HOME
The Info List - Sewall Wright


--- Advertisement ---



Sewall Green Wright (December 21, 1889 – March 3, 1988) was an American geneticist known for his influential work on evolutionary theory and also for his work on path analysis. He was a founder of population genetics alongside Ronald Fisher
Ronald Fisher
and J.B.S. Haldane, which was a major step in the development of the modern synthesis combining genetics with evolution. He discovered the inbreeding coefficient and methods of computing it in pedigree animals. He extended this work to populations, computing the amount of inbreeding between members of populations as a result of random genetic drift, and along with Fisher he pioneered methods for computing the distribution of gene frequencies among populations as a result of the interaction of natural selection, mutation, migration and genetic drift. Wright also made major contributions to mammalian and biochemical genetics. [4][5][6]

Contents

1 Biography 2 Scientific achievements and credits

2.1 Population
Population
genetics 2.2 Evolutionary theory 2.3 Path analysis 2.4 Plant and animal breeding 2.5 Wright and philosophy

3 Legacy 4 Bibliography 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Biography[edit] Sewall Wright
Sewall Wright
was born in Melrose, Massachusetts
Melrose, Massachusetts
to Philip Green Wright and Elizabeth Quincy Sewall Wright. His parents were first cousins,[7] an interesting fact in light of Wright's later research on inbreeding. The family moved three years later after Philip accepted a teaching job at Lombard College, a Universalist college in Galesburg, Illinois. As a child, Wright helped his father and brother print and publish an early book of poems by his father's student Carl Sandburg. He was the oldest of three gifted brothers—the others being the aeronautical engineer Theodore Paul Wright and the political scientist Quincy Wright. From an early age Wright had a love and talent for mathematics and biology. Wright attended Galesburg High School and graduated in 1906. He then enrolled in Lombard College
Lombard College
where his father taught, to study mathematics. He was influenced greatly by Professor Wilhelmine Entemann Key, one of the first women to receive a Ph.D. in biology. Wright received his Ph.D. from Harvard University, where he worked at the Bussey Institute
Bussey Institute
with the pioneering mammalian geneticist William Ernest Castle investigating the inheritance of coat colors in mammals. He worked for the U.S. Department of Agriculture until 1925, when he joined the Department of Zoology at the University of Chicago. He remained there until his retirement in 1955, when he moved to the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He received many honors in his long career, including the National Medal of Science (1966), the Balzan Prize
Balzan Prize
(1984), and the Darwin Medal
Darwin Medal
of the Royal Society (1980). He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a Foreign Member of the Royal Society.[2] The American Mathematical Society selected him as the Josiah Willards Gibbs lecturer for 1941.[8][9] For his work on genetics of evolutionary processes, Wright was awarded the Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal from the National Academy of Sciences in 1945.[10] Wright married Louise Lane Williams (1895–1975) in 1921.[11][12] They had three children: Richard, Robert, and Elizabeth.[13][14] Sewall Wright
Sewall Wright
worshipped as a Unitarian.[15][16] Scientific achievements and credits[edit] Population
Population
genetics[edit]

Visualization of a fitness landscape. The X and Y axes represent continuous phenotypic traits, and the height at each point represents the corresponding organism's fitness. The arrows represent various mutational paths that the population could follow while evolving on the fitness landscape.

