Coordinates: 4°35′S 55°40′E / 4.583°S 55.667°E /
Republic of Seychelles
Repiblik Sesel (
Coat of arms
Motto: "Finis Coronat Opus" (Latin)
"The End Crowns the Work"
Anthem: Koste Seselwa
Join together all Seychellois
Location of Seychelles (dark blue)
– in Africa (light blue & dark grey)
– in the African Union (light blue)
and largest city
4°37′S 55°27′E / 4.617°S 55.450°E / -4.617; 55.450
Ethnic groups (2000)
Unitary presidential republic
• Vice President
• from the United Kingdom
29 June 1976
459 km2 (177 sq mi) (181st)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
482.7/km2 (1,250.2/sq mi) (60th)
• Per capita
• Per capita
high · 63rd
Seychellois rupee (SCR)
• Summer (DST)
not observed (UTC+4)
Drives on the
ISO 3166 code
Seychelles (/seɪˈʃɛlz/ ( listen) say-SHELZ; French:
[seʃɛl]), officially the
Seychelles (French: République
des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago and
sovereign state in the Indian Ocean. The 115-island country, whose
capital is Victoria, lies 1,500 kilometres (932 mi) east of
mainland East Africa. Other nearby island countries and territories
Mayotte (region of France), Madagascar, Réunion
(region of France) and
Mauritius to the south. With a population of
roughly 94,228, it has the smallest population of any sovereign
Seychelles is a member of the African Union, the Southern African
Development Community, the Commonwealth of Nations, and the United
Nations. After proclamation of independence from the
United Kingdom in
Seychelles has developed from a largely agricultural society to
a market-based diversified economy, with agriculture being supplanted
by rapidly rising service and public sectors as well as tourism. Since
1976, nominal GDP output has increased nearly sevenfold and the
purchasing power parity nearly sixteenfold. In recent years, the
government has encouraged foreign investment in order to upgrade these
Seychelles boasts the highest nominal per capita GDP
in Africa, excluding the French regions. It is one of only a handful
of countries in
Africa with a high Human Development Index. Despite
the country's newfound economic prosperity, poverty remains widespread
due to a high level of income inequality, one of the highest in the
world, and unequal wealth distribution.
2.1 Political culture
2.2 Foreign relations
2.3 Administrative divisions
3.3 Environmental issues
6.4 Media and telecommunications
7.3 Modern piracy
8 See also
10 External links
Main article: History of Seychelles
Victoria, Seychelles 1900s
Seychelles were uninhabited throughout most of recorded history.
Some scholars assume that Austronesian seafarers and later Maldivian
and Arab traders were the first to visit the uninhabited Seychelles.
This assumption is based on the discovery of tombs, visible until
1910. The earliest recorded sighting by Europeans took place in
1502 by the Portuguese Admiral Vasco da Gama, who passed through the
Amirantes and named them after himself (islands of the Admiral). The
earliest recorded landing was in January 1609, by the crew of the
"Ascension" under Captain
Alexander Sharpeigh during the fourth voyage
of the British East
A transit point for trade between
Africa and Asia, the islands were
occasionally used by pirates until the French began to take control
starting in 1756 when a Stone of Possession was laid on Mahé by
Captain Nicholas Morphey. The islands were named after Jean Moreau de
Séchelles, Louis XV's Minister of Finance.
The British controlled the islands between 1794 and 1810. Jean
Baptiste Quéau de Quincy, French administrator of
the years of war with the United Kingdom, declined to resist when
armed enemy warships arrived. Instead, he successfully negotiated the
status of capitulation to Britain which gave the settlers a privileged
position of neutrality.
Britain eventually assumed full control upon the surrender of
Mauritius in 1810, formalised in 1814 at the Treaty of Paris.
Seychelles became a crown colony separate from
Mauritius in 1903.
Elections were held in 1966 and 1970.
Independence was granted in 1976 as a republic within the
Commonwealth. In the 1970s
Seychelles was "the place to be seen, a
playground for film stars and the international jet set". In 1977,
a coup d'état by
France Albert René
France Albert René ousted the first president of
the republic, James Mancham. René discouraged over-dependence on
tourism and declared that he wanted "to keep the
Seychelles for the
The 1979 constitution declared a socialist one-party state, which
lasted until 1991.
In the 1980s there were a series of coup attempts against President
René, some of which were supported by South Africa. In 1981, Mike
Hoare led a team of 43 South African mercenaries masquerading as
holidaying rugby players in the 1981
Seychelles coup d'état
attempt. There was a gun battle at the airport, and most of the
mercenaries later escaped in a hijacked
Air India plane. The
leader of this hijacking was German mercenary D. Clodo, a former
member of the Rhodesian SAS. Clodo later stood trial in South
Africa (where he was acquitted) as well as in his home country Germany
In 1986, an attempted coup led by the
Seychelles Minister of Defence,
Ogilvy Berlouis, caused President René to request assistance from
India. In Operation Flowers are Blooming, the Indian naval vessel INS
Vindhyagiri arrived in Port Victoria to help avert the coup.
