Seville
   HOME

TheInfoList



OR:

Seville (; es, Sevilla, ) is the capital and largest city of the Spanish
autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_name = , map = , category = Autonomous administr ...
of
Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_name ...
and the province of Seville. It is situated on the lower reaches of the River Guadalquivir, in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Seville has a municipal population of about 685,000 , and a metropolitan population of about 1.5 million, making it the largest city in Andalusia, the fourth-largest city in Spain and the 26th most populous municipality in the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a supranational political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a large peninsula conventionally considered a continent in its own right because of its gre ...
. Its old town, with an area of , contains three
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization Globalization is social change associated with incre ...
World Heritage Sites: the Alcázar palace complex, the Cathedral and the General Archive of the Indies. The Seville harbour, located about from the Atlantic Ocean, is the only river port in Spain. The capital of Andalusia features hot temperatures in the summer, with daily maximums routinely above in July and August. Seville was founded as the Roman city of . Known as ''Ishbiliyah'' after the Islamic conquest in 711, Seville became the centre of the independent Taifa of Seville following the collapse of the Caliphate of Córdoba in the early 11th century; later it was ruled by Almoravids and Almohads until being incorporated to the Crown of Castile in 1248. Owing to its role as gateway of the
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) was a colonial empire governed by Spain and its prede ...
's trans-atlantic trade, managed from the Casa de Contratación, Seville became one of the largest cities in Western Europe in the 16th century. Coinciding with the Baroque period, the 17th century in Seville represented the most brilliant flowering of the city's culture; then began a gradual economic and demographic decline as silting in the Guadalquivir forced the trade monopoly to relocate to the nearby port of Cádiz. The 20th century in Seville saw the tribulations of the
Spanish Civil War The Spanish Civil War ( es, Guerra Civil Española)) or The Revolution ( es, La Revolución, link=no) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War ( es, Cuarta Guerra Carlista, link=no) among Carlists, and The Rebellion ( es, La Rebelión, lin ...
, decisive cultural milestones such as the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929 and Expo '92, and the city's election as the capital of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia.


Name


Other names

''Hisbaal'' is the oldest name for Seville. It appears to have originated during the
Phoenicia Phoenicia () was an ancient thalassocratic civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society characterized by the development of a state, social stratification Social stratification refers to a society's categor ...
n colonisation of the Tartessian culture in south-western Iberia and it refers to the god Baal. According to Manuel Pellicer Catalán, the ancient name was Spal, and it meant "lowland" in the
Phoenician language Phoenician ( ) is an extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology Biology is the scientific study of life. It is a natural science with a broad scope but has several unifying themes that tie ...
( cognate to the Hebrew '' Shfela'' and the Arabic ''Asfal'' ). During Roman rule, the name was Latinised as and later as . After the Umayyad invasion, this name remained in use among the Mozarabs, being adapted into Arabic as ''Išbīliya'' (): since the /p/ phoneme does not exist in Arabic, it was replaced by /b/; the Latin place-name suffix ''-is'' was Arabized as ''-iya'', and ''a'' turned into ''ī'' due to the phonetic phenomenon called '' imāla''. In the meantime, the city's official name had been changed to ''Ḥimṣ al-Andalus'' (), in reference to the city of
Homs Homs ( , , , ; ar, حِمْص / ALA-LC: ; Levantine Arabic: / ''Ḥomṣ'' ), known in pre-Islamic Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or سُورِيَة, translit=Sūriyā), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, الجمهور ...
in modern Syria, the jund of which Seville had been assigned to upon the Umayyad conquest; "Ḥimṣ al-Andalus" remained a customary and affectionate name for the city during the whole period throughout the Muslim Arab world, being referred to for example in the encyclopedia of Yaqut al-Hamawi or in Abu al-Baqa ar-Rundi's '' Ritha' al-Andalus''. The city is sometimes referred to as the "Pearl of Andalusia". The inhabitants of the city are known as (feminine form: ) or , after the Roman name of the city.


Motto

''NO8DO'' is the official motto of Seville, popularly believed to be a
rebus A rebus () is a puzzle device that combines the use of illustrated pictures with individual letters to depict words or phrases. For example: the word "been" might be depicted by a rebus showing an illustrated bumblebee next to a plus sign (+ ...
signifying the Spanish , meaning "She evillehas not abandoned me". The phrase, pronounced with synalepha as no-madeja-do, is written with an eight in the middle representing the word "skein f wool. Legend states that the title was given by King Alfonso X, who was resident in the city's Alcázar and supported by the citizens when his son, later Sancho IV of Castile, tried to usurp the throne from him. The emblem is present on Seville's municipal flag, and features on city property such as manhole covers, and
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, link=no, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was a ...
's tomb in the cathedral.


History

Seville is approximately 2,200 years old. The passage of the various civilizations instrumental in its growth has left the city with a distinct personality, and a large and well-preserved historical centre.


Early periods

The mythological founder of the city is Hercules (
Heracles Heracles ( ; grc-gre, Ἡρακλῆς, , glory/fame of Hera), born Alcaeus (, ''Alkaios'') or Alcides (, ''Alkeidēs''), was a divine hero in Greek mythology A major branch of classical mythology, Greek mythology is the body of ...
), commonly identified with the Phoenician god Melqart, who the myth says sailed through the
Strait of Gibraltar The Strait of Gibraltar ( ar, مضيق جبل طارق, Maḍīq Jabal Ṭāriq; es, Estrecho de Gibraltar, Archaic: Pillars of Hercules), also known as the Straits of Gibraltar, is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean The ...
to the Atlantic, and founded trading posts at the current sites of Cádiz and of Seville. The original core of the city, in the neighbourhood of the present-day street, Cuesta del Rosario, dates to the 8th century BC, when Seville was on an island in the Guadalquivir. Archaeological excavations in 1999 found anthropic remains under the north wall of the Real Alcázar dating to the 8th–7th century BC. The town was called ''Hisbaal'' by the Phoenicians and by the Tartessians, the indigenous pre-Roman Iberian people of Tartessos, who controlled the Guadalquivir Valley at the time. The city was known from Roman times as ''Hispal'' and later as ''Hispalis''. Hispalis developed into one of the great market and industrial centres of Hispania, while the nearby Roman city of Italica (present-day
Santiponce Santiponce is a town located in the province of Seville, Spain. According to the 2006 census A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring, recording and calculating information about the members of a given population. This term is use ...
, birthplace of the Roman emperors
Trajan Trajan ( ; la, Caesar Nerva Traianus; 18 September 539/11 August 117) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117. Officially declared ''optimus princeps'' ("best ruler") by the senate, Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presi ...
and
Hadrian Hadrian (; la, Caesar Trâiānus Hadriānus ; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He was born in Italica (close to modern Santiponce in Spain), a Roman '' municipium'' founded by Italic settlers in Hispan ...
) remained a typically Roman residential city. Large-scale Roman archaeological remains can be seen there and at the nearby town of Carmona as well. Existing Roman features in Seville itself include the remains exposed ''in situ'' in the underground Antiquarium of the Metropol Parasol building, the remnants of an aqueduct, three pillars of a temple in ''Mármoles'' Street, the columns of La Alameda de Hércules and the remains in the Patio de Banderas square near the Seville Cathedral. The walls surrounding the city were originally built during the rule of
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; ; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman. A member of the First Triumvirate, Caesar led the Roman armies in the Gallic Wars before defeating his political rival Pompey in Caes ...
, but their current course and design were the result of Moorish reconstructions. Following Roman rule, there were successive conquests of the Roman province of ''
Hispania Baetica Hispania Baetica, often abbreviated Baetica, was one of three Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin wa ...
'' by the Germanic
Vandals The Vandals were a Germanic people who first inhabited what is now southern Poland. They established Vandal kingdoms on the Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean islands, and North Africa North Africa, or Northern Africa is a region encompa ...
, Suebi and
Visigoths The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people who, along with the Ostrogoths, constituted the two major political entities of the Goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, ...
during the 5th and 6th centuries.


