saiddhantika), based on whether they recognize any value in vedic orthopraxy. These sub-traditions cherish secrecy, special symbolic formulae, initiation by a teacher and the pursuit of _siddhi_ (special powers). Some of these traditions also incorporate theistic ideas, elaborate geometric yantra with embedded spiritual meaning, mantras and rituals.

SHAIVISM VERSUS OTHER HINDU TRADITIONS

Shaivism sub-traditions subscribe to various philosophies, are similar in some aspects and differ in others. These traditions compare with Vaishnavism, Shaktism and Smartism as follows:

Comparison of Shaivism with other traditions

SHAIVA TRADITIONS VAISHNAVA TRADITIONS SHAKTA TRADITIONS SMARTA TRADITIONS REFERENCES

Scriptural authority Vedas, Upanishads and Agamas Vedas, Upanishads and Agamas Vedas and Upanishads Vedas and Upanishads

Supreme deity god Shiva god Vishnu goddess Devi None

Creator Shiva Vishnu Devi Brahman principle

Avatar Minor Key concept Significant Minor

Monastic life Recommends Accepts Accepts Recommends

Rituals, Bhakti Optional Affirms Affirms Optional

Ahimsa and Vegetarianism Optional Affirms Optional Recommends, Optional

Free will , Maya , Karma Affirms Affirms Affirms Affirms

Metaphysics Brahman (Shiva) and Atman (Soul, Self) Brahman (Vishnu), Atman Brahman (Devi), Atman Brahman, Atman

Epistemology ( Pramana ) 1. Perception 2. Inference 3. Reliable testimony 4. Self-evident 1. Perception 2. Inference 3. Reliable testimony 1. Perception 2. Inference 3. Reliable testimony 1. Perception 2. Inference 3. Comparison and analogy 4. Postulation, derivation 5. Negative/cognitive proof 6. Reliable testimony

Philosophy Dvaita, qualified advaita, advaita Dvaita, qualified advaita, advaita Shakti-advaita Advaita

Salvation ( Soteriology ) Jivanmukta, Shiva is soul, Yoga, champions monastic life Videhamukti, Yoga, champions householder life Bhakti, Tantra, Yoga Jivanmukta, Advaita, Yoga, champions monastic life

TEXTS

SHAIVA MANUSCRIPTS THAT HAVE SURVIVED (post-8th century)

Nepal and Himalayan region = 140,000 South India = 8,600 Others (Devanagiri) = 2,000 Bali and SE Asia = Many —Alexis Sanderson, _The Saiva Literature_

Over its history, Shaivism has been nurtured by numerous texts ranging from scriptures to theological treatises. These include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Agamas, and the _ Bhasya _. According to Gavin Flood – a professor at Oxford University specializing in Shaivism and phenomenology, Shaiva scholars developed a sophisticated theology, in its diverse traditions. Among the notable and influential commentaries by _dvaita_ (dualistic) theistic Shaivism scholars were the 8th century Sadyajoti, the 10th century Ramakantha, 11th century Bhojadeva. The dualistic theology was challenged by the numerous scholars of _advaita_ (nondualistic, monistic) Shaivism persuasion such as the 8th/9th century Vasugupta, the 10th century Abhinavagupta and 11th century Kshemaraja, particularly the scholars of the Pratyabhijna, Spanda and Kashmiri Shaivism schools of theologians.

VEDAS AND PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS

The Vedas and Upanishads are shared scriptures of Hinduism , while the Agamas are sacred texts of specific sub-traditions. The surviving Vedic literature can be traced to the 1st millennium BCE and earlier, while the surviving Agamas can be traced to 1st millennium of the common era. The Vedic literature, in Shaivism, is primary and general, while Agamas are special treatise. In terms of philosophy and spiritual precepts, no Agama that goes against the Vedic literature, states Mariasusai Dhavamony, will be acceptable to the Shaivas. According to David Smith, "a key feature of the Tamil Saiva Siddhanta, one might almost say its defining feature, is the claim that its source lies in the Vedas as well as the Agamas, in what it calls the Vedagamas". This school's view can be summed as,

The Veda is the cow, the true Agama its milk. — Umapati, Translated by David Smith

The _Śvetāśvatara Upanishad _ (400 - 200 BCE) is the earliest textual exposition of a systematic philosophy of Shaivism.

SHAIVA MINOR UPANISHADS

Shaivism-inspired scholars authored 14 Shiva-focussed Upanishads that are called the Shaiva Upanishads. These are considered part of 95 minor Upanishads in the Muktikā Upanishadic corpus of Hindu literature. The earliest among these were likely composed in 1st millennium BCE, while the last ones in the late medieval era.

The Shaiva Upanishads present diverse ideas, ranging from bhakti -style theistic dualism themes to a synthesis of Shaiva ideas with Advaitic (nondualism), Yoga, Vaishnava and Shakti themes.

Shaivism Upanishads Shaiva Upanishad Composition date Topics Reference

_Kaivalya Upanishad _ 1st millennium BCE Shiva, Atman, Brahman, Sannyasa , Self-knowledge

_Atharvashiras Upanishad _ 1st millennium BCE Rudra, Atman, Brahman, Om, monism

_Atharvashikha Upanishad _ 1st millennium BCE Shiva, Om, Brahman, chanting, meditation

_Brihajjabala Upanishad _ Late medieval, post-12th century Shiva, sacred ash, prayer beads, Tripundra tilaka

_Kalagni Rudra Upanishad _ Unknown Meaning of Tripundra (three lines tilaka), Ritual Shaivism

_Dakshinamurti Upanishad _ Unknown Dakshinamurti as an aspect of Shiva, Atman, monism

_Sharabha Upanishad _ Unknown Shiva as Sharabha

_Akshamalika Upanishad _ Late medieval, post-12th century AD Rosary, japa, mantras, Om, Shiva, symbolism in Shaivism iconography

_Rudrahridaya Upanishad _ Unknown Rudra-Uma, Male-Female are inseparable, nondualism

_Bhasmajabala Upanishad _ Late medieval, post-12th century Shiva, sacred ash, body art, iconography, why rituals and Varanasi are important

_Rudrakshajabala Upanishad _ After 10th century Shiva, Bhairava, Rudraksha beads and mantra recitation

_Ganapati Upanishad _ 16th or 17th century Ganesha, Shiva, Brahman, Atman, Om, Satcitananda

_Pancabrahma Upanishad _ About 7th century AD Shiva, Sadashiva, nondualism, So\'ham , Atman, Brahman, self-knowledge

_Jabali Upanishad _ unknown Shiva, Pashupata theology, significance of ash and body art

SHAIVA AGAMAS

The Agama texts of Shaivism are another important foundation of Shaivism theology. These texts include Shaiva cosmology , epistemology, philosophical doctrines, precepts on meditation and practices, four kinds of yoga, mantras, meanings and manuals for Shaiva temples, and other elements of practice. These canonical texts exist in Sanskrit and in south Indian languages such as Tamil .

The Agamas present a diverse range of philosophies, ranging from theistic dualism to absolute monism . In Shaivism, there are ten dualistic (dvaita ) Agama texts, eighteen qualified monism-cum-dualism (bhedabheda ) Agama texts and sixty four monism (advaita ) Agama texts. The Bhairava Shastras are monistic, while Shiva Shastras are dualistic.

The Agama texts of Shaiva and Vaishnava schools are premised on existence of Atman (soul, self) and the existence of an Ultimate Reality ( Brahman which is consider identical to Shiva in Shaivism. The texts differ in the relation between the two. Some assert the dualistic philosophy of the individual soul and Ultimate Reality being different, while others state a Oneness between the two. Kashmir Shaiva Agamas posit absolute oneness, that is God (Shiva) is within man, God is within every being, God is present everywhere in the world including all non-living beings, and there is no spiritual difference between life, matter, man and God. While Agamas present diverse theology, in terms of philosophy and spiritual precepts, no Agama that goes against the Vedic literature, states Dhavamony, has been acceptable to the Shaivas.