His papers on inbreeding, mating systems, and genetic drift make him a principal founder of theoretical population genetics, along with R. A. Fisher and J. B. S. Haldane. Their theoretical work is the origin of the modern evolutionary synthesis or neodarwinian synthesis. Wright was the inventor/discoverer of the inbreeding coefficient and F-statistics, standard tools in population genetics. He was the chief developer of the mathematical theory of genetic drift, which is sometimes known as the Sewall Wright
Sewall Wright
effect,[17] cumulative stochastic changes in gene frequencies that arise from random births, deaths, and Mendelian segregations in reproduction. In this work he also introduced the concept of effective population size. Wright was convinced that the interaction of genetic drift and the other evolutionary forces was important in the process of adaptation. He described the relationship between genotype or phenotype and fitness as fitness surfaces or evolutionary landscapes. On these landscapes mean population fitness was the height, plotted against horizontal axes representing the allele frequencies or the average phenotypes of the population. Natural selection
Natural selection
would lead to a population climbing the nearest peak, while genetic drift would cause random wandering. Evolutionary theory[edit] Wright's explanation for stasis was that organisms come to occupy adaptive peaks. In order to evolve to another, higher peak, the species would first have to pass through a valley of maladaptive intermediate stages. This could happen by genetic drift if the population is small enough. If a species was divided into small populations, some could find higher peaks. If there was some gene flow between the populations, these adaptations could spread to the rest of the species. This was Wright's shifting balance theory of evolution. There has been much skepticism among evolutionary biologists as to whether these rather delicate conditions hold often in natural populations. Wright had a long-standing and bitter debate about this with R. A. Fisher, who felt that most populations in nature were too large for these effects of genetic drift to be important. Path analysis[edit] Wright's statistical method of path analysis, which he invented in 1921 and which was one of the first methods using a graphical model, is still widely used in social science. He was a hugely influential reviewer of manuscripts, as one of the most frequent reviewers for Genetics. Such was his reputation that he was often credited with reviews that he did not write. Plant and animal breeding[edit] Wright strongly influenced Jay Lush, who was the most influential figure in introducing quantitative genetics into animal and plant breeding. From 1915 to 1925 Wright was employed by the Animal Husbandry Division of the U.S. Bureau of Animal Husbandry. His main project was to investigate the inbreeding that had occurred in the artificial selection that resulted in the leading breeds of livestock used in American beef production. He also performed experiments with 80,000 guinea pigs in the study of physiological genetics. Further more he analyzed characters of some 40,000 guinea pigs in 23 strains of brother-sister matings against a random-bred stock. (Wright 1922a-c). The concentrated study of these two groups of mammals eventually led to the Shifting Balance Theory and the concept of "surfaces of selective value" in 1932. (Wright 1988 Pg 122 American Naturalist) He did major work on the genetics of guinea pigs, and many of his students became influential in the development of mammalian genetics. He appreciated as early as 1917 that genes acted by controlling enzymes. An anecdote about Wright, disclaimed by Wright himself, describes a lecture during which Wright tucked an unruly guinea pig under his armpit, where he usually held a chalkboard eraser: according to the anecdote, at the conclusion of the lecture, Wright absent-mindedly began to erase the blackboard using the guinea pig. Wright and philosophy[edit] Wright was one of the few geneticists of his time to venture into philosophy. He found a union of concept in Charles Hartshorne, who became a lifelong friend and philosophical collaborator. Wright endorsed a form of panpsychism. He believed that the birth of the consciousness was not due to a mysterious property of increasing complexity, but rather an inherent property, therefore implying these properties were in the most elementary particles.[18] Legacy[edit] Wright and Fisher, along with J.B.S. Haldane, were the key figures in the modern synthesis that brought genetics and evolution together. Their work was essential to the contributions of Dobzhansky, Mayr, Simpson, Julian Huxley, and Stebbins. The modern synthesis was the most important development in evolutionary biology after Darwin. Wright also had a major effect on the development of mammalian genetics and biochemical genetics. An interesting anecdote about Sewall Wright
Sewall Wright
and Barbara McClintock
Barbara McClintock
is linked here:[19] OpenMx
OpenMx
has as its icon a representation of Wright's Piebald Guinea Pig Bibliography[edit]

Wright, Sewall (1984). Evolution
Evolution
and the Genetics
Genetics
of Populations: Genetics
Genetics
and Biometric Foundations New Edition. University of Chicago Press. 

