Shōwa period (Japanese: 昭和時代,, Hepburn: Shōwa jidai,
potentially "period of enlightened peace/harmony" or "period of
radiant Japan"), or Shōwa era, refers to the period of Japanese
history corresponding to the reign of the Shōwa Emperor, Hirohito,
from December 25, 1926 until his death on January 7, 1989.
Shōwa period was longer than the reign of any previous Japanese
emperor. During the pre-1945 period,
Japan moved into political
totalitarianism, ultranationalism and fascism culminating in Japan's
China in 1937. This was part of an overall global period
of social upheavals and conflicts such as the
Great Depression and the
Second World War.
Defeat in the Second World War brought about radical change to Japan.
For the first and only time in its history,
Japan was occupied by
foreign powers; this occupation lasted seven years. Allied occupation
brought forth sweeping democratic reforms. It led to the end of the
emperor's status as a living god and the transformation of
a democracy with a constitutional monarch. In 1952, with the Treaty of
Japan became a sovereign nation once more. The post-war
Shōwa period also led to the Japanese economic miracle.
In these ways, the pre-1945 and post-war periods regard completely
different states: the pre-1945
Shōwa period (1926–1945) concerns
the Empire of Japan, while post-1945
Shōwa period (1945–1989) was a
part of the State of Japan.
It was succeeded by the Heisei period.
2 End of "Taishō Democracy"
3 Washington Conference to
4 Rise of nationalism
5 Military state
6 Second Sino-Japanese War
7 Second World War
7.1 Imperial rule
8 Defeat and Allied occupation
9 The "Japanese Miracle"
10 See also
12 Further reading
12.1 Primary sources
The term Shōwa (昭和) could be roughly understood as "radiant
Japan" or "Japanese glory". The two kanji characters were from a
passage of the Chinese Book of Documents:
"百姓昭明，協和萬邦". From this same quotation,
adopted the era name
Meiwa (明和) during the
Edo period in the
late-18th century. There were two other candidates at the time - Dōwa
(同和) and Genka (元化).
In his enthronement address which was read to the people, the Emperor
referenced this era name:
"I have visited the battlefields of the Great War in France. In the
presence of such devastation, I understand the blessing of peace and
the necessity of concord among nations."
End of "Taishō Democracy"
The National Diet Building, where both houses of the National Diet of
Japan meet, was completed in early
Shōwa period (1936).
The election of
Katō Takaaki as Prime Minister of
democratic reforms that had been advocated by influential individuals
on the left. This culminated in the passage of universal manhood
suffrage in May 1925. This bill gave all male subjects over the age of
25 the right to vote, provided they had lived in their electoral
districts for at least one year and were not homeless. The electorate
thereby greatly increased from 3.3 million to 12.5 million.
Pressure from the conservative right, however, forced the passage of
Peace Preservation Law
Peace Preservation Law of 1925 along with other anti-radical
legislation, only ten days before the passage of universal manhood
suffrage. The Peace Preservation Act curtailed individual freedom in
Japan at the beginning to some degree, later to a large degree. It
outlawed groups that sought to alter the system of government or to
abolish private ownership. The leftist movements that had been
galvanized by the
Russian Revolution were subsequently crushed and
scattered. This was in part to do with the Peace Preservation Act, but
also due to the general fragmentation of the left.
Conservatives forced the passage of the
Peace Preservation Law
Peace Preservation Law because
the party leaders and politicians of the Taishō era had felt that,
after World War I, the state was in danger from revolutionary
movements. The Japanese state never clearly defined a boundary between
private and public matters and, thus, demanded loyalty in all spheres
of society. Subsequently, any ideological attack, such as a proposal
for socialist reforms, was seen as an attack on the very existence of
the state. The meaning of the law was gradually stretched to academic
After the passage of the
Peace Preservation Law
Peace Preservation Law and related
legislation, kokutai emerged as the symbol of the state.
seen as the barrier against communist and socialist movements in
Japan. With the challenge of the
Great Depression on the horizon, this
would be the death knell for parliamentary democracy in Japan.