TRADITIONS

Shaivism is ancient, and over time it developed many sub-traditions. These broadly existed and are studied in three groups: theistic dualism, nontheistic monism, and those that combine features or practices of the two. Sanderson presents the historic classification found in Indian texts, namely _Atimarga_ of the Shaiva monks and _Mantramarga_ that was followed by both the renunciates (_sannyasi _) and householders (_grihastha _) in Shaivism. Sub-traditions of Shaivas did not exclusively focus on Shiva, but others such as the Devi (goddess) Shaktism .

SANNYASI SHAIVA: ATIMARGA

The Atimarga branch of Shaivism emphasizes liberation (salvation) – or the end of all Dukkha – as the primary goal of spiritual pursuits. It was the path for Shaiva ascetics , in contrast to Shaiva householders whose path was described as Mantramarga and who sought both salvation as well as the yogi-siddhi powers and pleasures in life. The Atimarga revered the Vedic sources of Shaivism, and sometimes referred to in ancient Indian texts as Raudra (from Vedic Rudra ).

Pashupata Atimargi

Lakulisha at Sangameshvara Temple at Mahakuta, Karnataka (Chalukya , 7th century CE). His 5th-10th century ithyphallic statues are also found in seated yogi position in Rajasthan , Uttar Pradesh and elsewhere.

Pashupata : (IAST: _Pāśupatas_) are the Shaivite sub-tradition with the oldest heritage, as evidenced by Indian texts dated to around the start of the common era. It is a monist tradition, that considers Shiva to be within oneself, in every being and everything observed. The Pashupata path to liberation is one of asceticism that is traditionally restricted to Brahmin males. Pashupata theology, according to _ Shiva Sutras_, aims for a spiritual state of consciousness where the Pashupata yogi "abides in one's own unfettered nature", where the external rituals feel unnecessary, where every moment and every action becomes an internal vow, a spiritual ritual unto itself.

The Pashupatas derive their Sanskrit name from two words: Pashu (beast) and Pati (lord), where the chaotic and ignorant state, one imprisoned by bondage and assumptions, is conceptualized as the beast, and the Atman (self, soul, Shiva) that is present eternally everywhere as the Pati. The tradition aims at realizing the state of being one with Shiva within and everywhere. It has extensive literature, and a fivefold path of spiritual practice that starts with external practices, evolving into internal practices and ultimately meditative yoga, with the aim of overcoming all suffering (Dukkha) and reaching the state of bliss (Ananda).

The tradition is attributed to a sage from Gujarat named Lakulisha (~2nd century CE). He is the purported author of the _Pashupata sutras_, a foundational text of this tradition. Other texts include the bhasya (commentary) on _Pashupata sutras_ by Kaudinya, the _Gaṇakārikā_, _Pañchārtha bhāshyadipikā_ and _Rāśikara-bhāshya_. The Pashupatha monastic path was available to anyone of any age, but it required renunciation from four Ashrama (stage) into the fifth stage of _Siddha-Ashrama_. The path started as a life near a Shiva temple and silent meditation, then a stage when the ascetic left the temple and did karma exchange (be cursed by others, but never curse back). He then moved to the third stage of life where he lived like a loner in a cave or abandoned places or Himalayan mountains, and towards the end of his life he moved to a cremation ground, surviving on little, peacefully awaiting his death.

The Pashupatas have been particularly prominent in Gujarat , Rajasthan , Kashmir and Nepal . The community is found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent. In the late medieval era, Pashupatas Shaiva ascetics became extinct.

Lakula Atimargi

This second division of the Atimarga developed from the Pashupatas. Their fundamental text too was the Pashupata Sutras. They differed from Pashupata Atimargi in that they departed radically from the Vedic teachings, respected no Vedic or social customs. He would walk around, for example, almost naked, drank liquor in public, and used a human skull as his begging bowl for food. The Lakula Shaiva ascetic recognized no act nor words as forbidden, he freely did whatever he felt like, much like the classical depiction of his deity Rudra in ancient Hindu texts. However, according to Alexis Sanderson, the Lakula ascetic was strictly celibate and did not engage in sex.

Secondary literature, such as those written by Kashmiri Ksemaraja, suggest that the Lakula had their canons on theology, rituals and literature on pramanas (epistemology). However, their primary texts are believed to be lost, and have not survived into the modern era.

GRIHASTHA AND SANNYASI SHAIVA: MANTRAMARGA

The horizontal three ash lines ( Tripundra ) with a red mark on forehead is a revered mark across Shaiva traditions symbolizing Om .

"Mantramārga" ( Sanskrit : मन्त्रमार्ग, "the path of mantras") has been the Shaiva tradition for both householders and monks. It grew from the Atimarga tradition. This tradition sought not just liberation from _Dukkha_ (suffering, unsatisfactoriness), but special powers (_siddhi_) and pleasures (_bhoga_), both in this life and next. The _siddhi_ were particularly the pursuit of _Mantramarga_ monks, and it is this sub-tradition that experimented with a great diversity of rites, deities, rituals, yogic techniques and mantras. Both the Mantramarga and Atimarga are ancient traditions, more ancient than the date of their texts that have survived, according to Sanderson. Mantramārga grew to become a dominant form of Shaivism in this period. It also spread outside of India into Southeast Asia 's Khmer Empire , Java , Bali and Cham .

The Mantramarga tradition created the Shaiva Agamas and Shaiva tantra (technique) texts. This literature presented new forms of ritual, yoga and mantra. This literature was highly influential not just to Shaivism, but to all traditions of Hinduism, as well as to Buddhism and Jainism. Mantramarga had both theistic and monistic themes, which co-evolved and influenced each other. The tantra texts reflect this, where the collection contain both dualistic and non-dualistic theologies. The theism in the tantra texts parallel those found in Vaishnavism and Shaktism. Shaiva Siddhanta is a major subtradition that emphasized dualism during much of its history.

Shaivism has had strong nondualistic (advaita) sub-traditions. Its central premise has been that the Atman (soul, self) of every being is identical to Shiva, its various practices and pursuits directed at understanding and being one with the Shiva within. This monism is close but differs somewhat from the monism found in Advaita Vedanta of Adi Shankara. Unlike Shankara's Advaita, Shaivism monist schools consider Maya as Shakti, or energy and creative primordial power that explains and propels the existential diversity.

Srikantha (ca. 1050) formulated Shiva Vishishtadvaita . In this theology, Atman (soul) is not identical with Brahman , but shares with the Supreme all excellent qualities. Appaya Dikshita (ca. 1520–1592), an Advaita scholar, revitalized the monism of Srikantha, producing a Shaiva theology which would become influential in South India (including the Karnataka region).

Shaiva Siddhanta

_ Tirumular , the great Tamil Śaivasiddhānta poet and mystic saint (siddha_).

The Śaivasiddhānta ("the established doctrine of Shiva") is the earliest sampradaya (tradition, lineage) of Tantric Shaivism, dating from the 5th century. The tradition emphasizes loving devotion to Shiva, uses 5th to 9th-century hymns called Tirumurai. A key philosophical text of this sub-tradition was composed by 13th-century Meykandar . This theology presents three universal realities: the _pashu_ (individual soul), the _pati_ (lord, Shiva), and the _pasha_ (soul’s bondage) through ignorance, karma and maya . The tradition teaches ethical living, service to the community and through one's work, loving worship, yoga practice and discipline, continuous learning and self-knowledge as means for liberating the individual soul from bondage.

