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Coordinates: 4°35′S 55°40′E / 4.583°S 55.667°E / -4.583; 55.667

Republic
Republic
of Seychelles

République des Seychelles
Seychelles
(French) Repiblik Sesel ( Seychelles
Seychelles
Creole)

Flag

Coat of arms

Motto: "Finis Coronat Opus" (Latin) "The End Crowns the Work"

Anthem: Koste Seselwa Join together all Seychellois

Location of  Seychelles  (dark blue) – in Africa  (light blue & dark grey) – in the African Union  (light blue)

Capital and largest city Victoria 4°37′S 55°27′E / 4.617°S 55.450°E / -4.617; 55.450

Official languages

English French Seychellois Creole

Ethnic groups (2000)

93.2% Creoles 3.0% British 1.8% French 0.4% Chinese 0.4% Indian 1.2% others

Demonym

Seychellois Seychelloise Seselwa (Creole)

Government Unitary presidential republic

• President

Danny Faure

• Vice President

Vincent Mériton

Legislature National Assembly

Independence

• from the United Kingdom

29 June 1976

Area

• Total

459 km2 (177 sq mi) (181st)

• Water (%)

negligible

Population

• 2016 estimate

94,228[1] (195th)

• Density

482.7/km2 (1,250.2/sq mi) (60th)

GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate

• Total

$2.919 billion[2]

• Per capita

$30,486[2]

GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate

• Total

$1.564 billion[2]

• Per capita

$16,332[2]

Gini (2013) 46.8[3] high

HDI (2015)  0.782[4] high · 63rd

Currency Seychellois rupee
Seychellois rupee
(SCR)

Time zone SCT (UTC+4)

• Summer (DST)

not observed (UTC+4)

Drives on the left

Calling code +248

ISO 3166 code SC

Internet TLD .sc

Seychelles
Seychelles
(/seɪˈʃɛlz/ ( listen) say-SHELZ; French: [seʃɛl]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Seychelles
Seychelles
(French: République des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago and sovereign state in the Indian Ocean. The 115-island country, whose capital is Victoria, lies 1,500 kilometres (932 mi) east of mainland East Africa. Other nearby island countries and territories include Comoros, Mayotte
Mayotte
(region of France), Madagascar, Réunion (region of France) and Mauritius
Mauritius
to the south. With a population of roughly 94,228, it has the smallest population of any sovereign African country.[5] Seychelles
Seychelles
is a member of the African Union, the Southern African Development Community, the Commonwealth of Nations, and the United Nations. After proclamation of independence from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1976, Seychelles
Seychelles
has developed from a largely agricultural society to a market-based diversified economy, with agriculture being supplanted by rapidly rising service and public sectors as well as tourism. Since 1976, nominal GDP output has increased nearly sevenfold and the purchasing power parity nearly sixteenfold. In recent years, the government has encouraged foreign investment in order to upgrade these sectors. Today, Seychelles
Seychelles
boasts the highest nominal per capita GDP in Africa, excluding the French regions. It is one of only a handful of countries in Africa
Africa
with a high Human Development Index. Despite the country's newfound economic prosperity, poverty remains widespread due to a high level of income inequality, one of the highest in the world, and unequal wealth distribution.[6]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Independence

2 Politics

2.1 Political culture 2.2 Foreign relations 2.3 Administrative divisions

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Wildlife 3.3 Environmental issues