Washington Conference to
After World War I, the Western Powers, influenced by Wilsonian
ideology, attempted an effort at general disarmament. At the
Washington Naval Conference
Washington Naval Conference of 1921–1922, the Great Powers met to
set limits on naval armament. The Five Power Naval Limitation
Agreement worked out in Washington limited competition in battleships
and aircraft carriers to a ratio of 5:5:3 for the United Kingdom, the
United States, and
Japan respectively. Japanese ultra-nationalists
viewed this as an attempt by Western powers to curb Japanese
expansionism in an area of the globe over which they had no interest.
But, those in power in
Japan readily agreed to the disarmament,
realizing that the global taste for war had been soured after the
First World War and knowing that, the ratio was sufficient to maintain
hegemony in the Pacific.
In 1924, however, friendly U.S.-Japanese relations were torpedoed by
the Japanese Exclusion Act. The act closed off Japanese immigration to
United States and dropped Japanese immigrants to the level of
other Asians (who were already excluded). The overwhelming reaction in
Japan, both at the highest levels and in mass rallies that reflected
angry public opinion, was hostile and sustained. Commentators
suggested the opening guns of a race war and called for a new buildup
of the Japanese armed forces.
From 1928 to 1932, domestic crisis could no longer be avoided. As the
left was vigorously put down by the state, the economic collapse
brought a new hardship to the people of Japan. Silk and rice prices
plummeted and exports decreased 50%. Unemployment in both the cities
and the countryside skyrocketed and social agitation came to a
London Naval Treaty
London Naval Treaty was ratified in 1930. Its purpose
was to extend the Washington Treaty System. The Japanese government
had desired to raise their ratio to 10:10:7, but this proposal was
swiftly countered by the United States. Thanks to back-room dealing
and other intrigues, though,
Japan walked away with a 5:4 advantage in
heavy cruisers, but this small gesture would not satisfy the
Japan which was gradually falling under the spell of the
various ultra-nationalist groups spawning throughout the country. As a
result of his failings regarding the London Naval Treaty, Prime
Minister Hamaguchi Osachi was shot on November 14, 1930 by an
ultranationalist and died in 1931.
By this time, the civilian government had lost control of the
populace. A New York Times correspondent called
Japan a country ruled
by "government by assassination." The army, moving independently of
the proper government of Japan, took the opportunity to invade
Manchuria in the Summer of 1931.
Russo-Japanese War of 1905,
Japan had maintained a military
presence in Manchuria. After a small explosion on the tracks of a
Japanese railway, north of Mukden, the Japanese army mobilized the
Kwantung Army and attacked Chinese troops. The Minseito government,
headed by Hamaguchi's successor,
Wakatsuki Reijirō was unable to curb
the army's offensive. The
Kwantung Army conquered all of
set up the puppet state of Manchukuo. The Diet, now dominated by army
officials, voted to withdraw from the League of Nations. The first
seeds of the coming conflict had been sown.
Rise of nationalism
Main article: Japanese nationalism
See also: Statism in Shōwa Japan
Prior to 1868, most Japanese more readily identified with their feudal
domain rather than the idea of "Japan" as a whole. When the Tokugawa
bakufu was overthrown, the leaders of the revolt, Satsuma and Chōshū
were ideologically opposed to the house of Tokugawa since the Battle
of Sekigahara. The
Meiji period changed all of that. With the
introduction of mass education, conscription, industrialization,
centralization, and successful foreign wars, Japanese nationalism
began to foment as a powerful force in society.
Mass education and
conscription served as a means to indoctrinate the coming generation
with "the idea of Japan" as a nation instead of a series of daimyōs.
In this way, loyalty to feudal domains was supplanted with loyalty to
Industrialization and centralization gave Japanese a strong
sense that their country could rival Western powers technologically
and socially. Moreover, successful foreign wars gave the populace a
sense of martial pride in their nation.
