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Ali Gauhar (25 June 1728 – 19 November 1806), historically known as Shah Alam II, was the sixteenth Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
and the son of Alamgir II. Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
became the emperor of a crumbling Mughal empire. His power was so depleted during his reign that it led to a saying in the Persian language, Sultanat-e-Shah Alam, Az Dilli ta Palam, meaning, 'The kingdom of Shah Alam is from Delhi
Delhi
to Palam', Palam
Palam
being a suburb of Delhi.[1][2] Shah Alam faced many invasions, mainly by the Emir of Afghanistan, Ahmed Shah Abdali, which led to the Third Battle of Panipat
Third Battle of Panipat
between the Maratha
Maratha
Empire, who maintained suzerainty over Mughal affairs in Delhi
Delhi
and the Afghans led by Abdali. In 1760, the invading forces of Abdali were driven away by the Marathas, led by Sadashivrao Bhau, who deposed Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
III, the puppet Mughal emperor of Feroze Jung III, and installed Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
as the rightful emperor under the Maratha suzerainty.[3][4] Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
was considered the only and rightful emperor, but he wasn't able to return to Delhi
Delhi
until 1772, under the protection of the Maratha
Maratha
general Mahadaji Shinde. He also fought against the British East India Company
East India Company
at the Battle of Buxar. Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
authored his own Diwan of poems and was known by the pen-name Aftab. His poems were guided, compiled and collected by Mirza Fakhir Makin.[5]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Escape from Delhi 3 Eastern Campaigns