4 Demographics

4.1 Languages 4.2 Religion

5 Economy

5.1 Tourism 5.2 Energy

6 Culture

6.1 Education 6.2 Cuisine 6.3 Music 6.4 Media and telecommunications 6.5 Sports

7 Security

7.1 Military 7.2 Incarceration 7.3 Modern piracy

8 See also 9 References 10 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Seychelles

Victoria, Seychelles
Victoria, Seychelles
1900s

The Seychelles
Seychelles
were uninhabited throughout most of recorded history. Some scholars assume that Austronesian seafarers and later Maldivian and Arab traders were the first to visit the uninhabited Seychelles. This assumption is based on the discovery of tombs, visible until 1910.[7] The earliest recorded sighting by Europeans took place in 1502 by the Portuguese Admiral Vasco da Gama, who passed through the Amirantes
Amirantes
and named them after himself (islands of the Admiral). The earliest recorded landing was in January 1609, by the crew of the "Ascension" under Captain Alexander Sharpeigh during the fourth voyage of the British East India
India
Company. A transit point for trade between Africa
Africa
and Asia, the islands were occasionally used by pirates until the French began to take control starting in 1756 when a Stone of Possession was laid on Mahé by Captain Nicholas Morphey. The islands were named after Jean Moreau de Séchelles, Louis XV's Minister of Finance.[8] The British controlled the islands between 1794 and 1810. Jean Baptiste Quéau de Quincy, French administrator of Seychelles
Seychelles
during the years of war with the United Kingdom, declined to resist when armed enemy warships arrived. Instead, he successfully negotiated the status of capitulation to Britain which gave the settlers a privileged position of neutrality. Britain eventually assumed full control upon the surrender of Mauritius
Mauritius
in 1810, formalised in 1814 at the Treaty of Paris. Seychelles
Seychelles
became a crown colony separate from Mauritius
Mauritius
in 1903. Elections were held in 1966 and 1970. Independence[edit] Independence was granted in 1976 as a republic within the Commonwealth.[9] In the 1970s Seychelles
Seychelles
was "the place to be seen, a playground for film stars and the international jet set".[10] In 1977, a coup d'état by France Albert René
France Albert René
ousted the first president of the republic, James Mancham.[11] René discouraged over-dependence on tourism and declared that he wanted "to keep the Seychelles
Seychelles
for the Seychellois".[10] The 1979 constitution declared a socialist one-party state, which lasted until 1991. In the 1980s there were a series of coup attempts against President René, some of which were supported by South Africa. In 1981, Mike Hoare led a team of 43 South African mercenaries masquerading as holidaying rugby players in the 1981 Seychelles
Seychelles
coup d'état attempt.[10] There was a gun battle at the airport, and most of the mercenaries later escaped in a hijacked Air India
Air India
plane.[10] The leader of this hijacking was German mercenary D. Clodo, a former member of the Rhodesian SAS.[12] Clodo later stood trial in South Africa
Africa
(where he was acquitted) as well as in his home country Germany for air-piracy.[13] In 1986, an attempted coup led by the Seychelles
Seychelles
Minister of Defence, Ogilvy Berlouis, caused President René to request assistance from India. In Operation Flowers are Blooming, the Indian naval vessel INS Vindhyagiri arrived in Port Victoria to help avert the coup.[14] The first draft of a new constitution failed to receive the requisite 60% of voters in 1992, but an amended version was approved in 1993. In January 2013, Seychelles
Seychelles
declared a state of emergency; the tropical cyclone Felleng caused torrential rain, and flooding and landslides destroyed hundreds of houses.[15][16] Politics[edit]

Victoria, the capital of Seychelles

Main article: Politics of Seychelles The Seychelles
Seychelles
president, who is head of state and head of government, is elected by popular vote for a five-year term of office. The cabinet is presided over and appointed by the president, subject to the approval of a majority of the legislature. The unicameral Seychellois parliament, the National Assembly or Assemblée Nationale, consists of 34 members, 25 of whom are elected directly by popular vote, while the remaining nine seats are appointed proportionally according to the percentage of votes received by each party. All members serve five-year terms. The Supreme Court of Seychelles, created in 1903, is the highest trial court in Seychelles
Seychelles
and the first court of appeal from all the lower courts and tribunals. The highest court of law in Seychelles
Seychelles
is the Seychelles
Seychelles
Court of Appeal, which is the court of final appeal in the country.[17] Political culture[edit]

Former President James Michel
James Michel
in his office in Victoria, 2009

Map of Seychelles

Seychelles's previous president France Albert René
France Albert René
came to power after his supporters overthrew the first president James Mancham
James Mancham
on 5 June 1977 in a coup d'état and installed him as president. René was at that time the prime minister.[18][19][20] René ruled as a strongman under a socialist one-party system until in 1993, when he was forced to introduce a multi-party system. He stepped down in 2004 in favour of his vice-president, James Michel, who was re-elected in 2006 and again in 2011.[18][19][20] On 28 September 2016, the Office of the President announced that Michel would step down effective 16 October, and that Vice President Danny Faure
Danny Faure
would complete the rest of Michel's term.[21] The primary political parties are the ruling socialist People's Party (PP), known until 2009 as the Seychelles
Seychelles
People's Progressive Front (SPPF), and the socially liberal Seychelles National Party
Seychelles National Party
(SNP).[22] Foreign relations[edit] Further information: Foreign relations of Seychelles Seychelles
Seychelles
is a member of the African Union, the francophone Indian Ocean Commission (IOC), La Francophonie, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the Commonwealth. Administrative divisions[edit] Main article: Districts of Seychelles Seychelles
Seychelles
is divided into twenty-six administrative regions comprising all of the inner islands. Eight of the districts make up the capital of Seychelles
Seychelles
and are referred to as Greater Victoria. Another 14 districts are considered the rural part of the main island of Mahé with two districts on Praslin
Praslin
and one on La Digue
La Digue
which also includes respective satellite islands. The rest of the Outer Islands (Îles Eloignées) are the last district, recently created by the tourism ministry.