The first draft of a new constitution failed to receive the requisite
60% of voters in 1992, but an amended version was approved in 1993.
In January 2013,
Seychelles declared a state of emergency; the
tropical cyclone Felleng caused torrential rain, and flooding and
landslides destroyed hundreds of houses.
Victoria, the capital of Seychelles
Main article: Politics of Seychelles
Seychelles president, who is head of state and head of government,
is elected by popular vote for a five-year term of office. The cabinet
is presided over and appointed by the president, subject to the
approval of a majority of the legislature.
The unicameral Seychellois parliament, the National Assembly or
Assemblée Nationale, consists of 34 members, 25 of whom are elected
directly by popular vote, while the remaining nine seats are appointed
proportionally according to the percentage of votes received by each
party. All members serve five-year terms.
The Supreme Court of Seychelles, created in 1903, is the highest trial
Seychelles and the first court of appeal from all the lower
courts and tribunals. The highest court of law in
Seychelles is the
Seychelles Court of Appeal, which is the court of final appeal in the
James Michel in his office in Victoria, 2009
Map of Seychelles
Seychelles's previous president
France Albert René
France Albert René came to power
after his supporters overthrew the first president
James Mancham on 5
June 1977 in a coup d'état and installed him as president. René was
at that time the prime minister. René ruled as a
strongman under a socialist one-party system until in 1993, when he
was forced to introduce a multi-party system. He stepped down in 2004
in favour of his vice-president, James Michel, who was re-elected in
2006 and again in 2011. On 28 September 2016, the Office
of the President announced that Michel would step down effective 16
October, and that Vice President
Danny Faure would complete the rest
of Michel's term.
The primary political parties are the ruling socialist People's Party
(PP), known until 2009 as the
Seychelles People's Progressive Front
(SPPF), and the socially liberal
Seychelles National Party
Seychelles National Party (SNP).
Further information: Foreign relations of Seychelles
Seychelles is a member of the African Union, the francophone Indian
Ocean Commission (IOC), La Francophonie, the Southern African
Development Community (SADC) and the Commonwealth.
Main article: Districts of Seychelles
Seychelles is divided into twenty-six administrative regions
comprising all of the inner islands. Eight of the districts make up
the capital of
Seychelles and are referred to as Greater Victoria.
Another 14 districts are considered the rural part of the main island
of Mahé with two districts on
Praslin and one on
La Digue which also
includes respective satellite islands. The rest of the Outer Islands
(Îles Eloignées) are the last district, recently created by the
La Rivière Anglaise
La Rivière Anglaise (English River)
Anse aux Pins
Pointe La Rue
Baie Sainte Anne
Baie Sainte Anne (Anse Volbert)
Praslin (Grande Anse)
La Digue and remaining Inner Islands
La Digue (Anse Réunion)
Main article: Geography of Seychelles
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2017)
(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
View of Praslin, the second largest island of the Seychelles
An island nation,
Seychelles is located in the Indian Ocean, northeast
Madagascar and about 1,600 km (994 mi) east of Kenya. The
archipelago consists of 115 islands. The majority of the islands are
uninhabited, with many dedicated as nature reserves.
A group of 42 islands, referred to as the inland islands, has a total
area of 244 km2, comprising 54% of the total land area of the
Seychelles and 98% of the entire population.
The islands are divided into groups as follows.
There are 45 granite-based islands known as the Granitic Seychelles.
These are in descending order of size: Mahé, Praslin, Silhouette
Island, La Digue, Curieuse, Félicité, Frégate, Ste-Anne, North,
Cerf, Marianne, Grand Sœur, Thérèse, Aride, Conception, Petite
Sœur, Cousin, Cousine, Long, Récif, Round (Praslin), Anonyme,
Mamelles, Moyenne, Eden, Île Soleil, Romainville, Île aux Vaches
Marines, L'Islette, Beacon (Île Sèche), Cachée, Cocos, Round
(Mahé), L'Ilot Frégate, Booby, Chauve-Souris (Mahé), Chauve-Souris
(Praslin), Île La Fouche, Hodoul, L'Ilot, Rat, Souris, St. Pierre
(Praslin), Zavé, Harrison Rocks (Grand Rocher).
Beach of Anse Source d'Argent on the island of La Digue
There are two coral sand cays north of the granitics: Denis and Bird.
