HOME
The Info List - Shaiva



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Saiddhantika

* Siddhantism

Non - Saiddhantika

* Kashmir Shaivism
Kashmir Shaivism

* Pratyabhijna * Vama * Dakshina * Kaula
Kaula
: Trika -Yamala - Kubjika
Kubjika
- Netra

------------------------- RELATED

* Lingayatism * Nath
Nath
* Siddhar
Siddhar
* Srouta * Nusantara Agama Siwa

Scholars

* Lakulisa * Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
* Vasugupta * Utpaladeva * Nayanars * Meykandar * Nirartha * Basava
Basava
* Sharana * Srikantha * Appayya * Navnath
Navnath

Others

* Shiva
Shiva
Temples * Nandi * Tantrism * Jyotirlinga * Maha Shivaratri

Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

* v * t * e

Part of a series on

HINDUISM

* Hindu
Hindu
* History

Concepts GOD / HIGHEST REALITY

* Brahman
Brahman
* Ishvara
Ishvara
* God in Hinduism
Hinduism
* God and gender

LIFE

* Atman * Maya * Karma
Karma
* Samsara
Samsara

* Purusharthas
Purusharthas

* Dharma
Dharma
* Artha
Artha
* Kama
Kama
* Moksha
Moksha

ETHICS

* Niti shastra * Yamas
Yamas
* Niyama
Niyama
* Ahimsa
Ahimsa
* Asteya
Asteya
* Aparigraha
Aparigraha
* Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
* Satya
Satya
* Damah * Dayā * Akrodha
Akrodha
* Ārjava * Santosha
Santosha
* Tapas * Svādhyāya
Svādhyāya
* Shaucha
Shaucha
* Mitahara
Mitahara
* Dāna
Dāna

LIBERATION

* Bhakti yoga
Bhakti yoga
* Jnana yoga
Jnana yoga
* Karma
Karma
yoga

Schools SIX ASTIKA SCHOOLS

* Samkhya
Samkhya
* Yoga
Yoga
* Nyaya
Nyaya
* Vaisheshika * Mimamsa
Mimamsa

* Vedanta
Vedanta

* Advaita
Advaita
* Dvaita
Dvaita
* Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita

OTHER SCHOOLS

* Pasupata
Pasupata
* Saiva * Pratyabhijña * Raseśvara * Pāṇini
Pāṇini
Darśana * Charvaka

Deities TRIMURTI

* Brahma
Brahma
* Vishnu * Shiva
Shiva

------------------------- OTHER MAJOR DEVIS / DEVAS

* Vedic
Vedic
* Indra
Indra
* Agni
Agni
* Prajapati
Prajapati
* Rudra
Rudra
* Devi
Devi
* Saraswati
Saraswati
* Ushas
Ushas
* Varuna
Varuna
* Vayu
Vayu

* Post- Vedic
Vedic
* Durga
Durga
* Ganesha
Ganesha
* Hanuman
Hanuman
* Kali
Kali
* Kartikeya
Kartikeya
* Krishna
Krishna
* Lakshmi
Lakshmi
* Parvati
Parvati
* Radha
Radha
* Rama
Rama
* Shakti
Shakti
* Sita
Sita

Texts SCRIPTURES VEDAS

* Rigveda
Rigveda
* Yajurveda
Yajurveda
* Samaveda
Samaveda
* Atharvaveda
Atharvaveda

DIVISIONS

* Samhita * Brahmana
Brahmana
* Aranyaka
Aranyaka
* Upanishad
Upanishad

UPANISHADS

* Rigveda: * Aitareya * Kaushitaki

* Yajurveda: * Brihadaranyaka * Isha * Taittiriya * Katha * Shvetashvatara * Maitri

* Samaveda: * Chandogya * Kena

* Atharvaveda: * Mundaka * Mandukya * Prashna

OTHER SCRIPTURES

* Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
* Agama (Hinduism)

OTHER TEXTS VEDANGAS

* Shiksha
Shiksha
* Chandas * Vyakarana
Vyakarana
* Nirukta
Nirukta
* Kalpa * Jyotisha
Jyotisha

PURANAS

* Vishnu Purana
Purana
* BHAGAVATA PURANA * Nāradeya Purana
Nāradeya Purana
* Vāmana Purana
Purana
* Matsya Purana
Matsya Purana
* Garuda Purana
Garuda Purana
* Brahma
Brahma
Purana
Purana
* Brahmānda Purana * Brahma
Brahma
Vaivarta Purana
Purana
* Bhavishya Purana
Bhavishya Purana
* Padma Purana * Agni
Agni
Purana
Purana
* Shiva
Shiva
Purana
Purana
* Linga Purana
Linga Purana
* Kūrma Purana
Purana
* Skanda Purana
Skanda Purana
* Varaha Purana
Varaha Purana
* Mārkandeya Purana
Mārkandeya Purana

ITIHASAS

* Ramayana
Ramayana
* Mahabharata
Mahabharata

UPAVEDAS

* Ayurveda * Dhanurveda
Dhanurveda
* Gandharvaveda
Gandharvaveda
* Sthapatyaveda
Sthapatyaveda

SHASTRAS AND SUTRAS

* Dharma
Dharma
Shastra
Shastra
* Artha
Artha
Śastra * Kamasutra
Kamasutra
* Brahma
Brahma
Sutras * Samkhya
Samkhya
Sutras * Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Sutras * Nyāya Sūtras
Nyāya Sūtras
* Vaiśeṣika Sūtra
Vaiśeṣika Sūtra
* Yoga
Yoga
Sutras * Pramana Sutras * Charaka Samhita * Sushruta Samhita * Natya Shastra * Panchatantra
Panchatantra
* Divya Prabandha
Divya Prabandha
* Tirumurai
Tirumurai
* Ramcharitmanas
Ramcharitmanas
* Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha * Swara yoga * Shiva
Shiva
Samhita * Gheranda Samhita
Gheranda Samhita
* Panchadasi
Panchadasi
* Stotra
Stotra
* Sutras

TEXT CLASSIFICATION

* Śruti
Śruti
Smriti
Smriti

* TIMELINE OF HINDU TEXTS

Practices WORSHIP

* Puja * Temple * Murti
Murti
* Bhakti
Bhakti
* Japa
Japa
* Bhajana
Bhajana
* Yajna
Yajna
* Homa * Vrata
Vrata
* Prāyaścitta
Prāyaścitta
* Tirtha * Tirthadana * Matha
Matha
* Nritta-Nritya

MEDITATION AND CHARITY

* Tapa * Dhyana * Dāna
Dāna

YOGA

* Asana * Hatha yoga
Hatha yoga
* Jnana yoga
Jnana yoga
* Bhakti yoga
Bhakti yoga
* Karma
Karma
yoga * Raja yoga
Raja yoga

RITES OF PASSAGE

* Garbhadhana
Garbhadhana
* Pumsavana * Simantonayana * Jatakarma
Jatakarma
* Namakarana
Namakarana
* Nishkramana
Nishkramana
* Annaprashana * Chudakarana
Chudakarana
* Karnavedha
Karnavedha
* Vidyarambha
Vidyarambha
* Upanayana
Upanayana
* Keshanta
Keshanta
* Ritushuddhi
Ritushuddhi
* Samavartana
Samavartana
* Vivaha * Antyeshti
Antyeshti

ASHRAMA DHARMA

* Ashrama : Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
* Grihastha
Grihastha
* Vanaprastha
Vanaprastha
* Sannyasa

FESTIVALS

* Diwali
Diwali
* Holi
Holi
* Shivaratri
Shivaratri

* Navaratri
Navaratri

* Durga
Durga
Puja * Ramlila
Ramlila
* Vijayadashami-Dussehra

* Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan
* Ganesh Chaturthi
Ganesh Chaturthi
* Vasant Panchami
Vasant Panchami
* Rama
Rama
Navami * Janmashtami
Janmashtami
* Onam
Onam
* Makar Sankranti
Makar Sankranti
* Kumbha Mela
Kumbha Mela
* Pongal
Pongal
* Ugadi
Ugadi

* Vaisakhi
Vaisakhi

* Bihu
Bihu
* Puthandu * Vishu
Vishu

* Ratha Yatra

Gurus, saints, philosophers ANCIENT

* Agastya
Agastya
* Angiras * Aruni * Ashtavakra
Ashtavakra
* Atri
Atri
* Bharadwaja
Bharadwaja
* Gotama * Jamadagni
Jamadagni
* Jaimini
Jaimini
* Kanada * Kapila
Kapila
* Kashyapa
Kashyapa
* Pāṇini
Pāṇini
* Patanjali
Patanjali
* Raikva
Raikva
* Satyakama Jabala
Satyakama Jabala
* Valmiki * Vashistha
Vashistha
* Vishvamitra * Vyasa
Vyasa
* Yajnavalkya

MEDIEVAL

* Nayanars * Alvars
Alvars
* Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
* Basava
Basava
* Akka Mahadevi * Allama Prabhu
Allama Prabhu
* Siddheshwar * Jñāneśvar
Jñāneśvar
* Chaitanya * Gangesha Upadhyaya * Gaudapada
Gaudapada
* Gorakshanath
Gorakshanath
* Jayanta Bhatta * Kabir
Kabir
* Kumarila Bhatta * Matsyendranath
Matsyendranath
* Mahavatar Babaji
Mahavatar Babaji
* Madhusudana * Madhva * Haridasa Thakur
Haridasa Thakur
* Namdeva * Nimbarka * Prabhakara * Raghunatha Siromani * Ramanuja
Ramanuja
* Sankardev
Sankardev
* Purandara Dasa
Purandara Dasa
* Kanaka Dasa
Kanaka Dasa
* Ramprasad Sen
Ramprasad Sen
* Jagannatha Dasa * Vyasaraya * Sripadaraya
Sripadaraya
* Raghavendra Swami
Raghavendra Swami
* Gopala Dasa * Śyāma Śastri * Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika * Tyagaraja
Tyagaraja
* Tukaram
Tukaram
* Tulsidas * Vachaspati Mishra * Vallabha * Vidyaranya

MODERN

* Aurobindo * Coomaraswamy * Bhaktivinoda Thakur
Bhaktivinoda Thakur
* Chinmayananda
Chinmayananda
* Dayananda Saraswati
Saraswati
* Mahesh Yogi
Yogi
* Krishnananda Saraswati
Saraswati
* Narayana Guru
Guru
* Prabhupada * Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
* Ramana Maharshi
Ramana Maharshi
* Radhakrishnan * Sarasvati * Sivananda * U. G. Krishnamurti * Sai Baba * Vivekananda * Nigamananda * Yogananda * Ramachandra Dattatrya Ranade
Ramachandra Dattatrya Ranade
* Tibbetibaba
Tibbetibaba
* Trailanga
Trailanga

Other topics

* Balinese Hinduism
Hinduism
* Calendar * Criticism * Denominations * Iconography * Mythology * Nationalism ( Hindutva
Hindutva
) * Persecution * Pilgrimage sites

* Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism / and Judaism

* Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

* Glossary of Hinduism
Hinduism
terms * Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

* v * t * e

Shiva
Shiva
(above) is the primary deity of Shaivism.

SHAIVISM ( IAST : ŚAIVISM) or "Saivam" is one of the major traditions in Hinduism
Hinduism
that reveres Shiva
Shiva
as the Supreme Being or its metaphysical concept of Brahman
Brahman
. The followers of Shaivism
Shaivism
are called "Shaivites" or "Saivites". Like much of Hinduism, the Shaiva have many sub-traditions, ranging from devotional dualistic theism such as Shaiva Siddhanta to yoga-oriented monistic non-theism such as Kashmiri Shaivism . It considers both the Vedas
Vedas
and the Agama texts as important sources of theology.

Shaivism
Shaivism
has ancient roots, traceable in the Vedic
Vedic
literature of 2nd millennium BCE, but this is in the form of the Vedic
Vedic
deity Rudra
Rudra
. The ancient text Shvetashvatara Upanishad dated to late 1st millennium BCE mentions terms such as Rudra, Shiva
Shiva
and Maheshwaram, but its interpretation as a theistic or monistic text of Shaivism
Shaivism
is disputed. In the early centuries of the common era is the first clear evidence of Pāśupata Shaivism. Both devotional and monistic Shaivism
Shaivism
became popular in the 1st millennium CE, rapidly becoming the dominant religious tradition of many Hindu
Hindu
kingdoms. It arrived in Southeast Asia shortly thereafter, leading to thousands of Shaiva temples on the islands of Indonesia as well as Cambodia
Cambodia
and Vietnam, co-evolving with Buddhism
Buddhism
in these regions. In the contemporary era, Shaivism
Shaivism
is one of the major aspects of Hinduism.

Shaivism
Shaivism
theology ranges from Shiva
Shiva
being the creator, preserver, destroyer to being the same as the Atman (self, soul) within oneself and every living being. It is closely related to Shaktism , and some Shaiva worship in Shiva
Shiva
and Shakti
Shakti
temples. It is the Hindu
Hindu
tradition that most accepts ascetic life and emphasizes yoga , and like other Hindu
Hindu
traditions encourages an individual to discover and be one with Shiva
Shiva
within. Shaivism
Shaivism
is one of the largest traditions within Hinduism.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology and nomenclature * 2 Overview

* 3 Origins and history

* 3.1 Vedic
Vedic
evidence * 3.2 Emergence of Shaivism
Shaivism
* 3.3 Puranic Shaivism
Shaivism
* 3.4 South India
South India
* 3.5 Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia

* 4 Beliefs and practices

* 4.1 Vedic, puranic and esoteric Shavism * 4.2 Shaivism
Shaivism
versus other Hindu
Hindu
traditions

* 5 Texts

* 5.1 Vedas
Vedas
and Principal Upanishads
Upanishads
* 5.2 Shaiva minor Upanishads
Upanishads
* 5.3 Shaiva Agamas

* 6 Traditions

* 6.1 Sannyasi
Sannyasi
Shaiva: Atimarga

* 6.1.1 Pashupata Atimargi * 6.1.2 Lakula Atimargi

* 6.2 Grihastha
Grihastha
and Sannyasi
Sannyasi
Shaiva: Mantramarga

* 6.2.1 Shaiva Siddhanta * 6.2.2 Nayanmars * 6.2.3 Tantra Diksha traditions * 6.2.4 Kashmir Shaivism
Kashmir Shaivism

* 6.3 Nath
Nath
* 6.4 Lingayatism

* 7 Demography

* 8 Influence

* 8.1 Shaktism * 8.2 Smarta Tradition * 8.3 Vaishnavism * 8.4 Sauraism (Sun deity) * 8.5 Yoga
Yoga
movements * 8.6 Hindu
Hindu
performance arts * 8.7 Buddhism
Buddhism
* 8.8 Jainism

* 9 Temples and pilgrimage * 10 See also * 11 Notes

* 12 References

* 12.1 Citations * 12.2 Bibliography

* 13 External links

ETYMOLOGY AND NOMENCLATURE

Shiva
Shiva
( IAST : śiva, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: शिव) literally means kind, friendly, gracious, or auspicious. As a proper name, it means "The Auspicious One".