Greater Victoria

Bel Air La Rivière Anglaise
La Rivière Anglaise
(English River) Les Mamelles Mont Buxton Mont Fleuri Plaisance Roche Caiman Saint Louis

Rural Mahé

Anse aux Pins Anse Boileau Anse Etoile Au Cap Anse Royale Baie Lazare Beau Vallon Bel Ombre Cascade Glacis Grand'Anse Mahé Pointe La Rue Port Glaud Takamaka

Praslin

Baie Sainte Anne
Baie Sainte Anne
(Anse Volbert) Grand'Anse Praslin
Praslin
(Grande Anse)

La Digue
La Digue
and remaining Inner Islands

La Digue
La Digue
(Anse Réunion)

Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Seychelles

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View of Praslin, the second largest island of the Seychelles

An island nation, Seychelles
Seychelles
is located in the Indian Ocean, northeast of Madagascar
Madagascar
and about 1,600 km (994 mi) east of Kenya. The archipelago consists of 115 islands. The majority of the islands are uninhabited, with many dedicated as nature reserves. A group of 42 islands, referred to as the inland islands, has a total area of 244 km2, comprising 54% of the total land area of the Seychelles
Seychelles
and 98% of the entire population. The islands are divided into groups as follows. There are 45 granite-based islands known as the Granitic Seychelles. These are in descending order of size: Mahé, Praslin, Silhouette Island, La Digue, Curieuse, Félicité, Frégate, Ste-Anne, North, Cerf, Marianne, Grand Sœur, Thérèse, Aride, Conception, Petite Sœur, Cousin, Cousine, Long, Récif, Round (Praslin), Anonyme, Mamelles, Moyenne, Eden, Île Soleil, Romainville, Île aux Vaches Marines, L'Islette, Beacon (Île Sèche), Cachée, Cocos, Round (Mahé), L'Ilot Frégate, Booby, Chauve-Souris (Mahé), Chauve-Souris (Praslin), Île La Fouche, Hodoul, L'Ilot, Rat, Souris, St. Pierre (Praslin), Zavé, Harrison Rocks (Grand Rocher).

Beach of Anse Source d'Argent on the island of La Digue

There are two coral sand cays north of the granitics: Denis and Bird. There are two coral islands south of the Granitics: Coëtivy and Platte.

Beach of Anse Lazio
Anse Lazio
on the island of Praslin

There are 29 coral islands in the Amirantes
Amirantes
group, west of the granitics: Desroches, Poivre Atoll (comprising three islands—Poivre, Florentin and South Island), Alphonse, D'Arros, St. Joseph Atoll (comprising 14 islands—St. Joseph Île aux Fouquets, Resource, Petit Carcassaye, Grand Carcassaye, Benjamin, Bancs Ferrari, Chiens, Pélicans, Vars, Île Paul, Banc de Sable, Banc aux Cocos and Île aux Poules), Marie Louise, Desnœufs, African Banks (comprising two islands—African Banks and South Island), Rémire, St. François, Boudeuse, Étoile, Bijoutier.

Aldabra
Aldabra
atoll

There are 13 coral islands in the Farquhar Group, south-southwest of the Amirantes: Farquhar Atoll
Farquhar Atoll
(comprising 10 islands—Bancs de Sable, Déposés, Île aux Goëlettes, Lapins, Île du Milieu, North Manaha, South Manaha, Middle Manaha, North Island and South Island), Providence Atoll (comprising two islands—Providence and Bancs Providence) and St Pierre.

Mahé Island

There are 67 raised coral islands in the Aldabra
Aldabra
Group, west of the Farquhar Group: Aldabra
Aldabra
Atoll (comprising 46 islands—Grande Terre, Picard, Polymnie, Malabar, Île Michel, Île Esprit, Île aux Moustiques, Ilot Parc, Ilot Émile, Ilot Yangue, Ilot Magnan, Île Lanier, Champignon des Os, Euphrate, Grand Mentor, Grand Ilot, Gros Ilot Gionnet, Gros Ilot Sésame, Héron Rock, Hide Island, Île aux Aigrettes, Île aux Cèdres, Îles Chalands, Île Fangame, Île Héron, Île Michel, Île Squacco, Île Sylvestre, Île Verte, Ilot Déder, Ilot du Sud, Ilot du Milieu, Ilot du Nord, Ilot Dubois, Ilot Macoa, Ilot Marquoix, Ilots Niçois, Ilot Salade, Middle Row Island, Noddy Rock, North Row Island, Petit Mentor, Petit Mentor Endans, Petits Ilots, Pink Rock and Table Ronde), Assumption Island, Astove and Cosmoledo Atoll
Cosmoledo Atoll
(comprising 19 islands—Menai, Île du Nord (West North), Île Nord-Est (East North), Île du Trou, Goélettes, Grand Polyte, Petit Polyte, Grand Île (Wizard), Pagode, Île du Sud-Ouest (South), Île aux Moustiques, Île Baleine, Île aux Chauve-Souris, Île aux Macaques, Île aux Rats, Île du Nord-Ouest, Île Observation, Île Sud-Est and Ilot la Croix). Climate[edit] The climate is equable although quite humid, as the islands are small,[23] classified by Köppen-Geiger system as tropical rain forest (Af). The temperature varies little throughout the year. Temperatures on Mahé vary from 24 to 30 °C (75 to 86 °F), and rainfall ranges from 2,900 mm (114 in) annually at Victoria to 3,600 mm (142 in) on the mountain slopes. Precipitation
Precipitation
is somewhat less on the other islands.[24] During the coolest months, July and August, the average low is about 24 °C (75 °F). The southeast trade winds blow regularly from May to November, and this is the most pleasant time of the year. The hot months are from December to April, with higher humidity (80%). March and April are the hottest months, but the temperature seldom exceeds 31 °C (88 °F). Most of the islands lie outside the cyclone belt, so high winds are rare.[24]

