HOME
The Info List - Shafi


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i)

Others

* Zahiri * Awza\'i * Thawri
Thawri
* Laythi
Laythi
* Jariri
Jariri

Sunni schools of theology

* Ash\'ari * Maturidi
Maturidi
* Traditionalist

Others:

* Mu\'tazila * Murji\'ah

Contemporary movements

* Ahl-i Hadith
Ahl-i Hadith
* Al-Ahbash
Al-Ahbash
* Barelvi
Barelvi
* Deobandi
Deobandi
* Islamic Modernism
Islamic Modernism
* Salafi movement
Salafi movement
* Wahhabism
Wahhabism

Holy sites

* Jerusalem * Mecca
Mecca
* Medina
Medina
* Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai

Lists

* Literature

* Kutub al-Sittah
Kutub al-Sittah

Islam portal

* v * t * e

The SHAFI\'I (Arabic : شافعي‎‎ Shāfiʿī ) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
. It was founded by the Arab
Arab
scholar Al-Shafi‘i
Al-Shafi‘i
, a pupil of Malik , in the early 9th century. The other three schools of Sunni jurisprudence are Hanafi
Hanafi
, Maliki
Maliki
and Hanbali
Hanbali
.

The Shafi school predominantly relies on the Quran and the Hadiths for Sharia
Sharia
. Where passages of Quran and Hadiths are ambiguous, the school first seeks religious law guidance from Ijma – the consensus of Sahabah
Sahabah
(Muhammad's companions). If there was no consensus, the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school relies on individual opinion ( Ijtihad ) of the companions of Muhammad, followed by analogy.

The Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school was, in the early history of Islam, the most followed ideology for Sharia. However, with the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
's expansion and patronage, it was replaced with the Hanafi
Hanafi
school in many parts of the Muslim world. One of the many differences between the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
and Hanafi
Hanafi
schools is that the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school does not consider Istihsan (the personal preference of Islamic legal scholars) as an acceptable source of religious law because it amounts to "human legislation" of Islamic law.

The Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school is now predominantly found in Somalia
Somalia
, Eritrea
Eritrea
, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
, Djibouti
Djibouti
, eastern Egypt
Egypt
, the Swahili coast
Swahili coast
, Yemen
Yemen
, Kurdish regions of the Middle East , Dagestan
Dagestan
, Chechen and Ingush regions of the Caucasus
Caucasus
, Palestine , Lebanon
Lebanon
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Maldives
Maldives
, some coastal parts of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
, India
India
, Singapore
Singapore
, Myanmar
Myanmar
, Thailand
Thailand
, Brunei
Brunei
, and the Philippines
Philippines
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Principles

* 2 Shafi\'i school

* 2.1 History
History
* 2.2 Demographics

* 3 Notable Shafi\'i\'s

* 3.1 Contemporary Shafi\'i scholars

* 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links

PRINCIPLES

The Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school of thought stipulates authority to five sources of jurisprudence . In hierarchical order, the school relies upon the following sources for Islamic law: the Quran, the hadiths - that is, sayings, customs and practices of Muhammad , the ijmā\' (consensus of Sahabah
Sahabah
, the community of Muhammad's companions), the individual opinions of Sahaba with preference to one closest to the issue as Ijtihad , and finally qiyas (analogy). Although al-Shafi'i's legal methodology rejected custom or local practice as a constitutive source of law, this did not mean that he or his followers denied any elasticity in the Shariah. The Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school also rejects two sources of Sharia
Sharia
that are accepted in other major schools of Islam - Istihsan (juristic preference, promoting the interest of Islam) and Istislah (public interest). The jurisprudence principle of Istihsan and Istislah admitted religious laws that had no textual basis in either the Quran or Hadiths, but were based on the opinions of Islamic scholars as promoting the interest of Islam and its universalization goals. The Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school rejected these two principles, stating that these methods rely on subjective human opinions, and have potential for corruption and adjustment to political context and time.

The foundational text for the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school is Al-Risala ("The Message") by the founder of the school, Al-Shafi'i. It outlines the principles of Shafi'i
Shafi'i
fiqh as well as the derived jurisprudence. Al-Risala became an influential book to other Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
fiqhs as well, as the oldest surviving Arabic work on Islamic legal theory.

SHAFI\'I SCHOOL

An approximate color map showing where the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school (dark blue) is the most prominent.

HISTORY

The Shafi'i
Shafi'i
madhhab was spread by Al- Shafi'i
Shafi'i
students in Cairo, Mecca and Baghdad. It became widely accepted in early history of Islam. The chief representative of the Iraqi school was Abu Ishaq al-Shirazi, whilst in Khorasan, the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school was spread by al-Juwayni and al-Iraqi. These two branches merged around Ibn al- Salah
Salah
and his father, before being reviewed and refined by al-Rafi'i and al-Nawawi.

The Shafi'i
Shafi'i
jurisprudence was adopted as the official law during the Great Seljuq Empire
Great Seljuq Empire
, Zengid dynasty, Ayyubid dynasty and later the Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) , where it saw its widest application. It was also adopted by the Kathiri
Kathiri
state in Hadhramawt and most of rule of the Sharif of Mecca
Mecca
.