The tradition may have originated in Kashmir where it developed a sophisticated theology propagated by theologians Sadyojoti, Bhatta Nārāyanakantha and his son Bhatta Rāmakantha (c. 950–1000). However, after the arrival of Islamic rulers in north India, it thrived in the south. The philosophy of Shaiva Siddhanta , is particularly popular in south India , Sri Lanka , Malaysia and Singapore .

The historic Shaiva Siddhanta literature is an enormous body of texts. The tradition includes both Shiva and Shakti (goddess), but with a growing emphasis on metaphysical abstraction. Unlike the experimenters of Atimarga tradition and other sub-traditions of Mantramarga, states Sanderson, the Shaiva Siddhanta tradition had no ritual offering or consumption of "alcoholic drinks, blood or meat". Their practices focussed on abstract ideas of spirituality, worship and loving devotion to Shiva as SadaShiva, and taught the authority of the Vedas and Shaiva Agamas. This tradition diversified in its ideas over time, with some of its scholars integrating a non-dualistic theology.

Nayanmars

Nayanmars Shaiva poet-saints are credited with Bhakti movement in Shaivism. It included three women saints, such as the 6th-century Karaikkal Ammaiyar .

By the 7th century, the Nayanmars , a tradition of poet-saints in the bhakti tradition developed in South India with a focus on Shiva, comparable to that of the Vaisnava Alvars. The devotional poems of the Nayanmars are divided into eleven collections together known as "Thirumurai", along with a Tamil Purana called the "Perilya puranam". The first seven collections are known as the _Thevaram _ and are regarded by Tamils as equivalent to the Vedas . They were composed in the 7th century by Sambandar , Appar , and Sundarar .

Tirumular (also spelled Tirumūlār or Tirumūlar), the author of the _Tirumantiram_ (also spelled _Tirumandiram_) is considered by Tattwananda to be the earliest exponent of Shaivism in Tamil areas. Tirumular is dated as 7th or 8th century by Maurice Winternitz. The _Tirumantiram_ is a primary source for the system of Shaiva Siddhanta, being the tenth book of its canon. The _Tiruvacakam _ by Manikkavacagar is an important collection of hymns.

Tantra Diksha Traditions

The main element of all Shaiva Tantra is the practice of diksha , a ceremonial initiation in which divinely revealed mantras are given to the initiate by a Guru .

A notable feature of some "left tantra" ascetics was their pursuit of siddhis (supernatural abilities) and _bala_ (powers), such as averting danger (_santih_) and the ability to harm enemies (_abhicarah_). Ganachakras , ritual feasts, would sometimes be held in cemeteries and cremation grounds and featured possession by powerful female deities called Yoginis . The cult of Yoginis aimed to gain special powers through esoteric worship of the Shakti or the feminine aspects of the divine. The groups included sisterhoods that participated in the rites.

Some traditions defined the special powers differently. For example, the Kashmiri tantrics explain the powers as _anima_ (awareness than one is present in everything), _laghima_ (lightness, be free from presumed diversity or differences), _mahima_ (heaviness, realize one's limit is beyond one's own consciousness), _prapti_ (attain, be restful and at peace with one's own nature), _prakamya_ (forebearance, grasp and accept cosmic diversity), _vasita_ (control, realize that one always has power to do whatever one wants), _isitva_ (self lordship, a yogi is always free). More broadly, the tantric sub-traditions sought nondual knowledge and enlightening liberation by abandoning all rituals, and with the help of reasoning (_yuktih_), scriptures (_sastras_) and the initiating Guru.

Kashmir Shaivism

A 3rd century Nandi statue from Kashmir.

Kashmir Shaivism is an influential tradition within Shaivism that emerged in Kashmir in the 1st millennium CE and thrived in early centuries of the 2nd millennium before the region was overwhelmed by the Islamic invasions from the Hindu Kush region. The Kashmir Shaivism traditions became nearly extinct except for their preservation by Kashmiri Pandits.

Kashmir Shaivism has been a nondualistic school, and is distinct from the dualistic Shaiva Siddhānta tradition that also existed in medieval Kashmir. A notable philosophy of monistic Kashmiri Shaivism has been the Pratyabhijna ideas, particularly those by the 10th century scholar Utpaladeva and 11th century Abhinavagupta and Kshemaraja . Their extensive texts established the Shaiva theology and philosophy in an advaita (monism ) framework. The _Siva Sutras_ of 9th century Vasugupta and his ideas about _Spanda_ have also been influential to this and other Shaiva sub-traditions, but it is probable that much older Shaiva texts once existed.

A notable feature of Kashmir Shaivism was its openness and integration of ideas from Shaktism , Vaishnavism and Vajrayana Buddhism . For example, one sub-tradition of Kashmir Shaivism adopts Goddess worship (Shaktism) by stating that the approach to god Shiva is through goddess Shakti. This tradition combined monistic ideas with tantric practices. Another idea of this school was _Trika_, or modal triads of Shakti and cosmology as developed by Somananda in early 10th century.

NATH

Goraknath founded the Nath Shaiva monastic movement.

Nath : a Shaiva subtradition that emerged from a much older Siddha tradition based on Yoga . The Nath consider Shiva as "Adinatha" or the first guru, and it has been a small but notable and influential movement in India whose devotees were called " Yogi or Jogi", given their monastic unconventional ways and emphasis on Yoga.

Nath theology integrated philosophy from Advaita Vedanta and Buddhism traditions. Their unconventional ways challenged all orthodox premises, exploring dark and shunned practices of society as a means to understanding theology and gaining inner powers. The tradition traces itself to 9th or 10th century Matsyendranath and to ideas and organization developed by Gorakshanath . They combined both theistic practices such as worshipping goddesses and their historic Gurus in temples, as well monistic goals of achieving liberation or _jivan-mukti _ while alive, by reaching the perfect (_siddha_) state of realizing oneness of self and everything with Shiva.

They formed monastic organisations, and some of them metamorphosed into warrior ascetics to resist persecution during the Islamic rule of the Indian subcontinent.

LINGAYATISM

A necklace with pendant containing linga symbol of Shiva are worn by Lingayats.

Lingayatism , also known as Vira Shaivism: is a distinct Shaivite religious tradition in India . It was founded by the 12th-century philosopher and statesman Basava and spread by his followers, called Sharanas .

Lingayatism emphasizes qualified monism and bhakti (loving devotion) to Shiva, with philosophical foundations similar to those of the 11th–12th-century South Indian philosopher Ramanuja . Its worship is notable for the iconographic form of _Ishtalinga_, which the adherents wear. Large communities of Lingayats are found in the south Indian state of Karnataka and nearby regions. Lingayatism has its own theological literature with sophisticated theoretical sub-traditions.

They were influential in the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire that reversed the territorial gains of Muslim rulers, after the invasions of the Deccan region first by Delhi Sultanate and later other Sultanates. Langayats consider their scripture to be _ Basava Purana _, which was completed in 1369 during the reign of Vijayanagara ruler Bukka Raya I . Lingayat (Veerashaiva) thinkers rejected the custodial hold of Brahmins over the Vedas and the shastras , but they did not outright reject the Vedic knowledge. The 13th-century Telugu Virashaiva poet Palkuriki Somanatha , the author of the scripture of Lingayatism, for example asserted, "Virashaivism fully conformed to the Vedas and the shastras."

DEMOGRAPHY

There is no census data available on demographic history or trends for Shaivism or other traditions within Hinduism. Estimates vary on the relative number of adherents in Shaivism compared to other traditions of Hinduism. According to a 2010 estimate by Johnson and Grim, the Shaivism tradition is the second largest group with 252 million or 26.6% of Hindus. In contrast, according to Jones and Ryan, Shaivism is the largest tradition of Hinduism. Shaivism and Buddhism have co-developed in many regions. Above a syncretic image of Yoni- Linga with four reliefs of the Buddha in a Vajrayana temple.