The rise of
Japanese nationalism paralleled the growth of nationalism
within the West. Certain conservatives such as Gondō Seikei and Asahi
Heigo saw the rapid industrialization of
Japan as something that had
to be tempered. It seemed, for a time, that
Japan was becoming too
"Westernized" and that if left unimpeded, something intrinsically
Japanese would be lost. During the Meiji period, such nationalists
railed against the unequal treaties, but in the years following the
First World War, Western criticism of Japanese imperial ambitions and
restrictions on Japanese immigration changed the focus of the
nationalist movement in Japan.
Japanese nationalism was buoyed by a romantic concept of
driven by a modern concern for rapid industrial development and
strategic dominance in East Asia. It saw the
Triple Intervention of
1895 as a threat to Japanese survival in East Asia and warned that the
"ABCD Powers" (Americans, British, Chinese and Dutch) were threatening
the Empire of Japan. Their only solution was conquest and war.
During the first part of the Shōwa era, racial discrimination against
other Asians was habitual in Imperial Japan, having begun with the
start of Japanese colonialism. The Shōwa regime thus preached
racial superiority and racialist theories, based on sacred nature of
the Yamato-damashii. One of Emperor Shōwa's teachers, historian
Kurakichi Shiratori, remarked, "Therefore nothing in the world
compares to the divine nature (shinsei) of the imperial house and
likewise the majesty of our national polity (kokutai). Here is one
great reason for Japan's superiority."
Anti-Comintern Pact brought Nazi ideologues to
Japan who attempted
but ultimately failed to inject Nazi-style anti-Semitic arguments into
mainstream public discussion. Where the government presented the
popular image of Jews, it was not so much to persecute but to
strengthen domestic ideological uniformity.
The anti-Semitic policies of Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany were refused
when foreign minister of
Yōsuke Matsuoka stated that: "Nowhere
have I promised that we would carry out his anti-Semitic policies in
Japan. This is not simply my personal opinion, it is the opinion of
Japan, and I have no compunction about announcing it to the
Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army General
Kiichiro Higuchi and Colonel Norihiro
Yasue allowed 20,000 Jews to enter
Manchukuo in 1938. Higuchi and
Yasue were well regarded for their actions and were subsequently
invited to the independence ceremonies of the State of Israel.
Chiune Sugihara wrote travel visas for over 6,000 Lithuanian
Jews to flee the German occupation and travel to Japan. In 1985,
Israel honored him as Righteous Among the Nations for his actions.
Main article: Statism in Shōwa Japan
Further information: List of Japanese political figures in early
The withdrawal from the
League of Nations
League of Nations meant that
Japan had no strong allies and its actions had
been internationally condemned, whilst internally popular nationalism
was booming. Local leaders, such as mayors, teachers, and Shinto
priests were recruited by the various movements to indoctrinate the
populace with ultra-nationalist ideals. They had little time for the
pragmatic ideas of the business elite and party politicians. Their
loyalty lay to the Emperor and the military. In March 1932 the "League
of Blood" assassination plot and the chaos surrounding the trial of
its conspirators further eroded the rule of democratic law in Shōwa
Japan. In May of the same year a group of right-wing Army and Navy
officers succeeded in assassinating the Prime Minister Inukai
Tsuyoshi. The plot fell short of staging a complete coup d'état, but
it effectively ended rule by political parties in Japan.
From 1932 to 1936, the country was governed by admirals. Mounting
nationalist sympathies led to chronic instability in government.
Moderate policies were difficult to enforce. The crisis culminated on
February 26, 1936. In what became known as the February 26 Incident,
about 1,500 ultranationalist army troops marched on central Tokyo.
Their mission was to assassinate the government and promote a "Shōwa
Restoration". Prime Minister Okada survived the attempted coup by
hiding in a storage shed in his house, but the coup only ended when
the Emperor personally ordered an end to the bloodshed.
Within the state, the idea of a Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity
Sphere began to foment. The nationalists believed that the "ABCD
powers" (Americans, British, Chinese, Dutch) were a threat to all
Asians and that Asia could only survive by following the Japanese
Japan had been the only Asian and non-Western power to
industrialize itself successfully and rival great Western empires.