Climate data for Victoria ( Seychelles
Seychelles
International Airport)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 29.8 (85.6) 30.4 (86.7) 31.0 (87.8) 31.4 (88.5) 30.5 (86.9) 29.1 (84.4) 28.3 (82.9) 28.4 (83.1) 29.1 (84.4) 29.6 (85.3) 30.1 (86.2) 30.0 (86) 29.8 (85.6)

Daily mean °C (°F) 26.8 (80.2) 27.3 (81.1) 27.8 (82) 28.0 (82.4) 27.7 (81.9) 26.6 (79.9) 25.8 (78.4) 25.9 (78.6) 26.4 (79.5) 26.7 (80.1) 26.8 (80.2) 26.7 (80.1) 26.9 (80.4)

Average low °C (°F) 24.1 (75.4) 24.6 (76.3) 24.8 (76.6) 25.0 (77) 25.4 (77.7) 24.6 (76.3) 23.9 (75) 23.9 (75) 24.2 (75.6) 24.3 (75.7) 24.0 (75.2) 23.9 (75) 24.4 (75.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 379 (14.92) 262 (10.31) 167 (6.57) 177 (6.97) 124 (4.88) 63 (2.48) 80 (3.15) 97 (3.82) 121 (4.76) 206 (8.11) 215 (8.46) 281 (11.06) 2,172 (85.49)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 17 11 11 14 11 10 10 10 11 12 14 18 149

Average relative humidity (%) 82 80 79 80 79 79 80 79 78 79 80 82 79.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 153.3 175.5 210.5 227.8 252.8 232.0 230.5 230.7 227.7 220.7 195.7 170.5 2,527.7

Source #1: World Meteorological Organization[25]

Source #2: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration[26]

Wildlife[edit] Main article: Flora and fauna of Seychelles

Seychelles
Seychelles
Paradise-flycatcher

An Aldabra
Aldabra
giant tortoise

Environmental legislation is very strict, and every tourism project must undergo an environmental review and a lengthy process of consultations with the public and conservationists. Seychelles
Seychelles
is a world leader in sustainable tourism.[according to whom?] The end result of this sustainable development is an intact and stable natural environment, which attracts financially strong visitors (150,000 in 2007) rather than short-term mass tourism. Since 1993 a law guarantees the citizens the right to a clean environment and at the same time obliges them to protect this environment. The country has 42.1% of its land under natural conservation, making it one of the top ten countries in the world with the most protected areas.[27]

Nerita plicata on Mahe island

Bird flocks Bird Island Seychelles

Like many fragile island ecosystems, Seychelles
Seychelles
saw the loss of biodiversity when humans first settled in the area, including the disappearance of most of the giant tortoises from the granitic islands, the felling of coastal and mid-level forests, and the extinction of species such as the chestnut flanked white eye, the Seychelles
Seychelles
parakeet, and the saltwater crocodile. However, extinctions were far fewer than on islands such as Mauritius
Mauritius
or Hawaii, partly due to a shorter period of human occupation (since 1770). Seychelles
Seychelles
today is known for success stories in protecting its flora and fauna. The rare Seychelles
Seychelles
black parrot, the national bird of the country, is now protected. The granitic islands of Seychelles
Seychelles
are home to about 75 endemic plant species, with a further 25 or so species in the Aldabra
Aldabra
group. Particularly well-known is the coco de mer, a species of palm that grows only on the islands of Praslin
Praslin
and neighbouring Curieuse. Sometimes nicknamed the "love nut" because the shape of its "double" coconut resembles buttocks, the coco-de-mer produces the world's heaviest seed. The jellyfish tree is to be found in only a few locations on Mahe. This strange and ancient plant in a genus of its own (Medusagyne) seems to reproduce only in cultivation and not in the wild. Other unique plant species include Wright's gardenia (Rothmannia annae) found only on Aride Island
Aride Island
Special
Special
Reserve. The freshwater crab genus Seychellum
Seychellum
is endemic to the granitic Seychelles, and a further 26 species of crabs and five species of hermit crabs live on the islands.[28] The Aldabra
Aldabra
giant tortoise now populates many of the islands of Seychelles; the Aldabra
Aldabra
population is the largest remaining. These unique reptiles can be found even in captive herds. The granitic islands of Seychelles
Seychelles
may support distinct species of Seychelles
Seychelles
giant tortoises; the status of the different populations is currently unclear. There are several unique species of orchid on the islands. Seychelles
Seychelles
hosts some of the largest seabird colonies in the world, notably on the outer islands of Aldabra
Aldabra
and Cosmoledo. In granitic Seychelles
Seychelles
the largest colonies are on Aride Island
Aride Island
including the world's largest numbers of two species. Sooty terns also breed on the islands. Other birds include Cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) and Fairy terns (Gygis alba).[29] The marine life around the islands, especially the more remote coral islands, can be spectacular. More than 1,000 species of fish have been recorded. Environmental issues[edit] Since the use of spearguns and dynamite for fishing was banned through efforts of local conservationists in the 1960s, the wildlife is unafraid of snorkelers and divers. Coral bleaching
Coral bleaching
in 1998 has damaged most reefs, but some reefs show healthy recovery (e.g., Silhouette Island). Despite huge disparities across nations, Seychelles
Seychelles
claims to have achieved nearly all of its Millennium Development Goals.[citation needed] 17 MDGS and 169 targets have been achieved.[citation needed] Environmental protection is becoming a cultural value.[citation needed] Their government's Seychelles
Seychelles
Climate Guide describes the nation's climate as rainy, with a dry season with an ocean economy in the ocean regions. The Southeast Trades is on the decline but still fairly strong.[30] Reportedly, weather patterns there are becoming less predictable.[31] Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Seychelles See also: Indo-Seychellois, Sino-Seychellois, Seychellois Creole People, Seychellois Creole, and Franco-Seychellois