According to Galvin Flood, that Shaivism and Shaktism traditions are difficult to separate, as many Shaiva Hindus revere the goddess Shakti regularly. The denominations of Hinduism, states Julius Lipner, are unlike those found in major religions of the world, because Hindu denominations are fuzzy with individuals revering gods and goddesses polycentrically , with many Shaiva and Vaishnava adherents recognizing Sri (Lakshmi), Parvati, Saraswati and other aspects of the goddess Devi. Similarly, Shakta Hindus revere Shiva and goddesses such as Parvati (such as Durga, Radha, Sita and others) and Saraswati important in Shaiva and Vaishnava traditions.

INFLUENCE

Shiva is a pan- Hindu god and Shaivism ideas on Yoga and as the god of performance arts ( Nataraja ) have been influential on all traditions of Hinduism.

Shaivism was highly influential in southeast Asia from the late 6th century onwards, particularly the Khmer and Cham kingdoms of Indo-China, and across the major islands of Indonesia such as Sumatra, Java and Bali. This influence on classical Cambodia , Vietnam and Thailand continued when Mahayana Buddhism arrived with the same Indians.

In Shaivism of Indonesia, the popular name for Shiva has been _Bhattara Guru_, which is derived from Sanskrit _Bhattaraka_ which means “noble lord". He is conceptualized as a kind spiritual teacher, the first of all Gurus in Indonesian Hindu texts, mirroring the Dakshinamurti aspect of Shiva in the Indian subcontinent. However, the Bhattara Guru has more aspects than the Indian Shiva, as the Indonesian Hindus blended their spirits and heroes with him. Bhattara Guru's wife in southeast Asia is the same Hindu deity Durga, who has been popular since ancient times, and she too has a complex character with benevolent and fierce manifestations, each visualized with different names such as Uma, Sri, Kali and others. Shiva has been called Sadasiva, Paramasiva, Mahadeva in benevolent forms, and Kala, Bhairava, Mahakala in his fierce forms. The Indonesian Hindu texts present the same philosophical diversity of Shaivism traditions found on the subcontinent. However, among the texts that have survived into the contemporary era, the more common are of those of Shaiva Siddhanta (locally also called Siwa Siddhanta, Sridanta).

As Bhakti movement ideas spread in the south India, Shaivite devotionalism became a potent movement in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu . Shaivism was adopted by several ruling Hindu dynasties as the state religion (though other Hindu traditions, Buddhism and Jainism continued in parallel), including the Chola and the Rajputs . A similar trend was witnessed in early medieval Indonesia with the Majapahit empire and pre-Islamic Malaya . In the Himalayan Hindu kingdom of Nepal, Shaivism remained a popular form of Hinduism and co-evolved with Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism. A seated Ardhanarishvara symbolically presenting the feminine Shakti as inseparable part of masculine Shiva.

SHAKTISM

The goddess tradition of Hinduism called Shaktism is closely related to Shaivism. In many regions of India, not only did the ideas of Shaivism influence the evolution of Shaktism, Shaivism itself got influenced by it and progressively subsumed the reverence for the divine feminine (Devi) as an equal and essential partner of divine masculine (Shiva). The goddess Shakti in eastern states of India is considered as the inseparable partner of god Shiva. According to Galvin Flood, the closeness between Shaivism and Shaktism traditions is such that these traditions of Hinduism are at times difficult to separate. Some Shaiva worship in Shiva and Shakti temples.

SMARTA TRADITION

Shiva is a part of the Smarta Tradition , sometimes referred to as Smartism, another tradition of Hinduism. The Smarta Hindus are associated with the Advaita Vedanta theology, and their practices include an interim step that incorporates simultaneous reverence for five deities, which includes Shiva along with Vishnu, Surya, Devi and Ganesha. This is called the Panchayatana puja . The Smartas thus accept the primary deity of Shaivism as a means to their spiritual goals.

Philosophically, the Smarta tradition emphasizes that all idols (murti ) are icons of _saguna_ Brahman , a means to realizing the abstract Ultimate Reality called nirguna Brahman. The five or six icons are seen by Smartas as multiple representations of the one Saguna Brahman (i.e., a personal God with form), rather than as distinct beings. The ultimate goal in this practice is to transition past the use of icons, then follow a philosophical and meditative path to understanding the oneness of Atman (soul, self) and Brahman (metaphysical reality) – as "That art Thou".

Panchayatana puja that incorporates Shiva became popular in medieval India and is attributed to 8th century Adi Shankara , but archaeological evidence suggests that this practice long predates the birth of Adi Shankara. Many Panchayatana mandalas and temples have been uncovered that are from the Gupta Empire period, and one Panchayatana set from the village of Nand (about 24 kilometers from Ajmer ) has been dated to belong to the Kushan Empire era (pre-300 CE). According to James Harle, major Hindu temples from 1st millennium CE commonly embedded the _pancayatana_ architecture, from Odisha to Karnataka to Kashmir . Large temples often present multiple deities in the same temple complex, while some explicitly include fusion deities such as Harihara (half Shiva, half Vishnu).

VAISHNAVISM

Shaivism iconography in Cambodia , at Kbal Spean river site. As in India, the site also co-features Vaishnavism-related iconography.

Vaishnava texts reverentially mention Shiva. For example, the _Vishnu Purana _ primarily focuses on the theology of Hindu god Vishnu and his avatars such as Krishna , but it praises Brahma and Shiva and asserts that they are one with Vishnu. The Vishnu Sahasranama in the _Mahabharata_ list a thousand attributes and epithets of Vishnu. The list identifies Shiva with Vishnu.

Reverential inclusion of Shaiva ideas and iconography are very common in major Vaishnava temples, such as Dakshinamurti symbolism of Shaiva thought is often enshrined on the southern wall of the main temple of major Vaishnava temples in peninsular India. Harihara temples in and outside the Indian subcontinent have historically combined Shiva and Vishnu, such as at the Lingaraj Mahaprabhu temple in Bhubaneshwar, Odisha. According to Julius Lipner, Vaishnavism traditions such as Sri Vaishnavism embrace Shiva, Ganesha and others, not as distinct deities of polytheism, but as polymorphic manifestation of the same supreme divine principle, providing the devotee a polycentric access to the spiritual.

Similarly, Shaiva traditions have reverentially embraced other gods and goddesses as manifestation of the same divine. The _Skanda Purana _, for example in section 6.254.100 states, "He who is Shiva is Vishnu, he who is Vishnu is Sadashiva".

SAURAISM (SUN DEITY)

The sun god called _ Surya _ is an ancient deity of Hinduism, and several ancient Hindu kingdoms particularly in the northwest and eastern regions of the Indian subcontinent revered Surya. These devotees called Sauras once had a large corpus of theological texts, and Shaivism literature reverentially acknowledges these. For example, the Shaiva text _Srikanthiyasamhita_ mentions eighty five Saura texts, almost all of which are believed to have been lost during the Indo-Islamic invasion and rule period, except for large excerpts found embedded in Shaiva manuscripts discovered in the Himalayan mountains. Shaivism incorporated Saura ideas, and the surviving Saura manuscripts such as _Saurasamhita_ acknowledge the influence of Shaivism, according to Alexis Sanderson, assigning "itself to the canon of Shaiva text _Vathula-Kalottara_.

YOGA MOVEMENTS

Many Shaiva temples present Shiva in yoga pose.

Yoga and meditation has been an integral part of Shaivism, and it has been a major innovator of techniques such as those of Hatha Yoga. Many major Shiva temples and Shaiva _tritha_ (pilgrimage) centers depict anthropomorphic iconography of Shiva as a giant statue wherein Shiva is a loner yogi meditating, as do Shaiva texts.