There are two coral islands south of the Granitics: Coëtivy and
Anse Lazio on the island of Praslin
There are 29 coral islands in the
Amirantes group, west of the
granitics: Desroches, Poivre Atoll (comprising three islands—Poivre,
Florentin and South Island), Alphonse, D'Arros, St. Joseph Atoll
(comprising 14 islands—St. Joseph Île aux Fouquets, Resource, Petit
Carcassaye, Grand Carcassaye, Benjamin, Bancs Ferrari, Chiens,
Pélicans, Vars, Île Paul, Banc de Sable, Banc aux Cocos and Île aux
Poules), Marie Louise, Desnœufs, African Banks (comprising two
islands—African Banks and South Island), Rémire, St. François,
Boudeuse, Étoile, Bijoutier.
There are 13 coral islands in the Farquhar Group, south-southwest of
Farquhar Atoll (comprising 10 islands—Bancs de Sable,
Déposés, Île aux Goëlettes, Lapins, Île du Milieu, North Manaha,
South Manaha, Middle Manaha, North Island and South Island),
Providence Atoll (comprising two islands—Providence and Bancs
Providence) and St Pierre.
There are 67 raised coral islands in the
Aldabra Group, west of the
Aldabra Atoll (comprising 46 islands—Grande Terre,
Picard, Polymnie, Malabar, Île Michel, Île Esprit, Île aux
Moustiques, Ilot Parc, Ilot Émile, Ilot Yangue, Ilot Magnan, Île
Lanier, Champignon des Os, Euphrate, Grand Mentor, Grand Ilot, Gros
Ilot Gionnet, Gros Ilot Sésame, Héron Rock, Hide Island, Île aux
Aigrettes, Île aux Cèdres, Îles Chalands, Île Fangame, Île
Héron, Île Michel, Île Squacco, Île Sylvestre, Île Verte, Ilot
Déder, Ilot du Sud, Ilot du Milieu, Ilot du Nord, Ilot Dubois, Ilot
Macoa, Ilot Marquoix, Ilots Niçois, Ilot Salade, Middle Row Island,
Noddy Rock, North Row Island, Petit Mentor, Petit Mentor Endans,
Petits Ilots, Pink Rock and Table Ronde), Assumption Island, Astove
Cosmoledo Atoll (comprising 19 islands—Menai, Île du Nord (West
North), Île Nord-Est (East North), Île du Trou, Goélettes, Grand
Polyte, Petit Polyte, Grand Île (Wizard), Pagode, Île du Sud-Ouest
(South), Île aux Moustiques, Île Baleine, Île aux Chauve-Souris,
Île aux Macaques, Île aux Rats, Île du Nord-Ouest, Île
Observation, Île Sud-Est and Ilot la Croix).
The climate is equable although quite humid, as the islands are
small, classified by Köppen-Geiger system as tropical rain forest
(Af). The temperature varies little throughout the year. Temperatures
on Mahé vary from 24 to 30 °C (75 to 86 °F), and rainfall
ranges from 2,900 mm (114 in) annually at Victoria to
3,600 mm (142 in) on the mountain slopes.
somewhat less on the other islands.
During the coolest months, July and August, the average low is about
24 °C (75 °F). The southeast trade winds blow regularly
from May to November, and this is the most pleasant time of the year.
The hot months are from December to April, with higher humidity (80%).
March and April are the hottest months, but the temperature seldom
exceeds 31 °C (88 °F). Most of the islands lie outside the
cyclone belt, so high winds are rare.
Climate data for Victoria (
Seychelles International Airport)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization
Source #2: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Main article: Flora and fauna of Seychelles
Aldabra giant tortoise
Environmental legislation is very strict, and every tourism project
must undergo an environmental review and a lengthy process of
consultations with the public and conservationists.
Seychelles is a
world leader in sustainable tourism.[according to whom?] The end
result of this sustainable development is an intact and stable natural
environment, which attracts financially strong visitors (150,000 in
2007) rather than short-term mass tourism. Since 1993 a law guarantees
the citizens the right to a clean environment and at the same time
obliges them to protect this environment. The country has 42.1% of its
land under natural conservation, making it one of the top ten
countries in the world with the most protected areas.
Nerita plicata on Mahe island
Bird flocks Bird Island Seychelles
Like many fragile island ecosystems,
Seychelles saw the loss of
biodiversity when humans first settled in the area, including the
disappearance of most of the giant tortoises from the granitic
islands, the felling of coastal and mid-level forests, and the
extinction of species such as the chestnut flanked white eye, the
Seychelles parakeet, and the saltwater crocodile. However, extinctions
were far fewer than on islands such as
Mauritius or Hawaii, partly due
to a shorter period of human occupation (since 1770).
is known for success stories in protecting its flora and fauna. The
Seychelles black parrot, the national bird of the country, is now
The granitic islands of
Seychelles are home to about 75 endemic plant
species, with a further 25 or so species in the
Particularly well-known is the coco de mer, a species of palm that
grows only on the islands of
Praslin and neighbouring Curieuse.