3.1 Acknowledged emperor 3.2 Battle of Buxar 3.3 Diwani
Diwani
rights 3.4 Absence from Delhi

4 Return to Delhi

4.1 Reformation of the Mughal Army

5 Foreign relations

5.1 Rumi Darwaza

6 Political turmoil

6.1 Jat victories 6.2 Sikh
Sikh
victories

7 Downfall

7.1 Prisoner of Ghulam Qadir 7.2 Protectorate of the Marathas

8 Arrival of British troops 9 Death 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading

Early life[edit] Ali Gauhar was born to "Shahzada" (Prince) Aziz-ud-Din, son of the deposed Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Jahandar Shah, on 25 June 1728. Alongside his father, he grew up in semi-captivity in the Salatin quarters of the Red Fort. However, unlike the majority of Mughal princes growing up in similar circumstances, he is not recorded to have become a decadent prince by the time his father became emperor, and therefore was naturally given high appointments in the course of his father's reign. Upon his father's accession, he became the "Wali Ahd" (Crown Prince) of the empire, and became his father's principal agent, though almost all power lay in the Wazir Imad-ul-Mulk's hand. His quarrels with that amir, and fear for his own life, caused him to flee Delhi
Delhi
in 1758. Escape from Delhi[edit] Prince Ali Gauhar, afterwards Emperor Shah Alam II, had been the heir apparent of his father Alamgir II. Prince Ali Gauhar's father had been appointed Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
by Vizier
Vizier
Feroze Jung III and Maratha Peshwa's brother Sadashivrao Bhau[6] who had completely dominated and later killed Alamgir II
Alamgir II
and kept Prince Ali Gauhar under surveillance. After a daring escape from Delhi, Prince Ali Gauhar appeared in the eastern provinces in 1759, hoping to strengthen his position by gaining control over Bengal, Bihar
Bihar
and Odisha. Very soon however, Najib-ud-Daula, forced the usurper Feroze Jung III to flee from the capitol after he gathered a large Mughal Army
Mughal Army
outside Delhi, which deposed the recreant Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
III. Najib-ud-Daula
Najib-ud-Daula
and Muslim nobles then planned to defeat the Marathas by maintaining correspondence with the powerful Ahmad Shah Durrani. After Durrani decisively defeated the Marathas, he nominated Ali Gauhar as the emperor under the name Shah Alam II.[7] Eastern Campaigns[edit] In 1760, after gaining control over Bengal, Bihar
Bihar
and parts of Odisha, Prince Ali Gauhar and his Mughal Army
Mughal Army
of 30,000 intended to overthrow Mir Jafar
Mir Jafar
and Feroze Jung III after they tried to capture or kill him by advancing towards Awadh
Awadh
and Patna
Patna
in 1759. But the conflict soon involved the intervention of the assertive East India Company. The Mughals clearly intended to recapture their breakaway Eastern Subahs led by Prince Ali Gauhar, who was accompanied by Muhammad Quli Khan, Kadim Husein, Kamgar Khan, Hidayat Ali, Mir Afzal and Ghulam Husain Tabatabai. Their forces were reinforced by the forces of Shuja-ud-Daula, Najib-ud-Daula
Najib-ud-Daula
and Ahmad Shah Bangash. The Mughals were also joined by Jean Law and 200 Frenchmen and waged a campaign against the British during the Seven Years' War.[8] Prince Ali Gauhar successfully advanced as far as Patna, which he later besieged with a combined army of over 40,000 in order to capture or kill Ramnarian a sworn enemy of the Mughals. Mir Jafar
Mir Jafar
was in terror at the near demise of his cohort and sent his own son Miran to relieve Ramnarian and retake Patna. Mir Jafar
Mir Jafar
also implored the aid of Robert Clive, but it was Major John Caillaud, who dispersed Prince Ali Gauhar's army in 1761 after four major battles including Battle of Patna, Battle of Sirpur, Battle of Birpur and Battle of Siwan. After negotiations assuring peace Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
was escorted by the British to meet Mir Qasim
Mir Qasim
the new Nawab
Nawab
of Bengal, who was nominated after the sudden death of Miran. Mir Qasim
Mir Qasim
soon had the Mughal Emperor's investiture as Subedar
Subedar
of Bengal, Bihar
Bihar
and Odisha, and agreed to pay an annual revenue of 2.4 million dam. Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
then retreated to Allahabad
Allahabad
was protected by the Shuja-ud-Daula, Nawab
Nawab
of Awadh
Awadh
from 1761 until 1764. Meanwhile, Mir Qasim's relations with the British East India company began to worsen. He initiated reforms that withdrew the tax exemption enjoyed by the British East India Company, he also ousted Ramnarian a sworn enemy of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
and created Firelock manufacturing factories at Patna
Patna
with the sole purpose of giving advantage to the newly reformed Mughal Army. Angered by these developments the East India Company
East India Company
sought his ouster. Court intrigues encouraged by the East India company forced Mir Qasim
Mir Qasim
to leave Bengal, Bihar
Bihar
and Odisha. Mir Qasim
Mir Qasim
on his part encouraged Shuja-ud-Daula
Shuja-ud-Daula
the Nawab
Nawab
of Awadh
Awadh
and Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
to engage the British.

Feroze Jung III was the regent imposed by the Maratha
Maratha
Confederacy in 1757, who assassinated Alamgir II
Alamgir II
and prominent members of the imperial family, within the Maratha
Maratha
occupied city of Delhi; Shah Alam II managed to escape to safety with the Nawab
Nawab
of Awadh.[9]

Mir Jafar, his son Miran and Ramnarian refused to submit to Shah Alam II, who initiated his campaign to regain the Eastern Subah's causing the eventual intervention of the British East India Company.

Acknowledged emperor[edit]

Mughal era illustration of Pir Ghazi of Bengal, during the 18th century.

Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
was acknowledged emperor by the Durrani Empire
Durrani Empire
his declared reign extended to the: 24 Pargana's of the Sundarban's[10] Mir Qasim, Nawabs of Bengal
Bengal
and Murshidabad (and Bihar),[10] Raja
Raja
of Banares,[11] Nizam of Hyderabad, Nawab
Nawab
of Ghazipur, Hyder Ali's Mysore,[11] Nawab
Nawab
of Kadapa
Kadapa
and Nawab
Nawab
of Kurnool, Nawab
Nawab
of the Carnatic of Arcot
Arcot
and Nellore,[12] Nawab
Nawab
of Junagarh, Rohilkhand
Rohilkhand
of Lower Doab, Rohilkhand
Rohilkhand
of Upper Doab, and Nawab
Nawab
of Bhawalpur. Battle of Buxar[edit] Main article: Battle of Buxar The Battle of Buxar
Battle of Buxar
was fought on 22 October 1764 between the combined armies of Mir Qasim, the Nawab
Nawab
of Bengal; Shuja-ud-Daula
Shuja-ud-Daula
the Nawab
Nawab
of Awadh; the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
and the forces under the command of the British East India Company
British East India Company
led by Hector Munro.[13] The battle fought at Buxar, a town located on the bank of the Ganges
Ganges
river then within the territory of Bengal, was a decisive victory for the British East India Company.

Shuja-ud-Daula
Shuja-ud-Daula
served as the leading Nawab
Nawab
Vizier
Vizier
of the Mughal Empire, during the Third Battle of Panipat
Third Battle of Panipat
and the Battle of Buxar

Nawab
Nawab
of Bengal, Mir Qasim
Mir Qasim
defected to Shah Alam II.

Mirza Najaf Khan, the commander-in-chief of the Mughal Army.

Diwani
Diwani
rights[edit] Soon after the Battle of Buxar, Shah Alam II, a sovereign who had just been defeated by the British, sought their protection by signing the Treaty of Allahabad
Allahabad
in the year 1765. Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
was forced to grant the Diwani
Diwani
(right to collect revenue) of Bengal
Bengal
(which included Bihar and Odisha) to the British East India Company
British East India Company
in return for an annual tribute of 2.6 million rupees to be paid by the company from the collected revenue. Tax exempt status was also restored to the company. The company further secured for the districts of Kora and Allahabad which allowed the British East India Company
British East India Company
to collect tax from more than 20 million people. East India company thus became the Imperial tax collector in the former Mughal province of Bengal
Bengal
(which included Bihar
Bihar
and Odisha). East India company appointed a deputy Nawab Muhammad Reza Khan to collect revenue on behalf of the company.

Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
granting Robert Clive
Robert Clive
the " Diwani
Diwani
rights of Bengal, Behar and Odisha" in return for the annexed territories of the Nawab
Nawab
of Awadh
Awadh
after the Battle of Buxar, in 12 August 1765 at the Benares.

A member of the British East India Company
British East India Company
in the Eastern Subah's.

Absence from Delhi[edit] Shah Alam II's absence from Delhi
Delhi
was due to the terms of the treaty he had signed with the British. But his son and heir apparent Prince Mirza Jawan Bakht
Mirza Jawan Bakht
and Najib-ul-Daula, represented the emperor for the next 12 years in Delhi. Return to Delhi[edit]

Shah Alam returned to the throne in Delhi
Delhi
in 1772, under the protection of the Maratha
Maratha
general Mahadaji Shinde(pictured).[14]