In several Shaiva traditions such as the Kashmir Shaivism, anyone who seeks personal understanding and spiritual growth has been called a Yogi . The _ Shiva Sutras _ (aphorisms) of Shaivism teach yoga in many forms. According to Mark Dyczkowski, yoga – which literally means "union" – to this tradition has meant the "realisation of our true inherent nature which is inherently greater than our thoughts can ever conceive", and that the goal of yoga is to be the "free, eternal, blissful, perfect, infinite spiritually conscious" one is.

Many Yoga-emphasizing Shaiva traditions emerged in medieval India, who refined yoga methods such as by introducing Hatha Yoga techniques. One such movement had been the _ Nath _ Yogis, a Shaivism sub-tradition that integrated philosophy from Advaita Vedanta and Buddhism traditions. It was founded by Matsyendranath and further developed by Gorakshanath . The texts of these Yoga emphasizing Hindu traditions present their ideas in Shaiva context. Dancing Shiva Nataraja at the 6th century Badami cave temples.

HINDU PERFORMANCE ARTS

Shiva is the lord of dance and dramatic arts in Hinduism. This is celebrated in Shaiva temples as Nataraja , which typically shows Shiva dancing in one of the poses in the ancient Hindu text on performance arts called the _ Natya Shastra _.

Dancing Shiva as a metaphor for celebrating life and arts is very common in ancient and medieval Hindu temples. For example, it is found in Badami cave temples , Ellora Caves , Khajuraho , Chidambaram and others. The Shaiva link to the performance arts is celebrated in Indian classical dances such as Bharatanatyam and Chhau .

BUDDHISM

Buddhism and Shaivism have interacted and influenced each other since ancient times, in both South Asia and Southeast Asia. Their Siddhas and esoteric traditions, in particular, have overlapped to an extent where Buddhists and Hindus would worship in the same temple such as in the Seto Machindranath . In southeast Asia, the two traditions were not presented in competitive or polemical terms, rather as two alternate paths that lead to the same goals of liberation, with theologians disagreeing which of these is faster and simpler. Scholars disagree whether a syncretic tradition emerged from Buddhism and Shaivism, or it was a coalition with free borrowing of ideas, but they agree that the two traditions co-existed peacefully.

The earliest evidence of a close relationship between Shaivism and Buddhism comes from the archaeological sites and damaged sculptures from the northwest Indian subcontinent, such as Gandhara. These are dated to about the 1st-century CE, with Shiva depicted in Buddhist arts. The Buddhist Avalokiteshvara is linked to Shiva in many of these arts, but in others Shiva is linked to Bodhisattva Maitreya with he shown as carrying his own water pot like Vedic priests. According to Richard Blurton, the ancient works show that the Bodhisattva of Compassion in Buddhism has many features in common with Shiva in Shaivism. The Shaiva Hindu and Buddhist syncretism continues in the contemporary era in the island of Bali, Indonesia. In Central Asian Buddhism, and its historic arts, syncretism and a shared expression of Shaivism, Buddhism and Tantra themes has been common.

The syncretism between Buddhism and Shaivism was particularly marked in southeast Asia, but this was not unique, rather it was a common phenomenon also observed in the eastern regions of the Indian subcontinent, the south and the Himalayan regions. This tradition continues in predominantly Hindu Bali Indonesia in the modern era, where Buddha is considered the younger brother of Shiva. In the pre-Islamic Java, Shaivism and Buddhism were considered very close and allied religions, though not identical religions. This idea is also found in the sculptures and temples in the eastern states of India and the Himalayan region. For example, Hindu temples in these regions show Harihara (half Shiva, half Vishnu) flanked by a standing Buddha on its right and a standing Surya ( Hindu Sun god) on left.

On major festivals of Bali Hindus, such as the Nyepi – a "festival of silence", the observations are officiated by both Buddhist and Shaiva priests.

JAINISM

Jainism co-existed with Shaiva culture since ancient times, particularly in western and southern India where it received royal support from Hindu kings of Chaulukya, Ganga and Rashtrakuta dynasties. In late 1st millennium CE, Jainism too developed a Shaiva-like tantric ritual culture with Mantra-goddesses. These Jain rituals were aimed at mundane benefits using _japas_ (mantra recitation) and making offerings into Homa fire.

According to Alexis Sanderson, the link and development of Shaiva goddesses into Jaina goddess is more transparent than a similar connection between Shaivism and Buddhism. The 11th-century Jain text ‘’Bhairavapadmavatikalpa’’, for example, equates Padmavati of Jainism with Tripura-bhairavi of Shaivism and Shaktism. Among the major goddesses of Jainism that are rooted in Hindu pantheon, particularly Shaiva, include Lakshmi and Vagishvari (Sarasvati) of the higher world in Jain cosmology, Vidyadevis of the middle world, and Yakshis such as Ambika, Cakreshvari, Padmavati and Jvalamalini of the lower world according to Jainism.

Shaiva- Shakti iconography is found in major Jain temples. For example, the Osian temple of Jainism near Jodhpur features Chamunda, Durga, Sitala and a naked Bhairava. While Shaiva and Jain practices had considerable overlap, the interaction between Jain community and Shaiva community differed on the acceptance of ritual animal sacrifices before goddesses. Jain remained strictly vegetarian and avoided animal sacrifice, while Shaiva accepted the practice.

TEMPLES AND PILGRIMAGE

SOMNATH Srisailam UJJAIN Omkareshwar Parli Deoghar Bhima Rameshwaram Dwaraka Jageshwar KATHMANDU Aundha Triambak Kedarnath Ellora Sivasagar VARANASI BADRINATH PURI KHAJURAHO CHIDAMBARAM AMARNATH Major Shaiva Hindu temple sites. Orange markers are UNESCO world heritage sites.

Shaiva Puranas, Agamas and other regional literature refer to temples by various terms such as _Mandir_, _Shivayatana_, _Shivalaya_, _Shambhunatha_, _Jyotirlingam_, _Shristhala_, _Chattraka_, _Bhavaggana_, _Bhuvaneshvara_, _Goputika_, _Harayatana_, _Kailasha_, _Mahadevagriha_, _Saudhala_ and others. In Southeast Asia Shaiva temples are called Candi (Java), Pura (Bali), and Wat ( Cambodia and nearby regions).

Many of the Shiva-related pilgrimage sites such as Varanasi, Amarnath, Kedarnath, Somnath and others are broadly considered holy in Hinduism. They are called _kṣétra_ (Sanskrit: क्षेत्र ). A kṣétra has many temples, including one or more major ones. These temples and its location attracts pilgrimage called tirtha (or tirthayatra).

Many of the historic Puranas literature embed tourism guide to Shaivism-related pilgrimage centers and temples. For example, the _ Skanda Purana _ deals primarily with _Tirtha Mahatmyas_ (pilgrimage travel guides) to numerous geographical points, but also includes a chapter stating that a temple and _tirtha_ is ultimately a state of mind and virtuous everyday life.

Major rivers of the Indian subcontinent and their confluence (_sangam_), natural springs, origin of Ganges River (and _pancha-ganga_), along with high mountains such as Kailasha with Mansovar Lake are particularly revered spots in Shaivism. Twelve _jyotirlinga_ sites across India have been particularly important pilgrimage sites in Shaivism: Somanatha, Malikarjuna, Mahakal, Parmeshvara, Kedarnatha, Bhimshankara, Visheshvara, Trayambakesvara, Vaidyanatha, Nagesha, Rameshvara and Ghrishnesha. Other texts mention five Kedras (Kedarnatha, Tunganatha, Rudranatha, Madhyamesvara and Kalpeshvara), five Badri (Badrinatha, Pandukeshvara, Sujnanien, Anni matha and Urghava), snow lingam of Amarnatha, flame of Jwalamukhi, all of the Narmada River, and others. Kashi (Varanasi) is declared as particularly special in numerous Shaiva texts and Upanishads, as well as in the pan- Hindu Sannyasa Upanishads such as the _Jabala Upanishad _.