Sometimes nicknamed the "love nut" because the shape of its "double"
coconut resembles buttocks, the coco-de-mer produces the world's
heaviest seed. The jellyfish tree is to be found in only a few
locations on Mahe. This strange and ancient plant in a genus of its
own (Medusagyne) seems to reproduce only in cultivation and not in the
wild. Other unique plant species include Wright's gardenia (Rothmannia
annae) found only on
The freshwater crab genus
Seychellum is endemic to the granitic
Seychelles, and a further 26 species of crabs and five species of
hermit crabs live on the islands.
Aldabra giant tortoise now populates many of the islands of
Aldabra population is the largest remaining. These
unique reptiles can be found even in captive herds. The granitic
Seychelles may support distinct species of
tortoises; the status of the different populations is currently
There are several unique species of orchid on the islands.
Seychelles hosts some of the largest seabird colonies in the world,
notably on the outer islands of
Aldabra and Cosmoledo. In granitic
Seychelles the largest colonies are on
Aride Island including the
world's largest numbers of two species. Sooty terns also breed on the
islands. Other birds include Cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) and Fairy
terns (Gygis alba).
The marine life around the islands, especially the more remote coral
islands, can be spectacular. More than 1,000 species of fish have been
Since the use of spearguns and dynamite for fishing was banned through
efforts of local conservationists in the 1960s, the wildlife is
unafraid of snorkelers and divers.
Coral bleaching in 1998 has damaged
most reefs, but some reefs show healthy recovery (e.g., Silhouette
Despite huge disparities across nations,
Seychelles claims to have
achieved nearly all of its Millennium Development Goals.[citation
needed] 17 MDGS and 169 targets have been achieved.
Environmental protection is becoming a cultural value.[citation
Seychelles Climate Guide describes the nation's
climate as rainy, with a dry season with an ocean economy in the ocean
regions. The Southeast Trades is on the decline but still fairly
strong. Reportedly, weather patterns there are becoming less
Main article: Demographics of Seychelles
See also: Indo-Seychellois, Sino-Seychellois, Seychellois Creole
People, Seychellois Creole, and Franco-Seychellois
Demographics of Seychelles, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of
inhabitants in thousands.
When the British gained control of the islands during the Napoleonic
Wars, they allowed the French upper class to retain their land. Both
the French and British settlers used enslaved Africans, and although
the British prohibited slavery in 1835, African workers continued to
come. Thus the Gran blan ("big whites") of French origin dominated
economic and political life. The British administration employed
Indians on indentured servitude to the same degree as in Mauritius
resulting in a small Indian population. The Indians, like a similar
minority of Chinese, were confined to a merchant class.
Through harmonious socioeconomic policies and developments[citation
needed] over the years, today
Seychelles is described as a fusion of
peoples and cultures. Numerous Seychellois are considered multiracial:
blending from African, Asian and European descent to create a modern
creole culture. Evidence of this harmonious blend is also revealed in
Seychellois food, incorporating various aspects of French, Chinese,
Indian and African cuisine.
St Francis Church, Mahé
As the islands of the
Seychelles had no indigenous population, the
current Seychellois are people who have immigrated. The largest ethnic
groups were those of African, French, Indian and Chinese descent. The
median age of the Seychellois was 32 years.
French and English are official languages along with Seychellois
Creole, which is primarily based upon French. However, nowadays the
language is often laced with English words and phrases. Including
second-language speakers, Seychellois is the most-spoken official
language in the Seychelles, followed by French, and lastly by
English. 87% of the population speaks Seychellois, 51% speaks
French, and 38% speaks English.
Main article: Religion in Seychelles
According to the 2010 census, most Seychellois are Christians: 76.2%
were Roman Catholic, pastorally served by the exempt Diocese of Port
Seychelles (immediately dependent on the Holy See); 10.6%
were Protestant, (Anglican 6.1%, Pentecostal Assembly 1.5%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 1.2%, other Protestant 1.6%).
Hinduism is practiced by 2.4%, and Islam by 1.6%. Other non-Christian
faiths accounted for 1.1% of the population while a further 5.9% were
non-religious or did not specify a religion.
Main article: Economy of Seychelles
The sailfish at Mahé Beach
Colourful skirts at
During the plantation era, cinnamon, vanilla and copra were the chief
exports. In 1965, during a three-month visit to the islands, futurist
Donald Prell prepared for the then-crown colony Governor General an
economic report containing a scenario for the future of the economy.