vol. 1, Genetic & Biometric Foundations. ISBN 0-226-91038-5 vol. 2, Theory of Gene Frequencies. ISBN 0-226-91039-3 vol. 3, Experimental Results and Evolutionary Deductions. ISBN 0-226-91040-7 vol. 4, Variability within and Among Natural Populations. ISBN 0-226-91041-5

References[edit]

^ " Sewall Wright
Sewall Wright
- American geneticist". britannica.com. Retrieved 21 March 2018.  ^ a b Hill, W. G. (1990). "Sewall Wright. 21 December 1889-3 March 1988". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 36: 568–579. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1990.0044.  ^ a b FOWLER, GLENN. "Sewall Wright, 98, Who Formed Mathematical Basis for Evolution". The New York Times. New York Times. Retrieved 6 September 2015.  ^ Crow, J. F. (1988). " Sewall Wright
Sewall Wright
(1889-1988)". Genetics. 119 (1): 1–4. PMC 1203328 . PMID 3294096.  ^ Crow, J. F.; Dove, W. F. (1987). " Sewall Wright
Sewall Wright
and physiological genetics". Genetics. 115 (1): 1–2. PMC 1203043 . PMID 3549442.  ^ Hill, W. G. (1996). "Sewall Wright's "Systems of Mating"". Genetics. 143 (4): 1499–1506. PMC 1207415 . PMID 8844140.  ^ Allendorf, Fred W.; Luikart, Gordon H.; Aitken, Sally N. (2012). Conservation and the Genetics
Genetics
of Populations. John Wiley. p. 548. ISBN 978-1-118-40857-5. . So were Darwin and his wife Emma (Wedgwood). ^ "American Mathematical Society". www.ams.org. Retrieved 21 March 2018.  ^ Wright, Sewall (1942). "Statistical genetics and evolution". Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 48 (4): 223–246. doi:10.1090/S0002-9904-1942-07641-5. MR 0006700.  ^ "Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal". Retrieved 7 January 2018.  ^ "Ohio Marriages, 1800-1958," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XD4D-1CD : 8 December 2014), Sewall Wright
Sewall Wright
and Louise Lane Williams, 10 Sep 1921; citing Licking, Ohio, reference 508B; FHL microfilm 384,312. ^ Provine, William B. (1989). Wright and Evolutionary Biology. University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Press. p. 106. ISBN 9780226684734. Retrieved 7 January 2018. They were married in Granville on September 10, 1921... The Wrights had two boys, Richard and Robert, during the remaining four years in Washington.  ^ "United States Census, 1930," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XSTH-NZW : accessed 7 January 2018), Sewall Wright, Chicago (Districts 0001-0250), Cook, Illinois, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) ED 208, sheet 11A, line 50, family 226, NARA microfilm publication T626 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 2002), roll 423; FHL microfilm 2,340,158. ^ " Sewall Wright
Sewall Wright
Profile".  ^ Ruse, Michael (Jun 30, 2009). Monad to Man: The Concept of Progress in Evolutionary Biology. Harvard University
Harvard University
Press. p. 376. ISBN 9780674042995. Archived from the original on January 7, 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018. Wright worshipped as a Unitarian  ^ Provine, William B. (1989). Sewall Wright
Sewall Wright
and Evolutionary Biology. University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Press. pp. 460, 497. ISBN 9780226684734. Archived from the original on January 7, 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.  ^ The Structure of Evolutionary Theory
The Structure of Evolutionary Theory
(2002) by Stephen Jay Gould, Chapter 7, sectionn "Synthesis as Hardening" ^ Steffes, David M (2007). "Panpsychic Organicism: Sewall Wright's Philosophy
Philosophy
for Understanding Complex Genetic Systems". Journal of the History of Biology. 40 (2): 327–361.  ^ http://www.estherlederberg.com/Anecdotes.html; see anecdote #25

Further reading[edit]

Ghiselin, Michael T. (1997) Metaphysics and the Origin of Species. NY: SUNY Press. Provine, William (1986). Sewall Wright
Sewall Wright
and Evolutionary Biology. University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Press. ISBN 0-226-68473-3.  Wright, Sewall (1932). "The roles of mutation, inbreeding, crossbreeding and selection in evolution". Proc. 6th Int. Cong. Genet. 1: 356–366.  Wright, Sewall (1986). Evolution: Selected papers. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-91053-9. 