Middle Ages

In the wake of the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, Seville (''Spalis'') was seemingly taken by Musa ibn Nusayr in the late summer of 712, while he was on his way to Mérida. Yet it had to be retaken in July 713 by troops led by his son Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa, as the Visigothic population who had fled to Beja had returned to Seville once Musa left for Mérida. The seat of the Wali of Al-Andalus (administrative division of the Umayyad Caliphate) was thus established in the city until 716, when the capital of Al-Andalus was relocated to Córdoba. Seville (''Ishbīliya'') was sacked by Vikings in the mid-9th century. After Vikings arrived by 25 September 844, Seville fell to invaders on 1 October, and they stood for 40 days before they fled from the city. During Umayyad rule, under an Andalusi-Arab framework, the bulk of the population were Muladi converts, to which Christian and Jewish minorities added up. Up until the arrival of the Almohads in the 12th century, the city remained as the see of a Metropolitan Archbishop, the leading Christian religious figure in al-Andalus. However, the transfer of the relics of Saint Isidore to León circa 1063, in the taifa period, already hinted at a possible worsening of the situation of the local Christian minority. A powerful ''taifa'' kingdom with capital in Seville emerged after 1023, in the wake of the fitna of al-Andalus. Ruled by the Abbadid dynasty, the taifa grew by aggregation of smaller neighbouring ''taifas''. During the taifa period, Seville became an important scholarly and literary centre. After several months of siege, Seville was conquered by the Almoravids in 1091. The city fell to the Almohads on 17 January 1147 (12 Shaʽban 541). After an informal Almohad settlement in Seville during the early stages of the Almohad presence in the Iberian Peninsula and then a brief relocation of the capital of al-Andalus to Córdoba in 1162 (which had dire consequences for Seville, reportedly depopulated and under starvation), Seville became the definitive seat of the Andalusi part of the Almohad Empire in 1163, a twin capital alongside
Marrakech Marrakesh or Marrakech ( or ; ar, مراكش, murrākuš, ; ber, ⵎⵕⵕⴰⴽⵛ, translit=mṛṛakc}) is the fourth largest city in the Kingdom of Morocco. It is one of the four Imperial cities of Morocco and is the capital of the Marra ...
. Almohads carried out a large urban renewal. By the end of the 12th century, the walled enclosure perhaps contained 80,000 inhabitants. In the wider context of the Castilian–Leonese conquest of the Guadalquivir Valley that ensued in the 13th century, Ferdinand III laid siege on Seville in 1247. A naval blockade came to prevent relief of the city. The city surrendered on 23 November 1248, after fifteen months of siege. The conditions of capitulation contemplated the eviction of the population, with contemporary sources seemingly confirming that a mass movement of people out of Seville indeed took place. The city's development continued after the Castilian conquest in 1248. Public buildings were constructed including churches—many of which were built in the '' Mudéjar'' and Gothic styles—such as the Seville Cathedral, built during the 15th century with Gothic architecture. Other Moorish buildings were converted into Catholic edifices, as was customary of the Catholic Church during the Reconquista. The Moors' Palace became the Castilian royal residence, and during Pedro I's rule it was replaced by the Alcázar (the upper levels are still used by the Spanish royal family as the official Seville residence). After the 1391 pogrom, believed to having been instigated by the Archdeacon Ferrant Martínez, all the synagogues in Seville were converted to churches (renamed Santa María la Blanca, San Bartolomé, Santa Cruz, and Convento Madre de Dios). The Jewish quarter's land and shops (which were located in modern-day Barrio Santa Cruz) were appropriated by the church. Many Jews were killed during the pogrom, although most were forced to convert. The first tribunal of the Spanish Inquisition was instituted in Seville in 1478. Its primary charge was to ensure that all nominal Christians were really behaving like Christians, and not practicing what Judaism they could in secret. At first, the activity of the Inquisition was limited to the dioceses of Seville and Córdoba, where the Dominican friar, Alonso de Ojeda, had detected converso activity. Description of Dominican friar who agitated for the Spanish Inquisition. The first Auto de Fé took place in Seville on 6 February 1481, when six people were burned alive. Alonso de Ojeda himself gave the sermon. The Inquisition then grew rapidly. The Plaza de San Francisco was the site of the 'autos de fé'. By 1492, tribunals existed in eight Castilian cities: Ávila, Córdoba, Jaén, Medina del Campo, Segovia, Sigüenza, Toledo, and Valladolid; and by the Alhambra Decree all Jews were forced to convert to Catholicism or be exiled (expelled) from Spain.Levine Melammed, Renee. "Women in Medieval Jewish Societies." ''Women and Judaism: New Insights and Scholarship''. Ed. Frederick E. Greenspahn. New York: New York University Press, 2009. 105–106.


Early modern period

Following the Columbian exploration of the New World, Seville was chosen as headquarters of the Casa de Contratación in 1503, which was the decisive development for Seville becoming the port and gateway to the Indies. Unlike other harbours, reaching the port of Seville required sailing about up the River Guadalquivir. The choice of Seville was made in spite of the difficulties for navigation in the Guadalquivir stemming from the increasing tonnage of ships as a result of the relentless drive to make maritime transport cheaper during the late Middle Ages. Nevertheless, technical suitability issues notwithstanding, the choice was still reasonable in the sense that Seville had become the largest demographic, economic and financial centre of Christian Andalusia in the late Middle Ages. A 'golden age of development' commenced in Seville, due to its being the only port awarded the royal monopoly for trade with the growing Spanish colonies in the Americas and the influx of riches from them. Since only sailing ships leaving from and returning to the inland port of Seville could engage in trade with the Spanish Americas, merchants from Europe and other trade centres needed to go to Seville to acquire New World trade goods. The city's population grew to more than a hundred thousand people. In the late 16th century the monopoly was broken, with the port of Cádiz also authorised as a port of trade. Throughout the 17th century, colonial trade declined. Spain's American Colonies improved their production of basic goods, reducing their need to import. Compounded with these tribulations was the silting of the Guadalquivir river in the 1620s, which made Seville's harbors harder to use, and ceased upriver shipping. The Great Plague of Seville in 1649, exacerbated by excessive flooding of the Guadalquivir, reduced the population by almost half, and it would not recover until the early 19th century. By the 18th century, Seville's international importance was in decline. After the silting up of the harbour by the River Guadalquivir, upriver shipping ceased and the city went into relative economic decline. The writer Miguel de Cervantes lived primarily in Seville between 1596 and 1600. Because of financial problems, Cervantes worked as a purveyor for the Spanish Armada, and later as a tax collector. In 1597, discrepancies in his accounts of the three years previous landed him in the Royal Prison of Seville for a short time. His short story '' Rinconete y Cortadillo'', since the 19th century one of his most-read pieces, includes much description of Sevillian society; it features two young vagabonds who come to Seville, attracted by the riches and disorder that the 16th-century commerce with the Americas had brought to the city. During the 18th century Charles III of Spain promoted Seville's industries. Construction of the ''Real Fábrica de Tabacos'' ( Royal Tobacco Factory) began in 1728. It was the second-largest building in Spain, after the royal residence El Escorial. Since the 1950s it has been the seat of the rectorate (administration) of the University of Seville, as well as its Schools of Law, Philology (language/letters), Geography, and History. More operas have been set in Seville than in any other city of Europe. In 2012, a study of experts concluded the total number of operas set in Seville is 153. Among the composers who fell in love with the city are Beethoven (''
Fidelio ''Fidelio'' (; ), originally titled ' (''Leonore, or The Triumph of Marital Love''), Op. 72, is Ludwig van Beethoven's only opera. The German libretto was originally prepared by Joseph Sonnleithner from the French of Jean-Nicolas Bouilly, ...
''),
Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 17565 December 1791), baptised as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical period. Despite his short life, his rapid pace of composition r ...
('' The Marriage of Figaro'' and '' Don Giovanni''), Rossini ('' The Barber of Seville''), Donizetti ('' La favorite''), and Bizet (''
Carmen ''Carmen'' () is an opera in four acts by the French composer Georges Bizet. The libretto was written by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy, based on the Carmen (novella), novella of the same title by Prosper Mérimée. The opera was first perfo ...
''). The first newspaper in Spain outside of Madrid was Seville's ''Hebdomario útil de Seville'', which began publication in 1758.