Quoting from his report, in the 1960s, about 33% of the working
population worked at plantations, and 20% worked in the public or
government sector. The
Indian Ocean Tracking Station on Mahé
used by the
Air Force Satellite Control Network was closed in August
1996 after the
Seychelles government attempted to raise the rent to
more than $10,000,000 per year.
Since independence in 1976, per capita output has expanded to roughly
seven times the old near-subsistence level. Growth has been led by the
tourist sector, which employs about 30% of the labour force, compared
to agriculture which today employs about 3% of the labour force.
Despite the growth of tourism, farming and fishing continue to employ
some people, as do industries that process coconuts and vanilla.
As of 2013[update], the main export products are processed fish (60%)
and non-fillet frozen fish (22%).
The prime agricultural products currently produced in Seychelles
include sweet potatoes, vanilla, coconuts and cinnamon. These products
provide much of the economic support of the locals. Frozen and canned
fish, copra, cinnamon and vanilla are the main export commodities.
Since the worldwide economic crises of 2008, the
has prioritised a curbing of the budget deficit, including the
containment of social welfare costs and further privatisation of
public enterprises. The government has a pervasive presence in
economic activity, with public enterprises active in petroleum product
distribution, banking, imports of basic products, telecommunications
and a wide range of other businesses. According to the 2013 Index of
Economic Freedom, which measures the degree of limited government,
market openness, regulatory efficiency, rule of law, and other
factors, economic freedom has been increasing each year since
The national currency of
Seychelles is the Seychellois rupee.
Initially tied to a basket of international currencies, it was
depegged and allowed to be devalued and float freely in 2008 on the
presumed hopes of attracting further foreign investment in the
Tourism in Seychelles
Seychelles International Airport
Beach resort at Seychelles
In 1971, with the opening of
Seychelles International Airport, tourism
became a significant industry, essentially dividing the economy into
plantations and tourism. The tourism sector paid better, and the
plantation economy could only expand so far. The plantation sector of
the economy declined in prominence, and tourism became the primary
industry of Seychelles.
In recent years the government has encouraged foreign investment to
upgrade hotels and other services. These incentives have given rise to
an enormous amount of investment in real estate projects and new
resort properties, such as project TIME, distributed by the World
Bank, along with its predecessor project MAGIC.
Despite its growth, the vulnerability of the tourist sector was
illustrated by the sharp drop in 1991–1992 due largely to the Gulf
Since then the government has moved to reduce the dependence on
tourism by promoting the development of farming, fishing, small-scale
manufacturing and most recently the offshore financial sector, through
the establishment of the Financial Services Authority and the
enactment of several pieces of legislation (such as the International
Corporate Service Providers Act, the International Business Companies
Act, the Securities Act, the Mutual Funds and Hedge Fund Act, amongst
During March 2015,
Seychelles allocated Assumption island to be
developed by India.
Although multinational oil companies have explored the waters around
the islands, no oil or gas has been found. In 2005, a deal was signed
with US firm Petroquest, giving it exploration rights to about
30,000 km2 around Constant, Topaz, Farquhar and Coëtivy islands
Seychelles imports oil from the Persian Gulf in the form
of refined petroleum derivatives at the rate of about 5,700 barrels
per day (910 m3/d).
In recent years oil has been imported from Kuwait and also from
Seychelles imports three times more oil than is needed for
internal uses because it re-exports the surplus oil in the form of
bunker for ships and aircraft calling at Mahé. There are no refining
capacities on the islands. Oil and gas imports, distribution and
re-export are the responsibility of
Seychelles Petroleum (Sepec),
while oil exploration is the responsibility of the
Oil Company (SNOC).
See also: Women in Seychelles
The district clock tower in the centre of the capital Victoria
Seychellois society is essentially matriarchal. Mothers tend
to be dominant in the household, controlling most expenditures and
looking after the interests of the children. Unwed mothers are the
societal norm, and the law requires fathers to support their
children. Men are important for their earning ability, but their
domestic role is relatively peripheral.
Main article: Education in Seychelles
Until the mid 19th century, little formal education was available in
Seychelles. The Catholic and Anglican churches opened mission schools
in 1851. The Catholic mission later operated boys' and girls'
secondary schools with religious brothers and nuns from abroad even
after the government became responsible for them in 1944.
A teacher training college opened in 1959, when the supply of locally
trained teachers began to grow, and in short time many new schools
were established. Since 1981 a system of free education has been in
effect, requiring attendance by all children in grades one to nine,
beginning at age five. Ninety percent of all children attend nursery
school at age four.
The literacy rate for school-age children rose to more than 90% by the
late 1980s. Many older Seychellois had not been taught to read or
write in their childhood; adult education classes helped raise adult
literacy from 60% to a claimed 100% in 2014.
There are a total of 68 schools in Seychelles. The public school
system consists of 23 crèches, 25 primary schools and 13 secondary
schools. They are located on Mahé, Praslin,
La Digue and Silhouette.