External links[edit]

Sewall Wright: Darwin's Successor—Evolutionary Theorist by Edric Lescouflair and James F. Crow Sewall Wright
Sewall Wright
Papers at the American Philosophical Society O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Sewall Wright", MacTutor History of Mathematics
Mathematics
archive, University of St Andrews .

v t e

Population
Population
genetics

Key concepts

Hardy-Weinberg law Genetic linkage Identity by descent Linkage disequilibrium Fisher's fundamental theorem Neutral theory Shifting balance theory Price equation Coefficient of relationship Fitness Heritability

Selection

Natural Sexual Artificial Ecological

Effects of selection on genomic variation

Genetic hitchhiking Background selection

Genetic drift

Small population size Population
Population
bottleneck Founder effect Coalescence Balding–Nichols model

Founders

R. A. Fisher J. B. S. Haldane Sewall Wright

Related topics

Evolution Microevolution Evolutionary game theory Fitness landscape Genetic genealogy Quantitative genetics

Index of evolutionary biology articles

v t e

United States National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
laureates

Behavioral and social science

1960s

1964: Roger Adams Othmar H. Ammann Theodosius Dobzhansky Neal Elgar Miller

1980s

1986: Herbert A. Simon 1987: Anne Anastasi George J. Stigler 1988: Milton Friedman

1990s

1990: Leonid Hurwicz Patrick Suppes 1991: Robert W. Kates George A. Miller 1992: Eleanor J. Gibson 1994: Robert K. Merton 1995: Roger N. Shepard 1996: Paul Samuelson 1997: William K. Estes 1998: William Julius Wilson 1999: Robert M. Solow

2000s

2000: Gary Becker 2001: George Bass 2003: R. Duncan Luce 2004: Kenneth Arrow 2005: Gordon H. Bower 2008: Michael I. Posner 2009: Mortimer Mishkin

2010s

2011: Anne Treisman 2014: Robert Axelrod 2015: Albert Bandura

Biological sciences

1960s

1963: C. B. van Niel 1964: Marshall W. Nirenberg 1965: Francis P. Rous George G. Simpson Donald D. Van Slyke 1966: Edward F. Knipling Fritz Albert Lipmann William C. Rose Sewall Wright 1967: Kenneth S. Cole Harry F. Harlow Michael Heidelberger Alfred H. Sturtevant 1968: Horace Barker Bernard B. Brodie Detlev W. Bronk Jay Lush Burrhus Frederic Skinner 1969: Robert Huebner Ernst Mayr

1970s

1970: Barbara McClintock Albert B. Sabin 1973: Daniel I. Arnon Earl W. Sutherland Jr. 1974: Britton Chance Erwin Chargaff James V. Neel James Augustine Shannon 1975: Hallowell Davis Paul Gyorgy Sterling B. Hendricks Orville Alvin Vogel 1976: Roger Guillemin Keith Roberts Porter Efraim Racker E. O. Wilson 1979: Robert H. Burris Elizabeth C. Crosby Arthur Kornberg Severo Ochoa Earl Reece Stadtman George Ledyard Stebbins Paul Alfred Weiss