The emperor resided in the fort of Allahabad
Allahabad
for six years. Warren Hastings, the head of East India company got appointed as the first Governor of Bengal
Bengal
in 1774. This was the period of "Dual rule" where East India company enacted laws to maximise collection of revenue and the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
appointed Nawab
Nawab
looked after other affairs of the province. East India company later discontinued the tribute of 2.6 million Rupees and later also handed over the districts of Allahabad and Kara to the Nawab
Nawab
of Awadh. These measures amounted to a repudiation of the company's vassalage to the emperor as Diwan (tax collector). In 1793 East India Company
East India Company
was strong enough and abolished Nizamat (local rule) completely and annexed Bengal. Weakened Shah Alam II agreed to the consultation of the East India Company, who advised him never to trust the Marathas. In the year 1771 the Marathas under Mahadji Shinde
Mahadji Shinde
returned to northern India and even captured Delhi. Shah Alam II, was escorted by Mahadaji Shinde
Mahadaji Shinde
and left Allahabad
Allahabad
in May 1771 and in January 1772 reached Delhi. Along with the Marathas they undertook to win the crown lands of Rohilkhand
Rohilkhand
and defeated Zabita Khan, capturing the fort of Pathar garh with its treasure. In the year 1787, an embassy of Bijaya Singh from Jodhpur
Jodhpur
presented itself to the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Shah Alam II, bringing homage and the golden key of the Fortress of Ajmer.[15] After killing Ghulam Qadir and restoring Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
to the throne, a Maratha
Maratha
garrison permanently occupied Delhi
Delhi
in 1788 and ruled on north India for next two decades until they were usurped by the British East India Company in the Second Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War.[16]

The Royal Chamber in the Public Audience Hall in the Middle of Yazdah Darreh, with the Ruler, Alam Bahador Badshah, and the Great Commanders, a page from the Lady Coote Album.

A Firman
Firman
issued by the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Shah Alam II, dated 1776.

Reformation of the Mughal Army[edit] One of his first acts was to strengthen and raise a new Mughal Army, under the command of Mirza Najaf Khan. This new army consisted of infantrymen who successfully utilised both Flintlocks and Talwars in combat formations,[17] they utilised elephants for transportation and were less dependent on artillery and cavalry. Mirza Najaf Khan
Mirza Najaf Khan
is also known to have introduced the more-effective Firelock muskets through his collaboration with Mir Qasim, the Nawab
Nawab
of Bengal.[18]

The newly reestablished Mughal Army
Mughal Army
during the reign of Shah Alam II.

A Mughal infantryman, under the command of Mirza Najaf Khan.

Large Mughal Army
Mughal Army
encampments during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II.

Foreign relations[edit]

Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
negotiates with the British East India Company, after the arrival of Suffren.

Shah Alam II, was well supported by Jean Law de Lauriston
Jean Law de Lauriston
and 200 Frenchmen during his campaign to regain the Eastern Subah's (during the Seven Years' War). The brainchild of the campaign was Ghulam Husain Tabatabai, who had gained much administrative and military experience from both the French and the Dutch. After Shah Alam II's defeat during the Battle of Buxar, the French once again reached out to emperor under Pierre André de Suffren
Pierre André de Suffren
in the year 1781, who initiated a plan to capture Bombay
Bombay
and Surat
Surat
from the Maratha
Maratha
Confederacy and the British, with the co-operation of Mirza Najaf Khan, this action would eventually lead to Asaf Jah II
Asaf Jah II
to join Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
and the French and assist Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
to capture Madras
Madras
from the British East India Company.[19] The internal conflicts within the Mughal imperial court would not allow the emperor to make such a bold move against the British.

Pierre André de Suffren
Pierre André de Suffren
ally of Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
and also Shah Alam II.

Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
was bestowed the title Shams ul-Mulk and Amir ud-Daula by Shah Alam II, his pro-French policies were a continuation of the Mughal Empire's policies during the Seven Years' War.

Rumi Darwaza[edit] The Rumi Darwaza, which stands sixty feet tall,[20] was modelled (1784) after the Sublime Porte (Bab-iHümayun) in Istanbul, is one of the very important examples of the exchange between the two cultures.[21]

Entrance gate built by the Nawab
Nawab
of Oudh, replicating the Sublime Porte (Bab-iHümayun) in Istanbul.