Additionally, there are three private schools: École Française,
International School and the Independent School. All the private
schools are on Mahé, and the International School has a branch on
Praslin. There are seven post-secondary (non-tertiary) schools: the
Seychelles Polytechnic, School of Advanced Level Studies, Seychelles
University of Seychelles Education, Seychelles
Institute of Technology, Maritime Training Center, Seychelles
Agricultural and Horticultural Training Center and the National
Institute for Health and Social Studies.
The administration launched plans to open a university in an attempt
to slow down the brain drain that has occurred. University of
Seychelles, initiated in conjunction with the University of London,
opened on 17 September 2009 in three locations, and offers
qualifications from the University of London.
Main article: Cuisine of Seychelles
Cutting open young coconuts for drinking, Seychelles
Staple foods include fish, seafood and shellfish dishes, often
accompanied with rice. Fish dishes are cooked in several ways,
such as steamed, grilled, wrapped in banana leaves, baked, salted and
smoked. Curry dishes with rice are also a significant aspect of
the country's cuisine.
Additional food staples include coconut, breadfruit, mangoes and
kordonnyen fish. Dishes are often garnished with fresh
Chicken dishes, such as chicken curry and coconut milk.
Fresh tropical fruits
Ladob is eaten either as a savoury dish or as a dessert. The dessert
version usually consists of ripe plantain and sweet potatoes (but may
also include cassava, breadfruit or even corossol) boiled with coconut
milk, sugar, nutmeg and vanilla in the form of a pod until the fruit
is soft and the sauce is creamy. The savoury dish usually includes
salted fish, cooked in a similar fashion to the dessert version, with
plantain, cassava and breadfruit, but with salt used in place of sugar
(and omitting vanilla).
Shark chutney typically consists of boiled skinned shark, finely
mashed, and cooked with squeezed bilimbi juice and lime. It is mixed
with onion and spices, and the onion is fried and it is cooked in
Main article: Music of Seychelles
The music of
Seychelles is diverse, a reflection of the fusion of
cultures through its history. The folk music of the islands
incorporates multiple influences in a syncretic fashion, including
African rhythms, aesthetic and instrumentation—such as the zez and
the bom (known in Brazil as berimbau), European contredanse, polka and
mazurka, French folk and pop, sega from
Mauritius and Réunion,
taarab, soukous and other pan-African genres, and Polynesian, Indian
and Arcadian music.
A form of percussion music called contombley is popular, as is Moutya,
a fusion of native folk rhythms with Kenyan benga. Kontredans (based
on European contredanse) is popular, especially in District and School
competitions during the annual Festival Kreol (International Creole
Moutya playing and dancing can often be seen at beach
bazaars. Their main languages are
Seychellois Creole of the French
language, French and English.
Media and telecommunications
Main article: Media and telecommunications in Seychelles
The main daily newspaper is the
Seychelles Nation, dedicated to local
government views and current affairs and topics. Other political
parties operate other papers such as Regar. Foreign newspapers and
magazines are readily available in most bookshops and newsagents. The
papers are mostly written in Seychellois Creole, French and English.
The main television and radio network is operated by the Seychelles
Broadcasting Corporation which offers locally produced news and
discussion programmes in the
Seychellois Creole language. Broadcasts
run between 3pm and 11:30pm on weekdays and longer hours during the
weekends. There are also imported English and French language
television programmes imported on Seychellois terrestrial television
and international satellite television has grown rapidly in recent
The most popular sport in
Seychelles is basketball, which has
particularly developed in this decade. The country's national team
qualified for the 2015 African Games, its greatest accomplishment to
date. There, the team competed against some of the continent's largest
countries such as Egypt.
Main article: Military of Seychelles
INS Teg approaching Port Victoria, Seychelles
Military of Seychelles
Military of Seychelles is the
Seychelles People's Defence Force
which consists of a number of distinct branches: an Infantry Unit and
Coast Guard, Air Force and a Presidential Protection Unit.
played and continues to play a key role developing the military of
Seychelles. After handing over two SDB Mk5 patrol vessels namely INS
Tarasa and INS Tarmugli to
Seychelles Coast Guard, built by
were subsequently renamed SCG Constant and SCG Topaz,
gifted a Dornier Maritime Patrol aircraft built by Hindustan
India also signed a pact to develop
Assumption Island, one of the 115 islands that make up the country.
Spread over 11 km2 (4 sq mi), it is strategically
located in the Indian Ocean, north of Madagascar. The island is being
leased for the development of infrastructure, a euphemism for
developing strategic assets by India.