Late modern history

Between 1825 and 1833, Melchor Cano acted as chief architect in Seville; most of the urban planning policy and architectural modifications of the city were made by him and his collaborator Jose Manuel Arjona y Cuba. Industrial architecture surviving today from the first half of the 19th century includes the ceramics factory installed in the Carthusian monastery at La Cartuja in 1841 by the Pickman family, and now home to the El Centro Andaluz de Arte Contemporáneo (CAAC), which manages the collections of the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Sevilla. It also houses the rectory of the UNIA. In the years that Queen Isabel II ruled directly, about 1843–1868, the Sevillian bourgeoisie invested in a construction boom unmatched in the city's history. The Isabel II bridge, better known as the Triana bridge, dates from this period; street lighting was expanded in the municipality and most of the streets were paved during this time as well.Diego A. Cardoso Bueno: ''Sevilla. El Casco Antiguo. Historia, Arte y Urbanismo''. Ediciones Guadalquivir (2006). . Consultado el 24 March 2010 By the second half of the 19th century, Seville had begun an expansion supported by railway construction and the demolition of part of its ancient walls, allowing the urban space of the city to grow eastward and southward. The ''Sevillana de Electricidad'' Company was created in 1894 to provide electric power throughout the municipality, and in 1901 the ''Plaza de Armas'' railway station was inaugurated. The Museum of Fine Arts ''(Museo de Bellas Artes de Sevilla)'' opened in 1904. In 1929 the city hosted the Ibero-American Exposition, which accelerated the southern expansion of the city and created new public spaces such as the Plaza de España and the Maria Luisa Park. Not long before the opening, the Spanish government began a modernisation of the city in order to prepare for the expected crowds by erecting new hotels and widening the mediaeval streets to allow for the movement of automobiles. Seville fell very quickly at the beginning of the
Spanish Civil War The Spanish Civil War ( es, Guerra Civil Española)) or The Revolution ( es, La Revolución, link=no) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War ( es, Cuarta Guerra Carlista, link=no) among Carlists, and The Rebellion ( es, La Rebelión, lin ...
in 1936. General Queipo de Llano carried out a coup within the city, quickly capturing the city centre.''The Spanish Civil War'', Hugh Thomas, Penguin, 1961, pp. 221–223, Radio Seville opposed the uprising and called for the peasants to come to the city for arms, while workers' groups established barricades. Queipo then moved to capture Radio Seville, which he used to broadcast propaganda on behalf of the Francoist forces. After the initial takeover of the city, resistance continued among residents of the working-class neighbourhoods for some time, until a series of fierce reprisals took place. Under Francisco Franco's rule Spain was officially neutral in World War II (although it did collaborate with the Axis powers), and like the rest of the country, Seville remained largely economically and culturally isolated from the outside world. In 1953 the shipyard of Seville was opened, eventually employing more than 2,000 workers in the 1970s. Before the existence of wetlands regulation in the Guadalquivir basin, Seville suffered regular heavy flooding; perhaps worst of all were the floods that occurred in November 1961 when the River Tamarguillo, a tributary of the Guadalquivir, overflowed as a result of a prodigious downpour of rain, and Seville was consequently declared a disaster zone. Trade unionism in Seville began during the 1960s with the underground organisational activities of the Workers' Commissions or Comisiones Obreras (CCOO), in factories such as Hytasa, the Astilleros shipyards, Hispano Aviación, etc. Several of the movement's leaders were imprisoned in November 1973.


Recent developments

On 3 April 1979 Spain held its first democratic municipal elections after the end of Franco's dictatorship; councillors representing four different political parties were elected in Seville. On 5 November 1982, Pope John Paul II arrived in Seville to officiate at a Mass before more than half a million people at the fairgrounds. He visited the city again on 13 June 1993, for the International Eucharistic Congress. In 1992, coinciding with the fifth centenary of the Discovery of the Americas, the Universal Exposition was held for six months in Seville, on the occasion of which the local communications network and urban infrastructure was greatly improved under a 1987 PGOU plan launched by Mayor Manuel del Valle: the SE-30 ring road around the city was completed and new highways were constructed; the new Seville-Santa Justa railway station had opened in 1991, while the Spanish High-Speed Rail system, the '' Alta Velocidad Española'' (AVE), began to operate between Madrid-Seville. The Seville Airport was expanded with a new terminal building designed by the architect Rafael Moneo, and various other improvements were made. The Alamillo Bridge and the Centenario Bridge, both crossing over the Guadalquivir, also were built for the occasion. Some of the installations remaining at the site after the exposition were converted into the Scientific and Technological Park Cartuja 93. In 2004 the Metropol Parasol project, commonly known as ''Las Setas'' (''The Mushrooms''), due to the appearance of the structure, was launched to revitalise the Plaza de la Encarnación, for years used as a car park and seen as a dead spot between more popular tourist destinations in the city. The Metropol Parasol was completed in March 2011, costing just over €102 million in total, more than twice as much as originally planned. Constructed from crossed wooden beams, ''Las Setas'' is said to be the largest timber-framed structure in the world.


Geography and climate


Location

Seville has an area of , according to the National Topographic Map ''(Mapa Topográfico Nacional)'' series from the ''Instituto Geográfico Nacional – Centro Nacional de Información Geográfica'', the country's civilian survey organisation (pages 984, 985 and 1002). The city is situated in the fertile valley of the River Guadalquivir. The average height above sea level is . Most of the city is on the east side of the river, while Triana, La Cartuja and Los Remedios are on the west side. The Aljarafe region lies further west, and is considered part of the metropolitan area. The city has boundaries on the north with La Rinconada, La Algaba and
Santiponce Santiponce is a town located in the province of Seville, Spain. According to the 2006 census A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring, recording and calculating information about the members of a given population. This term is use ...
; on the east with Alcalá de Guadaira; on the south with Dos Hermanas and Gelves and on the west with San Juan de Aznalfarache, Tomares and Camas. Seville is on the same parallel as United States west coast city San Jose in central California. São Miguel, the main island of the
Azores ) , motto =( en, "Rather die free than subjected in peace") , anthem= ( en, "Anthem of the Azores") , image_map=Locator_map_of_Azores_in_EU.svg , map_alt=Location of the Azores within the European Union , map_caption=Location of the Azores wi ...
archipelago, lies on the same latitude. Further east from Seville in the
Mediterranean Basin In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (; also known as the Mediterranean Region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have mostly a Mediterranean climate, with mild to cool, rainy winters an ...
, it is on the same latitude as Catania in Sicily, Italy and just south of
Athens Athens ( ; el, Αθήνα, Athína ; grc, Ἀθῆναι, Athênai (pl.) ) is both the capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Greece, largest city of Greece. With a population close to four million, it is also the seventh List ...
, the capital of
Greece Greece,, or , romanized: ', officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is situated on the southern tip of the Balkans, and is located at the crossroads of Europe Europe is a large peninsula conventional ...
. Beyond that, it is located on the same parallel as South Korean capital,
Seoul Seoul (; ; ), officially known as the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the K ...
. Seville is located inland, not very far from the Andalusian coast, but still sees a much more continental climate than the nearest port cities, Cádiz and
Huelva Huelva (, ) is a city in southwestern Spain, the capital of the province of Huelva in the autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma as ...
. Its distance from the sea makes summers in Sevilla much hotter than along the coastline.


