Seville (/səˈvɪl/; Spanish: Sevilla [seˈβiʎa],
locally [seˈβi(ɟ)ʝa] ( listen)) is the capital and
largest city of the autonomous community of
Andalusia and the province
of Seville, Spain. It is situated on the plain of the river
Guadalquivir. The inhabitants of the city are known as sevillanos
(feminine form: sevillanas) or hispalenses, after the Roman name of
the city, Hispalis.
Seville has a municipal population of about
703,000 as of 2011[update], and a metropolitan population of about 1.5
million, making it the fourth-largest city in
Spain and the 30th most
populous municipality in the European Union. Its Old Town, with an
area of 4 square kilometres (2 sq mi), contains three UNESCO
World Heritage Sites: the Alcázar palace complex, the Cathedral and
the General Archive of the Indies. The
Seville harbour, located about
80 kilometres (50 miles) from the Atlantic Ocean, is the only river
port in Spain.
Seville is also the hottest major metropolitan area in
the geographical Western Europe, with summer average high temperatures
of above 35 °C (95 °F).
Seville was founded as the Roman city of Hispalis. It later became
known as Ishbiliya (Arabic: إشبيلية) after the Muslim
conquest in 712. During the
Muslim rule in Spain,
Seville came under
the jurisdiction of the
Caliphate of Córdoba
Caliphate of Córdoba before becoming the
independent Taifa of Seville; later it was ruled by the Muslim
Almoravids and the Almohads until finally being incorporated into the
Kingdom of Castile
Kingdom of Castile under Ferdinand III in 1248. After the
discovery of the Americas,
Seville became one of the economic centres
Spanish Empire as its port monopolised the trans-oceanic trade
Casa de Contratación
Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) wielded its power,
opening a Golden Age of arts and literature. In 1519, Ferdinand
Magellan departed from
Seville for the first circumnavigation of the
Earth. Coinciding with the
Baroque period of European history, the
17th century in
Seville represented the most brilliant flowering of
the city's culture; then began a gradual economic and demographic
decline as silting in the
Guadalquivir forced the trade monopoly to
relocate to the nearby port of Cádiz.
The 20th century in
Seville saw the tribulations of the Spanish Civil
War, decisive cultural milestones such as the Ibero-American
Exposition of 1929 and Expo '92, and the city's election as the
capital of the
Autonomous Community of Andalusia.
2.1 Early periods
2.3 Castilian rule
2.4 The Golden Age
2.5 18th century
2.6 19th and 20th centuries
2.7 21st century
4.2 Districts and neighbourhoods
5 Main sights
5.3 Parks and gardens
6.1.1 Bienal de Flamenco
6.1.2 Velá de Santiago y Santa Ana
Holy Week in Seville
6.1.4 The April Fair
7.2 Research and development
8.9 Sevilla Public Transportation Statistics
10 Famous natives
12 In fiction
13 In travel-writing
15 Twin towns and sister cities
17 See also
19 External links
Spal is the oldest known name for Seville. It appears to have
originated during the Phoenician colonisation of the Tartessian
culture in south-western Iberia and, according to Manuel Pellicer
Catalán, meant "lowland" in the
Phoenician language (similar to the
Hebrew Shfela). During Roman rule, the name was Latinised as
Hispalis. After the Umayyad invasion, this name was adapted into
Arabic as Ishbiliyya (Arabic: إشبيلية) since p does not
exist in Arabic, it was replaced by b, the Latin place-name suffix -is
was replaced by its Arabic equivalent -iyya, and stressed a /æ/
turned into i /i/, due to the phonetic phenomenon called imāla.
"NO8DO" is the official motto of Seville. It is popularly believed to
be a rebus signifying the Spanish "No me ha dejado", meaning "It
[Seville] has not abandoned me" but pronounced with synalepha as [no
ma ðeˈxaðo] . The eight in the middle represents a madeja
[maˈðexa], or skein of wool. Legend states that the title was given
by King Alfonso X, who was resident in the city's Alcázar and
supported by the citizens when his son, later Sancho IV of Castille,
tried to usurp the throne from him. The emblem is present on the
municipal flag and features on city property such as manhole covers,
and Christopher Columbus's tomb in the Cathedral.