Further information: List of countries by incarceration rate
Seychelles had the highest incarceration rate in the world of
799 prisoners per 100,000 population, exceeding the United States rate
by 15%. However, the country's actual population is less than
100,000; as of September 2014,
Seychelles had 735 actual prisoners, 6%
of whom were female, incarcerated in three prisons.
Seychelles is a key participant in the fight against Indian Ocean
piracy mainly by Somalis. Former president
James Michel said that
piracy costs between $7 million – $12 million a year to the
international community: "The pirates cost 4% of the
including direct and indirect costs for the loss of boats, fishing,
and tourism, and the indirect investment for the maritime security,"
factors affecting local fishing – one of the country's main national
resources – which had a 46% loss in 2008–09. International
contributions of patrol boats, planes or drones have been provided to
Seychelles combat sea piracy.
Outline of Seychelles
List of colonial governors of Seychelles
^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom
data acquired via website).
United Nations Department of Economic and
Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September
^ a b c d "Seychelles". International Monetary Fund.
^ "GINI index". World Bank. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF).
United Nations Development
Programme. 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
^ Anouk Zijlma (9 July 2011). "Facts about Africa".
Goafrica.about.com. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
Seychelles – Income Inequality – GINI index". Knoema, World
Data Atlas. 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
^ Lionnet, Guy (1972). The Seychelles. David and Charles.
pp. 55–56. ISBN 0811715140.
^ "Our History". National Assembly of Seychelles. Retrieved 12 May
^ "History of Seychelles". seychelles.com. 2009. Retrieved 9 September
^ a b c d Joanna Symons (21 March 2005). "Seychelles: Life's a breeze
near the equator". Telegraph.co.uk.
^ "africanhistory.about.com". africanhistory.about.com. Retrieved 23
^ Hoare, Mike The
Seychelles Affair (Transworld, London, 1986;
^ Bartus László: Maffiaregény ISBN 9634405967, Budapest 2001
^ David Brewster and Ranjit Rai. "Flowers Are Blooming: the story of
India Navy's secret operation in the Seychelles. Retrieved 10
^ "International Chapter activated for flooding in the
Seychelles". United Nation. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
^ "State of Emergency declared in the Seychelles". Aljazeera.
Retrieved 1 February 2013.
^ "Tge Judiciary". Bar Association of Seychelles. Archived from the
original on 1 March 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
^ a b "Results reflect popular will, observers say". Seychelles
Nation. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
^ a b "
Seychelles re-elects President Michel". Reuters. 21 May 2011.
Retrieved 23 May 2011.
^ a b "Vote buying claims mar
Seychelles election". Agence
France-Presse. 19 May 2011. Archived from the original on 25 May
^ George Thande (28 September 2016). "
Seychelles vice president to
complete term of resigning president". Reuters. Retrieved 28 September
^ "Seychellen4you –
Seychelles Info". www.seychelles4u.com (in
German). Retrieved 21 March 2017.
^ U.S. Department of State. "Background Note: Seychelles". Retrieved
25 May 2010. This article incorporates text from this source,
which is in the public domain.
^ a b "Climate". STGT.com. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012.
Retrieved 23 March 2012.
^ "World Weather Information Service – Victoria". World
Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
^ "SEYCHELLES INTL AP Climate Normals 1971–1990". National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
^ "Mapped: The countries with the most protected land (#1 might
surprise you)". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2018-02-07.
^ Janet Haig (1984). "Land and freshwater crabs of the
neighbouring islands". In David Ross Stoddart. Biogeography and
Ecology of the
Seychelles Islands. Springer. p. 123.
^ Attenborough, D. 1998.The Life of Birds. p.220-221. BBC.
Seychelles Climate Guide, 2015. Ministry of Environment, Energy and
Climate Change. meteo.gov.sc
Seychelles weather and climate, see 'Blue Economy'.
Expertafrica.com. Retrieved on 8 December 2016.
^ "Culture of Seychelles". Everyculture.com. Retrieved 23 March
^ a b "Seychelles". CIA – The World Factbook.
^ a b Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.)
Seychelles languages". Ethnologue: Languages of the World,
Dallas, Texas; 19th edition. Retrieved 2 November 2016. CS1
maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text:
authors list (link)
^ D. B. Prell (1965). Economic Study of the
Seychelles Islands. D.B.
^ "Economic. Study. Seychelles. 1965. D. B. Prell". Internet
^ OEC – Products exported by the
Atlas.media.mit.edu. Retrieved on 8 December 2016.
^ "2013 Index of Economic Freedom". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved
23 August 2013.
Seychelles economy –
Seychelles Travel Guide".
Seychellestour.com. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
India to develop two islands in
Indian Ocean – Times of India.
Timesofindia.indiatimes.com (11 March 2015). Retrieved on 8 December
^ a b c Tartter, Jean R. "Status of Women".