1980s

1981: Philip Handler 1982: Seymour Benzer Glenn W. Burton Mildred Cohn 1983: Howard L. Bachrach Paul Berg Wendell L. Roelofs Berta Scharrer 1986: Stanley Cohen Donald A. Henderson Vernon B. Mountcastle George Emil Palade Joan A. Steitz 1987: Michael E. DeBakey Theodor O. Diener Harry Eagle Har Gobind Khorana Rita Levi-Montalcini 1988: Michael S. Brown Stanley Norman Cohen Joseph L. Goldstein Maurice R. Hilleman Eric R. Kandel Rosalyn Sussman Yalow 1989: Katherine Esau Viktor Hamburger Philip Leder Joshua Lederberg Roger W. Sperry Harland G. Wood

1990s

1990: Baruj Benacerraf Herbert W. Boyer Daniel E. Koshland Jr. Edward B. Lewis David G. Nathan E. Donnall Thomas 1991: Mary Ellen Avery G. Evelyn Hutchinson Elvin A. Kabat Salvador Luria Paul A. Marks Folke K. Skoog Paul C. Zamecnik 1992: Maxine Singer Howard Martin Temin 1993: Daniel Nathans Salome G. Waelsch 1994: Thomas Eisner Elizabeth F. Neufeld 1995: Alexander Rich 1996: Ruth Patrick 1997: James Watson Robert A. Weinberg 1998: Bruce Ames Janet Rowley 1999: David Baltimore Jared Diamond Lynn Margulis

2000s

2000: Nancy C. Andreasen Peter H. Raven Carl Woese 2001: Francisco J. Ayala Mario R. Capecchi Ann Graybiel Gene E. Likens Victor A. McKusick Harold Varmus 2002: James E. Darnell Evelyn M. Witkin 2003: J. Michael Bishop Solomon H. Snyder Charles Yanofsky 2004: Norman E. Borlaug Phillip A. Sharp Thomas E. Starzl 2005: Anthony S. Fauci Torsten N. Wiesel 2006: Rita R. Colwell Nina Fedoroff Lubert Stryer 2007: Robert J. Lefkowitz Bert W. O'Malley 2008: Francis S. Collins Elaine Fuchs J. Craig Venter 2009: Susan L. Lindquist Stanley B. Prusiner

2010s

2010: Ralph L. Brinster Shu Chien Rudolf Jaenisch 2011: Lucy Shapiro Leroy Hood Sallie Chisholm 2014: May Berenbaum Bruce Alberts 2015: Stanley Falkow Rakesh K. Jain Mary-Claire King Simon Levin

Chemistry

1980s

1982: F. Albert Cotton Gilbert Stork 1983: Roald Hoffmann George C. Pimentel Richard N. Zare 1986: Harry B. Gray Yuan Tseh Lee Carl S. Marvel Frank H. Westheimer 1987: William S. Johnson Walter H. Stockmayer Max Tishler 1988: William O. Baker Konrad E. Bloch Elias J. Corey 1989: Richard B. Bernstein Melvin Calvin Rudolph A. Marcus Harden M. McConnell

1990s

1990: Elkan Blout Karl Folkers John D. Roberts 1991: Ronald Breslow Gertrude B. Elion Dudley R. Herschbach Glenn T. Seaborg 1992: Howard E. Simmons Jr. 1993: Donald J. Cram Norman Hackerman 1994: George S. Hammond 1995: Thomas Cech Isabella L. Karle 1996: Norman Davidson 1997: Darleane C. Hoffman Harold S. Johnston 1998: John W. Cahn George M. Whitesides 1999: Stuart A. Rice John Ross Susan Solomon

2000s

2000: John D. Baldeschwieler Ralph F. Hirschmann 2001: Ernest R. Davidson Gábor A. Somorjai 2002: John I. Brauman 2004: Stephen J. Lippard 2006: Marvin H. Caruthers Peter B. Dervan 2007: Mostafa A. El-Sayed 2008: Joanna Fowler JoAnne Stubbe 2009: Stephen J. Benkovic Marye Anne Fox

2010s

2010: Jacqueline K. Barton Peter J. Stang 2011: Allen J. Bard M. Frederick Hawthorne 2014: Judith P. Klinman Jerrold Meinwald 2015: A. Paul Alivisatos Geraldine L. Richmond

