Sunni schools of theology
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Sufism and Tariqat
List of sufis
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Tariqa (Arabic: الطريقة الشاذلية) is a
Sufi order of
Sunni Islam founded by Abul Hasan
of Morocco. Followers (Arabic murids, "seekers") of the Shadhiliya are
known as Shadhilis.
It has historically been of importance and influence in North Africa
Egypt with many contributions to Islamic literature. Among the
figures most known for their literary and intellectual contributions
are Ibn 'Ata Allah, author of the Hikam, and Ahmad Zarruq, author of
numerous commentaries and works, and
Ahmad ibn Ajiba who also wrote
numerous commentaries and works. In poetry expressing love of
Muhammad, there have been the notable contributions of Muhammad
al-Jazuli, author of the "Dala'il al-Khayrat", and Busiri, author of
the famous poem, the Qaṣīda al-Burda. Many of the head lecturers of
al-Azhar University in
Cairo have also been followers of this tariqa.
Of the various branches of the
Shadhili tariqa are the Fassiyatush,
found largely in India,
Sri Lanka and Pakistan. The
Darqawi branch is
found mostly in
Morocco and the
Darqawi Alawiyya (no connection to the
"Kızılbaş-Turkish-Alevis" or "Syrian-Arab-Alawis") which originated
Algeria is now found the world over, particularly in Syria, Jordan,
France and among many English-speaking communities. British scholar,
Martin Lings wrote an extensive biography of the founder of this
branch, Ahmad al-Alawi, entitled 'A
Sufi Saint of the 20th century'
The Swedish impressionist painter and
Sufi scholar Ivan Aguéli
(1869–1917) was the first official Moqaddam (representative) of the
Shadhiliyya in Western Europe. Aguéli initiated René Guénon
(1886–1951) into the
Shadhili tariqa.  Guénon went on to write a
number of influential books on tradition and modernity.  The
anniversary urs of Hazrat Qutubul Akber Imam Nooruddin Abul Hasan Alee
Shadhili (Razi) is held on 12th Shawwal (the tenth month of lunar
Humaithara in Egypt.
2.1 On Christianity
3 The Spiritual Chain
4 See also
6 External links
Shadhiliyya has nearly 72 branches across the globe. A few prominent
branches are listed below.
Sufi order was established by Qutbul Ujud
Ghouthuz Zamaan Ash Sheikh
Muhammad bin Mas'ood bin Abdur
Rahman Al Makki Al Magribi Al Fassi Ash
Shadhili (Imam Fassi) who was
a Moroccan by origin and born in Makkah. Fassiyatush
widely practised in India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan,
Indonesia. The descendants of
Imam Fassi who are Sheikhs of
Shadhiliyya who live in
Makkah and in
Jeddah visit to
these countries frequently to train Ikhwan.
The Holy Dargah of Imam Shadhili, Humaithara, Egypt
The Darqawiyya, a Moroccan branch of the
Shadhili order, was founded
in the late 18th century CE by
Muhammad al-Arabi al-Darqawi.
Selections from the Letters of al-
Darqawi have been translated by the
Shadhili initiate Titus Burckhardt, and also by the scholar Aisha
Bewley. One of the first tariqas to be established in the West
was the 'Alawiya branch of the Darqawiyya,  which was named after
Ahmad ibn Mustafa al-'
Alawi al-Mustaghanimi, popularly known as Shaykh
al-Alawi. "A significant book about him, written by Martin Lings, is A
Sufi Saint of the Twentieth Century."
The 'Attasiyah Order is a branch of the '
Alawi Order, founded by Umar
bin Abdur Rahman bin Aqil al-Attas. It is centered in
Yemen but also
has centers in Pakistan, India, and Myanmar. The 'Alawiya order in
Yemen has recently been studied by the anthropologist David Buchman.
In his article "The Underground Friends of God and Their Adversaries:
A Case Study and Survey of
Sufism in Contemporary Yemen", Professor
Buchman summarizes the results of his six-month period of fieldwork in
Yemen. The article was originally published in the journal Yemen
Update, vol. 39 (1997), pp. 21-24."
Another figure is Sheikh
Abdal Qadir al-Murabit, a Scottish convert to
Islam, whose lineage is Shadhili-Darqawi. Currently his order is known
as the Murabitun. At other times his order has been known as the
Darqawiyya and Habibiya. One of the first books that
Abdal Qadir wrote
was The Book of Strangers, which he authored under the name Ian
Dallas. For a brief anecdote of
Abdal Qadir in the early 1970s, go"
Another contemporary order deriving, in part, from
al-Murabit is the al-Haydariyah al-Shadhiliyah, headed by Shaykh
Fadhlalla Haeri. Of Shi'ite descent, Fadhlalla teaches within neither
Shi'i nor a
Alawi branch of the Shadili tariqa also established itself
in Damascus and the Levant through Sheikh
al-Tilmisani, the son of an Algerian qadi, who migrated to Damascus
along with his spiritual guide Ibn Yallis. After the death of Ibn
Yallis, Hashimi was authorized by Sheikh Ahmad al-'
Alawi (see above
Martin Lings), during a visit to Damascus in the early 1920s, and was
made his deputy in Damascus. A biography of his life was published in
English as Shaykh
Muhammad al-Hashimi: His Life and Works.
The most well known living spiritual guide of this branch of the
Shadhili tariqa, especially to English-speakers, is Sheikh Nuh Ha Mim
Keller, an American scholar, author, and translator, who resides in
Amman, Jordan. He was authorized by Sheikh Abd al Rahman Al Shaghouri,
who was himself a student of Sheikh
Muhammad al-Hashimi al-Tilmisani
and the lead singer of his gatherings in Damascus. Advocating a
holistic and erudite approach to Sufism, Nuh Keller and his students
have played an instrumental role in broadening access to Islamic
sciences through online education and high quality publications and
translations of classical works. His tariqa is notable in attracting a
large number of scholars, academics, and professionals.