Climate

Seville has a
Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate (also called a dry summer temperate climate ''Cs'') is a temperate climate sub-type, generally characterized by warm, dry summers and mild, fairly wet winters; these weather conditions are typically experienced in the ...
(
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climate science, climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by ...
''Csa''), featuring very hot, dry summers and mild winters with moderate rainfall. Seville has an annual average of . The annual average temperature is during the day and at night. Seville is located in the lower part of the Guadalquivir Valley, which is often referred to as "the frying pan of Spain", as it features the hottest cities in the country. Seville is the warmest city in Continental Europe. It is also the hottest major metropolitan area in Europe, with summer average high temperatures of above and also the hottest in Spain. After the city of Córdoba (also in Andalusia), Seville has the hottest summer in continental Europe among all cities with a population over 100,000 people, with average daily highs of in July. Temperatures above are not uncommon in summer. The hottest temperature extreme of was registered by the weather station at Seville Airport on 23 July 1995 while the coldest temperature extreme of was also registered by the airport weather station on 12 February 1956. A historical record high (disputed) of was recorded on 4 August 1881, according to the NOAA Satellite and Information Service. There is an unaccredited record by the National Institute of Meteorology of on 1 August during the 2003 heat wave, according to a weather station (83910 LEZL) located in the southern part of Seville Airport, near the former US San Pablo Air Force Base. This temperature would be one of the highest ever recorded in Spain, yet it hasn't been officially confirmed. The average sunshine hours in Seville are approximately 3000 per year. Snowfall is virtually unknown, and the last important snowfall occurred in 1954. Since the year 1500, only 10 snowfalls have been recorded/reported in Seville. During the 20th century, Seville registered just 2 snowfalls, the last one on 2 February 1954. * Winters are mild: December and January are the coolest months, with average maximum temperatures around and minimums of . * Summers are very hot: July and August are the hottest months, with average maximum temperatures around and minimums of . * Precipitation varies from and there are around 50 rainy days per year, with frequent torrential rain. December is the wettest month, with an average rainfall of .


Government


Municipal government and administration

Seville is a
municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. The term ''municipality'' may also mean the ...
, the basic level of local government in Spain. The
Ayuntamiento ''Ayuntamiento'' ()In other languages of Spain: * ca, ajuntament (). * gl, concello (). * eu, udaletxea (). is the general term for the town council, or ''cabildo'', of a municipality or, sometimes, as is often the case in Spain and Latin A ...
is the body charged with the municipal government and administration. The Plenary of the ''ayuntamiento'' is formed by 31 elected municipal councillors, who in turn invest the
mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than cities, though the criteri ...
. The last municipal election took place on 26 May 2019. The current mayor is Antonio Muñoz (
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party ( es, Partido Socialista Obrero Español ; PSOE ) is a social-democraticThe PSOE is described as a social-democratic party by numerous sources: * * * * political party in Spain. The PSOE has been in go ...
), who has held the post since the reign of the previous mayor, Juan Espadas in early 2022.


Regional and provincial capital

Seville is the capital of the autonomous community of
Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_name ...
, according to Article 4 of the Statute of Autonomy of Andalusia of 2007, and is the capital of the Province of Seville as well. The historical building of the Palace of San Telmo is now the seat of the presidency of the Andalusian Autonomous Government. The administrative headquarters are in Torre Triana, in La Cartuja. The Hospital de las Cinco Llagas (literally, "Hospital of the Five Holy Wounds") is the current seat of the Parliament of Andalusia.


Districts and neighbourhoods

The municipal administration is decentralized into 11 districts, further divided into 108 neighbourhoods. * Casco Antiguo * Distrito Sur * Triana * Macarena * Nervión * Los Remedios * Este-Alcosa-Torreblanca * Cerro-Amate * Bellavista-La Palmera * San Pablo-Santa Justa


Main sights

Seville is a big tourist centre in Spain. In 2018, there were over 2.5 million travellers and tourists who stayed at a tourist accommodation, placing it third in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona. The city has an overall low level of seasonality, so there are tourists year-round. There are many landmarks, museums, parks, gardens and other kinds of tourist spots around the city so there is something for everyone. The Alcázar, the Cathedral, and the '' Archivo General de Indias'' (General Archive of the Indies) are UNESCO
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ...
s.


Landmarks

The St. Mary of the See Cathedral was built from 1401 to 1519 after the ''
Reconquista The ' ( Spanish, Portuguese and Galician for "reconquest") is a historiographical construction describing the 781-year period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the N ...
'' on the former site of the city's mosque. It is among the largest of all medieval and Gothic cathedrals, in terms of both area and volume. The interior is the longest
nave The nave () is the central part of a church, stretching from the (normally western) main entrance or rear wall, to the transepts, or in a church without transepts, to the chancel. When a church contains side aisles, as in a basilica-ty ...
in Spain and is lavishly decorated, with a large quantity of gold evident. La Giralda is a tower attached to the Cathedral that dates back to the twelfth century. It was originally built as part of a mosque when the Moors ruled in Spain and was later added onto by the Christians. Tourists today can climb the tower by walking up a series of ramps that were previously used by officials who rode their horses to the top of the tower. The overall tower construction is consistent with Roman lighthouse construction methods such as with the Tower of Hercules (circa 2nd century CE) built on the northwest coast of Spain. La Giralda gets its name from the weathervane attached to the very top of it, as "gira" means "turning one" in the Spanish language. The '' Alcázar'' facing the cathedral was developed from a previous Moorish
Palace A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop. The word is derived from the Latin name palātium, for Palatine Hill in Rome which ...
which was developed from a Visigoth establishment which was itself developed from an existing Roman construction. The redevelopment was started in 1181 and continued for over 500 years, mainly in the Mudéjar style, but also in the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the late ...
style. The TV show Game of Thrones has shot many scenes at this location. The '' Church of Saint Louis of France'', located in the historic district of Seville represents an example of
Baroque architecture Baroque architecture is a highly decorative and theatrical style which appeared in Italy in the early 17th century and gradually spread across Europe. It was originally introduced by the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known ...
in the 18th century. The '' Torre del Oro'' was built as a watchtower and defensive barrier on the river. The river was used as a mode of defense. A chain was strung through the water from the base of the tower to prevent boats from traveling into the river port. The City Hall was built in the 16th century in high Plateresque style by master architect Diego de Riaño. The façade to Plaza Nueva was built in the 19th century in Neoclassical style. The Palacio de San Telmo, formerly the University of Sailors, and later the Seminary, is now the seat for the Andalusian Autonomous Government. It is one of the most emblematic buildings of
baroque architecture Baroque architecture is a highly decorative and theatrical style which appeared in Italy in the early 17th century and gradually spread across Europe. It was originally introduced by the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known ...
, mainly to its world-renowned churrigueresque principal façade and the impressive chapel. The Royal Tobacco Factory is housed on the original site of the first tobacco factory in Europe, a vast 18th-century building in Baroque style and the purported inspiration for the opera ''Carmen''. The '' Metropol Parasol'', in La Encarnación square, is the world's largest wooden structure. A monumental umbrella-like building designed by the German architect Jürgen Mayer, finished in 2011. This modern architecture structure houses the central market and an underground archaeological complex. The terrace roof is a city viewpoint. The General Archive of the Indies, is the repository of extremely valuable archival documents illustrating the history of the Spanish Empire in the Americas and the Philippines. The building itself, an unusually serene and Italianate example of Spanish Renaissance architecture, was designed by Juan de Herrera. The '' Plaza de España'' in the '' Parque de María Luisa'' (María Luisa Park) was built by the architect Aníbal González for the 1929 Exposición Ibero-Americana. It is an outstanding example of Regionalist Revival Architecture, a bizarre and loftily conceived mixture of diverse historic styles, such as Art Deco and lavishly ornamented with typical glazed tiles. The Moorish urban influences continued and are present in contemporary Seville, for instance in the custom of decorating with plants and small fountains in the courtyards of the houses. However, most buildings of the Moorish aesthetic actually belong to the Mudéjar style of Islamic art, developed under Christian rule and inspired by the Arabic style. Original Moorish buildings are the ''Patio del Yeso'' in the Alcázar, the city walls, and the main section of the Giralda, the bell tower of the Seville Cathedral. The neighbourhood of '' Triana'', situated on the west bank of the River Guadalquivir, had an important role in the history of the city and constitutes by itself a folk, monumental and cultural centre. On the other hand, '' La Macarena'' neighbourhood is located on the northern side of the city centre. It contains some important monuments and religious buildings, such as the Museum and Catholic Church of ''La Macarena'' or the '' Hospital de las Cinco Llagas''.