Victoria, Seychelles

Demographics of Seychelles, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

When the British gained control of the islands during the Napoleonic Wars, they allowed the French upper class to retain their land. Both the French and British settlers used enslaved Africans, and although the British prohibited slavery in 1835, African workers continued to come. Thus the Gran blan ("big whites") of French origin dominated economic and political life. The British administration employed Indians on indentured servitude to the same degree as in Mauritius resulting in a small Indian population. The Indians, like a similar minority of Chinese, were confined to a merchant class.[32] Through harmonious socioeconomic policies and developments[citation needed] over the years, today Seychelles
Seychelles
is described as a fusion of peoples and cultures. Numerous Seychellois are considered multiracial: blending from African, Asian and European descent to create a modern creole culture. Evidence of this harmonious blend is also revealed in Seychellois food, incorporating various aspects of French, Chinese, Indian and African cuisine.

St Francis Church, Mahé

As the islands of the Seychelles
Seychelles
had no indigenous population, the current Seychellois are people who have immigrated. The largest ethnic groups were those of African, French, Indian and Chinese descent. The median age of the Seychellois was 32 years.[33] Languages[edit] French and English are official languages along with Seychellois Creole, which is primarily based upon French. However, nowadays the language is often laced with English words and phrases. Including second-language speakers, Seychellois is the most-spoken official language in the Seychelles, followed by French, and lastly by English.[34] 87% of the population speaks Seychellois, 51% speaks French, and 38% speaks English.[34] Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Seychelles According to the 2010 census, most Seychellois are Christians: 76.2% were Roman Catholic, pastorally served by the exempt Diocese of Port Victoria or Seychelles
Seychelles
(immediately dependent on the Holy See); 10.6% were Protestant, (Anglican 6.1%, Pentecostal Assembly 1.5%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.2%, other Protestant 1.6%). Hinduism is practiced by 2.4%, and Islam by 1.6%. Other non-Christian faiths accounted for 1.1% of the population while a further 5.9% were non-religious or did not specify a religion.[33] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Seychelles

The sailfish at Mahé Beach

Colourful skirts at Seychelles
Seychelles
Market

During the plantation era, cinnamon, vanilla and copra were the chief exports. In 1965, during a three-month visit to the islands, futurist Donald Prell
Donald Prell
prepared for the then-crown colony Governor General an economic report containing a scenario for the future of the economy. Quoting from his report, in the 1960s, about 33% of the working population worked at plantations, and 20% worked in the public or government sector.[35][36] The Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Tracking Station on Mahé used by the Air Force Satellite Control Network was closed in August 1996 after the Seychelles
Seychelles
government attempted to raise the rent to more than $10,000,000 per year. Since independence in 1976, per capita output has expanded to roughly seven times the old near-subsistence level. Growth has been led by the tourist sector, which employs about 30% of the labour force, compared to agriculture which today employs about 3% of the labour force. Despite the growth of tourism, farming and fishing continue to employ some people, as do industries that process coconuts and vanilla. As of 2013[update], the main export products are processed fish (60%) and non-fillet frozen fish (22%).[37] The prime agricultural products currently produced in Seychelles include sweet potatoes, vanilla, coconuts and cinnamon. These products provide much of the economic support of the locals. Frozen and canned fish, copra, cinnamon and vanilla are the main export commodities. Since the worldwide economic crises of 2008, the Seychelles
Seychelles
government has prioritised a curbing of the budget deficit, including the containment of social welfare costs and further privatisation of public enterprises. The government has a pervasive presence in economic activity, with public enterprises active in petroleum product distribution, banking, imports of basic products, telecommunications and a wide range of other businesses. According to the 2013 Index of Economic Freedom, which measures the degree of limited government, market openness, regulatory efficiency, rule of law, and other factors, economic freedom has been increasing each year since 2010.[38] The national currency of Seychelles
Seychelles
is the Seychellois rupee. Initially tied to a basket of international currencies, it was depegged and allowed to be devalued and float freely in 2008 on the presumed hopes of attracting further foreign investment in the Seychelles
Seychelles
economy. Tourism[edit] Main article: Tourism
Tourism
in Seychelles