While largely described by contemporary Western observers as a front
for the expansion of the Japanese army, the idea behind the
Co-Prosperity Sphere was that Asia would be united against the Western
powers and Western Imperialism under the auspices of the Japanese. The
idea drew influence in the paternalistic aspects of
Koshitsu Shinto. Thus, the main goal of the Sphere was the hakkō
ichiu, the unification of the eight corners of the world under the
rule (kōdō) of the Emperor.
The reality during this period differed from the propaganda. Some
nationalities and ethnic groups were marginalized, and during rapid
military expansion into foreign countries, the Imperial General
Headquarters tolerated many atrocities against local populations, such
as the experimentations of unit 731, the sankō sakusen, the use of
chemical and biological weapons and civilian massacres such as those
in Nanjing, Singapore and Manila.
Some of the atrocities were motivated by racism. For instance,
Japanese soldiers were taught to think of captured Chinese as not
worthy of mercy.
Second Sino-Japanese War
Main article: Second Sino-Japanese War
On July 7, 1937, at the Marco Polo Bridge, the Japanese Kwantung army
stationed there used explosions heard on the Chinese side of Manchuria
as a pretext for invasion. The invasion led to a large-scale war
approved by the Emperor and called a "holy war" (Seisen) in Imperial
At the time,
China was divided internally between the Communist Party
China (CPC) which was under the leadership of
Mao Zedong and the
Nationalist government of China, the
Kuomintang (KMT) under the
leadership of Chiang Kai-shek.
The years of 1937–38 were a time of rapid and remarkable success by
the Japanese, who had a number of advantages over the Chinese army.
While the Japanese army possessed a smaller force of armour and
artillery than many Western powers, it was far ahead of
China in this
respect, and was also in command of the world's third largest navy
with 2,700 watercraft at its disposal.
By the end of July 1937, the Japanese had slaughtered the elite 29th
Army at Kupeikou and soon captured Beijing. From
there, the Japanese advanced down south through the major railway
lines (Peiping-Suiyan, Peiping-Hankow, and Tientsin-Pukow). These were
easily conquered by the superior Japanese army.
By October, Chiang Kai-shek's best armies had been defeated at
Shanghai. By the end of the year, the Chinese capital at
also been seized. The use of brutal scorched earth tactics by both
sides, the Chinese as in
1938 Yellow River flood and later by the
Japanese with the Three Alls Policy, "kill all, burn all, loot all",
initiated in 1940, claimed millions of lives. The Chinese nationalists
resorted to massive civilian guerrilla tactics, which fatigued and
frustrated Japanese forces. Countless Chinese civilians were executed
on the suspicion of being resistance fighters.
Japanese war crimes
Japanese war crimes at
Nanking and other sites in
Manchukuo have been well
On December 13, 1937, the Imperial Japanese Army, following the
capture of Nanjing, Japanese soldiers began the
(sometimes called the "Rape of Nanking"), which resulted in a massive
number of civilian deaths including infants and elderly, and the
large-scale rape of Chinese women. The exact number of casualties is
an issue of fierce debate between Chinese and Japanese historians
(refer to the
Nanjing Massacre article for more details).
By 1939, the Japanese war effort had become a stalemate. The Japanese
army had seized most of the vital cities in China, including Shanghai,
Nanjing, Beijing, and Wuhan. The Nationalists and the Communists,
however, fought on from
Chongqing and Yenan, respectively.
Second World War
Pacific War and Home front during World War II
Negotiations for a German-Japanese alliance began in 1937 with the
onset of hostilities between
Japan and China. On September 27, 1940,
Tripartite Pact was signed, creating the Rome-Tokyo-Berlin Axis.
The quagmire in
China did not stall imperial ambitions for the
creation of a Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere. Indeed, the
Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War fuelled the need for oil that could be found
in the Dutch East Indies. After
Imperial General Headquarters
Imperial General Headquarters refused
to remove its troops from
China (excluding Manchukuo) and French
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt announced in July 1941 an oil
embargo on Japan. Using that as a justification for war, Imperial
General Headquarters launched the so-called Greater East Asia War
which began with a surprise attack on the U.S. naval base in Hawaii at
Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
For the next six months, the Japanese had the initiative and went on
the offensive. Hong Kong was overrun on December 8, 1941. By the
summer of 1942, the Japanese had conquered Burma, Siam, the Dutch East
Indies, and the Philippines. The decisive naval/aerial Battle of
Midway that took place in early June 1942, however, changed the
momentum of the war.