Museums

The most important art collection of Seville is the Museum of Fine Arts of Seville. It was established in 1835 in the former Convent of ''La Merced''. It holds many masterworks by Murillo, Pacheco, Zurbarán, Valdés Leal, and others masters of the Baroque Sevillian School, containing also Flemish paintings of the 15th and 16th centuries. Other museums in Seville are: * The Archaeological Museum, which contains collections from the Tartessian, Roman and some of Almohad and Christian periods, located in ''América'' square at the '' Parque de María Luisa'' (María Luisa Park). * The Museum of Arts and Traditions, also in América Square, in front of the Archaeological Museum. * The Andalusian Contemporary Art Centre, situated in the neighbourhood of La Cartuja. * The Naval Museum, housed in the golden Torre del Oro, next to the River Guadalquivir. * The Carriages Museum, in the Los Remedios neighbourhood. * The Flamenco Art Museum * The Bullfighting Museum, in the La Maestranza bullring * The Palace of the Countess of Lebrija, a private collection that contains many of the mosaic floors discovered in the nearby Roman town of
Italica Italica ( es, Itálica) was a Roman town founded by Italic settlers in Hispania; its site is close to the town of Santiponce, part of the province of Seville in modern-day Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_ ...
. * The ''Centro Velázquez'' (Velázquez Centre) located at the Old Priests Hospital in the touristic Santa Cruz neighbourhood. * The ''Antiquarium'' in Metropol Parasol, an underground museum which is composed of the most important archaeological site of the ancient Roman stage of Seville and remains preserved. * The '' Castillo de San Jorge'' (Castle of St. George) is situated near the Triana market, next to the Isabel II bridge. It was the last seat for the Spanish Inquisition. * The Museum and Treasure of ''La Macarena'', where the collection of the Macarena brotherhood is exhibited. This exhibition gives visitors an accurate impression of Seville's Holy Week. * '' La Casa de la Ciencia'' (The House of Science), a science centre and museum opposite the María Luisa Park. * Museum of Pottery in Triana. * ''Pabellon de la Navegación'' (Pavilion of Navigation).


Parks and gardens

* The '' Parque de María Luisa'' (María Luisa Park), is a monumental park built for the 1929 World's Fair held in Seville, the Exposición Ibero-Americana. The so-called ''Jardines de las Delicias'' (literally, Delighting Gardens), closer to the river, are part of the ''Parque de María Luisa''. * The Alcázar Gardens, within the grounds of the '' Alcázar'' palace, consist of several sectors developed in different historical styles. * The Gardens of Murillo and the Gardens of Catalina de Ribera, both along and outside the South wall of the Alcázar, lie next to the ''Santa Cruz'' quarter. * The ''Parque del Alamillo y San Jerónimo'', the largest park in Andalusia, was originally built for Seville Expo '92 to reproduce the Andalusian native flora. It lines both Guadalquivir shores around the ''San Jerónimo''
meander A meander is one of a series of regular sinuous curves in the channel of a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into t ...
. The 32-metres-high bronze sculpture, '' The Birth of a New Man'' (popularly known as Columbus's Egg, ''el Huevo de Colón''), by the Georgian sculptor Zurab Tsereteli, is located in its northwestern sector. * The American Garden, also completed for Expo '92, is in La Cartuja. It is a public botanical garden, with a representative collection of American plants donated by different countries on the occasion of the world exposition. Despite its extraordinary botanical value, it remains a mostly abandoned place. * The Buhaira Gardens, also historically known as the ''Huerta del Rey'', are a public park and historic site, originally created as a garden estate during the Almohad period (12th century).


Culture


Theaters

The Teatro Lope de Vega is located on Avenida de María Luisa avenue (next to '' Parque de María Luisa''). It was built in 1929, being its architect Vicente Traver y Tomás. It was the auditorium of the pavilion of the city in the Ibero-American Exhibition. This pavilion had a large room that became the Casino of the Exhibition. The theater occupied an area of 4600 m2 and could accommodate 1100 viewers. Its architecture is Spanish Baroque Revival, being the building faithful to this style both in the set and in its ornamentation. It has hosted varied performances, including theater, dance, opera,
jazz Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans New Orleans ( , ,flamenco and nowadays the most outstanding of the panorama is its programming national and international, becoming one of the most important theaters in Spain. Others important theatres are Teatro de la Maestranza, Auditorio Rocío Jurado and Teatro Central. Seville also has a corral de comedias theatre, which is the Corral del Coliseo, now used as a residential building.


Festivals

There are many entertainment options around the city of Seville and one of its biggest attractions is the numerous festivals that happen around the year. Some of the festivals concentrate on religion and culture, others focus on the folklore of the area, traditions, and entertainment.


Holy Week in Seville

Semana Santa is celebrated all over Spain and Latin America, but the celebration in Seville is large and well known as a Fiesta of International Tourist Interest. 54 local brotherhoods, or "cofradías", organize floats and processions throughout the week, reenacting the story of the Passion of Christ. There is traditional music and art incorporated into the processions, making Semana Santa an important source of both material and immaterial Sevillian cultural identity.


Bienal de Flamenco

Seville is home to the bi-annual flamenco festival La Bienal, which claims to be "the biggest flamenco event worldwide" and lasts for nearly a month.


Velá de Santiago y Santa Ana

In the district of Triana, the Velá de Santiago y Santa Ana is held every July and includes sporting events, performances, and cultural activities as the city honors St. James and St. Ana.


Feria de Abril

The April Fair (''Feria de Abril'') is a huge celebration that takes place in Seville about two weeks after the Holy Week. It was previously associated with celebrating livestock; however, nowadays its purpose is to create a fun cheerful environment tied to the appreciation of the Spanish folklore. During the Feria, families, businesses, and organisations set up ''casetas'' ( marquees) in which they spend the week dancing, drinking, and socialising. Traditionally, women wear elaborate flamenco dresses and men dress in their best suits. The marquees are set up on a permanent fairground in the district of Los Remedios, in which each street is named after a famous bullfighter.


Salón Náutico Internacional de Sevilla

The International Boat Show of Seville is an annual event that takes place in the only indoor maritime port of the country, which is one of the most important in Europe.


Music

Seville had a vibrant rock music scene in the 1970s and 1980s with bands like Triana, Alameda and Smash, who fused Andalusia's traditional flamenco music with British-style progressive rock. The punk rock group Reincidentes and indie band Sr Chinarro, as well as singer Kiko Veneno, rose to prominence in the early 1990s. The city's music scene now features rap acts such as SFDK, Mala Rodríguez, Dareysteel, Tote King, Dogma Crew, Bisley DeMarra, Haze and Jesuly. Seville's diverse music scene is reflected in the variety of its club-centred nightlife. The city is also home to many theatres and performance spaces where classical music is performed, including Teatro Lope de Vega, Teatro La Maestranza, Teatro Central, the Real Alcazar Gardens and the Sala Joaquín Turina. Despite its name, the sevillana dance, commonly presented as flamenco, is not thought to be of Sevillan origin. However, the folksongs called '' sevillanas'' are authentically Sevillan, as is the four-part dance performed with them.


Flamenco

The Triana district in Seville is considered a birthplace of flamenco, where it found its beginning as an expression of the poor and marginalized. Seville's Gypsy population, known as Flamencos, were instrumental in the development of the art form. While it began as and remains a representation of Andalusian culture, it has also become a national heritage symbol of Spain. There are more flamenco artists in Seville than anywhere else in the country, supporting an entire industry surrounding it and drawing in a significant amount of tourism for the city.