The early Bhakti movement poets of Shaivism composed poems about pilgrimage and temples, using these sites as metaphors for internal spiritual journey.

SEE ALSO

* Ein Sof * Hindu denominations * History of Shaivism * Jangam * Siddha * Sophia (wisdom) * Sufism

NOTES

* ^ Along with Vaishnavism , Shaktism , and Smartism * ^ Kapalikas are alleged to smear their body with ashes from the cremation ground, revered the fierce Bhairava form of Shiva, engage in rituals with blood, meat, alcohol, and sexual fluids. However, states David Lorenzen, there is a paucity of primary sources on Kapalikas, and historical information about them is available from fictional works and other traditions who disparage them. * ^ The Dunhuang caves in north China built from 4th century onwards are predominantly about the Buddha, but some caves show the meditating Buddha with Hindu deities such as Shiva, Vishnu, Ganesha and Indra. * ^ There is an overlap in this approach with those found in non-puranic tantric rituals. * ^ Pashupatas have both Vedic-Puranic and non-Puranic sub-traditions. * ^ Vasugupta is claimed by two Advaita (Monistic) Shaivism sub-traditions to be their spiritual founder.

* ^ For example:

be impossible to accomplish one's functions unless one is a master of oneself. Therefore strive for self-mastery, seeking to win the way upwards. To have self-mastery is to be a yogin (yogitvam).

Whatever reality he reaches through the Yoga whose sequence I have just explained, he realizes there a state of consciousness whose object is all that that pervades. Leaving aside what remains outside he should use his vision to penetrate all . Then once he has transcended all lower realities, he should seek the Shiva level.

How can a person whose awareness is overwhelmed by sensual experience stabilize his mind? Answer: Shiva did not teach this discipline (sādhanam) for individuals who are not disaffected. — Bhatta Narayanakantha, _Mrigendratantra_ (paraphrased), Transl: Alexis Sanderson * ^ Some images show proto-Vishnu images. * ^ Similarly, in Vaishnavism Hindu tradition, Buddha is considered as one of the avatar of Vishnu. * ^ Medieval Hindu texts of Indonesia equate Buddha with Siwa (Shiva) and Janardana (Vishnu).