Political turmoil[edit] Jat victories[edit]

Jat Maharaja Suraj Mal

Jats rose in retaliation of religious intolerance pursued by Aurangzeb.[22] The Hindu Jat kingdom of Bharatpur waged many wars against the Mughal Delhi
Delhi
and in the 17th and 18th century carried out numerous campaigns in Mughal territories including Agra.[23] Mughals were defeated by marathas in 1757 and were under their control. During one massive assault, Jats sieged Agra
Agra
in 1761, after 20 days on 12 June 1761 the Mughal forces at Agra
Agra
surrendered to Jats.[22] Jats plundered the city as was the norm of victors during those days. They carried the bounty including the two great silver doors to the entrance of the famous Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
(plundered by mughals after defeating Chittorgarh Rajputs) were carried off and melted down by Suraj Mal
Suraj Mal
in 1764.[24] Suraj Mal's son Jawahar Singh, further extended the Jat power in Northern India
Northern India
and captured the territory in Doab, Ballabgarh
Ballabgarh
and Agra.[25] Jats kept Agra
Agra
fort and other territories closer to Delhi under their control from 1761 till 1774 CE.[22] Sikh
Sikh
victories[edit]

Farzana Zeb un-Nissa protected the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
from an imminent Sikh
Sikh
invasion in 1783 and later led the expedition that rescued the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
from the eunuch Ghulam Qadir.

Sikhs had been in perpetual war against Mughal intolerance specially after beheading of the Sikh
Sikh
Guru - Guru Teg Bahadur
Guru Teg Bahadur
by the Mughals. Simmering Sikhs rose once again in the year 1764 and overran the Mughal Faujdar
Faujdar
of Sirhind, Zain Khan Sirhindi, who fell in battle and ever since the Sikhs perpetually raided and took the bounties from the lands as far as Delhi
Delhi
practically every year. They attacked, won and extracted payments from Delhi
Delhi
three times in 11 years particularly in 1772, 1778 and 1783. And it is believed that the Sikhs even had informants, probably even the Viziers of Shah Alam II. There was ongoing warfare with the Sikhs who were regaining their traditional homeland in eastern Punjab and also attacking the Rohilla, Mewar and Jat lands. During Shah Alam II's reign the Sikhs fought not just with the Mughals, but with the Marathas, Rajputs, and Rohillas. The Marathas took Delhi
Delhi
in 1772 before Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
arrived. Mirza Najaf Khan had restored a sense of order to the Mughal finances and administration and particularly reformed the Mughal Army. In 1777 Mirza Najaf Khan
Mirza Najaf Khan
decisively defeated Zabita Khan's forces and repelled the Sikhs after halting their raids. In 1778, after a Sikh
Sikh
incursion into Delhi, Shah Alam ordered their defeat by appointing, the Mughal Grand Vizier, Majad-ud-Daula marched with 20,000 Mughal troops against the Sikh
Sikh
army into hostle territories, this action led to the defeat of the Mughal Army
Mughal Army
at Muzzaffargarh
Muzzaffargarh
and later at Ghanaur, due to the mounted the casualties Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
reappointed Mirza Najaf Khan, who soon died of natural circumstances leaving the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
weaker than ever. In the year 1779, Mirza Najaf Khan
Mirza Najaf Khan
carefully advanced his forces who successfully routed the treasonous Zabita Khan
Zabita Khan
and his Sikh
Sikh
allies who lost more than 5,000 men in a single battle and never returned to threaten the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
during the commander Mirza Najaf Khan's lifetime. In the year 1783, Farzana Zeb un-Nissa had saved Delhi
Delhi
from a possible invasion by a force of 30,000 Sikh
Sikh
troops, under Baghel Singh, Jassa Singh Ramgarhia and Jassa Singh Ahluwalia. Downfall[edit]

A silver rupee struck in the name of Shah Alam, probably issued by some Princely State