Gastronomy

The '' tapas'' scene is one of the main cultural attractions of the city: people go from one bar to another, enjoying small dishes called tapas (literally "lids" or "covers" in Spanish, referring to their probable origin as snacks served on small plates used to cover drinks). Local specialities include fried and grilled seafood (including
squid True squid are molluscs with an elongated soft body, large eyes, eight arms, and two tentacles in the superorder Decapodiformes, though many other molluscs within the broader Neocoleoidea are also called squid despite not strictly fitti ...
, ''choco'' (
cuttlefish Cuttlefish or cuttles are marine molluscs of the order Sepiida. They belong to the class Cephalopod A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda ( Greek plural , ; "head-feet") such as a squid True squid are ...
), swordfish, marinated dogfish, and '' ortiguillas''), grilled and stewed meat, spinach with chickpeas, '' Jamón ibérico'', lamb kidneys in sherry sauce,
snails A snail is, in loose terms, a shelled gastropod The gastropods (), commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca called Gastropoda (). This class comprises snails ...
, '' caldo de puchero'', and '' gazpacho''. A sandwich known as a '' serranito'' is the typical and popular version of fast food. Typical desserts from Seville include ''pestiños'', a honey-coated sweet fritter; ''torrijas'', fried slices of bread with honey; ''roscos fritos'', deep-fried sugar-coated ring doughnuts; ''magdalenas'' or fairy cakes; ''yemas de San Leandro'', which provide the city's convents with a source of revenue; and '' tortas de aceite'', a thin sugar-coated cake made with olive oil. ''Polvorones'' and ''mantecados'' are traditional Christmas products, whereas ''pestiños'' and ''torrijas'' are typically consumed during the Holy Week. Bitter Seville oranges grow on trees lining the city streets. Large quantities are collected and exported to Britain to be used in
marmalade Marmalade is a fruit preserve made from the juice and peel of citrus fruits boiled with sugar and water. The well-known version is made from bitter orange. It is also made from lemons, limes, grapefruits, mandarins, sweet oranges, be ...
. Locally, the fruit is used predominantly in aromatherapy, herbal medicine, and dietary diet products, rather than as a foodstuff. According to legend, the Arabs brought the bitter orange to Seville from East Asia via Iraq around the 10th century to beautify and perfume their patios and gardens, as well as to provide shade. The flowers of the tree are a source of neroli oil, commonly used in perfumery and in skin lotions for massage. In 2021, the municipal water company, Emasesa, began a pilot scheme to use the methane produced as the fruit ferments to generate clean electricity. The company plans to use 35 tonnes of fruit to generate clean energy to power one of the city's water purification plants.


Economy

Seville is the most populated city in southern Spain, and has the largest GDP (gross domestic product) of any in Andalusia, accounting for one-quarter of its total GDP. All municipalities in the metropolitan area depend directly or indirectly on Seville's economy, while agriculture dominates the economy of the smaller villages, with some industrial activity localised in industrial parks. The ''Diputación de Sevilla'' (Deputation of Seville), with provincial headquarters in the Antiguo Cuartel de Caballería (Old Cavalry Barracks) on Avenida Menendez Pelayo, provides public services to distant villages that they can not provide themselves. The economic activity of Seville cannot be detached from the geographical and urban context of the city; the capital of Andalusia is the centre of a growing metropolitan area. Aside from traditional neighbourhoods such as Santa Cruz, Triana and others, those further away from the centre, such as Nervión, Sevilla Este, and El Porvenir have seen recent economic growth. Until the economic crisis of 2007, this urban area saw significant population growth and the development of new industrial and commercial parks. During this period, availability of infrastructure in the city contributed to the growth of an economy dominated by the service sector, but in which industry still holds a considerable place.


Infrastructure

The 1990s saw massive growth in investment in infrastructure in Seville, largely due to its hosting of the Universal Exposition of Seville in 1992. This economic development of the city and its urban area is supported by good transportation links to other Spanish cities, including a high-speed AVE railway connection to Madrid, and a new international
airport An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports usually consists of a landing area, which comprises an aerially accessible open space including at least one operationally active surfa ...
. Seville has the only inland port in Spain, located from the mouth of the River Guadalquivir. This harbour complex offers access to the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and allows trade in goods between the south of Spain (Andalusia, Extremadura) and Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. The port has undergone reorganisation. Annual tonnage rose to 5.3 million tonnes of goods in 2006. Cartuja 93 is a research and development park. employing 15,000 persons. The ''Parque Tecnológico y Aeronáutico Aerópolis'' (Technological and Aeronautical Park) is focused on the aircraft industry. Outside of Seville are nine PS20 solar power towers which use the city's sunny weather to provide most of it with clean and renewable energy. The Sevilla Tower skyscraper was started in March 2008 and was completed in 2015. With a height of and 40 floors, it's the tallest building in
Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_name ...
. Seville has conference facilities, including the Conference and Convention Centre.


Research and development

The ''Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en Sevilla'' (CSIC) is based in the former Pavilion of Peru in the Maria Luisa Park. In April 2008 the city council of Seville provided a grant to renovate the building to create the '' Casa de la Ciencia'' (Science Centre) to encourage popular interest in science. The internationally recognised company ''Neocodex'' has its headquarters in Seville; it maintains the first and largest DNA bank in Spain and has made significant contributions to scientific research in genetics. Seville is also considered an important technological and research centre for renewable energy and the aeronautics industry. The output of the research centres in Sevillan universities working in tandem with city government, and the numerous local technology companies, have made Seville a leader among Spanish cities in technological
research and development Research and development (R&D or R+D), known in Europe Europe is a large peninsula conventionally considered a continent in its own right because of its great physical size and the weight of its history and traditions. Europe is also ...
. The ''Parque Científico Tecnológico Cartuja 93'' is a nexus of private and public investment in various fields of research. Principal fields of innovation and research are telecommunications, new technologies, biotechnology (with applications in local agricultural practices), environment and renewable energy.


Transport


Bus

Seville is served by the TUSSA
(Transportes Urbanos de Sevilla)
bus network which runs buses throughout the city. The Consorcio de Transportes de Sevilla communicates by bus with all the satellite towns of Seville. Two bus stations serve transportation between surrounding areas and other cities: ''Plaza de Armas'' Station, with destinations north and west, and ''Prado de San Sebastián'' Station, covering routes to the south and east. ''Plaza de Armas'' station has direct bus lines to many Spanish cities as well as Lisbon, Portugal.


Metro

The Seville metro ("Metro de Sevilla" in Spanish) is a light metro network serving the city of Seville and its metropolitan area. The system is totally independent of any other rail or street traffic. All stations were built with platform screen doors. It was the sixth Metro system to be built in Spain, after those in
Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = ''Plus ultra'' (Latin)(English: "Further B ...
,
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within ci ...
,
Valencia Valencia ( va, València) is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-most populated municipality in Spain, with 791,413 inhabitants. It is also the capital of the province of the same name. The wider urban area a ...
, Bilbao and
Palma de Mallorca Palma (; ; also known as ''Palma de Mallorca'', officially between 1983–88, 2006–08, and 2012–16) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma ...
. Currently, it is the fifth-biggest Metro company in Spain by the number of passengers carried (more than 12,000,000 in 2009). The metro of Sevilla has 1 line with 22 stations and is currently expanding, with 3 more different lines projected.


Tram

MetroCentro is a surface tramway serving the centre of the city. It began operating in October 2007. The service has just five stops: Plaza Nueva, Archivo de Indias, Puerta de Jerez, Prado de San Sebastián and San Bernardo, all as part of ''Phase I'' of the project. It is expected to be extended to Santa Justa AVE station, including four new stops: San Francisco Javier, Eduardo Dato, Luis de Morales, and Santa Justa. This extension was postponed although the City Council had made expanding the metro lines a priority.


Train

The Seville-Santa Justa railway station is served by the AVE high-speed rail system, operated by the Spanish state-owned rail company Renfe. A five-line commuter rail service ('' Cercanías'') joins the city with the Metropolitan area. Seville is on the Red Ciudades AVE, a net created with Seville connected to 17 major cities of Spain with high-speed rail. Although Seville is close to the Portuguese city of Faro, it is not possible to cross the border by train.