With the establishment and expansion of Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in West Asia and Turkic Sultanates in Central and South Asia, Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school was replaced with Hanafi
Hanafi
school, in part because Hanafites allowed Istihsan (juristic preference) that allowed the rulers flexibility in interpreting the religious law to their administrative preferences. The Sultanates along the littoral regions of the Horn of Africa and the Arabian peninsula adhered to the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school and were the primary drivers of its maritime military expansion into many Asian and East African coastal regions of the Indian Ocean, particularly from the 12th through the 18th century.

DEMOGRAPHICS

The Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school is presently predominant in the following parts of the Muslim world:

* Africa: Djibouti
Djibouti
, Somalia
Somalia
, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
, Eritrea
Eritrea
, eastern Egypt and the Swahili Coast
Swahili Coast
. * Middle East: Yemen
Yemen
, Kurdish regions of the Middle East, Caucasus region, Israel
Israel
, Lebanon
Lebanon
, minor parts of Jordan
Jordan
, Palestine and Saudi Arabia * Caucasus: Chechnya
Chechnya
, Ingushetia
Ingushetia
and parts of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
* Asia: Indonesia
Indonesia
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Maldives
Maldives
, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
, western coast of Indian peninsula, Singapore
Singapore
, Myanmar
Myanmar
, Thailand
Thailand
, Brunei
Brunei
, and the southern Philippines
Philippines
.

Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school is the second largest school of Sunni madhhabs by number of adherents, states Saeed in his 2008 book. However, a UNC publication considers the Maliki
Maliki
school as second largest, and the Hanafi
Hanafi
madhhab the largest, with Shafi'i
Shafi'i
as third largest. The demographic data by each fiqh, for each nation, is unavailable and the relative demographic size are estimates.

NOTABLE SHAFI\'I\'S

* Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
* Yahya ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi * Fakhr al-Din al-Razi * Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
* Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
* Izz al-Din ibn \'Abd al-Salam * Ibn Daqiq al-\'Id * Al-Suyuti

IN HADITH :

* Ibn Majah
Ibn Majah
, compiler of Sunan ibn Majah * Al-Bayhaqi * Hakim al-Nishaburi * Al-Baghawi * Al-Daraqutni * Ibn Khuzaymah * Abu Nu`aym * Ibn al- Salah
Salah
* Yahya ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi , * Yusuf ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Mizzi * Dhahabi * Abd al-Rahim ibn al-Husain al-\'Iraqi * Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani , author of a commentary on Sahih Bukhari
Sahih Bukhari
. * Al-Sakhawi * Ali
Ali
ibn Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
al-Haythami , compiler of Majma al-Zawa\'id * Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi * Al-Qastallani * Ibn Hajar al-Haytami

IN TAFSIR :

* Al-Baghawi * Baidawi * Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Tha\'labi * Said Nursî * Hamka
Hamka

IN FIQH :

* Al-Mawardi * Al-Juwayni * Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
* Al-Baghawi * Baidawi * Yahya ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi * Zakariyya al-Ansari * Ibn Hajar al-Haytami * Sayf al-Din al-Amidi * Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri author of Reliance of the Traveller * Zainuddin Makhdoom * Ibn Nuhaas * Abdallah al-Qutbi

IN ARABIC LANGUAGE STUDIES:

* Ibn Malik - Author of the Alfiyat Ibn Malik * Ibn Hisham * ʻAbd Allah ibn ʻAbd al-Rahman ibn ʻAqil - Commentator on Alfiyat Ibn Malik. * Fairuzabadi * Yusuf bin Ahmad al-Kawneyn

IN AQIDAH :

* Abu al-Hasan al-Ash\'ari * Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad

IN SUFISM

* Harith al-Muhasibi * Abd al-Karīm ibn Hawāzin Qushayri * Abu Talib al-Makki * Abu Nu`aym * Imam al-Haddad * Ahmad Ghazali
Ahmad Ghazali
* Ayn al-Quzat Hamadani * Abu al-Najib Suhrawardi * Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi * Yusuf Hamdani * Ahmed ar-Rifa\'i * Shams Tabrizi
Shams Tabrizi
* Safi-ad-din Ardabili * Kamal Khujandi * Yusuf an-Nabhani * Shaykh Sufi * Abd Al-Rahman bin Ahmad al-Zayla\'i

IN HISTORY

* Ali
Ali
ibn al-Athir * Al- Dhahabi * Ibn \'Asakir * Ibn Khallikan * Abadir Umar
Umar
Ar-Rida * Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti

STATESMEN

* Saladin
Saladin
* Nizam al-Mulk

CONTEMPORARY SHAFI\'I SCHOLARS

* Wahba Zuhayli * Ali
Ali
Gomaa * Habib Umar
Umar
bin Hafiz * Habib Ali
Ali
al-Jifri * Abdullah al-Harari * Afifi al-Akiti * Hasyim Muzadi * Aboobacker Ahmad * Nuh Ha Mim Keller * Mohammad Salim Al-Awa * Ahmed Kuftaro * Ahmad Syafi\'i Maarif * Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas * Taha Jabir Alalwani * Zaid Shakir
Zaid Shakir
* Cherussery Zainuddeen Musliyar