The word Shiva
Shiva
is used as an adjective in the Rig Veda, as an epithet for several Rigvedic deities , including Rudra
Rudra
. The term Shiva
Shiva
also connotes "liberation, final emancipation" and "the auspicious one", this adjective sense of usage is addressed to many deities in Vedic layers of literature. The term evolved from the Vedic
Vedic
Rudra- Shiva
Shiva
to the noun Shiva
Shiva
in the Epics and the Puranas, as an auspicious deity who is the "creator, reproducer and dissolver".

The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word śaiva or Shaiva means "relating to the god Shiva", while the related beliefs, practices, history, literature and sub-traditions constitute Shaivism.

OVERVIEW

The reverence for Shiva
Shiva
is one of the pan- Hindu
Hindu
traditions, found widely across India, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Nepal. While Shiva
Shiva
is revered broadly, Hinduism
Hinduism
itself is a complex religion and a way of life, with a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions. It has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet(s) nor any binding holy book; Hindus can choose to be polytheistic, pantheistic, monotheistic, monistic, agnostic, atheistic or humanist.

Shaivism
Shaivism
is a major tradition within Hinduism, with a theology that is predominantly related to the Hindu
Hindu
god Shiva. Shaivism
Shaivism
has many different sub-traditions with regional variations and differences in philosophy. Shaivism
Shaivism
has a vast literature with different philosophical schools, ranging from nondualism , dualism , and mixed schools .

ORIGINS AND HISTORY

See also: Shiva
Shiva
The Pashupati seal from the 3rd millennium BCE Indus Valley civilization.

The origins of Shaivism
Shaivism
are unclear and a matter of debate among scholars. Some trace the origins to the Indus Valley civilization , which reached its peak around 2500–2000 BCE. Archeological discoveries show seals that suggest a deity that somewhat appears like Shiva. Of these is the " Pashupati seal", which early scholars interpreted as someone seated in a meditating yoga pose surrounded by animals, and with horns. This "Pashupati" (Lord of Animals, Sanskrit paśupati) seal has been interpreted by these scholars as a prototype of Shiva. Gavin Flood characterizes these views as "speculative", saying that it is not clear from the seal if the figure has three faces, or is seated in a yoga posture, or even that the shape is intended to represent a human figure.

Other scholars state that the Indus Valley script remains undeciphered, and the interpretation of the Pashupati seal is uncertain. According to Srinivasan, the proposal that it is proto- Shiva
Shiva
may be a case of projecting "later practices into archeological findings". Similarly, Asko Parpola states that other archaeological finds such as the early Elamite seals dated to 3000-2750 BCE show similar figures and these have been interpreted as "seated bull" and not a yogi, and the bull interpretation is likely more accurate.

VEDIC EVIDENCE

The Rigveda
Rigveda
(~1500–1200 BCE) has the earliest clear mention of Rudra
Rudra
and Shiva
Shiva
in its hymns such as 2.33, 1.43 and 1.114. The text also includes a Satarudriya, an influential hymn with embedded hundred epithets for Rudra, that is cited in many medieval era Shaiva texts as well as recited in major Shiva
Shiva
temples of Hindus in contemporary times. Yet, the Vedic
Vedic
literature only present scriptural theology, but does not attest to the existence of Shaivism.

The Shvetashvatara Upanishad , likely composed before the Bhagavad Gita about the 4th-century BCE, contains the theistic foundations of Shaivism
Shaivism
wrapped in a monistic structure. It contains the key terms and ideas of Shaivism, such as Shiva, Rudra, Maheswara, Guru, Bhakti, Yoga, Atman, Brahman
Brahman
and self-knowledge.

EMERGENCE OF SHAIVISM

See also: Rudra
Rudra
and Shiva
Shiva

According to Gavin Flood , "the formation of Śaiva traditions as we understand them begins to occur during the period from 200 BC to 100 AD." According to Chakravarti, Shiva
Shiva
rose to prominence as he was identified to be the same as Purusha , Rudra
Rudra
, Agni
Agni
, Indra
Indra
, Prajāpati , Vāyu , among others. 2nd century CE Kushan
Kushan
coins with one side showing a deity with a bull. Some scholars consider the deity as Shiva
Shiva
because he holds a trident , is in ithyphallic state and next to Nandi bull his mount, as in Shaivism. Others suggest him to be Zoroastrian Oesho , not Shiva.

Patanjali
Patanjali
's Mahābhasya, dated to the 2nd century BCE, mentions the term Shiva-bhagavata in section 5.2.76. Patanjali, while explaining Panini's rules of grammar, states that this term refers to a devotee clad in animal skins and carrying an ayah sulikah (iron spear, trident lance) as an icon representing his god.

The Mahabharata
Mahabharata
is another ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text that mentions Shaiva ascetics, such as in chapters 4.13 and 13.140. Other evidence that is possibly linked to the importance of Shaivism
Shaivism
in ancient times are in epigraphy and numismatics, such as in the form of prominent Shiva-like reliefs on Kushan
Kushan
Empire era gold coins. However, this is controversial, as an alternate hypothesis for these reliefs is based on Zoroastrian Oesho. According to Flood, coins dated to the ancient Greek, Saka and Parthian kings who ruled parts of the Indian subcontinent after the arrival of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
also show Shiva iconography, but this evidence is weak and subject to competing inferences.

The inscriptions found in the Himalayan region, such as those in the Kathmandu
Kathmandu
valley of Nepal
Nepal
suggest that Shaivism
Shaivism
(particularly Pashupata monism) was established in this region during the Mauryas and the Guptas reign of the Indian subcontinent, by the 5th century. These inscriptions have been dated by modern techniques to between 466 and 645 CE.

PURANIC SHAIVISM

During the Gupta Dynasty
Gupta Dynasty
(c. 320 - 500 CE) the genre of Purana literature developed in India, and many of these Puranas
Puranas
contain extensive chapters on Shaivism
Shaivism
– along with Vaishnavism , Shaktism, Smarta Traditions of Brahmins and other topics – suggesting the importance of Shaivism
Shaivism
by then. The most important Shaiva Puranas
Puranas
of this period include the Shiva
Shiva
Purana
Purana
and the Linga Purana
Linga Purana
. Shaiva icons and a Hindu
Hindu
woman praying in River Narmada, Maheshwar
Maheshwar
, Madhya Pradesh.

In early 7th century the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Xuanzang
Xuanzang
(Huen Tsang) visited India
India
and wrote a memoir in Chinese that mentions the prevalence of Shiva
Shiva
temples all over North Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
, including in the Hindu
Hindu
Kush region such as Nuristan . Between the 5th and 11th century CE, major Shaiva temples had been built in central, southern and eastern regions of the subcontinent, including those at Badami cave temples , Aihole, Elephanta Caves
Elephanta Caves
, Ellora Caves (Kailasha, cave 16), Khajuraho , Bhuvaneshwara, Chidambaram, Madurai, Conjeevaram.

Major scholars of competing Hindu
Hindu
traditions from the second half of the 1st millennium CE, such as Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and Ramanuja
Ramanuja
of Vaishnavism, mention several Shaiva sects, particularly the four groups: Pashupata, Lakulisha, tantric Shaiva and Kapalika. The description is conflicting, with some texts stating the tantric, puranic and Vedic
Vedic
traditions of Shaivism
Shaivism
to be hostile to each other while others suggest them to be amicable sub-traditions. Some texts state that Kapalikas reject the Vedas
Vedas
and are involved in extreme experimentation, while others state the Shaiva sub-traditions revere the Vedas
Vedas
but are non-Puranic.

SOUTH INDIA

Shaivism
Shaivism
was likely the predominant tradition in South India, co-existing with Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism, before the Vaishnava Alvars launched the Bhakti
Bhakti
movement in the 7th-century and influential Vedanta
Vedanta
scholars such as Ramanuja
Ramanuja
developed a philosophical and organizational framework that helped Vaishnava expand. Though both traditions of Hinduism
Hinduism
have ancient roots, given their mention in the Epics such as the Mahabharata, Shaivism
Shaivism
flourished in South India
South India
much earlier.

The Mantramarga of Shaivism, according to Alexis Sanderson, provided a template for the later though independent and highly influential Pancaratrika treatises of Vaishnava. This is evidenced in Hindu
Hindu
texts such as the Isvarasamhita, Padmasamhita and Paramesvarasamhita. The 7th to 8th-century Shore Temple
Shore Temple
at Mahabalipuram is a UNESCO World Heritage site. It features thousands of Shaivism-related sculptures.

Along with the Himalayan region stretching from Kashmir
Kashmir
through Nepal, the Shaiva tradition in South India
South India
has been one of the largest sources of preserved Shaivism-related manuscripts from ancient and medieval India. The region was also the source of Hindu
Hindu
arts, temple architecture, and merchants who helped spread Shaivism
Shaivism
into southeast Asia in early 1st millennium CE.

There are tens of thousands of Hindu
Hindu
temples where Shiva
Shiva
is either the primary deity or reverentially included in anthropomorphic or aniconic form (lingam, or svayambhu ). Numerous historic Shaiva temples have survived in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Certain regions have a greater density of Shiva temples, such as in the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
region of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, where numerous Shaiva temples were built during the Chola empire era, between 800 and 1200 CE. Gudimallam is the oldest known lingam and has been dated to between 3rd to 1st-century BCE. It is a carved five feet high stone lingam with an anthropomorphic image of Shiva
Shiva
on one side. This ancient lingam is in Chittoor
Chittoor
district of Andhra Pradesh.

SOUTHEAST ASIA

An image collage of 1st millennium CE Shaivism
Shaivism
icons and temples from Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
(top left): Shiva
Shiva
in yoga pose, Nandi, Prambanan temple, Yoni- Linga
Linga
and Hindu
Hindu
temple layout.

Shaivism
Shaivism
arrived in a major way in southeast Asia from south India, and to much lesser extent into China and Tibet from the Himalayan region. It co-developed with Buddhism
Buddhism
in this region, in many cases. For example, in the Caves of the Thousand Buddhas , a few caves include Shaivism
Shaivism
ideas. The epigraphical and cave arts evidence suggest that Shaiva Mahesvara and Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
had arrived in Indo-China region in the Funan period, that is in the first half of the 1st millennium CE. In Indonesia, temples at archaeological sites and numerous inscription evidence dated to the early period (400 to 700 CE), suggest that Shiva
Shiva
was the highest god. This co-existence of Shaivism
Shaivism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
in Indonesian islands continued through about 1500 CE when both Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
were replaced with Islam.

The Shaivism
Shaivism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
tradition overlapped significantly in southeast Asia, particularly in Indonesia, Cambodia
Cambodia
and Vietnam between the 5th and the 15th-century. Shaivism
Shaivism
and Shiva
Shiva
held the paramount position in ancient Java, Sumatra, Bali
Bali
and neighboring islands, though the sub-tradition that developed creatively integrated more ancient beliefs that pre-existed. In the centuries that followed, the merchants and monks who arrived in southeast Asia, brought Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Buddhism, and these developed into a syncretic, mutually supporting form of traditions.

BELIEFS AND PRACTICES

Shaivism
Shaivism
centers around Shiva, but it has many sub-traditions whose theological beliefs and practices vary significantly. They range from dualistic devotional theism to monistic meditative discovery of Shiva within oneself. Within each of these theologies, there are two sub-groups. One sub-group is called Vedic-Puranic, who use the terms such as "Shiva, Mahadeva, Maheshvara and others" synonymously, and they use iconography such as the Linga
Linga
, Nandi , Trishula
Trishula
(trident), as well as anthropomorphic statues of Shiva
Shiva
in temples to help focus their practices. Another sub-group is called esoteric, which fuses it with abstract Sivata (feminine energy) or Sivatva (neuter abstraction), wherein the theology integrates the goddess (Shakti) and the god (Shiva) with Tantra practices and Agama teachings. There is a considerable overlap between these Shaivas and the Shakta Hindus.

VEDIC, PURANIC AND ESOTERIC SHAVISM

Scholars such as Alexis Sanderson discuss Shaivism
Shaivism
in three categories: vedic, puranic and non-puranic (esoteric, tantric). They place Vedic
Vedic
and Puranic together given the significant overlap, while placing Non-Puranic esoteric sub-traditions as a separate category. Two female Shaiva ascetics (18th century painting)

* Vedic-Puranic. The majority within Shaivism
Shaivism
follow the Vedic-Puranic traditions. They revere the Vedas, the Puranas
Puranas
and have beliefs that span dualistic theism style Shiva
Shiva
Bhakti
Bhakti
(devotionalism) to monistic non-theism dedicated to yoga and meditative lifestyle sometimes with renouncing householder life for monastic pursuits of spirituality. The Yoga
Yoga
practice is particularly pronounced in nondualistic Shaivism, with the practice refined into a methodology such as four-fold upaya: being pathless (anupaya, iccha-less, desire-less), being divine (sambhavopaya, jnana, knowledge-full), being energy (saktopaya, kriya, action-full) and being individual (anavopaya). * Non-Puranic. These are esoteric, minority sub-traditions wherein devotees are initiated (dīkṣa) into a specific cult they prefer. Their goals vary, ranging from liberation in current life (mukti) to seeking pleasures in higher worlds (bhukti). Their means also vary, ranging from meditative atimarga or "outer higher path" versus those who means is recitation-driven mantras. The atimarga sub-traditions include Pashupatas and Lakula. According to Sanderson, the Pashupatas have the oldest heritage, likely from the 2nd century CE, as evidenced by ancient Hindu
Hindu
texts such as the Shanti Parva
Shanti Parva
book of the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
epic. The tantric sub-tradition in this category is traceable to post-8th to post-11th century depending on the region of Indian subcontinent, paralleling the development of Buddhist and Jain tantra traditions in this period. Among these are the dualistic Saiva Siddhanta and Bhairava
Bhairava
Shaivas (non-Saiddhantika), based on whether they recognize any value in vedic orthopraxy. These sub-traditions cherish secrecy, special symbolic formulae, initiation by a teacher and the pursuit of siddhi (special powers). Some of these traditions also incorporate theistic ideas, elaborate geometric yantra with embedded spiritual meaning, mantras and rituals.