Bicycle

The Sevici community bicycle program has integrated bicycles into the public transport network. Bicycles are available for hire around the city at low cost, and green curb-raised bicycle lanes can be seen on most major streets. The number of people using bicycles as a means of transport in Seville has increased substantially in recent years, multiplying tenfold from 2006 to 2011. , an estimated 9 percent of all mechanized trips in the city (and 5.6 percent of all trips including those on foot) are made by bicycle. The city council signed a contract with the multinational corporation JCDecaux, an outdoor advertising company. The public bicycle rental system is financed by a local advertising operator in return for the city signing over a 10-year licence to exploit citywide billboards. The overall scheme is called Cyclocity by JCDecaux, but each city's system is branded under an individual name. As of 2022, some companies in the e-bike community bicycle program industry such as Lime (transportation company) and Ridemovi started working in the city, thanks to the new parking spots made by the City Council of Seville


Airport

The San Pablo Airport is the main airport for Seville and is
Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_name ...
's second busiest airport, after Málaga's, and first in cargo. The airport handled 7,544,357 passengers and just under 9,891 tonnes of cargo in 2019. It has one terminal and one runway. It is one of many bases for the Spanish low-cost carrier Vueling, and from November 2010
Ryanair Ryanair is an Irish ultra low-cost carrier founded in 1984. It is headquartered in Swords, Dublin, Ireland and has its primary operational bases at Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Ireland. On a bay at the ...
based aircraft at the airport. In addition, Ryanair opened its first
aircraft maintenance Aircraft maintenance is the performance of tasks required to ensure the continuing airworthiness of an aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using eithe ...
facility in Spain at Seville Airport in 2019. This enabled low-cost direct flights to several Spanish cities, as well as to the neighbor country of Portugal with weekly flights to Porto and to other European cities.


Port

Seville is the only commercial river port in Spain and the only inland city in the country where cruise ships can arrive in the historical centre. On 21 August 2012, the Muelle de las Delicias, controlled by the Port Authority of Seville, hosted the cruise ship Azamara Journey for two days, the largest ship ever to visit the town. This vessel belongs to the shipping company Royal Caribbean and can accommodate up to 700 passengers.


Roads

Seville has one ring road, the SE-30, which connects with the dual carriageway of the south, the A-4, that directly communicates the city with Cádiz, Cordoba and
Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = ''Plus ultra'' (Latin)(English: "Further B ...
. Also there is another dual carriageway, the A-92, linking the city with Osuna, Antequera, Granada, Guadix and Almeria. The A-49 links Seville with
Huelva Huelva (, ) is a city in southwestern Spain, the capital of the province of Huelva in the autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma as ...
and the
Algarve The Algarve (, , ; from ) is the southernmost NUTS II region of continental Portugal. It has an area of with 467,495 permanent inhabitants and incorporates 16 municipalities ( ''concelhos'' or ''municípios'' in Portuguese). The region has it ...
in the south of
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a Sovereign state, country whose mainland is located on the Iberian Peninsula of Southern Europe, Southwestern Europe, and whose territory also includes ...
.


Public transportation statistics

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Sevilla, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 34 min. 7% of public transit riders, ride for more than two hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is eight minutes, while 15% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is , while 7% travel for over in a single direction.


Education

Seville is home to three public universities. The University of Seville (US), founded in 1505; as of 2019, it had 72,000 students. The Pablo de Olavide University (UPO), founded in 1997, with 9,152 students in 2019; and the International University of Andalusia (UNIA), founded in 1994. The US and the UPO are important centres of learning in Western Andalusia as they offer a wide range of academic courses; consequently, the city has a large number of students from
Huelva Huelva (, ) is a city in southwestern Spain, the capital of the province of Huelva in the autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma as ...
and Cádiz. Additionally, there is the School of Hispanic American Studies, founded in 1942, the Menéndez Pelayo International University, based in Santander, which operates branch campuses in Seville, and Loyola University Andalusia. ;International primary and secondary schools * Lycée Français de Séville (French school) * Deutsche Schule Sevilla (German school) * St. George's British School Seville is also home to many international schools and colleges that cater to American students who come to study abroad.


Sport

Seville is the hometown of two rival association football teams: Real Betis Balompié and Sevilla Fútbol Club; both teams play in La Liga. Both teams have only won the league once each: Betis in 1935 and Sevilla in 1946. Only Sevilla has won European competitions, winning consecutive UEFA Cup finals in
2006 File:2006 Events Collage V1.png, From top left, clockwise: The 2006 Winter Olympics open in Turin Turin ( , Piedmontese language, Piedmontese: ; it, Torino ) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in Northern Italy. It is ...
and 2007 and the UEFA Europa League in
2014 File:2014 Events Collage.png, From top left, clockwise: Stocking up supplies and personal protective equipment (PPE) for the Western African Ebola virus epidemic; Citizens examining the ruins after the Chibok schoolgirls kidnapping; Bundles of w ...
, 2015, 2016 and 2020. The Ramón Sánchez Pizjuán and Benito Villamarín, stadiums of Sevilla and Betis respectively, were a venue during the 1982 FIFA World Cup. Also Sevilla's stadium hosted the 1986 European Cup Final and the multi-purpose stadium built in 1999 La Cartuja, was the venue for the 2003 UEFA Cup Final. Seville has an ACB League basketball club, the Real Betis Baloncesto. Seville has hosted both indoor ( 1991) and outdoor ( 1999) World Championships in athletics, while housed the tennis Davis Cup final in 2004 and
2011 File:2011 Events Collage.png, From top left, clockwise: a protester partaking in Occupy Wall Street heralds the beginning of the Occupy movement; protests against Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi, who was killed that October; a young man celebra ...
. The city unsuccessfully bid for the 2004 and
2008 Summer Olympics The 2008 Summer Olympics (), officially the Games of the XXIX Olympiad () and also known as Beijing 2008 (), were an international multisport event held from 8 to 24 August 2008, in Beijing, China. A total of 10,942 athletes from 204 N ...
, for which the 60,000-seat Estadio de La Cartuja was designed to stage. Seville's River Guadalquivir is one of only three FISA approved international training centres for rowing and the only one in Spain; the 2002 World Rowing Championships and the 2013 European Rowing Championships were held there.


In fiction

* The picaresque novel '' Rinconete y Cortadillo'' by Miguel de Cervantes takes place in the city of Seville. * The novel '' La Femme et le pantin'' (''The Woman and the Puppet'') (1898) by Pierre Louÿs, adapted for film several times, is set mainly in Seville. * Seville is the setting for the legend of Don Juan (inspired by the real aristocrat Don Miguel de Mañara) on the Paseo Alcalde Marqués de Contadero. * Seville is the primary setting of many operas, the best known of which are Bizet's ''
Carmen ''Carmen'' () is an opera in four acts by the French composer Georges Bizet. The libretto was written by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy, based on the Carmen (novella), novella of the same title by Prosper Mérimée. The opera was first perfo ...
'' (based on Mérimée's novella), Rossini's '' The Barber of Seville'', Verdi's '' La forza del destino'', Beethoven's ''
Fidelio ''Fidelio'' (; ), originally titled ' (''Leonore, or The Triumph of Marital Love''), Op. 72, is Ludwig van Beethoven's only opera. The German libretto was originally prepared by Joseph Sonnleithner from the French of Jean-Nicolas Bouilly, ...
'',
Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 17565 December 1791), baptised as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical period. Despite his short life, his rapid pace of composition r ...
's '' Don Giovanni'' and '' The Marriage of Figaro'', and Prokofiev's '' Betrothal in a Monastery''. * Seville is the setting of the novel ''The Seville Communion'' by Arturo Pérez-Reverte. * Seville is both the location and setting for much of the 1985 ''
Doctor Who ''Doctor Who'' is a British Science fiction on television, science fiction television series broadcast by the BBC since 1963. The series depicts the adventures of a Time Lord called The Doctor (Doctor Who), the Doctor, an extraterrestrial be ...
'' television serial " The Two Doctors". * Seville is also used as one of the locations in Dan Brown's '' Digital Fortress''. * Seville is one of the settings in Jostein Gaarder's book ''The Orange Girl'' (''Appelsinpiken''). * Seville is the hometown of the two main characters in the 2000 film '' The Road to El Dorado'' by DreamWorks. Miguel and Tulio are con artists that stow away on a ship bound for the New World and win a map for the fabled lost city of gold, El Dorado, and are invariably seen as gods by the locals. *
Arthur Koestler Arthur Koestler, (, ; ; hu, Kösztler Artúr; 5 September 1905 – 1 March 1983) was a Hungarian-born author and journalist. Koestler was born in Budapest and, apart from his early school years, was educated in Austria. In 1931, Koestler joi ...
's book '' Spanish Testament'' is based on the writer's experiences while held in the Seville prison, under a sentence of death, during the
Spanish Civil War The Spanish Civil War ( es, Guerra Civil Española)) or The Revolution ( es, La Revolución, link=no) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War ( es, Cuarta Guerra Carlista, link=no) among Carlists, and The Rebellion ( es, La Rebelión, lin ...
. * Robert Wilson's police novel ''The Hidden Assassins'' (2006) concerns a terrorist incident in Seville and the political context thereof, with much local colour. * The '' Plaza de España'' in the ''Parque de María Luisa'' appears in George Lucas' '' Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones'', in '' The Dictator'', starring Sacha Baron Cohen, as the palace of the dictator ''Aladeen'', and in '' Lawrence of Arabia'' as the British Army headquarters in
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, ) is the capital of Egypt Egypt ( ar, مصر , ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning the North Africa, northeas ...
, while the courtyard was the King Alfonso XIII Hotel. * The ''Plaza of the Americas'' also appeared in ''Lawrence'', substituting for
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس ) (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusałēm. i ...
, and in Anthony Mann's '' El Cid''. It also appears as the Palace of Vladek Sheybal's Bashaw in '' The Wind and the Lion'' (1975). * The Alcázar and other sites appear in the television series '' Game of Thrones'', in the cities of Dorne. * In the 2016 film '' Assassin's Creed'', Master Assassins Aguilar de Nerha and Maria escape execution and are pursued by Templars through the city, eventually performing Leaps of Faith off of an unfinished Seville Cathedral to escape. * In '' Mission: Impossible 2'', Ethan Hunt is sent to Seville to recruit Nyah Nordoff-Hall.