Aircraft at Seychelles
Seychelles
International Airport

Beach resort at Seychelles

In 1971, with the opening of Seychelles
Seychelles
International Airport, tourism became a significant industry, essentially dividing the economy into plantations and tourism. The tourism sector paid better, and the plantation economy could only expand so far. The plantation sector of the economy declined in prominence, and tourism became the primary industry of Seychelles. In recent years the government has encouraged foreign investment to upgrade hotels and other services. These incentives have given rise to an enormous amount of investment in real estate projects and new resort properties, such as project TIME, distributed by the World Bank, along with its predecessor project MAGIC.[citation needed] Despite its growth, the vulnerability of the tourist sector was illustrated by the sharp drop in 1991–1992 due largely to the Gulf War.[39] Since then the government has moved to reduce the dependence on tourism by promoting the development of farming, fishing, small-scale manufacturing and most recently the offshore financial sector, through the establishment of the Financial Services Authority and the enactment of several pieces of legislation (such as the International Corporate Service Providers Act, the International Business Companies Act, the Securities Act, the Mutual Funds and Hedge Fund Act, amongst others). During March 2015, Seychelles
Seychelles
allocated Assumption island to be developed by India.[40] Energy[edit] Although multinational oil companies have explored the waters around the islands, no oil or gas has been found. In 2005, a deal was signed with US firm Petroquest, giving it exploration rights to about 30,000 km2 around Constant, Topaz, Farquhar and Coëtivy islands until 2014. Seychelles
Seychelles
imports oil from the Persian Gulf in the form of refined petroleum derivatives at the rate of about 5,700 barrels per day (910 m3/d). In recent years oil has been imported from Kuwait and also from Bahrain. Seychelles
Seychelles
imports three times more oil than is needed for internal uses because it re-exports the surplus oil in the form of bunker for ships and aircraft calling at Mahé. There are no refining capacities on the islands. Oil and gas imports, distribution and re-export are the responsibility of Seychelles
Seychelles
Petroleum (Sepec), while oil exploration is the responsibility of the Seychelles
Seychelles
National Oil Company (SNOC). Culture[edit] See also: Women in Seychelles

The district clock tower in the centre of the capital Victoria

Seychellois society is essentially matriarchal.[41][42] Mothers tend to be dominant in the household, controlling most expenditures and looking after the interests of the children.[41] Unwed mothers are the societal norm, and the law requires fathers to support their children.[42] Men are important for their earning ability, but their domestic role is relatively peripheral.[41] Education[edit] Main article: Education in Seychelles Until the mid 19th century, little formal education was available in Seychelles. The Catholic and Anglican churches opened mission schools in 1851. The Catholic mission later operated boys' and girls' secondary schools with religious brothers and nuns from abroad even after the government became responsible for them in 1944. A teacher training college opened in 1959, when the supply of locally trained teachers began to grow, and in short time many new schools were established. Since 1981 a system of free education has been in effect, requiring attendance by all children in grades one to nine, beginning at age five. Ninety percent of all children attend nursery school at age four. The literacy rate for school-age children rose to more than 90% by the late 1980s. Many older Seychellois had not been taught to read or write in their childhood; adult education classes helped raise adult literacy from 60% to a claimed 100% in 2014. There are a total of 68 schools in Seychelles. The public school system consists of 23 crèches, 25 primary schools and 13 secondary schools. They are located on Mahé, Praslin, La Digue
La Digue
and Silhouette. Additionally, there are three private schools: École Française, International School and the Independent School. All the private schools are on Mahé, and the International School has a branch on Praslin. There are seven post-secondary (non-tertiary) schools: the Seychelles
Seychelles
Polytechnic, School of Advanced Level Studies, Seychelles Tourism
Tourism
Academy, University of Seychelles Education, Seychelles Institute of Technology, Maritime Training Center, Seychelles Agricultural and Horticultural Training Center and the National Institute for Health and Social Studies. The administration launched plans to open a university in an attempt to slow down the brain drain that has occurred. University of Seychelles, initiated in conjunction with the University of London, opened on 17 September 2009 in three locations, and offers qualifications from the University of London. Cuisine[edit] Main article: Cuisine of Seychelles

Cutting open young coconuts for drinking, Seychelles

Staple foods include fish, seafood and shellfish dishes, often accompanied with rice.[43][44] Fish dishes are cooked in several ways, such as steamed, grilled, wrapped in banana leaves, baked, salted and smoked.[43] Curry dishes with rice are also a significant aspect of the country's cuisine.[44][45] Additional food staples include coconut, breadfruit, mangoes and kordonnyen fish.[46] Dishes are often garnished with fresh flowers.[46]