Engineering sciences

1960s

1962: Theodore von Kármán 1963: Vannevar Bush John Robinson Pierce 1964: Charles S. Draper 1965: Hugh L. Dryden Clarence L. Johnson Warren K. Lewis 1966: Claude E. Shannon 1967: Edwin H. Land Igor I. Sikorsky 1968: J. Presper Eckert Nathan M. Newmark 1969: Jack St. Clair Kilby

1970s

1970: George E. Mueller 1973: Harold E. Edgerton Richard T. Whitcomb 1974: Rudolf Kompfner Ralph Brazelton Peck Abel Wolman 1975: Manson Benedict William Hayward Pickering Frederick E. Terman Wernher von Braun 1976: Morris Cohen Peter C. Goldmark Erwin Wilhelm Müller 1979: Emmett N. Leith Raymond D. Mindlin Robert N. Noyce Earl R. Parker Simon Ramo

1980s

1982: Edward H. Heinemann Donald L. Katz 1983: William Redington Hewlett George M. Low John G. Trump 1986: Hans Wolfgang Liepmann T. Y. Lin Bernard M. Oliver 1987: R. Byron Bird H. Bolton Seed Ernst Weber 1988: Daniel C. Drucker Willis M. Hawkins George W. Housner 1989: Harry George Drickamer Herbert E. Grier

1990s

1990: Mildred Dresselhaus Nick Holonyak Jr. 1991: George H. Heilmeier Luna B. Leopold H. Guyford Stever 1992: Calvin F. Quate John Roy Whinnery 1993: Alfred Y. Cho 1994: Ray W. Clough 1995: Hermann A. Haus 1996: James L. Flanagan C. Kumar N. Patel 1998: Eli Ruckenstein 1999: Kenneth N. Stevens

2000s

2000: Yuan-Cheng B. Fung 2001: Andreas Acrivos 2002: Leo Beranek 2003: John M. Prausnitz 2004: Edwin N. Lightfoot 2005: Jan D. Achenbach Tobin J. Marks 2006: Robert S. Langer 2007: David J. Wineland 2008: Rudolf E. Kálmán 2009: Amnon Yariv

2010s

2010: Shu Chien 2011: John B. Goodenough 2014: Thomas Kailath

Mathematical, statistical, and computer sciences

1960s

1963: Norbert Wiener 1964: Solomon Lefschetz H. Marston Morse 1965: Oscar Zariski 1966: John Milnor 1967: Paul Cohen 1968: Jerzy Neyman 1969: William Feller

1970s

1970: Richard Brauer 1973: John Tukey 1974: Kurt Gödel 1975: John W. Backus Shiing-Shen Chern George Dantzig 1976: Kurt Otto Friedrichs Hassler Whitney 1979: Joseph L. Doob Donald E. Knuth

1980s

1982: Marshall Harvey Stone 1983: Herman Goldstine Isadore Singer 1986: Peter Lax Antoni Zygmund 1987: Raoul Bott Michael Freedman 1988: Ralph E. Gomory Joseph B. Keller 1989: Samuel Karlin Saunders Mac Lane Donald C. Spencer

1990s

1990: George F. Carrier Stephen Cole Kleene John McCarthy 1991: Alberto Calderón 1992: Allen Newell 1993: Martin David Kruskal 1994: John Cocke 1995: Louis Nirenberg 1996: Richard Karp Stephen Smale 1997: Shing-Tung Yau 1998: Cathleen Synge Morawetz 1999: Felix Browder Ronald R. Coifman

2000s

2000: John Griggs Thompson Karen K. Uhlenbeck 2001: Calyampudi R. Rao Elias M. Stein 2002: James G. Glimm 2003: Carl R. de Boor 2004: Dennis P. Sullivan 2005: Bradley Efron 2006: Hyman Bass 2007: Leonard Kleinrock Andrew J. Viterbi 2009: David B. Mumford