REFERENCES

CITATIONS

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* ^ See Alexis Sanderson 's _Śaivism among the Khmers Part I_, pp. 349--462 in the _Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient_ 90--91 (2003--2004). * ^ For Pāśupata as an ascetic movement see: Michaels (2004), p. 62. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Sanderson 1988 , pp. 665-666. * ^ Deussen, Paul (1997). _Sixty Upanishads of the Veda_. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 789–790. ISBN 978-81-208-1467-7 . * ^ Antonio Rigopoulos (2013), Brill's Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 5, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004178960 , pages 182-183 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Sanderson 1988 , pp. 667-668. * ^ Sanderson 1988 , pp. 664, 667-668. * ^ Sanderson, Alexis; the Saiva Age, page 44. * ^ Flood 1996 , p. 171. * ^ Flood, Gavin. D. 2006. The Tantric Body. P.120 * ^ Sanderson 1988 , pp. 662-663. * ^ Guy L. Beck (1995). _Sonic Theology: Hinduism and Sacred Sound_. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 173–175. ISBN 978-81-208-1261-1 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Gavin Flood (2006). _The Tantric Body: The Secret Tradition of Hindu Religion_. I.B.Tauris. pp. 58–61. ISBN 978-1-84511-011-6 . * ^ _A_ _B_ John Myrdhin Reynolds (1996). _The Golden Letters: The Three Statements of Garab Dorje, First Dzogchen Master_. Shambhala. pp. 243–244. ISBN 978-1-55939-868-8 . * ^ Braj B. Kachru (1981). _Kashmiri Literature_. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-3-447-02129-6 . * ^ Elaine Fisher (2017). _ Hindu Pluralism: Religion and the Public Sphere in Early Modern South India_. University of California Press. pp. 9–12. ISBN 978-0-52029-301-4 . * ^ Sanderson, Alexis; the Saiva Age, page 45. * ^ Mariasusai Dhavamony 1971 , pp. 14-22, 257-258. * ^ _A_ _B_ Shaiva Siddhanta, Encyclopedia Britannica (2014) * ^ S Parmeshwaranand (2004). _Encyclopaedia of the Śaivism_. Sarup & Sons. pp. 210–217. ISBN 978-81-7625-427-4 . * ^ Flood 2003 , pp. 209–210 * ^ Flood, Gavin. D. 2006. The Tantric Body. p. 34 * ^ S. Arulsamy, _Saivism – A Perspective of Grace_, Sterling Publishers Private Limited, New Delhi, 1987, pp.1 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Sanderson 1988 , pp. 668-669. * ^ Hilko Wiardo Schomerus 2000 , pp. 1–7, 29-37, 44-49. * ^ Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). _Encyclopedia of Hinduism_. Infobase Publishing. pp. 375–376. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5 . * ^ Rohan A. Dunuwila (1985). _Śaiva Siddhānta Theology: A Context for Hindu-Christian Dialogue_. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 29–30, 66–73. ISBN 978-0-89581-675-7 . * ^ Julia Leslie (1992). _Roles and Rituals for Hindu Women_. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 196–197. ISBN 978-81-208-1036-5 . * ^ For the emergence of the Nayanmars by the 7th century and comparison with Vaisnava Alvars see: Flood (1996), 131. * ^ For eleven collections, with the first seven (the _Thevaram_) regarded as Vedic, see: Tattwananda, p. 55. * ^ For dating of Sambandar, Appar, and Sundarar as 7th century see: Tattwananda, p. 55. * ^ Tattwananda, p. 55. * ^ Winternitz, p. 588, note 1. * ^ For the Tirumantiram as the tenth book of the Shaiva Siddhanta canon see Brooks, Douglas Renfrew. "Auspicious Fragments and Uncertain Wisdom", in: Harper and Brown, p. 63. * ^ Tattwananda, p. 56. * ^ _A_ _B_ Gavin Flood (2007). _An introduction to Hindu tantrism, Lecture 1_ (Speech). Oxford center for Hindu studies. Retrieved March 29, 2017. * ^ Sanderson 2009 , pp. 124-125. * ^ Sanderson 1995 , p. 24. * ^ _A_ _B_ Alexis Sanderson 2010 , pp. 260-262, 329-333. * ^ _A_ _B_ Sanderson 1988 , pp. 671-673. * ^ Vasugupta Jaideva Singh (1989). _A Trident of Wisdom: Translation of Paratrisika-vivarana_. State University of New York Press. pp. ix–xiv. ISBN 978-0-7914-0180-4 . , Quote: "After the demise of the Trika as a lineage in Kashmir in the late 13th century, due in large measure to the invasion of Islam, a few rare manuscripts of this important and complex text..." * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ David Peter Lawrence (2012), Kashmiri Shaiva Philosophy, IEP * ^ Stanley D. Brunn (2015). _The Changing World Religion Map: Sacred Places, Identities, Practices and Politics_. Springer. pp. 402–408. ISBN 978-94-017-9376-6 . * ^ Sanderson 2009 , p. 221 with footnote 500. * ^ Sanderson 1995 , pp. 16-17. * ^ Flood, Gavin. D. 2006. The Tantric Body. P.61-66 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Flood, Gavin. D. 1996. An Introduction to Hinduism. P.164-167 * ^ _A_ _B_ Kashmiri Shaiva Philosophy, David Peter Lawrence, University of Manitoba, IEP (2010) * ^ Jaideva Singh (1982). _Pratyabhijnahrdayam: The Secret of Self-recognition_. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 3–5, 14–33. ISBN 978-81-208-0323-7 . * ^ Wallis, Christopher; Tantra Illuminated, Chapter 2, Kashmir Shaivism * ^ Paul E. Muller-Ortega (2010). _Triadic Heart of Siva, The: Kaula Tantricism of Abhinavagupta in the Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir_. State University of New York Press. pp. 15–16, 43–45, 118. ISBN 978-1-4384-1385-3 . * ^ Paul E. Muller-Ortega (2010). _Triadic Heart of Siva, The: Kaula Tantricism of Abhinavagupta in the Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir_. State University of New York Press. pp. 7–8, 17–32. ISBN 978-1-4384-1385-3 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Mallinson 2012 , pp. 407-421. * ^ Constance Jones & James D. Ryan 2006 , pp. 169-170, 308. * ^ _A_ _B_ Natha, Encyclopedia Britannica (2007) * ^ _A_ _B_ Mark Singleton (2010). _ Yoga Body: The Origins of Modern Posture Practice_. Oxford University Press. pp. 27–39. ISBN 978-0-19-974598-2 . * ^ Paul E. Muller-Ortega 2010 , pp. 36-38. * ^ Romila Thapar (2008). _Somanatha_. Penguin Books. pp. 165–166. ISBN 978-0-14-306468-8 . * ^ Rigopoulos 1998 , pp. 99-104, 218. * ^ Lorenzen, David N. (1978). "Warrior Ascetics in Indian History". _Journal of the American Oriental Society_. 98 (1): 61. doi :10.2307/600151 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Carl Olson (2007), The Many Colors of Hinduism: A Thematic-historical Introduction, Rutgers University Press, ISBN 978-0813540689 , pages 243–244 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Lingayat: Hindu sect, Encyclopedia Britannica (2015) * ^ Aziz Ahmad; Karigoudar Ishwaran (1973). _Contributions to Asian Studies_. Brill Academic. p. 5. * ^ Aya Ikegame (2013). _Princely India Re-imagined: A Historical Anthropology of Mysore from 1799 to the present_. Routledge. p. 83. ISBN 978-1-136-23909-0 . * ^ _Lingayat Religion - Tradition and Modernity in Bhakti Movements, Jayant Lele_. Brill Archive. Retrieved 22 May 2015. * ^ Fredrick Bunce (2010), Hindu deities, demi-gods, godlings, demons, and heroes, ISBN 9788124601457 , page 983 * ^ Jan Peter Schouten (1995), Revolution of the Mystics: On the Social Aspects of Vīraśaivism, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812383 , pages 2–3 * ^ David Levinson; Karen Christensen (2002). _Encyclopedia of Modern Asia_. Gale. p. 475. ISBN 978-0-684-80617-4 . ; Quote: "The Lingayats are a Hindu sect concentrated in the state of Karnataka (a southern provincial state of India), which covers 191,773 square kilometers. The Lingayats constitute around 20 percent of the total population in that state." * ^ A. K. Ramanujan 1973 . * ^ R. Blake Michael 1992 , pp. 168-175. * ^ Edward P. Rice (1982). _A History of Kannada Literature_. Asian Educational Services. pp. 64–72. ISBN 978-81-206-0063-8 . * ^ Bill Aitken (1999). _Divining the Deccan_. Oxford University Press. pp. 109–110, 213–215. ISBN 978-0-19-564711-2 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Leela Prasad (2012), Poetics of Conduct: Oral Narrative and Moral Being in a South Indian Town, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231139212 , page 104 * ^ _A_ _B_ Velcheru Narayana Rao & Gene H. Roghair 2014 , p. 7 * ^ _A_ _B_ Gavin Flood (2008). _The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism_. John Wiley & Sons. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-470-99868-7 . , Quote: "it is often impossible to meaningfully distinguish between Saiva and Sakta traditions". * ^ Julius J. Lipner (2009), Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-45677-7 , pages 40-41, 302-315, 371-375 * ^ Sanderson 2009 , pp. 44-45 with footnotes. * ^ Mahadev Chakravarti (1986). _The Concept of Rudra-Śiva Through the Ages_. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 171–. ISBN 978-81-208-0053-3 . * ^ K. R. Subramanian (1 January 1989). _Buddhist Remains in Āndhra and the History of Āndhra Between 225 & 610 A.D._ Asian Educational Services. pp. 140–. ISBN 978-81-206-0444-5 . * ^ R. Ghose (1966), Saivism in Indonesia during the Hindu-Javanese period, The University of Hong Kong Press, pages 16, 123, 494-495, 550-552 * ^ R. Ghose (1966), Saivism in Indonesia during the Hindu-Javanese period, The University of Hong Kong Press, pages 130-131, 550-552 * ^ Hariani Santiko (1997), The Goddess Durgā in the East-Javanese Period, Asian Folklore Studies, Vol. 56, No. 2, pp. 209-226 * ^ _A_ _B_ R. Ghose (1966), Saivism in Indonesia during the Hindu-Javanese period, The University of Hong Kong Press, pages 15-17 * ^ R. Ghose (1966), Saivism in Indonesia during the Hindu-Javanese period, The University of Hong Kong Press, pages 155-157, 462-463 * ^ Sastri, K.A. Nilakanta. "A Historical Sketch of Saivism", in: Bhattacharyya (1956), Volume IV pages 63 -78. * ^ For more on the subject of Saivite influence on Indonesia, one could read N.J.Krom, Inleiding tot de Hindoe-Javaansche Kunst/Introduction to Hindu-Javanese Art, The Hague, Martinus Nijhof, 1923 * ^ Sanderson 2009 , pp. 45-52 with footnotes. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Gudrun Bühnemann (2003). _Mandalas and Yantras in the Hindu Traditions_. BRILL Academic. p. 60. ISBN 978-9004129023 . * ^ Gavin D. Flood (1996). _An Introduction to Hinduism_. Cambridge University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0 . * ^ Diana L. Eck (1998). _Darśan: Seeing the Divine Image in India_. Columbia University Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-231-11265-9 . * ^ _A_ _B_ The Four Denominations of Hinduism, Basics of Hinduism, Kauai Hindu Monastery * ^ _A_ _B_ James C. Harle (1994). _The Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent_. Yale University Press. pp. 140–142, 191, 201–203. ISBN 978-0-300-06217-5 . * ^ Frederick Asher (1981). Joanna Gottfried Williams, ed. _Kalādarśana: American Studies in the Art of India_. BRILL Academic. pp. 1–4. ISBN 90-04-06498-2 . * ^ Anupa Pande; Parul Pandya Dhar (2004). _Cultural Interface of India with Asia: Religion, Art and Architecture_. National Museum Institute. pp. 159 with note 13. ISBN 978-81-246-0262-1 . * ^ Rocher 1986 , p. 246, 248 with footnote 501. * ^ Lipner 2012 , pp. 319-320. * ^ Stella Kramrisch 1993 , p. 57. * ^ Lipner 2012 , pp. 312-313, 315-317, 374-375. * ^ Lipner 2012 , pp. 319-333. * ^ Stella Kramrisch (1988). _The Presence of Siva_. Motilal Banarsidass (Original: Princeton University Press, 1981). p. 438. ISBN 978-81-208-0491-3 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Sanderson 2009 , pp. 53-58 with footnotes. * ^ Mikel Burley (2000). _Haṭha-Yoga: Its Context, Theory, and Practice_. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 6–12, 59. ISBN 978-81-208-1706-7 . * ^ Alexis Sanderson (1999), YOGA IN ŚAIVISM, Oxford University, pages 1-7 * ^ Paul E Muller-Ortega (2008). Knut A. Jacobsen, ed. _Theory and Practice of Yoga : \'Essays in Honour of Gerald James Larson_. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 181–192. ISBN 978-81-208-3232-9 . * ^ Lise McKean (1996). _Divine Enterprise: Gurus and the Hindu Nationalist Movement_. University of Chicago Press. pp. 161–163. ISBN 978-0-226-56009-0 . * ^ Indira Viswanathan Peterson 2014 , pp. 96-97. * ^ Vasugupta & Mark Dyczkowski (Translator) 1992 , pp. 7-8. * ^ Nath Sampradaya, James Mallinson (2011), Brill Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 3, Brill Academic, pp. 407-428. * ^ Alexis Sanderson (1999), Yoga in Śaivism: The Yoga Section of the Mṛgendratantra, University of Oxford, pages 4, 22-25 * ^ Saroj Panthey (1987). _Iconography of Śiva in Pahāṛī Paintings_. Mittal Publications. pp. 59–60, 88. ISBN 978-81-7099-016-1 . * ^ _A_ _B_ T. A. Gopinatha Rao (1997). _Elements of Hindu Iconography_. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 223–229, 237. ISBN 978-81-208-0877-5 . * ^ Shiva as Lord of the Dance (Nataraja), Chola period, c. 10th/11th century The Art Institute of Chicago, United States * ^ T. A. Gopinatha Rao (1997). _Elements of Hindu Iconography_. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 236–238, 247–258. ISBN 978-81-208-0877-5 . * ^ Gomathi Narayanan (1986), SHIVA NATARAJA AS A SYMBOL OF PARADOX, Journal of South Asian Literature, Vol. 21, No. 2, page 215 * ^ Anna Libera Dallapiccola (2007). _Indian Art in Detail_. Harvard University Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-674-02691-9 . * ^ David Smith (2003). _The Dance of Siva: Religion, Art and Poetry in South India_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-0-521-52865-8 . * ^ Frank Burch Brown (2014). _The Oxford Handbook of Religion and the Arts_. Oxford University Press. pp. 489–490. ISBN 978-0-19-517667-4 . * ^ Anita M. Leopold; Jeppe Sinding Jensen (2005). _Syncretism in Religion: A Reader_. Routledge. p. 303. ISBN 978-0-415-97361-8 . * ^ Nicholas Tarling (1999). _The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 328–329. ISBN 978-0-521-66369-4 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ T. Richard Blurton (1993). _ Hindu Art_. Harvard University Press. pp. 84–85, 191. ISBN 978-0-674-39189-5 . * ^ _A_ _B_ T. Richard Blurton (1993). _ Hindu Art_. Harvard University Press. pp. 29–30, 84–85. ISBN 978-0-674-39189-5 . * ^ Peter Harvey (1990). _An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 143–144. ISBN 978-0-521-31333-9 . * ^ John Kieschnick; Meir Shahar (2013). _ India in the Chinese Imagination: Myth, Religion, and Thought_. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 79–80. ISBN 978-0-8122-4560-8 . * ^ James Lochtefeld (2002). _The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1&2_. Rosen Publishing. p. 128. ISBN 0-8239-2287-1 . * ^ R. Ghose (1966), Saivism in Indonesia during the Hindu-Javanese period, The University of Hong Kong Press, pages 160-165 * ^ J.L. Moens, Het Buddhisme Java en Sumatra in Zijn laatste boeiperiods, T.B.G., pp. 522-539, 550; OCLC 10404094 , Quote: “He Janardana is the excellent Dewa in the form of Buddha, the Kula Bhairava." * ^ R. Ghose (1966), Saivism in Indonesia during the Hindu-Javanese period, The University of Hong Kong Press, pages 94-96, 253 * ^ Rk Sahu (2011), Iconography of Surya in the Temple Art of Odisha, Orissa Review, Volume 11, page 31 * ^ Christiaan Hooykaas (1974). _Cosmogony and creation in Balinese tradition_. Bibliotheca Indonesica, Volumes 9-10. Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. pp. 1–3. * ^ Jacob Ensink (1978), Siva- Buddhism in Java and Bali, _Buddhism in Ceylon and studies on religious syncretism in Buddhist countries_, Vol. 133, Vandenhoeck Hariani Santiko; Hasan Djafar; et al. (2013). _Candi Indonesia: Seri Jawa: Indonesian-English_. Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan. pp. 4–15. ISBN 978-602-17669-3-4 . CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link ) * ^ Fredrik Barth (1993). _Balinese Worlds_. University of Chicago Press. pp. 31–36. ISBN 978-0-226-03834-6 . * ^ Roshen Dalal (2010). _The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths_. Penguin Books. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-14-341517-6 . * ^ Jack M. Clontz (2016). _Khon Mask : Thailand Heritage_. MOCA Bangkok. p. 222. ISBN 978-1-78301-872-7 . * ^ Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary, क्षेत्र "sacred spot, place of pilgrimage". * ^ Knut A. Jacobsen (2012), Pilgrimage in the Hindu Tradition: Salvific Space, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415590389 * ^ _A_ _B_ Ariel Glucklich 2008 , p. 146, QUOTE: The earliest promotional works aimed at tourists from that era were called _mahatmyas_. * ^ Geoffrey Waring Maw (1997). _Pilgrims in Hindu Holy Land: Sacred Shrines of the Indian Himalayas_. Sessions Book Trust. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-85072-190-1 . * ^ Sanjukta Dasgupta; Chinmoy Guha (2013). _Tagore at Home in the World_. SAGE Publications. p. 76. ISBN 978-81-321-1149-8 . * ^ Diana L. Eck (1998). _Darśan: Seeing the Divine Image in India_. Columbia University Press. pp. 65–67. ISBN 978-0-231-11265-9 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ B Sarawati (1985). _Traditions of Tirthas in India: The Anthropology of Hindu Pilgrimage_. N.K. Bose Memorial Foundation. pp. 5–7, 12. * ^ B Sarawati (1985). _Traditions of Tirthas in India: The Anthropology of Hindu Pilgrimage_. N.K. Bose Memorial Foundation. pp. 36–41. * ^ Olivelle, Patrick (1992). _The Samnyasa Upanisads_. Oxford University Press. pp. 141–143. ISBN 978-0-19-507045-3 . * ^ Indira Peterson (1983), _Lives of the wandering singers: Pilgrimage and poetry in Tamil Śaivite hagiography_, History of Religions, University of Chicago Press, Vol. 22, No. 4, pages 338-360 * ^ Indira Peterson (1982), _Singing of a place: pilgrimage as metaphor and motif in the Tēvāram songs of the Tamil Śaivite saints_, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 102, No. 1, pages 69-90