After the defeats at Muzaffargarh
Muzaffargarh
and later at Ghanaur, Majad-ud-Daula was arrested by the orders of Shah Alam II, who then recalled Mirza Najaf Khan. This led to the former Grand Vizier's arrest for causing miscalculations and collaborating with the enemies of the emperor. The traitor was imprisoned and a sum of two million dam in stolen revenue recovered from him. It was Shah Alam II's poor judgement and vacillation that led to his own downfall. Mirza Najaf Khan
Mirza Najaf Khan
had given the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
breathing space by having a powerful, well managed army in its own right. In 1779 the newly reformed Mughal Army decisively defeated Zabita Khan
Zabita Khan
and his Sikh
Sikh
allies the rebels lost 5,000 men including their leader and therefore did not return during the lifetime of Mirza Najaf Khan. Unfortunately upon the general's death, Shah Alam's bad judgement prevailed. The dead man's nephew, Mirza Shafi whose valour had been proven during various occasions, was not appointed commander in chief. Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
instead appointed worthless individuals whose loyalty and record were questionable at best. They were soon quarrelling over petty matters. Even the corrupt and treasonous former Grand Vizier, Majad-ud-Daula was restored to his former office, he later colluded with the Sikhs and reduced the size of the Mughal Army
Mughal Army
from over 20,000 to only 5,000 thus bringing the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
at the mercy of his ruffian enemies.[26][self-published source]

The respect toward the house of Timur
Timur
is so strong that even though the whole subcontinent has been withdrawn from its authority, that no ordinary prince ever intends to take the title of sovereign...and Shah Alam II is still seated on the Mughal throne, and everything is still done in his name.

Benoît de Boigne, (1790).

Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
blinded by Ghulam Qadir

Prisoner of Ghulam Qadir[edit] Nawab
Nawab
Majad-ud-Daula was followed by a known enemy of the Mughals, the grandson of Najib Khan, Ghulam Qadir, with his Sikh
Sikh
allies forced Shah Alam II to appoint him as the Grand Vizier
Vizier
of the Mughal Empire. Petty, avaricious and insane Ghulam Qadir ravaged the palaces in search of the Mughal treasure believed to be worth Rs.250 million. Unable to locate even a fraction of that sum and angered by the Mughal Emperor's attempts to eliminate him and his Sikh
Sikh
allies, Ghulam Qadir himself blinded Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
on 10 August 1788.[26] A drunken ruffian, Ghulam Qadir behaved with gross brutality to the emperor and his family. Three servants and two water-carriers who tried to help the bleeding emperor were beheaded and according to one account, Ghulam Qadir would pull the beard of the elderly Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Shah Alam II. After ten horrible weeks, during which Ghulam Qadir stripped the princesses of the royal family naked and forced them to dance naked before him (after which they jumped into Yamuna river to drown) and the honour of the royal family and prestige of the Mughal Empire reached its lowest ebb, Mahadaji Shinde
Mahadaji Shinde
intervened and killed Ghulam Qadir, taking possession of Delhi
Delhi
on 2 October 1788. He restored Shah Alam II to the throne and acted as his protector.[27] Protectorate of the Marathas[edit] Thankful for his intervention, he honoured Mahadji Shinde
Mahadji Shinde
with the titles of Vakil-ul-Mutlaq (Regent of the Empire) and Amir-ul-Amara (Head of the Amirs). However, he was actually a puppet at the hands of Mahadji Shinde
Mahadji Shinde
of the Maratha
Maratha
Empire, who were his protectors. After killing Ghulam Qadir and restoring Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
to the throne, a Maratha
Maratha
garrison permanently occupied Delhi
Delhi
in 1788 and ruled on north India for next two decades until they were usurped by the British East India Company following the Second Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War in 1803.[16] Arrival of British troops[edit]

The tomb of Shah Alam II, in Mehrauli, Delhi.