Chicken dishes, such as chicken curry and coconut milk.[44] Coconut curry[44] Dhal (lentils)[46] Fish curry[44] Saffron rice[46] Fresh tropical fruits[43][47] Ladob is eaten either as a savoury dish or as a dessert. The dessert version usually consists of ripe plantain and sweet potatoes (but may also include cassava, breadfruit or even corossol) boiled with coconut milk, sugar, nutmeg and vanilla in the form of a pod until the fruit is soft and the sauce is creamy.[48] The savoury dish usually includes salted fish, cooked in a similar fashion to the dessert version, with plantain, cassava and breadfruit, but with salt used in place of sugar (and omitting vanilla). Shark chutney
Shark chutney
typically consists of boiled skinned shark, finely mashed, and cooked with squeezed bilimbi juice and lime. It is mixed with onion and spices, and the onion is fried and it is cooked in oil.[48] Vegetables[44][47]

Music[edit] Main article: Music of Seychelles The music of Seychelles
Seychelles
is diverse, a reflection of the fusion of cultures through its history. The folk music of the islands incorporates multiple influences in a syncretic fashion, including African rhythms, aesthetic and instrumentation—such as the zez and the bom (known in Brazil as berimbau), European contredanse, polka and mazurka, French folk and pop, sega from Mauritius
Mauritius
and Réunion, taarab, soukous and other pan-African genres, and Polynesian, Indian and Arcadian music. A form of percussion music called contombley is popular, as is Moutya, a fusion of native folk rhythms with Kenyan benga. Kontredans (based on European contredanse) is popular, especially in District and School competitions during the annual Festival Kreol (International Creole Festival). Moutya playing and dancing can often be seen at beach bazaars. Their main languages are Seychellois Creole of the French language, French and English. Media and telecommunications[edit] Main article: Media and telecommunications in Seychelles The main daily newspaper is the Seychelles
Seychelles
Nation, dedicated to local government views and current affairs and topics. Other political parties operate other papers such as Regar. Foreign newspapers and magazines are readily available in most bookshops and newsagents. The papers are mostly written in Seychellois Creole, French and English. The main television and radio network is operated by the Seychelles Broadcasting Corporation which offers locally produced news and discussion programmes in the Seychellois Creole language. Broadcasts run between 3pm and 11:30pm on weekdays and longer hours during the weekends. There are also imported English and French language television programmes imported on Seychellois terrestrial television and international satellite television has grown rapidly in recent years. Sports[edit] The most popular sport in Seychelles
Seychelles
is basketball, which has particularly developed in this decade.[49] The country's national team qualified for the 2015 African Games, its greatest accomplishment to date. There, the team competed against some of the continent's largest countries such as Egypt. Security[edit] Military[edit] Main article: Military of Seychelles

INS Teg approaching Port Victoria, Seychelles

The Military of Seychelles
Military of Seychelles
is the Seychelles
Seychelles
People's Defence Force which consists of a number of distinct branches: an Infantry Unit and Coast Guard, Air Force and a Presidential Protection Unit. India
India
has played and continues to play a key role developing the military of Seychelles. After handing over two SDB Mk5 patrol vessels namely INS Tarasa and INS Tarmugli to Seychelles
Seychelles
Coast Guard, built by GRSE
GRSE
which were subsequently renamed SCG Constant and SCG Topaz, India
India
also gifted a Dornier Maritime Patrol aircraft built by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.[50] India
India
also signed a pact to develop Assumption Island, one of the 115 islands that make up the country. Spread over 11 km2 (4 sq mi), it is strategically located in the Indian Ocean, north of Madagascar. The island is being leased for the development of infrastructure, a euphemism for developing strategic assets by India.[51] Incarceration[edit] Further information: List of countries by incarceration rate In 2014, Seychelles
Seychelles
had the highest incarceration rate in the world of 799 prisoners per 100,000 population, exceeding the United States rate by 15%.[52] However, the country's actual population is less than 100,000; as of September 2014, Seychelles
Seychelles
had 735 actual prisoners, 6% of whom were female, incarcerated in three prisons.[53] Modern piracy[edit] Seychelles
Seychelles
is a key participant in the fight against Indian Ocean piracy mainly by Somalis.[54] Former president James Michel
James Michel
said that piracy costs between $7 million – $12 million a year to the international community: "The pirates cost 4% of the Seychelles
Seychelles
GDP, including direct and indirect costs for the loss of boats, fishing, and tourism, and the indirect investment for the maritime security," factors affecting local fishing – one of the country's main national resources – which had a 46% loss in 2008–09.[54] International contributions of patrol boats, planes or drones have been provided to help Seychelles
Seychelles
combat sea piracy.[54] See also[edit]

Africa
Africa
portal Commonwealth portal

Book: Seychelles

Outline of Seychelles List of colonial governors of Seychelles

References[edit]