Muhammad Sa'id al-Jamal, another student of Sheikh Muhammad
al-Hashimi al-Tilmisani and who died in 2015, had worked from the
Haram al-Sharif or The Temple Mount in Jerusalem and was a mufti of
Hanbali Madhab. He was also a student of the spiritual guide and
Shadhili Sheikh Abdur Rahman Abu al Risah of Halab of the Shadhili
Yashruti line. He was a direct descendent of Muhammad, through his
ancestor Ahmad ar-Rifa`i. He wrote many books in both English and
Arabic on Sufism, tafsir, and healing. His students from the US also
established the University of Spiritual Healing and
Sufism which is
devoted to the
Sufi way of healing.
Another branch of the Shadhilia which has groups in Egypt, Indonesia,
Turkey and America is the Shadhilia-Batawia founded by Sheikh Ibrahim
al-Batawi, for many years professor at al-Azhar. He was a confrere of
Sheikh Abdu-l-Halim Mahmud, Shaikh al-Azhar, who was very influential
in the revival of
Sufism in Egypt. Sheikh Ibrahim’s student, Sheikh
Nooruddeen Durkee has established the Shadhdhuliyyah-Baddawia
order in the US. Sheikh Nooruddeen has translated and transliterated
the Qur'an and has compiled two definitive books on the
Shadhdhuliyyiah, Orisons and Origins.
"Between October 17–26, 1999 the First International Shadhilian
Festival occurred in Egypt. It concluded with a pilgrimage to the tomb
of Abu 'l-Hasan al-
Shadhili and involved
Sufi gatherings of dhikr" and
the singing of qasidas, or classical poetry.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December
Miguel Asín Palacios
Miguel Asín Palacios § John of the Cross
It has been suggested that the
Shadhili school was influential on St.
John of the Cross, in particular on his account of the dark night of
the soul and via Ibn Abbad al-Rundi.
This influence has been suggested by Miguel Asín Palacios and
developed by others, who claim that
Ibn Abbad al-Rundi drew
detailed connections between their teachings.
Other scholars, such as José Nieto, argue that these mystical
doctrines are quite general, and that while similarities exist between
the works of St. John and Ibn Abbad and other Shadhilis, these reflect
independent development, not influence.
The Spiritual Chain
Every tariqa must have a chain of transmission and authorization to be
recognized as valid, and there are several such chains of transmission
connecting the founder, Abu Hasan al-Shadhili, to the founders of both
the Qadiri and Rifa‘i tariqas as well as Junayd al-Baghdadi and
Hasan al-Basri, but the principal chain of transmission by
discipleship is as follows:
Ali ibn Abi Talib
Muhammad Jabir ibn ’Abdullah
Muhammad Fath al-Sa'ud
Abul Qasim Ahmad al-Marwani
Abu Ishaq Ibrahim al-Basri
Zayn al-Din al-Qazwini
Muhammad Taj al-Din
Nur al-Din Abul Hasan ‘Ali
Tuqayy al-Din al-Fuqayr
‘Abd al-Rahman al-Madani al-‘Attar
Abd as-Salam ibn Mashish
Abul Hasan al-Shadhili
Tariqa Qadiriya Harariya
^ al-Ṣabbāgh, M.A.Q.I.; Douglas, E.H.; Abu-Rabiʻ, I.M. (1993). The
Mystical Teachings of al-Shadhili: Including His Life, Prayers,
Letters, and Followers. A Translation from the Arabic of Ibn
al-Sabbagh's Durrat al-Asrar wa Tuhfat al-Abrar. State University of
New York Press. ISBN 9780791416136. Retrieved 2015-02-26.
^ "Sufis & Shaykhs  - World of Tasawwuf".
spiritualfoundation.net. Retrieved 2015-02-26.
^ "Fassiyathush Shazuliya tariqathush Shazuliya
Sufism Zikrs Avradhs Daily Wirdh Thareeqush shukr
Kaleefa's of the tariqa Sheikh Fassy Ya Fassy Sijl Humaisara
Muridheens Prostitute Entering Paradise". shazuli.com. Retrieved
^ a b c d e Alan Godlas, "Sufism, Sufis, and
Sufi Orders: Sufism's
^ "Un precursor hispano musulman de San Juan de la Cruz", which was
later reprinted in Huellas del
Islam (1941), at 235-304. An English
translation was made by Douglas and Yoder as Saint John of the Cross
Islam (New York: Vantage 1981).
^ Research developing the work of
Miguel Asín Palacios
Miguel Asín Palacios includes Luce
López-Baralt's book, San Juan de la Cruz y el
Islam (1985, 1990).
^ José Nieto, Mystic Rebel Saint. A study of Saint John of the Cross
(Geneva: Droz 1979) at 25-27. Cf., Swietlicki, Spanish Christian
Cabala (1986) at 184.
^ Template:Cite Invocations of the
Shadhili Order, Nuh Ha Mim Keller
Tariqa A comprehensive introduction with material from Sh.
The Shadhdhuli School for tranquility of being and illumination of
hearts Green Mountain branch, located in Charlottesville, Virginia
A biography of
Muhammad ibn al Habib of the
Tariqa Burhaniya as Shadhiliya
The Founders of the
Nasheed group based in Avignon, France.
Ba`alawi.com Ba'alawi.com The Definitive Resource for
Islam and the
 Shahdili section of Dr. Godlas'
Sufism website. Discusses various