The French threat in Europe and its possible repercussions in India caused the British to strive to regain the custody of Shah Alam II. The British feared that the French military officers might overthrow Maratha
Maratha
power and use the authority of the Mughal emperor to further French ambition in India. Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
also corresponded with Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
and later with his son Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
during their conflicts with the British East India Company during the Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
Wars and was very well informed about the expansionist agenda of the British. After the Battle of Delhi
Delhi
(1803), during the Second Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War, on 14 September 1803 British troops entered Delhi
Delhi
ending the Maratha rule on the Mughals, bringing Shah Alam, then a blind old man, seated under a tattered canopy, under British protection. The Mughal Emperor no longer had the military power to enforce his will, but he commanded respect as a dignified member of the House of Timur
Timur
in the length and breadth of the country.[citation needed] The Nawabs and Subedars still sought formal sanction of the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
on their accession and valued the titles he bestowed upon them. They struck coins and read the khutba (Friday sermons) in his name. The Marathas in 1804 under Yashwantrao Holkar
Yashwantrao Holkar
tried to snatch Delhi
Delhi
from the British in Siege of Delhi
Delhi
(1804), but failed. Death[edit] Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
died of natural causes. His grave lies, next to the dargah of 13th century, Sufi saint, Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki
Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki
at Mehrauli, Delhi
Delhi
in a marble enclosure, along with that of Bahadur Shah I
Bahadur Shah I
(also known as Shah Alam I), and Akbar
Akbar
Shah II.

Map of India in 1765, before the fall of Nawabs and Princely states nominally allied to the emperor (mainly in Green).

Map of India in 1795, before the death of Shah Alam II

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shah Alam II.

Mirza Najaf Khan Shuja-ud-Daula Hyder Ali Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah

References[edit]

^ Delhi, Past and Present, p. 4, at Google Books ^ History of Islam, p. 512, at Google Books ^ Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707–1813, p. 140, at Google Books ^ S. M. Ikram (1964). "XIX. A Century of Political Decline: 1707–1803". In Ainslie T. Embree. Muslim Civilization in India. New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved 5 November 2011.  ^ Dictionary of Indo-Persian Literature, p. 40, at Google Books ^ Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
in India: A Systematic Study Including Source Material, Volume 3, p. 767, at Google Books ^ S.R. Sharma (1 January 1999). Mughal empire
Mughal empire
in India: a systematic study including source material. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. pp. 769–. ISBN 978-81-7156-819-2. Retrieved 30 March 2012.  ^ L.S.S. O`malley. Bihar
Bihar
and Orissa District Gazetteers Patna. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 32–. ISBN 978-81-7268-121-0. Retrieved 30 March 2012.  ^ http://www.britannica.com/biography/Alamgir-II ^ a b Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1908, p. 9 ^ a b Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1908, p. 10 ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1908, p. 11 ^ A Dictionary of Modern Indian History (1707–1947), Parshotam Mehra, ISBN 0-19-561552-2, 1985 ed., Oxford University Press ^ The Great Maratha
Maratha
Mahadaji Shinde
Mahadaji Shinde
- N. G. Rathod - Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 2017-02-09.  ^ The Fall of the Moghul Empire of Hindustan, p. 6, at Google Books ^ a b Delhi, the Capital of India By Anon, John Capper, p.28. "This source establishes the Maratha
Maratha
control of Delhi
Delhi
before the British" ^ Kaushik Roy. War, Culture, Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740–1849. Taylor & Francis. pp. 29–. ISBN 978-1-136-79087-4. Retrieved 30 March 2012.  ^ Kaushik Roy. War, Culture, Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740–1849. Taylor & Francis. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-1-136-79087-4. Retrieved 30 March 2012.  ^ https://www.google.ae/search?q=suffren+letter+shah+alam&oq=suffren+letter+shah+alam&aqs=chrome..69i57.5079j0j7&sourceid=chrome&es_sm=93&ie=UTF-8#tbm=bks&q=de+Suffren+and+shah+alam ^ http://www.lucknow.org.uk/tourist-attractions/rumi-darwaza.html ^ "Lucknow". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-05-20.  ^ a b c The province of Agra, Author: Dharma Bhanu Srivastava, page 8-10 ^ The Gazetteer of India: History and culture. Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, India. 1973. p. 348. OCLC 186583361.  ^ http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/Culture/Archit/TajM.html ^ The Province of Agra: Its History and Administration, p. 9, at Google Books ^ a b Misbah Islam
Islam
(30 June 2008). Decline of Muslim States and Societies. Xlibris Corporation. pp. 392–. ISBN 978-1-4363-1012-3. Retrieved 30 March 2012.  ^ Marathas and the Marathas Country: The Marathas, p. 159, at Google Books