SHAIVISM VERSUS OTHER HINDU TRADITIONS

Shaivism
Shaivism
sub-traditions subscribe to various philosophies, are similar in some aspects and differ in others. These traditions compare with Vaishnavism, Shaktism and Smartism as follows:

Comparison of Shaivism
Shaivism
with other traditions

SHAIVA TRADITIONS VAISHNAVA TRADITIONS SHAKTA TRADITIONS SMARTA TRADITIONS REFERENCES

Scriptural authority Vedas, Upanishads
Upanishads
and Agamas Vedas, Upanishads
Upanishads
and Agamas Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads

Supreme deity god Shiva god Vishnu goddess Devi None

Creator Shiva Vishnu Devi Brahman
Brahman
principle

Avatar
Avatar
Minor Key concept Significant Minor

Monastic life Recommends Accepts Accepts Recommends

Rituals, Bhakti
Bhakti
Optional Affirms Affirms Optional

Ahimsa
Ahimsa
and Vegetarianism Optional Affirms Optional Recommends, Optional

Free will
Free will
, Maya , Karma
Karma
Affirms Affirms Affirms Affirms

Metaphysics Brahman
Brahman
(Shiva) and Atman (Soul, Self) Brahman
Brahman
(Vishnu), Atman Brahman
Brahman
(Devi), Atman Brahman, Atman

Epistemology
Epistemology
( Pramana ) 1. Perception 2. Inference 3. Reliable testimony 4. Self-evident 1. Perception 2. Inference 3. Reliable testimony 1. Perception 2. Inference 3. Reliable testimony 1. Perception 2. Inference 3. Comparison and analogy 4. Postulation, derivation 5. Negative/cognitive proof 6. Reliable testimony

Philosophy Dvaita, qualified advaita, advaita Dvaita, qualified advaita, advaita Shakti-advaita Advaita

Salvation ( Soteriology ) Jivanmukta, Shiva
Shiva
is soul, Yoga, champions monastic life Videhamukti, Yoga, champions householder life Bhakti, Tantra, Yoga Jivanmukta, Advaita, Yoga, champions monastic life

TEXTS

SHAIVA MANUSCRIPTS THAT HAVE SURVIVED (post-8th century)

Nepal
Nepal
and Himalayan region = 140,000 South India
South India
= 8,600 Others (Devanagiri) = 2,000 Bali
Bali
and SE Asia = Many —Alexis Sanderson, The Saiva Literature

Over its history, Shaivism
Shaivism
has been nurtured by numerous texts ranging from scriptures to theological treatises. These include the Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads, the Agamas, and the Bhasya . According to Gavin Flood – a professor at Oxford University specializing in Shaivism and phenomenology, Shaiva scholars developed a sophisticated theology, in its diverse traditions. Among the notable and influential commentaries by dvaita (dualistic) theistic Shaivism
Shaivism
scholars were the 8th century Sadyajoti, the 10th century Ramakantha, 11th century Bhojadeva. The dualistic theology was challenged by the numerous scholars of advaita (nondualistic, monistic) Shaivism
Shaivism
persuasion such as the 8th/9th century Vasugupta, the 10th century Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
and 11th century Kshemaraja, particularly the scholars of the Pratyabhijna, Spanda and Kashmiri Shaivism schools of theologians.

VEDAS AND PRINCIPAL UPANISHADS

The Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads
Upanishads
are shared scriptures of Hinduism
Hinduism
, while the Agamas are sacred texts of specific sub-traditions. The surviving Vedic
Vedic
literature can be traced to the 1st millennium BCE and earlier, while the surviving Agamas can be traced to 1st millennium of the common era. The Vedic
Vedic
literature, in Shaivism, is primary and general, while Agamas are special treatise. In terms of philosophy and spiritual precepts, no Agama that goes against the Vedic
Vedic
literature, states Mariasusai Dhavamony, will be acceptable to the Shaivas. According to David Smith, "a key feature of the Tamil Saiva Siddhanta, one might almost say its defining feature, is the claim that its source lies in the Vedas
Vedas
as well as the Agamas, in what it calls the Vedagamas". This school's view can be summed as,

The Veda
Veda
is the cow, the true Agama its milk. — Umapati, Translated by David Smith

The Śvetāśvatara Upanishad
Upanishad
(400 - 200 BCE) is the earliest textual exposition of a systematic philosophy of Shaivism.

SHAIVA MINOR UPANISHADS

Shaivism-inspired scholars authored 14 Shiva-focussed Upanishads
Upanishads
that are called the Shaiva Upanishads. These are considered part of 95 minor Upanishads
Upanishads
in the Muktikā Upanishadic corpus of Hindu literature. The earliest among these were likely composed in 1st millennium BCE, while the last ones in the late medieval era.

The Shaiva Upanishads
Upanishads
present diverse ideas, ranging from bhakti -style theistic dualism themes to a synthesis of Shaiva ideas with Advaitic (nondualism), Yoga, Vaishnava and Shakti
Shakti
themes.

Shaivism
Shaivism
Upanishads
Upanishads
Shaiva Upanishad Composition date Topics Reference

Kaivalya Upanishad
Upanishad
1st millennium BCE Shiva, Atman, Brahman, Sannyasa , Self-knowledge

Atharvashiras Upanishad
Upanishad
1st millennium BCE Rudra, Atman, Brahman, Om, monism

Atharvashikha Upanishad
Upanishad
1st millennium BCE Shiva, Om, Brahman, chanting, meditation

Brihajjabala Upanishad
Upanishad
Late medieval, post-12th century Shiva, sacred ash, prayer beads, Tripundra tilaka

Kalagni Rudra
Rudra
Upanishad
Upanishad
Unknown Meaning of Tripundra (three lines tilaka), Ritual Shaivism

Dakshinamurti Upanishad
Upanishad
Unknown Dakshinamurti as an aspect of Shiva, Atman, monism

Sharabha Upanishad
Upanishad
Unknown Shiva
Shiva
as Sharabha

Akshamalika Upanishad
Upanishad
Late medieval, post-12th century AD Rosary, japa, mantras, Om, Shiva, symbolism in Shaivism
Shaivism
iconography

Rudrahridaya Upanishad
Upanishad
Unknown Rudra-Uma, Male-Female are inseparable, nondualism

Bhasmajabala Upanishad
Upanishad
Late medieval, post-12th century Shiva, sacred ash, body art, iconography, why rituals and Varanasi are important

Rudrakshajabala Upanishad
Upanishad
After 10th century Shiva, Bhairava, Rudraksha beads and mantra recitation

Ganapati Upanishad
Upanishad
16th or 17th century Ganesha, Shiva, Brahman, Atman, Om, Satcitananda

Pancabrahma Upanishad
Upanishad
About 7th century AD Shiva, Sadashiva, nondualism, So\'ham , Atman, Brahman, self-knowledge

Jabali Upanishad
Upanishad
unknown Shiva, Pashupata theology, significance of ash and body art

SHAIVA AGAMAS

The Agama texts of Shaivism
Shaivism
are another important foundation of Shaivism
Shaivism
theology. These texts include Shaiva cosmology , epistemology, philosophical doctrines, precepts on meditation and practices, four kinds of yoga, mantras, meanings and manuals for Shaiva temples, and other elements of practice. These canonical texts exist in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and in south Indian languages such as Tamil .

The Agamas present a diverse range of philosophies, ranging from theistic dualism to absolute monism . In Shaivism, there are ten dualistic (dvaita ) Agama texts, eighteen qualified monism-cum-dualism (bhedabheda ) Agama texts and sixty four monism (advaita ) Agama texts. The Bhairava
Bhairava
Shastras are monistic, while Shiva
Shiva
Shastras are dualistic.

The Agama texts of Shaiva and Vaishnava schools are premised on existence of Atman (soul, self) and the existence of an Ultimate Reality ( Brahman
Brahman
which is consider identical to Shiva
Shiva
in Shaivism. The texts differ in the relation between the two. Some assert the dualistic philosophy of the individual soul and Ultimate Reality being different, while others state a Oneness between the two. Kashmir Shaiva Agamas posit absolute oneness, that is God (Shiva) is within man, God is within every being, God is present everywhere in the world including all non-living beings, and there is no spiritual difference between life, matter, man and God. While Agamas present diverse theology, in terms of philosophy and spiritual precepts, no Agama that goes against the Vedic
Vedic
literature, states Dhavamony, has been acceptable to the Shaivas.

TRADITIONS

Shaivism
Shaivism
is ancient, and over time it developed many sub-traditions. These broadly existed and are studied in three groups: theistic dualism, nontheistic monism, and those that combine features or practices of the two. Sanderson presents the historic classification found in Indian texts, namely Atimarga of the Shaiva monks and Mantramarga that was followed by both the renunciates (sannyasi ) and householders (grihastha ) in Shaivism. Sub-traditions of Shaivas did not exclusively focus on Shiva, but others such as the Devi
Devi
(goddess) Shaktism .

SANNYASI SHAIVA: ATIMARGA

The Atimarga branch of Shaivism
Shaivism
emphasizes liberation (salvation) – or the end of all Dukkha
Dukkha
– as the primary goal of spiritual pursuits. It was the path for Shaiva ascetics , in contrast to Shaiva householders whose path was described as Mantramarga and who sought both salvation as well as the yogi-siddhi powers and pleasures in life. The Atimarga revered the Vedic
Vedic
sources of Shaivism, and sometimes referred to in ancient Indian texts as Raudra (from Vedic Rudra
Rudra
).

Pashupata Atimargi

Lakulisha at Sangameshvara Temple at Mahakuta, Karnataka (Chalukya , 7th century CE). His 5th-10th century ithyphallic statues are also found in seated yogi position in Rajasthan
Rajasthan
, Uttar Pradesh and elsewhere.

Pashupata : (IAST: Pāśupatas) are the Shaivite sub-tradition with the oldest heritage, as evidenced by Indian texts dated to around the start of the common era. It is a monist tradition, that considers Shiva
Shiva
to be within oneself, in every being and everything observed. The Pashupata path to liberation is one of asceticism that is traditionally restricted to Brahmin
Brahmin
males. Pashupata theology, according to Shiva
Shiva
Sutras, aims for a spiritual state of consciousness where the Pashupata yogi "abides in one's own unfettered nature", where the external rituals feel unnecessary, where every moment and every action becomes an internal vow, a spiritual ritual unto itself.

The Pashupatas derive their Sanskrit
Sanskrit
name from two words: Pashu (beast) and Pati (lord), where the chaotic and ignorant state, one imprisoned by bondage and assumptions, is conceptualized as the beast, and the Atman (self, soul, Shiva) that is present eternally everywhere as the Pati. The tradition aims at realizing the state of being one with Shiva
Shiva
within and everywhere. It has extensive literature, and a fivefold path of spiritual practice that starts with external practices, evolving into internal practices and ultimately meditative yoga, with the aim of overcoming all suffering (Dukkha) and reaching the state of bliss (Ananda).

The tradition is attributed to a sage from Gujarat
Gujarat
named Lakulisha (~2nd century CE). He is the purported author of the Pashupata sutras, a foundational text of this tradition. Other texts include the bhasya (commentary) on Pashupata sutras by Kaudinya, the Gaṇakārikā, Pañchārtha bhāshyadipikā and Rāśikara-bhāshya. The Pashupatha monastic path was available to anyone of any age, but it required renunciation from four Ashrama (stage) into the fifth stage of Siddha-Ashrama. The path started as a life near a Shiva temple and silent meditation, then a stage when the ascetic left the temple and did karma exchange (be cursed by others, but never curse back). He then moved to the third stage of life where he lived like a loner in a cave or abandoned places or Himalayan mountains, and towards the end of his life he moved to a cremation ground, surviving on little, peacefully awaiting his death.

The Pashupatas have been particularly prominent in Gujarat
Gujarat
, Rajasthan
Rajasthan
, Kashmir
Kashmir
and Nepal
Nepal
. The community is found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent. In the late medieval era, Pashupatas Shaiva ascetics became extinct.

Lakula Atimargi

This second division of the Atimarga developed from the Pashupatas. Their fundamental text too was the Pashupata Sutras. They differed from Pashupata Atimargi in that they departed radically from the Vedic teachings, respected no Vedic
Vedic
or social customs. He would walk around, for example, almost naked, drank liquor in public, and used a human skull as his begging bowl for food. The Lakula Shaiva ascetic recognized no act nor words as forbidden, he freely did whatever he felt like, much like the classical depiction of his deity Rudra
Rudra
in ancient Hindu
Hindu
texts. However, according to Alexis Sanderson, the Lakula ascetic was strictly celibate and did not engage in sex.

Secondary literature, such as those written by Kashmiri Ksemaraja, suggest that the Lakula had their canons on theology, rituals and literature on pramanas (epistemology). However, their primary texts are believed to be lost, and have not survived into the modern era.

GRIHASTHA AND SANNYASI SHAIVA: MANTRAMARGA

The horizontal three ash lines ( Tripundra ) with a red mark on forehead is a revered mark across Shaiva traditions symbolizing Om .

"Mantramārga" ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: मन्त्रमार्ग, "the path of mantras") has been the Shaiva tradition for both householders and monks. It grew from the Atimarga tradition. This tradition sought not just liberation from Dukkha
Dukkha
(suffering, unsatisfactoriness), but special powers (siddhi) and pleasures (bhoga), both in this life and next. The siddhi were particularly the pursuit of Mantramarga monks, and it is this sub-tradition that experimented with a great diversity of rites, deities, rituals, yogic techniques and mantras. Both the Mantramarga and Atimarga are ancient traditions, more ancient than the date of their texts that have survived, according to Sanderson. Mantramārga grew to become a dominant form of Shaivism
Shaivism
in this period. It also spread outside of India
India
into Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
's Khmer Empire , Java
Java
, Bali
Bali
and Cham .

The Mantramarga tradition created the Shaiva Agamas and Shaiva tantra (technique) texts. This literature presented new forms of ritual, yoga and mantra. This literature was highly influential not just to Shaivism, but to all traditions of Hinduism, as well as to Buddhism and Jainism. Mantramarga had both theistic and monistic themes, which co-evolved and influenced each other. The tantra texts reflect this, where the collection contain both dualistic and non-dualistic theologies. The theism in the tantra texts parallel those found in Vaishnavism and Shaktism. Shaiva Siddhanta is a major subtradition that emphasized dualism during much of its history.

Shaivism
Shaivism
has had strong nondualistic (advaita) sub-traditions. Its central premise has been that the Atman (soul, self) of every being is identical to Shiva, its various practices and pursuits directed at understanding and being one with the Shiva
Shiva
within. This monism is close but differs somewhat from the monism found in Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
of Adi Shankara. Unlike Shankara's Advaita, Shaivism
Shaivism
monist schools consider Maya as Shakti, or energy and creative primordial power that explains and propels the existential diversity.

Srikantha (ca. 1050) formulated Shiva
Shiva
Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
. In this theology, Atman (soul) is not identical with Brahman
Brahman
, but shares with the Supreme all excellent qualities. Appaya Dikshita (ca. 1520–1592), an Advaita
Advaita
scholar, revitalized the monism of Srikantha, producing a Shaiva theology which would become influential in South India
India
(including the Karnataka
Karnataka
region).

Shaiva Siddhanta

Tirumular , the great Tamil Śaivasiddhānta poet and mystic saint (siddha).

The Śaivasiddhānta ("the established doctrine of Shiva") is the earliest sampradaya (tradition, lineage) of Tantric Shaivism, dating from the 5th century. The tradition emphasizes loving devotion to Shiva, uses 5th to 9th-century hymns called Tirumurai. A key philosophical text of this sub-tradition was composed by 13th-century Meykandar . This theology presents three universal realities: the pashu (individual soul), the pati (lord, Shiva), and the pasha (soul’s bondage) through ignorance, karma and maya . The tradition teaches ethical living, service to the community and through one's work, loving worship, yoga practice and discipline, continuous learning and self-knowledge as means for liberating the individual soul from bondage.