Indian Ocean country
Seychelles (Helen Chapin Metz, editor). Library of Congress
Federal Research Division (August 1994). This article incorporates
text from this source, which is in the public domain.
^ a b
Country Reports on Human Rights Practices:
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (11 March 2008). This
article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public
^ a b c Lonely Planet Mauritius, Reunion & Seychelles. Lonely
Planet. 2010. pp. 273–274. ISBN 978-1-74179-167-9.
^ a b c d e f Dyfed Lloyd Evans. The Recipes of Africa. Dyfed Lloyd
Evans. pp. 235–236.
^ Practice Tests for IGCSE English as a Second Language Reading and
Writing. Cambridge University Press. 4 February 2010. p. 50.
^ a b c d Paul Tingay (2006). Seychelles. New Holland Publishers.
pp. 33–34. ISBN 978-1-84537-439-6.
^ a b Lloyd E. Hudman; Richard H. Jackson (2003). Geography of Travel
and Tourism. Cengage Learning. p. 384.
^ a b Sarah Carpin (1998) Seychelles, Odyssey Guides, The Guidebook
Company Limited. p. 77
Seychelles Basketball Federation eager to grow sport's popularity,
Fiba.com, 12 May 2016. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
India gifts second fast attack craft INS Tarasa to the Seychelles
Coast Guard". Times of India. 8 November 2014
^ Shubhajit Roy (12 March 2015) "
India to develop strategic assets in
Seychelles islands". The Indian Express.
^ "Highest to Lowest – Prison Population Rates Across the World".
World Prison Brief. 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
^ "Data for prison population in Seychelles". World Prison Brief.
2014. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
^ a b c Colonnello, Paolo (6 March 2012). "A Pirate's Prison Tucked
Seychelles Paradise". Worldcrunch. Retrieved 22 October
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Seychelles.
Find more aboutSeychellesat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
Learning resources from Wikiversity
SeyGov, main government portal
State House, Office of the President of the
Republic of Seychelles
Central Bank of Seychelles, on-shore banking and insurance regulator
Seychelles Investment Bureau, government agency promoting investment
National Bureau of Statistics, government agency responsible for
collecting, compiling, analysing and publishing statistical
"Seychelles". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
Seychelles from UCB Libraries GovPubs
Seychelles at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Seychelles from BBC News
Wikimedia Atlas of Seychelles
Island Conservation Society, a non-profit nature conservation and
educational non-governmental organisation
Nature Seychelles, a scientific/environmental non-governmental nature
Seychelles Nation, the largest circulation local daily newspaper
Seychelles Bird Records Committee
Seychelles.travel, Government tourism portal
Seychelles national airline
ADST interview with U.S. Ambassador to
Seychelles David Fischer
Private website with tips and images
History of Seychelles
Countries and territories of Africa
Central African Republic
Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire)
São Tomé and Príncipe
Plazas de soberanía
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Southern Provinces (Western Sahara)1
States with limited
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
1 Unclear sovereignty.
Countries and territories bordering the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean Territory
Archipelago - United Kingdom
Christmas Island (Australia)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia)
Australian Antarctic Territory
French Southern and Antarctic Lands
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Southern African Development Community
Southern African Development Community (SADC)
Republic of the Congo
Southern African Development Coordination Conference (forerunner)
Southern African Customs Union
Southern African Customs Union (SACU)
Common Monetary Area
Common Monetary Area (CMA)
Common Market for Eastern and Southern
African Union (AU)
Organisation of African Unity
Permanent Representatives' Committee
Specialized Technical Committees
African Court of Justice
African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights
Peace and Security
Infrastructure and Energy
Social Affairs and Health
HR, Sciences and Technology
Trade and Industry
Rural Economy and Agriculture
Women and Gender
African Central Bank
African Monetary Fund
African Investment Bank
Peace and Security Council
African Standby Force
Panel of the Wise
African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights
African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights
African Economic Community
African Free Trade Zone
Tripartite Free Trade Area
United States of Africa
United States of Latin Africa
Central African Republic
Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
St. Pierre and Miquelon
São Tomé and Príncipe
Bosnia and Herzegovina
United Arab Emirates
1 Associate member.
2 Provisionally referred to by the Francophonie as the "former
Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.
Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique
Agence universitaire de la Francophonie
UN French Language Day
International Francophonie Day
Jeux de la Francophonie
Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie
Members of the Commonwealth of Nations
Antigua and Barbuda
Papua New Guinea
St. Kitts and Nevis
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
Trinidad and Tobago
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Australian Antarctic Territory
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
British Antarctic Territory
Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Isle of Man
St. Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
Source: Commonwealth Secretariat - Member States
Countries and regions in the Somali Plate
ISNI: 0000 0004 0459 108X
BNF: cb12002381k (d