William Francklin (1798). The History of the reign of Shah-Aulum (Shah Alam), the present emperor of Hindostaun. Cooper & Graham, London.  Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
(1728–1806) The Fall of the Moghul Empire of Hindustan – World Wide School Marathas and the English Company 1707–1800

Further reading[edit]

Shah Alam Nama. Bibliotheca Indica. 1912. 

Shah Alam II Timurid Dynasty Born: 1728 Died: 1806

Regnal titles

Preceded by Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
III

Preceded by Mahmud Shah Bahadur Mughal Emperor 1759–1806 Succeeded by Mahmud Shah Bahadur

Succeeded by Akbar
Akbar
Shah II

v t e

Mughal Empire

Emperors

Babur Humayun Akbar Jahangir Shah Jahan Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
(Alamgir) Muhammad Azam Shah Bahadur Shah I Jahandar Shah Farrukhsiyar Rafi ud-Darajat Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
II Muhammad Shah Ahmad Shah Bahadur Alamgir II Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
III Shah Alam II Akbar
Akbar
II Bahadur Shah II

Battles and conflicts

Battle of Panipat (1526) Gujarat conquest Battle of Khanwa Battle of Ghaghra Siege of Sambhal Battle of Panipat (1556) Battle of Thanesar Siege of Chittorgarh Siege of Ranthambore Battle of Tukaroi Battle of Raj Mahal Battle of Haldighati Battle of Bhuchar Mori Siege of Kandahar Mughal–Safavid War (1622–23) Siege of Orchha Mughal–Safavid War (1649–53) Battle of Samugarh Battle of Khajwa Suppression of Tilpat rebellion Ahom–Mughal conflicts Siege of Purandhar Tibet–Ladakh–Mughal War Mughal– Maratha
Maratha
Wars

Siege of Bijapur Siege of Jinji

Child's War Siege of Golconda Battle of Karnal Third Battle of Panipat Battle of Buxar Siege of Delhi

Architecture

Taj Mahal Gardens of Babur Fatehpur Sikri

Tomb of Salim Chishti

Humayun's Tomb Red Fort Lahore Fort Jahangir
Jahangir
Mahal Lalbagh Fort Akbar's Tomb Agra
Agra
Fort Chawk Mosque Shalimar Gardens Achabal Gardens Jahangir's Tomb Bibi Ka Maqbara Badshahi Mosque Shahi Bridge Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
Mosque, Thatta Sheesh Mahal Sunehri Masjid Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
Mosque Wazir Khan Mosque more

Adversaries

Ibrahim Lodi Rana Sanga Sher Shah Suri Hemu Maharana Pratap Malik Ambar Gokula Pratapaditya Shivaji Lachit Borphukan Khushal Khattak Sir Josiah Child Guru Gobind Singh Henry Every Bajirao I Nader Shah Hector Munro

Provinces

Bengal
Bengal
Subah Gujarat Subah

See also

Art Cuisine Culture Flag Gardens Language Military Painting Persians Tribe Weapons Timurid dynasty

family tree

Successor states

Maratha
Maratha
Empire Rajput
Rajput
states Jats Sikh
Sikh
Empire Nawabs of Bengal Awadh Nizam of Hyderabad Carnatic Kingdom of Mysore Rohilkhand

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 70169499 LCCN: n50002518 ISNI: 0000 0000 8258 862

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