The tradition may have originated in Kashmir
Kashmir
where it developed a sophisticated theology propagated by theologians Sadyojoti, Bhatta Nārāyanakantha and his son Bhatta Rāmakantha (c. 950–1000). However, after the arrival of Islamic rulers in north India, it thrived in the south. The philosophy of Shaiva Siddhanta , is particularly popular in south India
India
, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore
Singapore
.

The historic Shaiva Siddhanta literature is an enormous body of texts. The tradition includes both Shiva
Shiva
and Shakti
Shakti
(goddess), but with a growing emphasis on metaphysical abstraction. Unlike the experimenters of Atimarga tradition and other sub-traditions of Mantramarga, states Sanderson, the Shaiva Siddhanta tradition had no ritual offering or consumption of "alcoholic drinks, blood or meat". Their practices focussed on abstract ideas of spirituality, worship and loving devotion to Shiva
Shiva
as SadaShiva, and taught the authority of the Vedas
Vedas
and Shaiva Agamas. This tradition diversified in its ideas over time, with some of its scholars integrating a non-dualistic theology.

Nayanmars

Nayanmars Shaiva poet-saints are credited with Bhakti
Bhakti
movement in Shaivism. It included three women saints, such as the 6th-century Karaikkal Ammaiyar .

By the 7th century, the Nayanmars , a tradition of poet-saints in the bhakti tradition developed in South India
South India
with a focus on Shiva, comparable to that of the Vaisnava Alvars. The devotional poems of the Nayanmars are divided into eleven collections together known as "Thirumurai", along with a Tamil Purana
Purana
called the "Perilya puranam". The first seven collections are known as the Thevaram and are regarded by Tamils as equivalent to the Vedas
Vedas
. They were composed in the 7th century by Sambandar , Appar , and Sundarar .

Tirumular (also spelled Tirumūlār or Tirumūlar), the author of the Tirumantiram (also spelled Tirumandiram) is considered by Tattwananda to be the earliest exponent of Shaivism
Shaivism
in Tamil areas. Tirumular is dated as 7th or 8th century by Maurice Winternitz. The Tirumantiram is a primary source for the system of Shaiva Siddhanta, being the tenth book of its canon. The Tiruvacakam by Manikkavacagar is an important collection of hymns.

Tantra Diksha Traditions

The main element of all Shaiva Tantra is the practice of diksha , a ceremonial initiation in which divinely revealed mantras are given to the initiate by a Guru
Guru
.

A notable feature of some "left tantra" ascetics was their pursuit of siddhis (supernatural abilities) and bala (powers), such as averting danger (santih) and the ability to harm enemies (abhicarah). Ganachakras , ritual feasts, would sometimes be held in cemeteries and cremation grounds and featured possession by powerful female deities called Yoginis . The cult of Yoginis aimed to gain special powers through esoteric worship of the Shakti
Shakti
or the feminine aspects of the divine. The groups included sisterhoods that participated in the rites.

Some traditions defined the special powers differently. For example, the Kashmiri tantrics explain the powers as anima (awareness than one is present in everything), laghima (lightness, be free from presumed diversity or differences), mahima (heaviness, realize one's limit is beyond one's own consciousness), prapti (attain, be restful and at peace with one's own nature), prakamya (forebearance, grasp and accept cosmic diversity), vasita (control, realize that one always has power to do whatever one wants), isitva (self lordship, a yogi is always free). More broadly, the tantric sub-traditions sought nondual knowledge and enlightening liberation by abandoning all rituals, and with the help of reasoning (yuktih), scriptures (sastras) and the initiating Guru.

Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism

A 3rd century Nandi statue from Kashmir.

Kashmir Shaivism
Kashmir Shaivism
is an influential tradition within Shaivism
Shaivism
that emerged in Kashmir
Kashmir
in the 1st millennium CE and thrived in early centuries of the 2nd millennium before the region was overwhelmed by the Islamic invasions from the Hindu
Hindu
Kush region. The Kashmir Shaivism
Shaivism
traditions became nearly extinct except for their preservation by Kashmiri Pandits.

Kashmir Shaivism
Kashmir Shaivism
has been a nondualistic school, and is distinct from the dualistic Shaiva Siddhānta tradition that also existed in medieval Kashmir. A notable philosophy of monistic Kashmiri Shaivism
Shaivism
has been the Pratyabhijna ideas, particularly those by the 10th century scholar Utpaladeva and 11th century Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
and Kshemaraja . Their extensive texts established the Shaiva theology and philosophy in an advaita (monism ) framework. The Siva Sutras of 9th century Vasugupta and his ideas about Spanda have also been influential to this and other Shaiva sub-traditions, but it is probable that much older Shaiva texts once existed.

A notable feature of Kashmir Shaivism
Kashmir Shaivism
was its openness and integration of ideas from Shaktism , Vaishnavism and Vajrayana Buddhism
Buddhism
. For example, one sub-tradition of Kashmir Shaivism
Kashmir Shaivism
adopts Goddess worship (Shaktism) by stating that the approach to god Shiva is through goddess Shakti. This tradition combined monistic ideas with tantric practices. Another idea of this school was Trika, or modal triads of Shakti
Shakti
and cosmology as developed by Somananda in early 10th century.

NATH

Goraknath founded the Nath
Nath
Shaiva monastic movement.

Nath
Nath
: a Shaiva subtradition that emerged from a much older Siddha tradition based on Yoga
Yoga
. The Nath
Nath
consider Shiva
Shiva
as "Adinatha" or the first guru, and it has been a small but notable and influential movement in India
India
whose devotees were called " Yogi
Yogi
or Jogi", given their monastic unconventional ways and emphasis on Yoga.

Nath
Nath
theology integrated philosophy from Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and Buddhism traditions. Their unconventional ways challenged all orthodox premises, exploring dark and shunned practices of society as a means to understanding theology and gaining inner powers. The tradition traces itself to 9th or 10th century Matsyendranath
Matsyendranath
and to ideas and organization developed by Gorakshanath
Gorakshanath
. They combined both theistic practices such as worshipping goddesses and their historic Gurus in temples, as well monistic goals of achieving liberation or jivan-mukti while alive, by reaching the perfect (siddha) state of realizing oneness of self and everything with Shiva.

They formed monastic organisations, and some of them metamorphosed into warrior ascetics to resist persecution during the Islamic rule of the Indian subcontinent.

LINGAYATISM

A necklace with pendant containing linga symbol of Shiva
Shiva
are worn by Lingayats.

Lingayatism , also known as Vira Shaivism: is a distinct Shaivite religious tradition in India
India
. It was founded by the 12th-century philosopher and statesman Basava
Basava
and spread by his followers, called Sharanas .

Lingayatism emphasizes qualified monism and bhakti (loving devotion) to Shiva, with philosophical foundations similar to those of the 11th–12th-century South Indian philosopher Ramanuja
Ramanuja
. Its worship is notable for the iconographic form of Ishtalinga, which the adherents wear. Large communities of Lingayats are found in the south Indian state of Karnataka
Karnataka
and nearby regions. Lingayatism has its own theological literature with sophisticated theoretical sub-traditions.

They were influential in the Hindu
Hindu
Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
that reversed the territorial gains of Muslim rulers, after the invasions of the Deccan region first by Delhi Sultanate and later other Sultanates. Langayats consider their scripture to be Basava
Basava
Purana
Purana
, which was completed in 1369 during the reign of Vijayanagara ruler Bukka Raya I . Lingayat (Veerashaiva) thinkers rejected the custodial hold of Brahmins over the Vedas
Vedas
and the shastras , but they did not outright reject the Vedic
Vedic
knowledge. The 13th-century Telugu Virashaiva poet Palkuriki Somanatha , the author of the scripture of Lingayatism, for example asserted, "Virashaivism fully conformed to the Vedas
Vedas
and the shastras."

DEMOGRAPHY

There is no census data available on demographic history or trends for Shaivism
Shaivism
or other traditions within Hinduism. Estimates vary on the relative number of adherents in Shaivism
Shaivism
compared to other traditions of Hinduism. According to a 2010 estimate by Johnson and Grim, the Shaivism
Shaivism
tradition is the second largest group with 252 million or 26.6% of Hindus. In contrast, according to Jones and Ryan, Shaivism
Shaivism
is the largest tradition of Hinduism. Shaivism
Shaivism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
have co-developed in many regions. Above a syncretic image of Yoni- Linga
Linga
with four reliefs of the Buddha
Buddha
in a Vajrayana temple.

According to Galvin Flood, that Shaivism
Shaivism
and Shaktism traditions are difficult to separate, as many Shaiva Hindus revere the goddess Shakti regularly. The denominations of Hinduism, states Julius Lipner, are unlike those found in major religions of the world, because Hindu denominations are fuzzy with individuals revering gods and goddesses polycentrically , with many Shaiva and Vaishnava adherents recognizing Sri (Lakshmi), Parvati, Saraswati
Saraswati
and other aspects of the goddess Devi. Similarly, Shakta Hindus revere Shiva
Shiva
and goddesses such as Parvati
Parvati
(such as Durga, Radha, Sita
Sita
and others) and Saraswati important in Shaiva and Vaishnava traditions.

INFLUENCE

Shiva
Shiva
is a pan- Hindu
Hindu
god and Shaivism
Shaivism
ideas on Yoga
Yoga
and as the god of performance arts ( Nataraja
Nataraja
) have been influential on all traditions of Hinduism.

Shaivism
Shaivism
was highly influential in southeast Asia from the late 6th century onwards, particularly the Khmer and Cham kingdoms of Indo-China, and across the major islands of Indonesia such as Sumatra, Java
Java
and Bali. This influence on classical Cambodia
Cambodia
, Vietnam
Vietnam
and Thailand
Thailand
continued when Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
arrived with the same Indians.

In Shaivism
Shaivism
of Indonesia, the popular name for Shiva
Shiva
has been Bhattara Guru, which is derived from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Bhattaraka which means “noble lord". He is conceptualized as a kind spiritual teacher, the first of all Gurus in Indonesian Hindu
Hindu
texts, mirroring the Dakshinamurti aspect of Shiva
Shiva
in the Indian subcontinent. However, the Bhattara Guru
Guru
has more aspects than the Indian Shiva, as the Indonesian Hindus blended their spirits and heroes with him. Bhattara Guru's wife in southeast Asia is the same Hindu
Hindu
deity Durga, who has been popular since ancient times, and she too has a complex character with benevolent and fierce manifestations, each visualized with different names such as Uma, Sri, Kali
Kali
and others. Shiva
Shiva
has been called Sadasiva, Paramasiva, Mahadeva in benevolent forms, and Kala, Bhairava, Mahakala in his fierce forms. The Indonesian Hindu
Hindu
texts present the same philosophical diversity of Shaivism
Shaivism
traditions found on the subcontinent. However, among the texts that have survived into the contemporary era, the more common are of those of Shaiva Siddhanta (locally also called Siwa Siddhanta, Sridanta).

As Bhakti
Bhakti
movement ideas spread in the south India, Shaivite devotionalism became a potent movement in Karnataka
Karnataka
and Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
. Shaivism
Shaivism
was adopted by several ruling Hindu
Hindu
dynasties as the state religion (though other Hindu
Hindu
traditions, Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism continued in parallel), including the Chola and the Rajputs
Rajputs
. A similar trend was witnessed in early medieval Indonesia with the Majapahit
Majapahit
empire and pre-Islamic Malaya . In the Himalayan Hindu kingdom of Nepal, Shaivism
Shaivism
remained a popular form of Hinduism
Hinduism
and co-evolved with Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism. A seated Ardhanarishvara symbolically presenting the feminine Shakti
Shakti
as inseparable part of masculine Shiva.

SHAKTISM

The goddess tradition of Hinduism
Hinduism
called Shaktism is closely related to Shaivism. In many regions of India, not only did the ideas of Shaivism
Shaivism
influence the evolution of Shaktism, Shaivism
Shaivism
itself got influenced by it and progressively subsumed the reverence for the divine feminine (Devi) as an equal and essential partner of divine masculine (Shiva). The goddess Shakti
Shakti
in eastern states of India
India
is considered as the inseparable partner of god Shiva. According to Galvin Flood, the closeness between Shaivism
Shaivism
and Shaktism traditions is such that these traditions of Hinduism
Hinduism
are at times difficult to separate. Some Shaiva worship in Shiva
Shiva
and Shakti
Shakti
temples.

SMARTA TRADITION

Shiva
Shiva
is a part of the Smarta Tradition , sometimes referred to as Smartism, another tradition of Hinduism. The Smarta Hindus are associated with the Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
theology, and their practices include an interim step that incorporates simultaneous reverence for five deities, which includes Shiva
Shiva
along with Vishnu, Surya, Devi
Devi
and Ganesha. This is called the Panchayatana puja . The Smartas thus accept the primary deity of Shaivism
Shaivism
as a means to their spiritual goals.

Philosophically, the Smarta tradition emphasizes that all idols (murti ) are icons of saguna Brahman
Brahman
, a means to realizing the abstract Ultimate Reality called nirguna Brahman. The five or six icons are seen by Smartas as multiple representations of the one Saguna Brahman
Brahman
(i.e., a personal God with form), rather than as distinct beings. The ultimate goal in this practice is to transition past the use of icons, then follow a philosophical and meditative path to understanding the oneness of Atman (soul, self) and Brahman (metaphysical reality) – as "That art Thou".

Panchayatana puja that incorporates Shiva
Shiva
became popular in medieval India
India
and is attributed to 8th century Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
, but archaeological evidence suggests that this practice long predates the birth of Adi Shankara. Many Panchayatana mandalas and temples have been uncovered that are from the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
period, and one Panchayatana set from the village of Nand (about 24 kilometers from Ajmer
Ajmer
) has been dated to belong to the Kushan
Kushan
Empire era (pre-300 CE). According to James Harle, major Hindu
Hindu
temples from 1st millennium CE commonly embedded the pancayatana architecture, from Odisha
Odisha
to Karnataka
Karnataka
to Kashmir
Kashmir
. Large temples often present multiple deities in the same temple complex, while some explicitly include fusion deities such as Harihara
Harihara
(half Shiva, half Vishnu).

VAISHNAVISM

Shaivism
Shaivism
iconography in Cambodia
Cambodia
, at Kbal Spean river site. As in India, the site also co-features Vaishnavism-related iconography.

Vaishnava texts reverentially mention Shiva. For example, the Vishnu Purana
Purana
primarily focuses on the theology of Hindu
Hindu
god Vishnu and his avatars such as Krishna
Krishna
, but it praises Brahma
Brahma
and Shiva
Shiva
and asserts that they are one with Vishnu. The Vishnu Sahasranama in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
list a thousand attributes and epithets of Vishnu. The list identifies Shiva
Shiva
with Vishnu.

Reverential inclusion of Shaiva ideas and iconography are very common in major Vaishnava temples, such as Dakshinamurti symbolism of Shaiva thought is often enshrined on the southern wall of the main temple of major Vaishnava temples in peninsular India. Harihara
Harihara
temples in and outside the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
have historically combined Shiva
Shiva
and Vishnu, such as at the Lingaraj Mahaprabhu temple in Bhubaneshwar, Odisha. According to Julius Lipner, Vaishnavism traditions such as Sri Vaishnavism embrace Shiva, Ganesha
Ganesha
and others, not as distinct deities of polytheism, but as polymorphic manifestation of the same supreme divine principle, providing the devotee a polycentric access to the spiritual.