History of Seville
History of Seville and Timeline of Seville
Seville is approximately 2,200 years old. The passage of the various
civilisations instrumental in its growth has left the city with a
distinct personality, and a large and well-preserved historical
View of the
Giralda from the Patio de Banderas (Courtyard of Flags),
historic square with remains of Roman,
Moorish and Castilian periods.
The mythological founder of the city is Hercules (Heracles), commonly
identified with the Phoenician god Melqart, who the myth says sailed
Strait of Gibraltar
Strait of Gibraltar to the Atlantic, and founded trading
posts at the current sites of
Cádiz and of Seville. The original
core of the city, in the neighbourhood of the present-day street,
Cuesta del Rosario, dates to the 8th century BC, when
on an island in the Guadalquivir. Archaeological excavations in
1999 found anthropic remains under the north wall of the Real Alcázar
dating to the 8th–7th century BC. The town was called Spal or
Ispal by the Tartessians, the indigenous pre-Roman Iberian people of
Tartessos, who controlled the
Guadalquivir Valley at the time.
The city was known from Roman times as Hispalis. Hispalis developed
into one of the great market and industrial centres of Hispania, while
the nearby Roman city of
Italica (present-day Santiponce, birthplace
of the Roman emperors
Trajan and Hadrian) remained a typically
Roman residential city. Large-scale Roman archaeological remains can
be seen there and at the nearby town of Carmona as well.
Existing Roman features in
Seville itself include the remnants of an
aqueduct, a temple in Mármoles Street, the columns of La Alameda de
Hércules, the remains exposed in situ in the underground Antiquarium
Metropol Parasol building and the remains in the Patio de
Banderas square near the
Seville Cathedral. The walls surrounding the
city were originally built during the rule of Julius Caesar, but their
current course and design were the result of Moorish
Following Roman rule, there were successive conquests of the Roman
Hispania Baetica by the Vandals, the
Suebi and the
Visigoths during the 5th and 6th centuries.
Seville was taken by the Moors, Muslims from Northern Africa, during
the conquest of Hispalis in 712. It was the capital for the kings of
the Umayyad Caliphate, the
Almoravid dynasty first and after the
Almohad dynasty (from Arabic al-Muwahhidun, i.e., "the monotheists" or
"the Unitarians"), from the 8th to 13th centuries.
Moorish urban influences continued and are present in contemporary
Seville, for instance in the custom of decorating with herbaje and
small fountains the courtyards of the houses. However, most buildings
Moorish aesthetic actually belong to the
Mudéjar style of
Islamic art, developed under Christian rule and inspired by the Arabic
Moorish buildings are the Patio del Yeso in the
Alcázar, the city walls, and the main section of the Giralda, bell
tower of the
See also: Siege of Seville
In 1247, the Christian King
Ferdinand III of Castile
Ferdinand III of Castile and Leon began
the conquest of Andalusia. After conquering Jaén and Córdoba, he
seized the villages surrounding the city, Carmona Lora del Rio and
Alcalá del Rio, and kept a standing army in the vicinity, the siege
lasting for fifteen months. The decisive action took place in May 1248
when Ramon Bonifaz sailed up the
Guadalquivir and severed the Triana
bridge that made the provisioning of the city from the farms of the
Aljarafe possible. The city surrendered on 23 November 1248.
The city's development continued after the Castilian conquest in 1248.
Public buildings were constructed including churches, many of which
were built in the
Mudéjar style, and the
Seville Cathedral, built
during the 15th century with Gothic architecture. The Moors'
Palace became the Castilian royal residence, and during Pedro I's rule
it was replaced by the Alcázar (the upper levels are still used by
the Royal Family as the official
Cathedral of Saint Mary from Constitución Avenue
Courtyard of the Maidens in the Alcázar of Seville
After the 1391 Pogrom, believed to having been instigated by the
Archdeacon Ferrant Martinez, all the synagogues in
converted to churches (renamed Santa María la Blanca, San Bartolome,
Santa Cruz, and Convento Madre de Dios). The Jewish quarter's land and
shops (sited in modern-day 'Barrio Santa Cruz') were appropriated by
the church. Many were killed during the pogrom, although most were
forced to convert.