In travel writing

* ''The Tomb in Seville'' by Norman Lewis.


Twin towns – sister cities

Seville is twinned with the following cities: * Angers (France), 1989. *
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within ci ...
(Spain), 1987. *
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires ( es, link=no, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires), is the capital and primate city of Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, Repú ...
(Argentina), 1976.
Hermanamientos con Latinoamérica
'' (102,91 kB). 9-9-2008/ref> * Columbus, Ohio (United States), 1988. * Córdoba (Spain), 1908. * Guadalajara (Mexico), 1984. *
Havana Havana (; Spanish: ''La Habana'' ) is the capital and largest city of Cuba. The heart of the La Habana Province, Havana is the country's main port and commercial center.
(Cuba), 2007. *
Kansas City, Missouri Kansas City (abbreviated KC or KCMO) is the largest city in Missouri by population and area. As of the 2020 census, the city had a population of 508,090 in 2020, making it the 36th most-populous city in the United States. It is the central ...
(United States), 1969. The relationship between Seville and Kansas City is due to a small replica of the Giralda tower, Sevilla's cathedral belltower, that exists in Kansas City. * Laredo (Spain), 2017. *
Marrakech Marrakesh or Marrakech ( or ; ar, مراكش, murrākuš, ; ber, ⵎⵕⵕⴰⴽⵛ, translit=mṛṛakc}) is the fourth largest city in the Kingdom of Morocco. It is one of the four Imperial cities of Morocco and is the capital of the Marra ...
(Morocco), 2017. * Medina de Rioseco (Spain), 2016. * San Salvador (El Salvador), 2018. * Sevilla la Nueva (Spain). ;Partnerships *
Kraków Kraków (), or Cracow, is the second-largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative provinces called voivodeships, cov ...
(Poland), 2002.


Titles

Seville has been given titles by Spanish monarchs and heads of state throughout its history. * Very Noble, by King Ferdinand III of Castile after his reconquest of the city. * Very Loyal, by King Alfonso X of Castile for supporting him against a rebellion. See also the Motto "NO8DO". * Very Heroic, by King Ferdinand VII of Spain by Royal Document on 13 October 1817 for support against the French invasion. * Invictus (Invincible in
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area (then known as Latium) around present-day Rome, but through ...
), by Queen Isabella II of Spain for the city's resistance against General Van Halen's asedium and bombing in 1843. * Mariana, by General Francisco Franco in 1946 for the city's devotion to the Virgin Mary.


Notable people

* Maria Antonietta of Spain, '' Queen consort of Sardinia'' (1729–1785) * Al-Mu'tamid ibn Abbad, poet and Arabic king of Sevilla 1040–1095 * Physician Avenzoar * The family of the Arabic historian and sociologist
Ibn Khaldun Ibn Khaldun (; ar, أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي, ; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406, 732-808 AH) was an Arab The Arabs (singular: Arab; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, DIN 31635: , , p ...
* 13th-century poet Ibn Sahl of Seville * Renaissance composers Cristóbal de Morales, Francisco Guerrero * 16th-century novelist Mateo Alemán * Playwrights Lope de Rueda and Hermanos Alvarez Quintero * Historian of New Spain Bartolomé de Las Casas * Colonial governor of La Florida and Cuba: Laureano de Torres y Ayala * Colonial governor of La Florida: Pablo de Hita y Salazar * Baroque painters Diego Velázquez, Valdés Leal and Bartolomé Esteban Murillo * Explorer and astronomer Antonio de Ulloa *
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the late ...
poets Fernando de Herrera and Gutierre de Cetina * Notable Costumbrista painter who liked to depict the 19th century society of Seville and its buildings José Jiménez Aranda * Romantic poet Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer * Bullfighters Juan Belmonte, Curro Romero, Ignacio Sánchez Mejías, Emilio Muñoz and José Gómez Ortega * Second Spanish Republic Prime Minister Diego Martinez, communist politician José Díaz and Carlist politician Manuel Fal. * 20th-century poets: ** Vicente Aleixandre ( Nobel Laureate) ** Antonio and Manuel Machado ** Luis Cernuda ** Jose Julio Cabanillas Serrano continuing in the 21st–century * Composer Joaquín Turina * Cartoonist William Haselden * Actors Juan Diego, Paco León * Actresses Soledad Miranda, Verónica Sánchez, Carmen Sevilla, Paz Vega, Azucena Hernández * Models ** Teresa Sánchez López who won the title of Miss National in the Miss Spain contest 1984 and, representing Spain, was close to the crown of Miss Universe in 1985 (1st runner up). ** Eva Maria González beauty queen and model who was Miss España 2003 (representing Andalusia) * Singers Isabel Pantoja, Juanita Reina, Lole y Manuel, Paquita Rico, El Caracol, Falete, Pastora Soler, and Mala Rodríguez * Comedian Manuel Summers * Navy officer Miguel Buiza Fernández-Palacios who became Captain General of the Spanish Republican Navy * Association footballers José Antonio Reyes, Fernando "Nando" Muñoz, Ricardo Serna, Sergio Ramos, Jesús Navas, Antonio Puerta, Carlos Marchena, Jesús Capitán "Capi" * Olympic swimmer Fátima Madrid * Politicians Felipe González, President of the Government of Spain from 1982 to 1996, and Alfonso Guerra, vice-president from 1982 to 1991 * Maria Pages, dancer * Jairo Barrull Fernández, Spanish Gypsy flamenco dancer * El Risitas, humorist * Criminal Manuel Delgado Villegas, serial killer * Drag queen Carmen Farala, winner of the first season of '' Drag Race España''


See also

* Cadillac Seville, a car that was named after the city * Azulejo * Isla Mágica * Seville Public Library * Seville Statement on Violence


References

*


External links


Seville in the official website of Tourism in Spain

Official website of the city council.

Postal Codes in Seville
{{Authority control Archaeological sites in Spain Phoenician colonies in Spain Roman sites in Spain Municipalities of the Province of Seville Port cities and towns on the Spanish Atlantic coast Province of Seville