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Seychelles
Affair (Transworld, London, 1986; ISBN 0-593-01122-8) ^ Bartus László: Maffiaregény ISBN 9634405967, Budapest 2001 ^ David Brewster and Ranjit Rai. "Flowers Are Blooming: the story of the India
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Republic
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Seychelles
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Seychelles
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Seychelles
vice president to complete term of resigning president". Reuters. Retrieved 28 September 2016.  ^ "Seychellen4you – Seychelles
Seychelles
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Seychelles
and neighbouring islands". In David Ross Stoddart. Biogeography and Ecology of the Seychelles
Seychelles
Islands. Springer. p. 123. ISBN 978-90-6193-107-2.  ^ Attenborough, D. 1998.The Life of Birds. p.220-221. BBC. ISBN 0563-38792-0 ^ Seychelles
Seychelles
Climate Guide, 2015. Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change. meteo.gov.sc ^ Seychelles
Seychelles
weather and climate, see 'Blue Economy'. Expertafrica.com. Retrieved on 8 December 2016. ^ "Culture of Seychelles". Everyculture.com. Retrieved 23 March 2012.  ^ a b "Seychelles". CIA – The World Factbook.  ^ a b Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.) (2016). " Seychelles
Seychelles
languages". Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Dallas, Texas; 19th edition. Retrieved 2 November 2016. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ D. B. Prell (1965). Economic Study of the Seychelles
Seychelles
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Seychelles
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Seychelles
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Reports on Human Rights Practices: Seychelles
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Seychelles
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External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Seychelles.

Find more aboutSeychellesat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Government

SeyGov, main government portal State House, Office of the President of the Republic
Republic
of Seychelles Central Bank of Seychelles, on-shore banking and insurance regulator Seychelles
Seychelles
Investment Bureau, government agency promoting investment in Seychelles National Bureau of Statistics, government agency responsible for collecting, compiling, analysing and publishing statistical information

Religion

GigaCatholic

General

"Seychelles". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.  Seychelles
Seychelles
from UCB Libraries GovPubs Seychelles
Seychelles
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Seychelles
Seychelles
from BBC News Wikimedia Atlas of Seychelles Island Conservation Society, a non-profit nature conservation and educational non-governmental organisation Nature Seychelles, a scientific/environmental non-governmental nature protection association The Seychelles
Seychelles
Nation, the largest circulation local daily newspaper Seychelles
Seychelles
Bird Records Committee Seychelles.travel, Government tourism portal Air Seychelles, Seychelles
Seychelles
national airline ADST interview with U.S. Ambassador to Seychelles
Seychelles
David Fischer Private website with tips and images

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Countries and territories of Africa

Sovereign states

entirely/mostly in Africa

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1 Unclear sovereignty.

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Countries and territories bordering the Indian Ocean

Africa

Comoros Djibouti Egypt Eritrea France

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Asia

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International organizations

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(SADC)

Member states

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Leaders

Chairpersons

Levy Mwanawasa Kgalema Motlanthe

Secretaries-General

Kaire Mbuende Prega Ramsamy Tomaz Salomão

See also

Southern African Development Coordination Conference (forerunner) Southern African Customs Union
Southern African Customs Union
(SACU) Common Monetary Area
Common Monetary Area
(CMA) Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
Africa
(COMESA)

v t e

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Symbols

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La Francophonie

Membership

Members

Albania Andorra Armenia Belgium

French Community

Benin Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada

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Republic
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Republic
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Observers

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1 Associate member. 2 Provisionally referred to by the Francophonie as the "former Yugoslav Republic
Republic
of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.

Organization

Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique Agence universitaire de la Francophonie

Secretaries-General

Boutros Boutros-Ghali Abdou Diouf Michaëlle Jean

Culture

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Category

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Members of the Commonwealth of Nations

Sovereign states (Members)

Antigua and Barbuda Australia Bahamas Bangladesh Barbados Belize Botswana Brunei Cameroon Canada Cyprus Dominica Fiji Ghana Grenada Guyana India Jamaica Kenya Kiribati Lesotho Malawi Malaysia Malta Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Nauru New Zealand Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Swaziland Tanzania The Gambia Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tuvalu Uganda United Kingdom Vanuatu Zambia

Dependencies of Members

Australia

Ashmore and Cartier Islands Australian Antarctic Territory Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Coral Sea Islands Heard Island and McDonald Islands Norfolk Island

New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue Ross Dependency Tokelau

United Kingdom

Akrotiri and Dhekelia Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory British Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Montserrat Pitcairn Islands St. Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands

Source: Commonwealth Secretariat - Member States

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Countries and regions in the Somali Plate

Countries

Somalia Madagascar Seychelles Comoros Uganda Kenya Tanzania Swaziland Mozambique

Regions

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 141529571 ISNI: 0000 0004 0459 108X GND: 4054694-9 SELIBR: 165095 SUDOC: 028127587 BNF: cb12002381k (d

.