The first tribunal of the Spanish
Inquisition was instituted in
Seville in 1478. At first, the activity of the
Inquisition was limited
to the dioceses of
Seville and Córdoba, where
Alonso de Hojeda
Alonso de Hojeda had
detected converso activity. The first Auto de Fé took place in
Seville on 6 February 1481, when six people were burned alive. Alonso
de Hojeda himself gave the sermon. The
Inquisition then grew rapidly.
The Plaza de San Francisco was the site of the 'autos de fé'. By
1492, tribunals existed in eight Castilian cities: Ávila, Córdoba,
Jaén, Medina del Campo, Segovia, Sigüenza, Toledo and
Valladolid; and by the
Alhambra decree all Jews were forced to
convert to Catholicism or be ejected from Spain.
The Golden Age
Seville in the 16th century
Following the 1492
Christopher Columbus expedition to the New World
(from the port of Palos de la Frontera), the results from his claiming
territory and trade for the
Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile (incipient Spain) in the
West Indies began to profit the city, as all goods imported from the
New World had to pass through the
Casa de Contratacion
Casa de Contratacion before being
distributed throughout the rest of Spain. Unlike other harbours,
reaching the port of
Seville required sailing about 80 km up the
river Guadalquivir. In addition, the river was heavily defended with
fortifications since the Middle Ages. This made
Seville the best
defended port to bring the riches from the Americas. A 'golden age of
development' commenced in Seville, due to its being the only port
awarded the royal monopoly for trade with the growing Spanish colonies
in the Americas and the influx of riches from them. Since only sailing
ships leaving from and returning to the inland port of
engage in trade with the Spanish Americas, merchants from
other trade centres needed to go to
Seville to acquire
New World trade
goods. The city's population grew to more than a hundred thousand
In the late 16th century the monopoly was broken, with the port of
Cádiz also authorised as a port of trade. The Great Plague of Seville
in 1649 reduced the population by almost half, and it would not
recover until the early 19th century. By the 18th century its
international importance was in decline. After the silting up of the
harbour by the
Guadalquivir (river), upriver shipping ceased and the
city went into relative economic decline.
Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes lived primarily in
Seville between 1596
and 1600. Because of financial problems, Cervantes worked as a
purveyor for the Spanish Armada, and later as a tax collector. In
1597, discrepancies in his accounts of the three years previous landed
him in the Royal Prison of
Seville for a short time. Rinconete y
Cortadillo, a popular comedy among his works, features two young
vagabonds who come to Seville, attracted by the riches and disorder
that the 16th-century commerce with the Americas had brought to that
Royal Tobacco Factory, today rectorate of the University of Seville.
During the 18th century Charles III of
Spain promoted Seville's
industries. Construction of the Real Fábrica de Tabacos (Royal
Tobacco Factory) began in 1728, with additions to it over the next 30
years. It was the second largest building in Spain,
after the royal residence El Escorial. Since the 1950s it has been the
seat of the rectorate of the University of Seville, together with the
Schools of Law, Philology, Geography and History.
Up to 153 operas have been set in the city, including those by such
The Marriage of Figaro
The Marriage of Figaro and
Rossini (The Barber of Seville) and Bizet
Seville became the dean of the Spanish provincial press in 1758 with
the publication of its first newspaper, the Hebdomario útil de
Seville, the first to be printed in
Spain outside Madrid.
19th and 20th centuries
The Isabel II bridge, better known as the Triana Bridge
Between 1825 and 1833, Melchor Cano acted as chief architect in
Seville; most of the urban planning policy and architectural
modifications of the city were made by him and his collaborator Jose
Manuel Arjona y Cuba.