2010s

2010: Richard A. Tapia S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan 2011: Solomon W. Golomb Barry Mazur 2014: Alexandre Chorin David Blackwell 2015: Michael Artin

Physical sciences

1960s

1963: Luis W. Alvarez 1964: Julian Schwinger Harold Clayton Urey Robert Burns Woodward 1965: John Bardeen Peter Debye Leon M. Lederman William Rubey 1966: Jacob Bjerknes Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Henry Eyring John H. Van Vleck Vladimir K. Zworykin 1967: Jesse Beams Francis Birch Gregory Breit Louis Hammett George Kistiakowsky 1968: Paul Bartlett Herbert Friedman Lars Onsager Eugene Wigner 1969: Herbert C. Brown Wolfgang Panofsky

1970s

1970: Robert H. Dicke Allan R. Sandage John C. Slater John A. Wheeler Saul Winstein 1973: Carl Djerassi Maurice Ewing Arie Jan Haagen-Smit Vladimir Haensel Frederick Seitz Robert Rathbun Wilson 1974: Nicolaas Bloembergen Paul Flory William Alfred Fowler Linus Carl Pauling Kenneth Sanborn Pitzer 1975: Hans A. Bethe Joseph O. Hirschfelder Lewis Sarett Edgar Bright Wilson Chien-Shiung Wu 1976: Samuel Goudsmit Herbert S. Gutowsky Frederick Rossini Verner Suomi Henry Taube George Uhlenbeck 1979: Richard P. Feynman Herman Mark Edward M. Purcell John Sinfelt Lyman Spitzer Victor F. Weisskopf

1980s

1982: Philip W. Anderson Yoichiro Nambu Edward Teller Charles H. Townes 1983: E. Margaret Burbidge Maurice Goldhaber Helmut Landsberg Walter Munk Frederick Reines Bruno B. Rossi J. Robert Schrieffer 1986: Solomon J. Buchsbaum H. Richard Crane Herman Feshbach Robert Hofstadter Chen-Ning Yang 1987: Philip Abelson Walter Elsasser Paul C. Lauterbur George Pake James A. Van Allen 1988: D. Allan Bromley Paul Ching-Wu Chu Walter Kohn Norman F. Ramsey Jack Steinberger 1989: Arnold O. Beckman Eugene Parker Robert Sharp Henry Stommel

1990s

1990: Allan M. Cormack Edwin M. McMillan Robert Pound Roger Revelle 1991: Arthur L. Schawlow Ed Stone Steven Weinberg 1992: Eugene M. Shoemaker 1993: Val Fitch Vera Rubin 1994: Albert Overhauser Frank Press 1995: Hans Dehmelt Peter Goldreich 1996: Wallace S. Broecker 1997: Marshall Rosenbluth Martin Schwarzschild George Wetherill 1998: Don L. Anderson John N. Bahcall 1999: James Cronin Leo Kadanoff

2000s

2000: Willis E. Lamb Jeremiah P. Ostriker Gilbert F. White 2001: Marvin L. Cohen Raymond Davis Jr. Charles Keeling 2002: Richard Garwin W. Jason Morgan Edward Witten 2003: G. Brent Dalrymple Riccardo Giacconi 2004: Robert N. Clayton 2005: Ralph A. Alpher Lonnie Thompson 2006: Daniel Kleppner 2007: Fay Ajzenberg-Selove Charles P. Slichter 2008: Berni Alder James E. Gunn 2009: Yakir Aharonov Esther M. Conwell Warren M. Washington

2010s

2011: Sidney Drell Sandra Faber Sylvester James Gates 2014: Burton Richter Sean C. Solomon 2015: Shirley Ann Jackson

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 109902880 LCCN: n85130262 ISNI: 0000 0001 1455 0167 GND: 124002587 SUDOC: 033005338 BNF: cb123916508 (data) MGP: 91

.