Japan was put on the defensive as the Americans
pursued their policy of island hopping at their leisure.
Tokyo was repeatedly firebombed in 1945 and in the early spring and
summer of 1945,
Iwo Jima and
Okinawa were seized by the Americans.
Finally, the death agony of the
Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan came in August 1945.
On August 6, an atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, instantly
killing approximately 70,000 people when the attack took place (plus
another estimated 130,000 by 1960 due to after-effects). On August 8,
Soviet Union invaded Manchukuo. The following day, a second atomic
bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, killing approximately 40,000 people. The
government of the
Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan surrendered on August 14. The
official surrender ceremony was held on September 2.
Total Japanese military fatalities between 1937 and 1945 were 2.1
million; most came in the last year of the war. Starvation or
malnutrition-related illness accounted for roughly 80 percent of
Japanese military deaths in the Philippines, and 50 percent of
military fatalities in China. The aerial bombing of a total of 69
Japanese cities appears to have taken a minimum of 400,000 and
possibly closer to 600,000 civilian lives (over 100,000 in Tokyo
alone, over 200,000 in
Nagasaki combined, and
80,000–150,000 civilian deaths in the battle of Okinawa). Civilian
death among settlers who died attempting to return to
Manchuria in the winter of 1945 were probably around 100,000.
Japan launched multiple attacks in East Asia. In 1937, the Japanese
Army invaded and captured most of the coastal Chinese cities such as
Japan took over
French Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia),
British Malaya (Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore) as well as the Dutch East
Thailand managed to stay independent by becoming a
satellite state of Japan. In December 1941 to May 1942,
major elements of the American, British and Dutch fleets, captured
Hong Kong, Singapore, the
Philippines and the Dutch East Indies,
and reached the borders of India and Australia.
Japan suddenly had
achieved its goal of ruling the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity
The ideology of Japan's colonial empire, as it expanded dramatically
during the war, contained two somewhat contradictory impulses. On the
one hand, it preached the unity of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity
Sphere, a coalition of Asian races, directed by Japan, against the
imperialism of Britain, France, the Netherlands, the United States,
and European imperialism generally. This approach celebrated the
spiritual values of the East in opposition to the crass materialism of
the West. In practice, however, the Japanese installed
organizationally-minded bureaucrats and engineers to run their new
empire, and they believed in ideals of efficiency, modernization, and
engineering solutions to social problems. It was fascism based on
technology and rejected Western norms of democracy. After 1945, the
engineers and bureaucrats took over and turned the wartime
techno-fascism into entrepreneurial management skills.
Japan set up puppet regimes in
Manchuria and China; they vanished at
the end of the war. The Army operated ruthless governments in most of
the conquered areas but paid more favorable attention to the Dutch
East Indies. The main goal was to obtain oil. The Dutch destroyed
their oil wells but the Japanese reopened them. However most of the
tankers taking oil to
Japan were sunk by American submarines, so
Japan's oil shortage became increasingly acute.
Japan sponsored an
Indonesian nationalist movement under Sukarno.