Industrial architecture surviving today from the first half of the
19th century includes the ceramics factory installed in the Carthusian
La Cartuja in 1841 by the Pickman family, and now home to
the El Centro Andaluz de Arte Contemporáneo (CAAC), which manages
the collections of the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Sevilla. It
also houses the rectory of the UNIA.
In the years that Queen Isabel II ruled directly, about 1843–1868,
the Sevillian bourgeoisie invested in a construction boom unmatched in
the city's history. The Isabel II bridge, better known as the Triana
bridge, dates from this period; street lighting was expanded in the
municipality and most of the streets were paved during this time as
By the second half of the 19th century
Seville began an expansion
supported by railway construction and the demolition of part of its
ancient walls, allowing the urban space of the city to grow eastward
and southward. The
Sevillana de Electricidad Company was created in
1894 to provide electric power throughout the municipality, and in
1901 the Plaza de Armas railway station was inaugurated. The Museum of
Fine Arts (Museo de Bellas Artes de Sevilla) opened in 1904.
The "Fountain of Hispalis (Roman Seville)" and the Alfonso XIII Hotel,
built for the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929, in Puerta de Jerez.
In 1929 the city hosted the Ibero-American Exposition, which
accelerated the southern expansion of the city and created new public
spaces such as the Plaza de España and the Maria Luisa Park. Not long
before the opening, the Spanish government began a modernisation of
the city in order to prepare for the expected crowds by erecting new
hotels and widening the mediaeval streets to allow for the movement of
Seville fell very quickly at the beginning of the
Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War in
Queipo de Llano
Queipo de Llano carried out a coup within the city,
quickly capturing the city centre. Radio
Seville opposed the
uprising and called for the peasants to come to the city for arms,
while workers' groups established barricades. De Llano then moved
to capture Radio Seville, which he used to broadcast propaganda on
behalf of the Franquist forces. After the initial takeover of the
city, resistance continued among residents of the working-class
neighbourhoods for some time, until a series of fierce reprisals took
Under Francisco Franco's rule
Spain was officially neutral in World
War II (although it did collaborate with the Axis powers),
and like the rest of the country,
Seville remained largely
economically and culturally isolated from the outside world. In 1953
the shipyard of
Seville was opened, eventually employing more than
2,000 workers in the 1970s. Before the existence of wetlands
regulation in the
Seville suffered regular heavy
flooding; perhaps worst of all were the floods that occurred in
November 1961 when the River Tamarguillo, a tributary of the
Guadalquivir, overflowed as a result of a prodigious downpour of rain,
Seville was consequently declared a disaster zone.
Trade unionism in
Seville began during the 1960s with the underground
organisational activities of the Workers' Commissions or Comisiones
Obreras (CCOO), in factories such as Hytasa, the Astilleros shipyards,
Hispano Aviación, etc. Several of the movement's leaders were
imprisoned in November 1973. On 3 April 1979 Spain
held its first democratic municipal elections after the end of
Franco's dictatorship; councillors representing four different
political parties were elected in Seville. On 5 November 1982, Pope
John Paul II arrived in
Seville to officiate at a Mass before more
than half a million people at the fairgrounds. He visited the city
again 13 June 1993, for the International Eucharistic Congress.
In 1992, coinciding with the fifth centenary of the Discovery of the
Americas, the Universal Exposition was held for six months in Seville,
on the occasion of which the local communications network
infrastructure was greatly improved: the SE-30 ring road around the
city was completed and new highways were constructed; the new Santa
Justa train station had opened in 1991, while the Spanish High Speed
Rail system, the
Alta Velocidad Española
Alta Velocidad Española (AVE), began to operate
between Madrid-Seville. The
Seville Airport, (Aeropuerto de Sevilla),
was expanded with a new terminal building designed by the architect
Rafael Moneo, and various other improvements were made. The monumental
Puente del Alamillo
Puente del Alamillo (Alamillo Bridge) over the Guadalquivir, designed
by the architect Santiago Calatrava, was built to allow access to the
island of La Cartuja, site of the massive exposition. Some of the
installations remaining at the site after the exposition were
converted into the Scientific and Technological Park Cartuja 93.