Similarly, Shaiva traditions have reverentially embraced other gods and goddesses as manifestation of the same divine. The Skanda Purana , for example in section 6.254.100 states, "He who is Shiva
Shiva
is Vishnu, he who is Vishnu is Sadashiva".

SAURAISM (SUN DEITY)

The sun god called Surya
Surya
is an ancient deity of Hinduism, and several ancient Hindu
Hindu
kingdoms particularly in the northwest and eastern regions of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
revered Surya. These devotees called Sauras once had a large corpus of theological texts, and Shaivism
Shaivism
literature reverentially acknowledges these. For example, the Shaiva text Srikanthiyasamhita mentions eighty five Saura texts, almost all of which are believed to have been lost during the Indo-Islamic invasion and rule period, except for large excerpts found embedded in Shaiva manuscripts discovered in the Himalayan mountains. Shaivism
Shaivism
incorporated Saura ideas, and the surviving Saura manuscripts such as Saurasamhita acknowledge the influence of Shaivism, according to Alexis Sanderson, assigning "itself to the canon of Shaiva text Vathula-Kalottara.

YOGA MOVEMENTS

Many Shaiva temples present Shiva
Shiva
in yoga pose.

Yoga
Yoga
and meditation has been an integral part of Shaivism, and it has been a major innovator of techniques such as those of Hatha Yoga. Many major Shiva
Shiva
temples and Shaiva tritha (pilgrimage) centers depict anthropomorphic iconography of Shiva
Shiva
as a giant statue wherein Shiva is a loner yogi meditating, as do Shaiva texts.

In several Shaiva traditions such as the Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism, anyone who seeks personal understanding and spiritual growth has been called a Yogi
Yogi
. The Shiva
Shiva
Sutras (aphorisms) of Shaivism
Shaivism
teach yoga in many forms. According to Mark Dyczkowski, yoga – which literally means "union" – to this tradition has meant the "realisation of our true inherent nature which is inherently greater than our thoughts can ever conceive", and that the goal of yoga is to be the "free, eternal, blissful, perfect, infinite spiritually conscious" one is.

Many Yoga-emphasizing Shaiva traditions emerged in medieval India, who refined yoga methods such as by introducing Hatha Yoga
Yoga
techniques. One such movement had been the Nath
Nath
Yogis, a Shaivism
Shaivism
sub-tradition that integrated philosophy from Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and Buddhism traditions. It was founded by Matsyendranath
Matsyendranath
and further developed by Gorakshanath
Gorakshanath
. The texts of these Yoga
Yoga
emphasizing Hindu
Hindu
traditions present their ideas in Shaiva context. Dancing Shiva
Shiva
Nataraja
Nataraja
at the 6th century Badami cave temples.

HINDU PERFORMANCE ARTS

Shiva
Shiva
is the lord of dance and dramatic arts in Hinduism. This is celebrated in Shaiva temples as Nataraja
Nataraja
, which typically shows Shiva dancing in one of the poses in the ancient Hindu
Hindu
text on performance arts called the Natya Shastra .

Dancing Shiva
Shiva
as a metaphor for celebrating life and arts is very common in ancient and medieval Hindu
Hindu
temples. For example, it is found in Badami cave temples , Ellora Caves
Ellora Caves
, Khajuraho , Chidambaram
Chidambaram
and others. The Shaiva link to the performance arts is celebrated in Indian classical dances such as Bharatanatyam and Chhau .

BUDDHISM

Buddhism
Buddhism
and Shaivism
Shaivism
have interacted and influenced each other since ancient times, in both South Asia and Southeast Asia. Their Siddhas and esoteric traditions, in particular, have overlapped to an extent where Buddhists and Hindus would worship in the same temple such as in the Seto Machindranath . In southeast Asia, the two traditions were not presented in competitive or polemical terms, rather as two alternate paths that lead to the same goals of liberation, with theologians disagreeing which of these is faster and simpler. Scholars disagree whether a syncretic tradition emerged from Buddhism and Shaivism, or it was a coalition with free borrowing of ideas, but they agree that the two traditions co-existed peacefully.

The earliest evidence of a close relationship between Shaivism
Shaivism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
comes from the archaeological sites and damaged sculptures from the northwest Indian subcontinent, such as Gandhara. These are dated to about the 1st-century CE, with Shiva
Shiva
depicted in Buddhist arts. The Buddhist Avalokiteshvara is linked to Shiva
Shiva
in many of these arts, but in others Shiva
Shiva
is linked to Bodhisattva Maitreya with he shown as carrying his own water pot like Vedic
Vedic
priests. According to Richard Blurton, the ancient works show that the Bodhisattva of Compassion in Buddhism
Buddhism
has many features in common with Shiva
Shiva
in Shaivism. The Shaiva Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist syncretism continues in the contemporary era in the island of Bali, Indonesia. In Central Asian Buddhism, and its historic arts, syncretism and a shared expression of Shaivism, Buddhism
Buddhism
and Tantra themes has been common.

The syncretism between Buddhism
Buddhism
and Shaivism
Shaivism
was particularly marked in southeast Asia, but this was not unique, rather it was a common phenomenon also observed in the eastern regions of the Indian subcontinent, the south and the Himalayan regions. This tradition continues in predominantly Hindu
Hindu
Bali
Bali
Indonesia in the modern era, where Buddha
Buddha
is considered the younger brother of Shiva. In the pre-Islamic Java, Shaivism
Shaivism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
were considered very close and allied religions, though not identical religions. This idea is also found in the sculptures and temples in the eastern states of India
India
and the Himalayan region. For example, Hindu
Hindu
temples in these regions show Harihara
Harihara
(half Shiva, half Vishnu) flanked by a standing Buddha
Buddha
on its right and a standing Surya
Surya
( Hindu
Hindu
Sun god) on left.

On major festivals of Bali
Bali
Hindus, such as the Nyepi – a "festival of silence", the observations are officiated by both Buddhist and Shaiva priests.

JAINISM

Jainism co-existed with Shaiva culture since ancient times, particularly in western and southern India
India
where it received royal support from Hindu
Hindu
kings of Chaulukya, Ganga and Rashtrakuta dynasties. In late 1st millennium CE, Jainism too developed a Shaiva-like tantric ritual culture with Mantra-goddesses. These Jain rituals were aimed at mundane benefits using japas (mantra recitation) and making offerings into Homa fire.

According to Alexis Sanderson, the link and development of Shaiva goddesses into Jaina goddess is more transparent than a similar connection between Shaivism
Shaivism
and Buddhism. The 11th-century Jain text ‘’Bhairavapadmavatikalpa’’, for example, equates Padmavati of Jainism with Tripura-bhairavi of Shaivism
Shaivism
and Shaktism. Among the major goddesses of Jainism that are rooted in Hindu
Hindu
pantheon, particularly Shaiva, include Lakshmi
Lakshmi
and Vagishvari (Sarasvati) of the higher world in Jain cosmology, Vidyadevis of the middle world, and Yakshis such as Ambika, Cakreshvari, Padmavati and Jvalamalini of the lower world according to Jainism.

Shaiva- Shakti
Shakti
iconography is found in major Jain temples. For example, the Osian temple of Jainism near Jodhpur features Chamunda, Durga, Sitala and a naked Bhairava. While Shaiva and Jain practices had considerable overlap, the interaction between Jain community and Shaiva community differed on the acceptance of ritual animal sacrifices before goddesses. Jain remained strictly vegetarian and avoided animal sacrifice, while Shaiva accepted the practice.

TEMPLES AND PILGRIMAGE

SOMNATH Srisailam
Srisailam
UJJAIN Omkareshwar Parli Deoghar Bhima Rameshwaram Dwaraka Jageshwar KATHMANDU Aundha Triambak Kedarnath Ellora Sivasagar VARANASI BADRINATH PURI KHAJURAHO CHIDAMBARAM AMARNATH Major Shaiva Hindu temple sites. Orange markers are UNESCO world heritage sites.

Shaiva Puranas, Agamas and other regional literature refer to temples by various terms such as Mandir, Shivayatana, Shivalaya, Shambhunatha, Jyotirlingam, Shristhala, Chattraka, Bhavaggana, Bhuvaneshvara, Goputika, Harayatana, Kailasha, Mahadevagriha, Saudhala and others. In Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Shaiva temples are called Candi (Java), Pura (Bali), and Wat
Wat
( Cambodia
Cambodia
and nearby regions).

Many of the Shiva-related pilgrimage sites such as Varanasi, Amarnath, Kedarnath, Somnath
Somnath
and others are broadly considered holy in Hinduism. They are called kṣétra (Sanskrit: क्षेत्र ). A kṣétra has many temples, including one or more major ones. These temples and its location attracts pilgrimage called tirtha (or tirthayatra).

Many of the historic Puranas
Puranas
literature embed tourism guide to Shaivism-related pilgrimage centers and temples. For example, the Skanda Purana
Skanda Purana
deals primarily with Tirtha Mahatmyas (pilgrimage travel guides) to numerous geographical points, but also includes a chapter stating that a temple and tirtha is ultimately a state of mind and virtuous everyday life.

Major rivers of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and their confluence (sangam), natural springs, origin of Ganges River (and pancha-ganga), along with high mountains such as Kailasha with Mansovar Lake are particularly revered spots in Shaivism. Twelve jyotirlinga sites across India
India
have been particularly important pilgrimage sites in Shaivism: Somanatha, Malikarjuna, Mahakal, Parmeshvara, Kedarnatha, Bhimshankara, Visheshvara, Trayambakesvara, Vaidyanatha, Nagesha, Rameshvara and Ghrishnesha. Other texts mention five Kedras (Kedarnatha, Tunganatha, Rudranatha, Madhyamesvara and Kalpeshvara), five Badri (Badrinatha, Pandukeshvara, Sujnanien, Anni matha and Urghava), snow lingam of Amarnatha, flame of Jwalamukhi, all of the Narmada River, and others. Kashi (Varanasi) is declared as particularly special in numerous Shaiva texts and Upanishads, as well as in the pan- Hindu
Hindu
Sannyasa Upanishads
Upanishads
such as the Jabala Upanishad
Upanishad
.

The early Bhakti
Bhakti
movement poets of Shaivism
Shaivism
composed poems about pilgrimage and temples, using these sites as metaphors for internal spiritual journey.

SEE ALSO

* Ein Sof * Hindu
Hindu
denominations * History of Shaivism * Jangam * Siddha * Sophia (wisdom)
Sophia (wisdom)
* Sufism

NOTES

* ^ Along with Vaishnavism , Shaktism , and Smartism * ^ Kapalikas are alleged to smear their body with ashes from the cremation ground, revered the fierce Bhairava
Bhairava
form of Shiva, engage in rituals with blood, meat, alcohol, and sexual fluids. However, states David Lorenzen, there is a paucity of primary sources on Kapalikas, and historical information about them is available from fictional works and other traditions who disparage them. * ^ The Dunhuang caves in north China built from 4th century onwards are predominantly about the Buddha, but some caves show the meditating Buddha
Buddha
with Hindu
Hindu
deities such as Shiva, Vishnu, Ganesha and Indra. * ^ There is an overlap in this approach with those found in non-puranic tantric rituals. * ^ Pashupatas have both Vedic-Puranic and non-Puranic sub-traditions. * ^ Vasugupta is claimed by two Advaita
Advaita
(Monistic) Shaivism sub-traditions to be their spiritual founder.

* ^ For example:

be impossible to accomplish one's functions unless one is a master of oneself. Therefore strive for self-mastery, seeking to win the way upwards. To have self-mastery is to be a yogin (yogitvam).

Whatever reality he reaches through the Yoga
Yoga
whose sequence I have just explained, he realizes there a state of consciousness whose object is all that that pervades. Leaving aside what remains outside he should use his vision to penetrate all . Then once he has transcended all lower realities, he should seek the Shiva
Shiva
level.

How can a person whose awareness is overwhelmed by sensual experience stabilize his mind? Answer: Shiva
Shiva
did not teach this discipline (sādhanam) for individuals who are not disaffected. — Bhatta Narayanakantha, Mrigendratantra (paraphrased), Transl: Alexis Sanderson * ^ Some images show proto- Vishnu images. * ^ Similarly, in Vaishnavism Hindu
Hindu
tradition, Buddha
Buddha
is considered as one of the avatar of Vishnu. * ^ Medieval Hindu
Hindu
texts of Indonesia equate Buddha
Buddha
with Siwa (Shiva) and Janardana (Vishnu).

REFERENCES

CITATIONS

* ^ S Parmeshwaranand 2004 , pp. 19-20, 272-275. * ^ P. T. Raju (1985). Structural Depths of Indian Thought. State University of New York Press. pp. 10–14, 509–516. ISBN 978-0-88706-139-4 . * ^ Flood 2003 , pp. 200-201. * ^ A B Flood 1996 , pp. 162–167. * ^ A B C D E Ganesh Tagare (2002), The Pratyabhijñā Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1892-7 , pages 16–19 * ^ A B C Flood 2003 , pp. 202-204. * ^ A B C David Smith (1996), The Dance of Siva: Religion, Art and Poetry in South India, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-48234-9 , page 116 * ^ A B C D E Mariasusai Dhavamony (1999), Hindu
Hindu
Spirituality, Gregorian University and Biblical Press, ISBN 978-88-7652-818-7 , pages 31–34 with footnotes * ^ A B Mark Dyczkowski (1989), The Canon of the Śaivāgama, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0595-8 , pages 43–44 * ^ A B C D Peter Bisschop (2011), Shaivism, Oxford University Press

* ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684 , pages 301-304; R G Bhandarkar (2001), Vaisnavism, Saivism and Minor Religious Systems, Routledge, ISBN 978-8121509992 , pages 106-111 * ^ Robert Hume (1921), Shvetashvatara Upanishad, The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Oxford University Press, pages 400-406 with footnotes * ^ A Kunst, Some notes on the interpretation of the Ṥvetāṥvatara Upaniṣad, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 31, Issue 02, June 1968, pages 309-314; doi :10.1017/S0041977X00146531 * ^ D Srinivasan (1997), Many Heads, Arms, and Eyes, Brill, ISBN 978-9004107588 , pages 96-97 and Chapter 9 * ^ Flood 2003 , pp. 208-214. * ^ Jan Gonda (1975). Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 3 Southeast Asia, Religions. BRILL Academic. pp. 3–20, 35–36, 49–51. ISBN 90-04-04330-6 . * ^ "Introduction to Hinduism". Himalayan Academy. 2009. Retrieved 2014-02-01. * ^ A B Johnson, Todd M; Grim, Brian J (2013). The World\'s Religions in Figures: An Introduction to International Religious Demography. John Wiley & Sons. p. 400. ISBN 9781118323038 . * ^ A B Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase. p. 474. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5 . * ^ Apte, Vaman Shivram (1965). The Practical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Dictionary (Fourth revised and enlarged ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0567-4 , p. 919. * ^ A B Macdonell, p. 314. * ^ Chakravarti, Mahadev (1986). The Concept of Rudra-Śiva Through The Ages (Second Revised ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0053-2 , p. 28. * ^ A B Monier Monier-Williams (1899), Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to English Dictionary with Etymology, Oxford University Press, pages 1074–1076 * ^ Chakravarti, Mahadev (1986). The Concept of Rudra-Śiva Through The Ages (Second Revised ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0053-2 , p. 21-22. * ^ Chakravarti, Mahadev (1986). The Concept of Rudra-Śiva Through The Ages (Second Revised ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0053-2 , pp. 1, 7, 21-23 * ^ Apte, Vaman Shivram (1965). The Practical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Dictionary (Fourth revised and enlarged ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0567-4 , p. 927 * ^ Flood 1996 , p. 149. * ^ A B Flood 1996 , pp. 17. * ^ Keay, p.xxvii. * ^ Julius J. Lipner (2009), Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-45677-7 , page 8; Quote: "(...) one need not be religious in the minimal sense described to be accepted as a Hindu
Hindu
by Hindus, or describe oneself perfectly validly as Hindu. One may be polytheistic or monotheistic, monistic or pantheistic, even an agnostic, humanist or atheist, and still be considered a Hindu." * ^ Lester Kurtz (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict, ISBN 978-0123695031 , Academic Press, 2008 * ^ MK Gandhi, The Essence of Hinduism, Editor: VB Kher, Navajivan Publishing, see page 3; According to Gandhi, "a man may not believe in God and still call himself a Hindu." * ^ For an overview of the Shaiva Traditions, see Flood, Gavin, "The Śaiva Traditions", in: Flood (2003), pp. 200–228. * ^ Tattwananda, p. 54. * ^ For dating as fl. 2300–2000 BCE, decline by 1800 BCE, and extinction by 1500 BCE see: Flood (1996), p. 24. * ^ Flood 2003 , pp. 204-205. * ^ For a drawing of the seal see Figure 1 in: Flood (1996), p. 29. * ^ For translation of paśupati as "Lord of Animals" see: Michaels, p. 312. * ^ Flood 1996 , p. 28-29. * ^ A B C D E F Flood 2003 , p. 204–205. * ^ Mark Singleton (2010), Yoga
Yoga
Body: The Origins of Modern Posture Practice, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-539534-1 , pages 25–34 * ^ Samuel 2008 , p. 2–10. * ^ Asko Parpola(2009), Deciphering the Indus Script, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521795661 , pages 240-250 * ^ Flood 1996 , pp. 153-154. * ^ Flood 2003 , p. 205 * ^ Chakravarti 1994 , pp. 70-71. * ^ Loeschner, Hans (2012) The Stūpa of the Kushan
Kushan
Emperor Kanishka the Great, Sino-Platonic Papers , No. 227 (July 2012); page 11 * ^ A B Bopearachchi, O. (2007). Some observations on the chronology of the early Kushans. Res Orientales, 17, 41-53 * ^ Perkins, J. (2007). Three-headed Śiva on the Reverse of Vima Kadphises's Copper Coinage. South Asian Studies, 23(1), 31-37 * ^ Laura Giuliano (2004). "Silk Road Art and Archaeology: Journal of the Institute of Silk Road Studies". 10. Kamakura, Shiruku Rōdo Kenkyūjo: 61. * ^ A B Flood 1996 , p. 154. * ^ A B Flood 2003 , p. 205. * ^ George Cardona (1997). Pāṇini: A Survey of Research. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 277–278, 58 with note on Guleri. ISBN 978-81-208-1494-3 . * ^ Michael W. Meister (1984). Discourses on Siva: Proceedings of a Symposium on the Nature of Religious Imagery. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 274–276. ISBN 978-0-8122-7909-2 . * ^ A B Lorenzen 1987 , pp. 6-20. * ^ "Early Strata of Śaivism in the Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Valley, Śivaliṅga Pedestal Inscriptions from 466–645 CE". Indo-Iranian Journal . Brill Academic Publishers. 59 (4): 309–362. 2016. doi :10.1163/15728536-05904001 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ A B Alain Daniélou
Alain Daniélou
1987 , p. 128. * ^ Tattwananda 1984 , p. 46. * ^ David N. Lorenzen (1972). The Kāpālikas and Kālāmukhas: Two Lost Śaivite Sects. University of California Press. pp. xii, 4–5. ISBN 978-0-520-01842-6 . * ^ Flood 2003 , pp. 212-213. * ^ Flood 2003 , pp. 206-214. * ^ A B Sanderson 2009 , pp. 61-62 with footnote 64. * ^ Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram, UNESCO World Heritage Sites; Quote: "It is known especially for its rathas (temples in the form of chariots), mandapas (cave sanctuaries), giant open-air reliefs such as the famous 'Descent of the Ganges', and the temple of Rivage, with thousands of sculptures to the glory of Shiva." * ^ A B Alexis Sanderson (2014), 'The Saiva Literature, Journal of Indological Studies, Kyoto, Nos. 24 & 25, pages 1-113 * ^ A B Ann R. Kinney, Marijke J. Klokke Stephen P. Huyler; John E. Cort; et al. (2016). Puja and Piety: Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist Art from the Indian Subcontinent. University of California Press. pp. 61–62. ISBN 978-0-520-28847-8 . CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link ) * ^ A B Heather Elgood (2000). Hinduism
Hinduism
and the Religious Arts. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 47–48. ISBN 978-0-304-70739-3 . * ^ Heather Elgood (2000). Hinduism
Hinduism
and the Religious Arts. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 143–167. ISBN 978-0-304-70739-3 . * ^ Wendy Doniger (2009), An Alternative Historiography for Hinduism, Journal of Hindu
Hindu
Studies, Vol. 2, Issue 1, pages 17-26, Quote: "Numerous Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts and ancient sculptures (such as the Gudimallam linga from the third century BCE) define (...)" * ^ Srinivasan, Doris (1984). "Unhinging Śiva from the Indus civilization". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland. Cambridge University Press. 116 (01): 77–89. doi :10.1017/s0035869x00166134 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ S. J. Vainker (1990). Caves of the Thousand Buddhas: Chinese Art from the Silk Route. British Museum Publications for the Trustees of the British Museum. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-7141-1447-7 . * ^ Edward L. Shaughnessy (2009). Exploring the Life, Myth, and Art of Ancient China. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-4358-5617-2 . * ^ Ann R. Kinney, Marijke J. Klokke & Lydia Kieven 2003 , p. 21-25. * ^ A B C D E R. Ghose (1966), Saivism in Indonesia during the Hindu-Javanese period, The University of Hong Kong Press, pages 4-6, 14-16, 94-96, 160-161, 253 * ^ Andrea Acri (2015). D Christian Lammerts, ed. Buddhist Dynamics in Premodern and Early Modern Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 261–275. ISBN 978-981-4519-06-9 . * ^ A B Axel Michaels (2004). Hinduism: Past and Present. Princeton University Press. pp. 215–217. ISBN 0-691-08952-3 . * ^ A B C Sanderson 1988 , pp. 660-704. * ^ A B C D E Flood 2003 , pp. 206-207. * ^ Flood 2003 , pp. 205-207, 215-221. * ^ A B Flood 2003 , pp. 221-223. * ^ A B Flood 2003 , pp. 208-209. * ^ Flood 2003 , pp. 210-213. * ^ Sanderson 1988 , pp. 660-663, 681-690. * ^ Sanderson 1988 , pp. 17-18. * ^ A B C Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase. p. 474. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5 . * ^ Mariasusai Dhavamony (1999). Hindu
Hindu
Spirituality. Gregorian Press. pp. 32–34. ISBN 978-88-7652-818-7 . * ^ A B C D Jan Gonda (1970). Visnuism and Sivaism: A Comparison. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-1-4742-8080-8 . * ^ Christopher Partridge (2013). Introduction to World Religions. Fortress Press. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-8006-9970-3 . * ^ Sanjukta Gupta (1 February 2013). Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and Vaisnavism: The Philosophy of Madhusudana Sarasvati. Routledge. pp. 65–71. ISBN 978-1-134-15774-7 . * ^ Lai Ah Eng (2008). Religious Diversity in Singapore. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore. p. 221. ISBN 978-981-230-754-5 . * ^ Mariasusai Dhavamony (2002). Hindu-Christian Dialogue: Theological Soundings and Perspectives. Rodopi. p. 63. ISBN 90-420-1510-1 . * ^ Stephen H Phillips (1995), Classical Indian Metaphysics, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0812692983 , page 332 with note 68 * ^ Olivelle, Patrick (1992). The Samnyasa Upanisads. Oxford University Press. pp. 4–18. ISBN 978-0195070453 . * ^ Prem Prakash (1998). The Yoga
Yoga
of Spiritual Devotion: A Modern Translation of the Narada Bhakti
Bhakti
Sutras. Inner Traditions. pp. 56–57. ISBN 978-0-89281-664-4 . * ^ Frazier, J. (2013). " Bhakti
Bhakti
in Hindu
Hindu
Cultures". The Journal of Hindu
Hindu
Studies. Oxford University Press. 6 (2): 101–113. doi :10.1093/jhs/hit028 . * ^ Lisa Kemmerer; Anthony J. Nocella (2011). Call to Compassion: Reflections on Animal Advocacy from the World\'s Religions. Lantern. pp. 27–36. ISBN 978-1-59056-281-9 . * ^ Frederick J. Simoons (1998). Plants of Life, Plants of Death. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 182–183. ISBN 978-0-299-15904-7 .