came to power in the late 1940s after several years of battling the
Defeat and Allied occupation
Main article: Occupation of Japan
With the defeat of the Empire of Japan, the Allied Powers dissolved
the Empire of Japan. The
Soviet Union was made responsible for North
Korea, and annexed the
Kuril Islands and the southern portion of the
island of Sakhalin. The
United States took responsibility for the rest
of Japan's possessions in Oceania. China, meanwhile, plunged into
civil war, with the Communists in control by 1949. General Douglas
MacArthur was put in charge of the Allied
Occupation of Japan
Occupation of Japan as the
Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers; he and his staff exerted wide
but indirect power, for the decisions were carried out by Japanese
Japan's military was disarmed completely and the absoluteness of the
emperor was repealed by the Post-war Constitution. Article 9 of the
Post-war Constitution prevented
Japan from ever waging war on a
A War Crimes Tribunal, similar to that at Nuremberg, was set up in
Tokyo. Several prominent members of the Japanese cabinet were
executed, most notably former Prime Minister Tojo Hideki. But the
Emperor was neither tried at the
Tokyo trials nor dethroned, nor any
members of the imperial family. Under the Post-war Constitution, the
Japanese Emperor was reduced to a figurehead nominal monarch without
divine characteristics and is forbidden to play a role in politics.
MacArthur sought to break the power of the zaibatsu;
democratized and liberalized along American "New Deal" liberal lines.
Parliamentary party politics was restored. Old left-wing organizations
such as the Social Democratic Party and the Japanese Communist Party
reasserted themselves. The first postwar elections were held in 1946,
and for the first time, women were allowed to vote.
By the late 1940s there were two conservative parties (Japan
Democratic Party and Liberal Party); they merged in 1955 as the
Liberal Democratic Party (LDP). By 1955 the political system
stabilized in what was called the 1955 System. The two chief parties
were the conservative LDP and the leftist Social Democratic Party.
Throughout the period 1955 to 2007, the LDP was dominant (with a brief
interlude in 1993-94). The LDP was pro-business, pro-American, and had
a strong rural base.
Shigeru Yoshida was elected as Prime Minister of Japan. His policy,
known as the "Yoshida Doctrine", emphasized military reliance on the
United States and promoted unrestrained economic growth. As Cold War
tensions rose, the
United States and
Japan signed the Treaty of San
Francisco, which came into force on April 28, 1952.
Japan became a
sovereign nation once more.
The "Japanese Miracle"
Main article: Post-occupation Japan
Japan's remarkable economic growth in the decades following 1950 has
been called the "Japanese Miracle", as the economy grew three times
faster than other major nations. It was achieved
virtually[weasel words] without foreign capital.
The miracle slackened off in 1973 in the face of an upsurge in oil
prices and the destabilization of international trade. By the
mid-1990s the economy entered an era of stagnation and low growth that
Saburō Ōkita (1914–93), an economist, realized by 1942 that the
war was lost; he prepared a plan for Japan's post-war economic
recovery that was published in 1945 as "The Fundamental Directions for
the Reconstruction of the Japanese Economy". He became foreign
minister in 1979 and endeavored to integrate
Japan economically and
politically with the world economy.
From 1950 onward,
Japan rebuilt itself politically and economically.
Sugita finds that "the 1950s was a decade during which Japan
formulated a unique corporate capitalist system in which government,
business, and labor implemented close and intricate cooperation".
Japan's newfound economic power soon gave it far more dominance than
it ever had militarily. The Yoshida Doctrine and the Japanese
government's economic intervention spurred on an economic miracle on
par with the record of West Germany. The Japanese government strove to
spur industrial development through a mix of protectionism and trade
expansion. The establishment of the Ministry of International Trade
and Industry (MITI) was instrumental in the Japanese post-war economic
recovery. By 1954, the MITI system was in full effect. It coordinated
industry and government action and fostered cooperative arrangements,
and sponsored research to develop promising exports as well as imports
for which substitutes would be sought (especially dyestuffs, iron and
steel, and soda ash). Yoshida's successor, Hayato Ikeda, began
implementing economic policies which removed much of Japan's
anti-monopoly laws. Foreign companies were locked out of the Japanese
market and strict protectionist laws were enacted.
United States under President Eisenhower saw
the economic anchor for Western
Cold War policy in Asia.
completely demilitarized and did not contribute to military power, but
did provide the economic power. The US and UN forces used
their forward logistics base during the
Korean War (1950–53), and
orders for supplies flooded Japan. The close economic relationship
strengthened the political and diplomatic ties, so that the two
nations survived a political crisis in 1960 involving left-wing
opposition to the U.S.-
Japan Security Treaty. The left failed to force
the removal of large American military bases in Japan, especially on
Okinawa. Shimizu argues that the American policy of creating
"people of plenty" was a success in
Japan and reached its goal of
defusing anti-capitalist protest on the left.