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École française d’Extrême-Orient. 90/91. * Alexis Sanderson (2010). Dominic Goodall & Andre Padoux, ed. _Mélanges tantriques à la mémoire d’Hélène Brunner: Tantric Studies in Memory of Hélène Brunner_. Institut Français de Pondichéry. ISBN 978-2855396668 . * Hilko Wiardo Schomerus (2000). _Śaiva Siddhānta: An Indian School of Mystical Thought : Presented as a System and Documented from the Original Tamil Sources_. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1569-8 . * Sharma, Ram Karan (1988). _Elements of Poetry in the Mahābhārata_. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0544-5 . Second edition. * Tattwananda, Swami (1984), _Vaisnava Sects, Saiva Sects, Mother Worship_ (First Revised ed.), Calcutta: Firma KLM Private Ltd. * Vasugupta; Mark Dyczkowski (Translator) (1992). _The Aphorisms of Siva: The Siva Sutra with Bhaskara\'s Commentary, the Varttika_. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-1264-0 . * Winternitz, Maurice (1972). _History of Indian Literature_. New Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. Second revised reprint edition. Two volumes. First published 1927 by the University of Calcutta.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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* _Encyclopædia Britannica_, "Shaivism" * Saivism.Net * Alexis sanderson, _Publications_, scholarly studies in Shaivism

* v * t * e

Shaivism

HISTORY

* History of Shaivism

DEITIES

* Shiva

* Sadyojata * Vamadeva * Aghora * Tatpurusha * Ishana

*

* Nataraja * Dakshinamurthy * Harihara

* Shakti

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