* ^ K. Sivaraman (1973). Śaivism in Philosophical Perspective. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 336–340. ISBN 978-81-208-1771-5 . * ^ John A. Grimes, A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Terms Defined in English, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791430675 , page 238 * ^ Flood 1996 , p. 225. * ^ Eliott Deutsche (2000), in Philosophy of Religion : Indian Philosophy Vol 4 (Editor: Roy Perrett), Routledge, ISBN 978-0815336112 , pages 245-248 * ^ McDaniel, June (2004). Offering Flowers, Feeding Skulls. Oxford University Press. pp. 89–91. ISBN 978-0-19-534713-5 . * ^ Matthew James Clark (2006). The Daśanāmī-saṃnyāsīs: The Integration of Ascetic Lineages Into an Order. Brill. pp. 177–225. ISBN 978-90-04-15211-3 . * ^ Kim Skoog (1996). Andrew O. Fort; Patricia Y. Mumme, eds. Living Liberation in Hindu
Hindu
Thought. SUNY Press. pp. 63–84, 236–239. ISBN 978-0-7914-2706-4 . * ^ Rajendra Prasad (2008). A Conceptual-analytic Study of Classical Indian Philosophy of Morals. Concept. p. 375. ISBN 978-81-8069-544-5 . * ^ Sanderson, Alexis (2013). "The Impact of Inscriptions on the Interpretation of Early Śaiva Literature". Indo-Iranian Journal. Brill Academic Publishers. 56 (3-4): 211–244. doi :10.1163/15728536-13560308 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ A B C Flood 2003 , pp. 223-224. * ^ Ganesh Vasudeo Tagare (2002). The Pratyabhijñā Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 1–4, 16–18. ISBN 978-81-208-1892-7 . * ^ Mark S. G. Dyczkowski (1987). The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of the Doctrines and Practices Associated with Kashmir Shaivism. State University of New York Press. pp. 17–25. ISBN 978-0-88706-431-9 . * ^ Pathak 1960 , pp. 11, 51-52. * ^ For dating to 400-200 BCE see: Flood (1996), p. 86. * ^ For Śvetāśvatara Upanishad
Upanishad
as a systematic philosophy of Shaivism
Shaivism
see: Chakravarti 1994 , p. 9. * ^ A B C Ayyangar, TRS (1953). Saiva Upanisads. Jain Publishing Co. (Reprint 2007). ISBN 978-0895819819 . * ^ Peter Heehs (2002), Indian Religions, New York University Press, ISBN 978-0814736500 , pages 60-88 * ^ Olivelle, Patrick (1998). Upaniṣads. Oxford University Press. pp. 11–14. ISBN 978-0192835765 . * ^ Deussen, Paul (1997). Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Volume 1. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers . pp. 247–268 with footnotes. ISBN 978-8120814677 . * ^ Deussen, Paul (1997). Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 791–794. ISBN 978-8120814677 . * ^ Chester G Starr (1991), A History of the Ancient World, 4th Edition, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195066289 , page 168 * ^ Peter Heehs (2002), Indian Religions: A Historical Reader of Spiritual Expression and Experience, New York University Press, ISBN 978-0814736500 , pages 85-86 * ^ Deussen, Paul (1997). Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 773–777. ISBN 978-8120814677 . * ^ Ignatius Viyagappa (1980), G.W.F. Hegel's Concept of Indian Philosophy, Gregorian University Press, ISBN 978-8876524813 , pages 24-25 * ^ H Glasenapp (1974), Die Philosophie der Inder, Kröner, ISBN 978-3520195036 , pages 259-260 * ^ Deussen, Paul (1997). Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 779–782. ISBN 978-8120814677 . * ^ Hattangadi, Sunder (2000). "बृहज्जाबालोपनिषत् (Brihat-Jabala Upanishad)" (PDF) (in Sanskrit). * ^ Deussen, Paul (1997). Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 789–790. ISBN 978-8120814677 . * ^ Kramrisch, Stella (1981). The Presence of Śiva. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. pp. 274–286. ISBN 978-8120804913 . * ^ AM Sastri (2001). Dakshinamurti stotra of Sri Sankaracharya and Dakshinamurti Upanishad
Upanishad
with Sri Sureswaracharya\'s Manasollasa and Pranava Vartika. Samata (Original: 1920). pp. 153–158. ISBN 978-8185208091 . OCLC
OCLC
604013222 . * ^ Hattangadi, Sunder (2000). "शरभोपनिषत् (Sharabha Upanishad)" (in Sanskrit). * ^ Beck, Guy (1995). Sonic Theology: Hinduism
Hinduism
and Sacred Sound. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 133–134, 201–202. ISBN 978-8120812611 . * ^ Ayyangar, TRS (1953). Saiva Upanisads. Jain Publishing Co. (Reprint 2007). pp. 193–199. ISBN 978-0895819819 . * ^ Ayyangar, TRS (1953). Saiva Upanisads. Jain Publishing Co. (Reprint 2007). pp. 165–192. ISBN 978-0895819819 . * ^ Klostermaier, Klaus K. (1984). Mythologies and Philosophies of Salvation in the Theistic Traditions of India. Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press. pp. 134, 371. ISBN 978-0-88920-158-3 . * ^ Grimes, John A. (1995). Ganapati: Song of the Self. State University of New York Press. pp. 21–29. ISBN 0-7914-2440-5 . * ^ Ayyangar, TRS (1953). Saiva Upanisads. Jain Publishing Co. (Reprint 2007). pp. 110–114. ISBN 978-0895819819 . * ^ Kramrisch, Stella (1981). The Presence of Śiva. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. pp. 187–188. ISBN 978-8120804913 . * ^ Sastri, AM (1950). The Śaiva- Upanishads
Upanishads
with the commentary of Sri Upanishad-Brahma-Yogin. The Adyar Library, Madras. ISBN 81-85141029 . OCLC
OCLC
863321204 . * ^ Julius Lipner (2004), Hinduism: the way of the banyan, in The Hindu
Hindu
World (Editors: Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby), Routledge, ISBN 0-415-21527-7 , pages 27–28 * ^ A B Grimes, John A. (1996). A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Terms Defined in English. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-3068-2 . pages 16–17 * ^ Mariasusai Dhavamony (2002), Hindu-Christian Dialogue, Rodopi, ISBN 978-90-420-1510-4 , pages 54–56 * ^ Indira Peterson (1992), Poems to Siva: The Hymns of the Tamil Saints, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-81-208-0784-6 , pages 11–18 * ^ DS Sharma (1990), The Philosophy of Sadhana, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-0347-1 , pages 9–14 * ^ Richard Davis (2014), Ritual in an Oscillating Universe: Worshipping Siva in Medieval India, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-60308-7 , page 167 note 21, Quote (page 13): "Some agamas argue a monist metaphysics, while others are decidedly dualist. Some claim ritual is the most efficacious means of religious attainment, while others assert that knowledge is more important." * ^ JS Vasugupta (2012), Śiva Sūtras, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0407-4 , pages 252, 259 * ^ Gavin Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0 , pages 162–167 * ^ Gonda 1977 , pp. 154-162. * ^ Sanderson 1995 , pp. 16-21. * ^ Sanderson 1988 , p. 663. * ^ A B Sanderson 1988 , pp. 663-670, 690-693. * ^ Sanderson 1988 , pp. 660-663. * ^ A B C Sanderson 1988 , pp. 664-665. * ^ Sanderson 1988 , p. 664. * ^ Sanderson, Alexis; “Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions.” In The World's Religions, edited by S. Sutherland, L. Houlden, P. Clarke and F. Hardy. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul (1988), pp. 665-666, context: pp. 660-704. Reprinted in The World's Religions: The Religions of Asia, edited by F. Hardy. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul (1990), pp. 128-72. * ^ Cynthia Packert Atherton (1997). The Sculpture of Early Medieval Rajasthan. BRILL. pp. 92–97, 102–103. ISBN 90-04-10789-4 . * ^ Sanderson, Alexis; “Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions.” In The World's Religions, edited by S. Sutherland, L. Houlden, P. Clarke and F. Hardy. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul (1988), pp. 660-704. Reprinted in The World's Religions: The Religions of Asia, edited by F. Hardy. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul (1990), pp. 128-72. * ^ Vasugupta & Mark Dyczkowski (Translator) 1992 , pp. 140-141. * ^ A B James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 505. ISBN 978-0-8239-3180-4 . * ^ A B Alain Daniélou
Alain Daniélou
(1987). While the Gods Play. Inner Traditions. pp. 120–123. ISBN 978-0-89281-115-1 . * ^ Dasgupta 1955 , pp. 5-6. * ^ Alain Daniélou
Alain Daniélou
(1987). While the Gods Play. Inner Traditions. pp. 124–129. ISBN 978-0-89281-115-1 . * ^ Paul E. Muller-Ortega 2010 , pp. 31-38. * ^ Roshen Dalal (2010). The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths. Penguin Books. p. 206. ISBN 978-0-14-341517-6 . * ^ See Alexis Sanderson 's Śaivism among the Khmers Part I, pp. 349--462 in the Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient 90--91 (2003--2004). * ^ For Pāśupata as an ascetic movement see: Michaels (2004), p. 62. * ^ A B C Sanderson 1988 , pp. 665-666. * ^ Deussen, Paul (1997). Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 789–790. ISBN 978-81-208-1467-7 . * ^ Antonio Rigopoulos (2013), Brill's Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 5, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004178960 , pages 182-183 * ^ A B C Sanderson 1988 , pp. 667-668. * ^ Sanderson 1988 , pp. 664, 667-668. * ^ Sanderson, Alexis; the Saiva Age, page 44. * ^ Flood 1996 , p. 171. * ^ Flood, Gavin. D. 2006. The Tantric Body. P.120 * ^ Sanderson 1988 , pp. 662-663. * ^ Guy L. Beck (1995). Sonic Theology: Hinduism
Hinduism
and Sacred Sound. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 173–175. ISBN 978-81-208-1261-1 . * ^ A B C Gavin Flood (2006). The Tantric Body: The Secret Tradition of Hindu
Hindu
Religion. I.B.Tauris. pp. 58–61. ISBN 978-1-84511-011-6 . * ^ A B John Myrdhin Reynolds (1996). The Golden Letters: The Three Statements of Garab Dorje, First Dzogchen Master. Shambhala. pp. 243–244. ISBN 978-1-55939-868-8 . * ^ Braj B. Kachru (1981). Kashmiri Literature. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-3-447-02129-6 . * ^ Elaine Fisher (2017). Hindu
Hindu
Pluralism: Religion and the Public Sphere in Early Modern South India. University of California Press. pp. 9–12. ISBN 978-0-52029-301-4 . * ^ Sanderson, Alexis; the Saiva Age, page 45. * ^ Mariasusai Dhavamony 1971 , pp. 14-22, 257-258. * ^ A B Shaiva Siddhanta, Encyclopedia Britannica (2014) * ^ S Parmeshwaranand (2004). Encyclopaedia of the Śaivism. Sarup & Sons. pp. 210–217. ISBN 978-81-7625-427-4 . * ^ Flood 2003 , pp. 209–210 * ^ Flood, Gavin. D. 2006. The Tantric Body. p. 34 * ^ S. Arulsamy, Saivism – A Perspective of Grace, Sterling Publishers Private Limited, New Delhi, 1987, pp.1 * ^ A B C Sanderson 1988 , pp. 668-669. * ^ Hilko Wiardo Schomerus 2000 , pp. 1–7, 29-37, 44-49. * ^ Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing. pp. 375–376. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5 .

* ^ Rohan A. Dunuwila (1985). Śaiva Siddhānta Theology: A Context for Hindu-Christian Dialogue. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 29–30, 66–73. ISBN 978-0-89581-675-7 . * ^ Julia Leslie (1992). Roles and Rituals for Hindu
Hindu
Women. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 196–197. ISBN 978-81-208-1036-5 . * ^ For the emergence of the Nayanmars by the 7th century and comparison with Vaisnava Alvars
Alvars
see: Flood (1996), 131. * ^ For eleven collections, with the first seven (the Thevaram) regarded as Vedic, see: Tattwananda, p. 55. * ^ For dating of Sambandar, Appar, and Sundarar as 7th century see: Tattwananda, p. 55. * ^ Tattwananda, p. 55. * ^ Winternitz, p. 588, note 1. * ^ For the Tirumantiram as the tenth book of the Shaiva Siddhanta canon see Brooks, Douglas Renfrew. "Auspicious Fragments and Uncertain Wisdom", in: Harper and Brown, p. 63. * ^ Tattwananda, p. 56. * ^ A B Gavin Flood (2007). An introduction to Hindu
Hindu
tantrism, Lecture 1 (Speech). Oxford center for Hindu
Hindu
studies. Retrieved March 29, 2017. * ^ Sanderson 2009 , pp. 124-125. * ^ Sanderson 1995 , p. 24. * ^ A B Alexis Sanderson 2010 , pp. 260-262, 329-333. * ^ A B Sanderson 1988 , pp. 671-673. * ^ Vasugupta Jaideva Singh (1989). A Trident of Wisdom: Translation of Paratrisika-vivarana. State University of New York Press. pp. ix–xiv. ISBN 978-0-7914-0180-4 . , Quote: "After the demise of the Trika as a lineage in Kashmir
Kashmir
in the late 13th century, due in large measure to the invasion of Islam, a few rare manuscripts of this important and complex text..." * ^ A B C D David Peter Lawrence (2012), Kashmiri Shaiva Philosophy, IEP * ^ Stanley D. Brunn (2015). The Changing World Religion Map: Sacred Places, Identities, Practices and Politics. Springer. pp. 402–408. ISBN 978-94-017-9376-6 . * ^ Sanderson 2009 , p. 221 with footnote 500. * ^ Sanderson 1995 , pp. 16-17. * ^ Flood, Gavin. D. 2006. The Tantric Body. P.61-66 * ^ A B C Flood, Gavin. D. 1996. An Introduction to Hinduism. P.164-167 * ^ A B Kashmiri Shaiva Philosophy, David Peter Lawrence, University of Manitoba, IEP (2010) * ^ Jaideva Singh (1982). Pratyabhijnahrdayam: The Secret of Self-recognition. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 3–5, 14–33. ISBN 978-81-208-0323-7 . * ^ Wallis, Christopher; Tantra Illuminated, Chapter 2, Kashmir Shaivism * ^ Paul E. Muller-Ortega (2010). Triadic Heart of Siva, The: Kaula Tantricism of Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
in the Non-dual Shaivism
Shaivism
of Kashmir. State University of New York Press. pp. 15–16, 43–45, 118. ISBN 978-1-4384-1385-3 . * ^ Paul E. Muller-Ortega (2010). Triadic Heart of Siva, The: Kaula Tantricism of Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
in the Non-dual Shaivism
Shaivism
of Kashmir. State University of New York Press. pp. 7–8, 17–32. ISBN 978-1-4384-1385-3 . * ^ A B C D Mallinson 2012 , pp. 407-421. * ^ Constance Jones & James D. Ryan 2006 , pp. 169-170, 308. * ^ A B Natha, Encyclopedia Britannica (2007) * ^ A B Mark Singleton (2010). Yoga
Yoga
Body: The Origins of Modern Posture Practice. Oxford University Press. pp. 27–39. ISBN 978-0-19-974598-2 . * ^ Paul E. Muller-Ortega 2010 , pp. 36-38. * ^ Romila Thapar (2008). Somanatha. Penguin Books. pp. 165–166. ISBN 978-0-14-306468-8 . * ^ Rigopoulos 1998 , pp. 99-104, 218. * ^ Lorenzen, David N. (1978). "Warrior Ascetics in Indian History". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 98 (1): 61. doi :10.2307/600151 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Carl Olson (2007), The Many Colors of Hinduism: A Thematic-historical Introduction, Rutgers University Press, ISBN 978-0813540689 , pages 243–244 * ^ A B C Lingayat: Hindu
Hindu
sect, Encyclopedia Britannica (2015) * ^ Aziz Ahmad; Karigoudar Ishwaran (1973). Contributions to Asian Studies. Brill Academic. p. 5. * ^ Aya Ikegame (2013). Princely India
India
Re-imagined: A Historical Anthropology of Mysore from 1799 to the present. Routledge. p. 83. ISBN 978-1-136-23909-0 . * ^ Lingayat Religion - Tradition and Modernity in Bhakti Movements, Jayant Lele. Brill Archive. Retrieved 22 May 2015. * ^ Fredrick Bunce (2010), Hindu
Hindu
deities, demi-gods, godlings, demons, and heroes, ISBN 9788124601457 , page 983 * ^ Jan Peter Schouten (1995), Revolution of the Mystics: On the Social Aspects of Vīraśaivism, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812383 , pages 2–3 * ^ David Levinson; Karen Christensen (2002). Encyclopedia of Modern Asia. Gale. p. 475. ISBN 978-0-684-80617-4 . ; Quote: "The Lingayats are a Hindu
Hindu
sect concentrated in the state of Karnataka
Karnataka
(a southern provincial state of India), which covers 191,773 square kilometers. The Lingayats constitute around 20 percent of the total population in that state." * ^ A. K. Ramanujan 1973 . * ^ R. Blake Michael 1992 , pp. 168-175. * ^ Edward P. Rice (1982). A History of Kannada Literature. Asian Educational Services. pp. 64–72. ISBN 978-81-206-0063-8 . * ^ Bill Aitken (1999). Divining the Deccan. Oxford University Press. pp. 109–110, 213–215. ISBN 978-0-19-564711-2 . * ^ A B Leela Prasad (2012), Poetics of Conduct: Oral Narrative and Moral Being in a South Indian Town, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231139212 , page 104 * ^ A B Velcheru Narayana Rao & Gene H. Roghair 2014 , p. 7 * ^ A B Gavin Flood (2008). The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. John Wiley & Sons. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-470-99868-7 . , Quote: "it is often impossible to meaningfully distinguish between Saiva and Sakta traditions". * ^ Julius J. Lipner (2009), Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-45677-7 , pages 40-41, 302-315, 371-375 * ^ Sanderson 2009 , pp. 44-45 with footnotes. * ^ Mahadev Chakravarti (1986). The Concept of Rudra-Śiva Through the Ages. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 171–. ISBN 978-81-208-0053-3 . * ^ K. R. Subramanian (1 January 1989). Buddhist Remains in Āndhra and the History of Āndhra Between 225 & 610 A.D. Asian Educational Services. pp. 140–. ISBN 978-81-206-0444-5 . * ^ R. Ghose (1966), Saivism in Indonesia during the Hindu-Javanese period, The University of Hong Kong Press, pages 16, 123, 494-495, 550-552 * ^ R. Ghose (1966), Saivism in Indonesia during the Hindu-Javanese period, The University of Hong Kong Press, pages 130-131, 550-552 * ^ Hariani Santiko (1997), The Goddess Durgā in the East-Javanese Period, Asian Folklore Studies, Vol. 56, No. 2, pp. 209-226 * ^ A B R. Ghose (1966), Saivism in Indonesia during the Hindu-Javanese period, The University of Hong Kong Press, pages 15-17 * ^ R. Ghose (1966), Saivism in Indonesia during the Hindu-Javanese period, The University of Hong Kong Press, pages 155-157, 462-463 * ^ Sastri, K.A. Nilakanta. "A Historical Sketch of Saivism", in: Bhattacharyya (1956), Volume IV pages 63 -78. * ^ For more on the subject of Saivite influence on Indonesia, one could read N.J.Krom, Inleiding tot de Hindoe-Javaansche Kunst/Introduction to Hindu-Javanese Art, The Hague, Martinus Nijhof, 1923 * ^ Sanderson 2009 , pp. 45-52 with footnotes. * ^ A B C Gudrun Bühnemann (2003). Mandalas and Yantras in the Hindu
Hindu
Traditions. BRILL Academic. p. 60. ISBN 978-9004129023 . * ^ Gavin D. Flood (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0 . * ^ Diana L. Eck (1998). Darśan: Seeing the Divine Image in India. Columbia University Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-231-11265-9 . * ^ A B The Four Denominations of Hinduism, Basics of Hinduism, Kauai Hindu
Hindu
Monastery * ^ A B James C. Harle (1994). The Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent. Yale University Press. pp. 140–142, 191, 201–203. ISBN 978-0-300-06217-5 . * ^ Frederick Asher (1981). Joanna Gottfried Williams, ed. Kalādarśana: American Studies in the Art of India. BRILL Academic. pp. 1–4. ISBN 90-04-06498-2 . * ^ Anupa Pande; Parul Pandya Dhar (2004). Cultural Interface of India
India
with Asia: Religion, Art and Architecture. National Museum Institute. pp. 159 with note 13. ISBN 978-81-246-0262-1 . * ^ Rocher 1986 , p. 246, 248 with footnote 501. * ^ Lipner 2012 , pp. 319-320. * ^ Stella Kramrisch 1993 , p. 57. * ^ Lipner 2012 , pp. 312-313, 315-317, 374-375. * ^ Lipner 2012 , pp. 319-333. * ^ Stella Kramrisch (1988). The Presence of Siva. Motilal Banarsidass (Original: Princeton University Press, 1981). p. 438. ISBN 978-81-208-0491-3 . * ^ A B Sanderson 2009 , pp. 53-58 with footnotes. * ^ Mikel Burley (2000). Haṭha-Yoga: Its Context, Theory, and Practice. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 6–12, 59. ISBN 978-81-208-1706-7 . * ^ Alexis Sanderson (1999), YOGA IN ŚAIVISM, Oxford University, pages 1-7 * ^ Paul E Muller-Ortega (2008). Knut A. Jacobsen, ed. Theory and Practice of Yoga
Yoga
: \'Essays in Honour of Gerald James Larson. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 181–192. ISBN 978-81-208-3232-9 . * ^ Lise McKean (1996). Divine Enterprise: Gurus and the Hindu Nationalist Movement. University of Chicago Press. pp. 161–163. ISBN 978-0-226-56009-0 . * ^ Indira Viswanathan Peterson 2014 , pp. 96-97. * ^ Vasugupta & Mark Dyczkowski (Translator) 1992 , pp. 7-8. * ^ Nath
Nath
Sampradaya, James Mallinson (2011), Brill Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 3, Brill Academic, pp. 407-428. * ^ Alexis Sanderson (1999), Yoga
Yoga
in Śaivism: The Yoga
Yoga
Section of the Mṛgendratantra, University of Oxford, pages 4, 22-25 * ^ Saroj Panthey (1987). Iconography of Śiva in Pahāṛī Paintings. Mittal Publications. pp. 59–60, 88. ISBN 978-81-7099-016-1 . * ^ A B T. A. Gopinatha Rao (1997). Elements of Hindu
Hindu
Iconography. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 223–229, 237. ISBN 978-81-208-0877-5 . * ^ Shiva
Shiva
as Lord of the Dance (Nataraja), Chola period, c. 10th/11th century The Art Institute of Chicago, United States * ^ T. A. Gopinatha Rao (1997). Elements of Hindu
Hindu
Iconography. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 236–238, 247–258. ISBN 978-81-208-0877-5 . * ^ Gomathi Narayanan (1986), SHIVA NATARAJA AS A SYMBOL OF PARADOX, Journal of South Asian Literature, Vol. 21, No. 2, page 215 * ^ Anna Libera Dallapiccola (2007). Indian Art in Detail. Harvard University Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-674-02691-9 . * ^ David Smith (2003). The Dance of Siva: Religion, Art and Poetry in South India. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-0-521-52865-8 . * ^ Frank Burch Brown (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Religion and the Arts. Oxford University Press. pp. 489–490. ISBN 978-0-19-517667-4 . * ^ Anita M. Leopold; Jeppe Sinding Jensen (2005). Syncretism in Religion: A Reader. Routledge. p. 303. ISBN 978-0-415-97361-8 . * ^ Nicholas Tarling (1999). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 328–329. ISBN 978-0-521-66369-4 . * ^ A B C T. Richard Blurton (1993). Hindu
Hindu
Art. Harvard University Press. pp. 84–85, 191. ISBN 978-0-674-39189-5 . * ^ A B T. Richard Blurton (1993). Hindu
Hindu
Art. Harvard University Press. pp. 29–30, 84–85. ISBN 978-0-674-39189-5 . * ^ Peter Harvey (1990). An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices. Cambridge University Press. pp. 143–144. ISBN 978-0-521-31333-9 . * ^ John Kieschnick; Meir Shahar (2013). India
India
in the Chinese Imagination: Myth, Religion, and Thought. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 79–80. ISBN 978-0-8122-4560-8 . * ^ James Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1&2. Rosen Publishing. p. 128. ISBN 0-8239-2287-1 . * ^ R. Ghose (1966), Saivism in Indonesia during the Hindu-Javanese period, The University of Hong Kong Press, pages 160-165 * ^ J.L. Moens, Het Buddhisme Java
Java
en Sumatra in Zijn laatste boeiperiods, T.B.G., pp. 522-539, 550; OCLC
OCLC
10404094 , Quote: “He Janardana is the excellent Dewa in the form of Buddha, the Kula Bhairava." * ^ R. Ghose (1966), Saivism in Indonesia during the Hindu-Javanese period, The University of Hong Kong Press, pages 94-96, 253 * ^ Rk Sahu (2011), Iconography of Surya
Surya
in the Temple Art of Odisha, Orissa Review, Volume 11, page 31 * ^ Christiaan Hooykaas (1974). Cosmogony and creation in Balinese tradition. Bibliotheca Indonesica, Volumes 9-10. Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. pp. 1–3. * ^ Jacob Ensink (1978), Siva- Buddhism
Buddhism
in Java
Java
and Bali, Buddhism in Ceylon and studies on religious syncretism in Buddhist countries, Vol. 133, Vandenhoeck Hariani Santiko; Hasan Djafar; et al. (2013). Candi Indonesia: Seri Jawa: Indonesian-English. Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan. pp. 4–15. ISBN 978-602-17669-3-4 . CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link ) * ^ Fredrik Barth (1993). Balinese Worlds. University of Chicago Press. pp. 31–36. ISBN 978-0-226-03834-6 . * ^ Roshen Dalal (2010). The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths. Penguin Books. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-14-341517-6 . * ^ Jack M. Clontz (2016). Khon Mask : Thailand
Thailand
Heritage. MOCA Bangkok. p. 222. ISBN 978-1-78301-872-7 . * ^ Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary, क्षेत्र "sacred spot, place of pilgrimage". * ^ Knut A. Jacobsen (2012), Pilgrimage in the Hindu
Hindu
Tradition: Salvific Space, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415590389 * ^ A B Ariel Glucklich 2008 , p. 146, QUOTE: The earliest promotional works aimed at tourists from that era were called mahatmyas. * ^ Geoffrey Waring Maw (1997). Pilgrims in Hindu
Hindu
Holy Land: Sacred Shrines of the Indian Himalayas. Sessions Book Trust. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-85072-190-1 . * ^ Sanjukta Dasgupta; Chinmoy Guha (2013). Tagore at Home in the World. SAGE Publications. p. 76. ISBN 978-81-321-1149-8 . * ^ Diana L. Eck (1998). Darśan: Seeing the Divine Image in India. Columbia University Press. pp. 65–67. ISBN 978-0-231-11265-9 . * ^ A B C B Sarawati (1985). Traditions of Tirthas in India: The Anthropology of Hindu
Hindu
Pilgrimage. N.K. Bose Memorial Foundation. pp. 5–7, 12. * ^ B Sarawati (1985). Traditions of Tirthas in India: The Anthropology of Hindu
Hindu
Pilgrimage. N.K. Bose Memorial Foundation. pp. 36–41. * ^ Olivelle, Patrick (1992). The Samnyasa Upanisads. Oxford University Press. pp. 141–143. ISBN 978-0-19-507045-3 . * ^ Indira Peterson (1983), Lives of the wandering singers: Pilgrimage and poetry in Tamil Śaivite hagiography, History of Religions, University of Chicago Press, Vol. 22, No. 4, pages 338-360 * ^ Indira Peterson (1982), Singing of a place: pilgrimage as metaphor and motif in the Tēvāram songs of the Tamil Śaivite saints, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 102, No. 1, pages 69-90