By the late years of the Shōwa period, Japan's economy was the second
largest in the world after the United States. It kept this position
until 2011, when the economy of
China surpassed it.
Shōwa financial crisis
Shōwa Modan (昭和モダン), referring to the modernization of
Japan during the Shōwa era.
List of Japanese political figures in early Shōwa period
Japanese resistance during the Shōwa period
^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Shōwa" in
p. 888, p. 888, at Google Books; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym
of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek
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^ Durschmied, Erik. (2002). Blood of Revolution: From the Reign of
Terror to the Rise of Khomeini, p. 254.
^ Hane, Mikiso, Modern Japan: A Historical Survey (Oxford: Westview
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^ Izumi Hirobe, Japanese Pride, American Prejudice: Modifying the
Exclusion Clause of the 1924 Immigration Act (2001) ch 4
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of War to the Far East and the Pacific, 1921–1942, (Lanham, MD: SR
Books, 2004) 26–27.
^ Pyle, Kenneth, The Rise of Modern
^ Herbert Bix,
Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, 2001, p.280
^ Peter Wetzler,
Hirohito and War, 1998, p.104
^ David G. Goodman, Masanori Miyazawa, Jews in the Japanese
Mind :The History and Uses of a Cultural Stereotype , 1995,
p.104-105, 106-134, Herbert Bix,
Hirohito and the Making of Modern
Japan, 2001, p.281
^ "The Jews of Japan" by Daniel Ari Kapner and Stephen Levine
^ Barak Kushner, The Thought War, 2006, p.131
^ John Dower (2007). "Lessons from Iwo Jima". Perspectives. 45 (6):
^ Oliver Lindsay, The Battle for Hong Kong, 1941–1945: Hostage to
^ Jon Davidann, "Citadels of Civilization: U.S. and Japanese Visions
of World Order in the Interwar Period," in Richard Jensen, et al.
eds., Trans-Pacific Relations: America, Europe, and Asia in the
Twentieth Century (2003) pp 21-43
^ Aaron Moore, Constructing East Asia: Technology, Ideology, and
Empire in Japan's Wartime Era, 1931-1945 (2013) pp 6-8, 21-22, 226-27
^ Laszlo Sluimers, "The Japanese military and Indonesian
independence," Journal of Southeast Asian Studies (1996) 27#1 pp 19-36
^ Bob Hering, Soekarno: Founding Father of Indonesia, 1901-1945 (2003)
^ Ellis S. Krauss, and Robert J. Pekkanen, eds. The Rise and Fall of
Japan's LDP: Political Party Organizations as Historical Institutions
(Cornell University Press; 2010)
^ John W. Dower, Empire and Aftermath: Yoshida Shigeru and the
Japanese Experience, 1878-1954 (1979)
^ Richard Katz,
Japan - the System that Soured: The Rise & Fall of
the Japanese Economic Miracle (1998)
^ Edith Terry (2002). How Asia Got Rich: Japan,
China and the Asian
Miracle. M.E. Sharpe. p. 69.
^ Yoneyuki Sugita, "Enigma of U.S.-
Japan Relations in the 1950s",
Reviews in American History (2002) 30#3 pp. 477-485 in JSTOR, quoting
^ Chalmers Johnson, Miti and the Japanese Miracle: The Growth of
Industrial Policy, 1925-1975 (1982)
^ Sugita, "Enigma of U.S.-
Japan Relations in the 1950s", Reviews in
American History (2002)
^ Sayuri Shimizu, Creating People of Plenty: The
United States and
Japan's Economic Alternatives, 1950-1960 (2001)
Booknotes interview with Herbert Bix on
Hirohito and the Making of
Modern Japan, September 2, 2001, C-SPAN
Booknotes interview with John Dower on Embracing Defeat, March 26,
Allinson, Gary D. a The Columbia Guide to Modern Japanese History.
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