SEE ALSO

* Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
portal * Politics portal

* Adhan
Adhan
* Apostasy in Islam
Apostasy in Islam
* Blasphemy in Islam * Islamic views on sin
Islamic views on sin
* Islamic schools and branches
Islamic schools and branches
* Sharia
Sharia
* Salat
Salat
* Wudu
Wudu

NOTES

* ^ A B Hallaq 2009 , p. 31. * ^ A B C Abdullah Saeed (2008), The Qur'an: An Introduction, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415421256 , p. 17 * ^ A B C D Hisham M. Ramadan (2006), Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary, Rowman Altamira, ISBN 978-0759109919 , pp. 27-28 * ^ Hashim Kamali 2008 , p. 77. * ^ A B Shafi\'iyyah Bulend Shanay, Lancaster University * ^ Syafiq Hasyim (2005), Understanding Women in Islam: An Indonesian Perspective, Equinox, ISBN 978-9793780191 , pp. 75-77 * ^ A B Wael B. Hallaq (2009), Sharī'a: Theory, Practice, Transformations, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521861472 , pp. 58-71 * ^ A B C Jurisprudence
Jurisprudence
and Law - Islam Reorienting the Veil, University of North Carolina (2009) * ^ Badr al-Din al-Zarkashi (1393), Al-Bahr Al-Muhit, Vol 6, pp. 209 * ^ A.C. Brown, Jonathan (2014). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications . p. 39. ISBN 978-1780744209 . * ^ A B Istislah The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford University Press * ^ A B Istihsan The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford University Press * ^ Lloyd Ridgeon (2003), Major World Religions: From Their Origins to the Present, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415297967 , pp. 259–262 * ^ Majid Khadduri (1961), Islamic Jurisprudence: Shafi'i's Risala, Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 14–22 * ^ Joseph Lowry (translator), Al-Shafi'i: The Epistle on Legal Theory, Risalah fi usul al-fiqh, New York University Press, 2013, ISBN 978-0814769980 * ^ Randall L. Pouwels (2002), Horn and Crescent: Cultural Change and Traditional Islam, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521523097 , pp 88-159 * ^ MN Pearson (2000), The Indian Ocean and the Red Sea, in The History
History
of Islam in Africa (Ed: Nehemia Levtzion, Randall Pouwels), Ohio University Press, ISBN 978-0821412978 , Chapter 2 * ^ UNION OF THE COMOROS 2013 INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM REPORT U.S. State Department (2014), Quote: "The law provides sanctions for any religious practice other than the Sunni Shafi’i doctrine of Islam and for prosecution of converts from Islam, and bans proselytizing for any religion except Islam." * ^ Islam in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(Historical Background), Altay Goyushov, CAUCASUS ANALYTICAL DIGEST No. 44, 20 November 2012 * ^ A.C. Brown , Jonathan (2014). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications . p. 105. ISBN 978-1780744209 . * ^ A.C. Brown , Jonathan (2014). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications . p. 303. ISBN 978-1780744209 .

REFERENCES

* Hallaq, Wael B. (2009). An Introduction to Islamic Law. Cambridge University Press . ISBN 9780521678735 . * Hashim Kamali, Mohammad (2008). Shari'ah Law: An Introduction. Oneworld Publications . ISBN 978-1851685653 . * Yahia, Mohyddin (2009). Shafi'i
Shafi'i
et les deux sources de la loi islamique, Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, ISBN 978-2-503-53181-6 * Rippin, Andrew (2005). Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices (3rd ed.). London: Routledge. pp. 90–93. ISBN 0-415-34888-9 . * Calder, Norman, Jawid Mojaddedi, and Andrew Rippin (2003). Classical Islam: A Sourcebook of Religious Literature. London: Routledge. Section 7.1. * Schacht, Joseph (1950). The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence. Oxford: Oxford University. pp. 16. * Khadduri, Majid (1987). Islamic Jurisprudence: Shafi'i's Risala. Cambridge: Islamic Texts Society. pp. 286. * Abd Majid, Mahmood (2007). Tajdid Fiqh
Fiqh
Al-Imam Al-Syafi'i. Seminar pemikiran Tajdid Imam As Shafie 2007. * al-Shafi'i,Muhammad b. Idris,"The Book of the Amalgamation of Knowledge" translated by A.Y. Musa in Hadith
Hadith
as Scripture: Discussions on The Authority Of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, New York: Palgrave, 2008

FURTHER READING

* Joseph Lowry (translator), Al-Shafi'i: The Epistle on Legal Theory (Risalah fi usul al-fiqh), New York University Press, 2013, ISBN 978-0814769980 . * Cilardo, Agostino, " Shafi'i
Shafi'i
Fiqh", in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014. ISBN 1610691776 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

*

.