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Apte, Vaman Shivram (1965). The Practical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Dictionary. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0567-4 . (fourth revised & enlarged edition). * Basham, A. L. (1989). Zysk, Kenneth, ed. The Origins and Development of Classical Hinduism. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507349-5 . * Bhandarkar, Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Gopal (1913). Vaisnavism, Śaivism, and Minor Religious Systems. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0122-X . Third AES reprint edition, 1995. * Bhattacharyya (Editor), Haridas (1956). The Cultural Heritage of India. Calcutta: The Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Mission Institute of Culture. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) Four volumes. * Briggs, Lawrence Palmer (1951). "The Syncretism of Religions in Southeast Asia, Especially in the Khmer Empire". Journal of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. 71 (4). doi :10.2307/596106 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * Chakravarti, Mahadev (1994), The Concept of Rudra-Śiva Through The Ages (Second Revised ed.), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0053-2 * Courtright, Paul B. (1985). Gaṇeśa: Lord of Obstacles, Lord of Beginnings. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505742-2 . * Alain Daniélou
Alain Daniélou
(1991). The Myths and Gods of India: The Classic Work on Hindu
Hindu
Polytheism from the Princeton Bollingen Series. Inner Traditions. ISBN 978-1-59477-733-2 . * Alain Daniélou
Alain Daniélou
(1987). While the Gods Play: Shaiva Oracles and Predictions on the Cycles of History and the Destiny of Mankind. Inner Traditions. ISBN 978-1-59477-736-3 . * Dasgupta, Surendranath (1955). A History of Indian Philosophy, Vol. 5: The Southern Schools of Śaivism. Cambridge University Press. * Mariasusai Dhavamony (1971). Love of God according to Śaiva Siddhānta: a study in the mysticism and theology of Śaivism. Clarendon Press. * Flood, Gavin (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43878-0 . * Flood, Gavin (Editor) (2003). "The Śaiva Traditions". The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1405132510 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Gray, David B. (2016). "Tantra and the Tantric Traditions of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion. Oxford University Press. doi :10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.013.59 . Retrieved 2016-10-15. * Grimes, John A. (1995). Ganapati: Song of the Self. SUNY Series in Religious Studies. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-2440-5 . * Harper, Katherine Anne; Brown, Robert L. (2002). The Roots of Tantra. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-5306-5 . * Ariel Glucklich (2008). The Strides of Vishnu : Hindu
Hindu
Culture in Historical Perspective: Hindu
Hindu
Culture in Historical Perspective. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-971825-2 . * Gonda, Jan (1977). "Ch. 10-13". Medieval Religious Literature in Sanskrit. A History of Indian Literature 2.1. Harrassowitz Verlag. * Keay, John (2000). India: A History. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0 . * Ann R. Kinney; Marijke J. Klokke; Lydia Kieven (2003). Worshiping Siva and Buddha: The Temple Art of East Java. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2779-3 . * Stella Kramrisch (1993). The Presence of Siva. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01930-4 . * Lorenzen, David N. (1987). "Śaivism: An Overview". In Mircea Eliade. The Encyclopedia of Religion. 13. Collier Macmillan. * Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5 . * Lipner, Julius (2012). Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-24061-5 . * Mallinson, James (2012), Knut A. Jacobsen, Helene Basu, Angelika Malinar, Vasudha Narayanan, ed., "Nāth Sampradāya" in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 3, Brill Academic CS1 maint: Multiple names: editors list (link ) * Mate, M. S. (1988). Temples and Legends of Maharashtra. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. * Michaels, Axel (2004). Hinduism: Past and Present. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-08953-1 . * R. Blake Michael (1992). The Origins of Vīraśaiva Sects: A Typological Analysis of Ritual and Associational Patterns in the Śūnyasaṃpādane. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0776-1 . * Paul E. Muller-Ortega (2010). Triadic Heart of Siva, The: Kaula Tantricism of Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
in the Non-dual Shaivism
Shaivism
of Kashmir. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-1385-3 . * Rigopoulos, Antonio (1998). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara: A Study of the Transformative and Inclusive Character of a Multi-faceted Hindu
Hindu
Deity. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-3696-7 . * Nath, Vijay (March–April 2001). "From 'Brahmanism' to 'Hinduism': Negotiating the Myth of the Great Tradition". Social Scientist: 19–50. JSTOR
JSTOR
3518337 . doi :10.2307/3518337 . * Oberlies, T. (1998). Die Religion des Rgveda. Vienna. * S Parmeshwaranand (2004). Encyclopaedia of the Śaivism. Sarup & Sons. ISBN 978-81-7625-427-4 . * Pathak, V. S. (1960). History of Śaiva Cults in Northern India from Inscriptions, 700 A.D. to 1200 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. * Indira Viswanathan Peterson (2014). Poems to Siva: The Hymns of the Tamil Saints. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-6006-7 .

* A. K. Ramanujan (1973). Speaking of Śiva. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-044270-0 . * Velcheru Narayana Rao; Gene H. Roghair (2014). Siva\'s Warriors: The Basava
Basava
Purana
Purana
of Palkuriki Somanatha. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-6090-6 . * Rocher, Ludo (1986). The Puranas. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3447025225 . * Samuel, Geoffrey (2008), The Origins of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-69534-3 * Sanderson, Alexis (2009). "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period". In Shingo Einoo. Genesis and Development of Tantrism (PDF). Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture. * Sanderson, Alexis (1988). "Saivism and the Tantric Traditions". In S Sutherland; et al. The World's Religions. Routledge. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link ) * Sanderson, Alexis (1995). "Meaning of a Tantric Ritual". In AM Blondeau and K Schipper. Essais sur le Rituel. Louvain: Peeters. * Alexis Sanderson (2004). "The Śaiva Religion among the Khmers Part I". Bulletin de l'École française d'Extrême-Orient. École française d’Extrême-Orient. 90/91. * Alexis Sanderson (2010). Dominic Goodall & Andre Padoux, ed. Mélanges tantriques à la mémoire d’Hélène Brunner: Tantric Studies in Memory of Hélène Brunner. Institut Français de Pondichéry. ISBN 978-2855396668 . * Hilko Wiardo Schomerus (2000). Śaiva Siddhānta: An Indian School of Mystical Thought : Presented as a System and Documented from the Original Tamil Sources. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1569-8 . * Sharma, Ram Karan (1988). Elements of Poetry in the Mahābhārata. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0544-5 . Second edition. * Tattwananda, Swami (1984), Vaisnava Sects, Saiva Sects, Mother Worship (First Revised ed.), Calcutta: Firma KLM Private Ltd. * Vasugupta; Mark Dyczkowski (Translator) (1992). The Aphorisms of Siva: The Siva Sutra
Sutra
with Bhaskara\'s Commentary, the Varttika. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-1264-0 . * Winternitz, Maurice (1972). History of Indian Literature. New Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. Second revised reprint edition. Two volumes. First published 1927 by the University of Calcutta.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to SHAIVISM .

* Encyclopædia Britannica, "Shaivism" * Saivism.Net * Alexis sanderson, Publications, scholarly studies in Shaivism

* v * t * e

Shaivism
Shaivism

HISTORY

* History of Shaivism

DEITIES

* Shiva
Shiva

* Sadyojata
Sadyojata
* Vamadeva * Aghora * Tatpurusha * Ishana

*

* Nataraja
Nataraja
* Dakshinamurthy * Harihara
Harihara

* Shakti
Shakti

* Ardhanarishvara * Parvati
Parvati

* Ganesha
Ganesha
* Kartikeya
Kartikeya
* Nandi <