In 2004 the
Metropol Parasol project, commonly known as Las Setas
(English: The Mushrooms - due to the appearance of the structure), was
launched to revitalise the Plaza de la Encarnación, for years used as
a car park and seen as a dead spot between more popular tourist
destinations in the city. The
Metropol Parasol was completed in March
2011, costing just over €102 million in total, more than twice
as much as originally planned. Constructed from crossed wooden
beams, Las Setas is said to be the largest timber-framed structure in
Metropol Parasol, locally also known as Las Setas, by the German
architect Jürgen Mayer
Seville has an area of 140 km2 (54 sq mi), according to
the National Topographic Map (Mapa Topográfico Nacional) series from
the Instituto Geográfico Nacional – Centro Nacional de
Información Geográfica, the country's civilian survey organisation
(pages 984, 985 and 1002). The city is situated in the fertile valley
Guadalquivir River. The average height above sea level is 7
metres (23 feet). Most of the city is on the east side of the river,
La Cartuja and
Los Remedios are on the west side. The
Aljarafe region lies further west, and is considered part of the
metropolitan area. The city has boundaries on the north with La
La Algaba and Santiponce; on the east with Alcalá de
Guadaira; on the south with
Dos Hermanas and
Gelves and on the west
with San Juan de Aznalfarache,
Tomares and Camas.
Seville is on the same parallel as
United States west coast city San
Jose in central California. In addition to that São Miguel, the main
island of the
Azores archipelago lies on the same latitude. Further
Seville in the Mediterranean Basin, it is on the same
Catania of Sicily,
Italy and just south of Athens, the
capital of Greece. Even further east, it is located on the same
parallel as South Korean capital of Seoul.
Seville is located not many
miles inland from the Andalusian coast, but still sees a much more
continental climate than the nearest port cities
example—although it is much too mild in winter to be described as a
'proper' continental area. It is at a relative distance from the three
larger cities in the country, as well as
Lisbon in Portugal, making it
by far the largest city in the south of the Iberian peninsula.
Seville from the top of the Giralda
Seville has a subtropical
Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate
classification Csa), featuring very hot, dry summers and mild, wet
winters.  Like most Mediterranean climates,
Seville has a drier
summer and wet winter. The annual average temperature is 25.4 °C
(78 °F) during the day and 13 °C (55 °F) at night.
Summer is the dominant season and lasts from May to October, the
latter in spite of the dwindling daylight and inland position.
With an annual average of 19.2 °C (67 °F),
Seville is the
warmest city in Europe. After the city of Córdoba (also in
Seville has the hottest summer in continental
all cities with a population over 100,000 people, with average daily
highs in July of 36.0 °C (97 °F). Average daily lows in
July are 20.3 °C (69 °F) and every year the temperature
exceeds 40 °C (104 °F) on several occasions. The coldest
temperature extreme of −5.5 °C (22 °F) was
registered by the weather station at
Seville Airport on 12 February
1956. A historical record high (disputed) of 50.0 °C
(122 °F) was recorded on 4 August 1881, according to the NOAA
Satellite and Information Service. There is an unaccredited record
by the National Institute of Meteorology of 47.2 °C
(117 °F) on 1 August during the 2003 heat wave, according to a
weather station (83910 LEZL) located in the southern part of Seville
Airport, near the abandoned military zone. This temperature would be
one of the highest ever recorded in Spain. On the very same day
Portugal did reach an official maximum of 47.4 °C,
the highest European temperature in several decades. Which shows that
at the day, circumstances were right to reach these extreme values.
The average sunshine hours in
Seville are approximately 3000 per year.
Snowfall is virtually unknown, as the last snowfall happened more than
6 decades ago (1954). After 1954, not even light snowflakes have been
registered ever in the city of
Seville or its airport. Since the year
1500, only 10 snowfalls have been recorded/reported in Seville. During
the 20th century,
Seville registered just 2 snowfalls, being the last
one in February 2, 1954. 
Winters are mild: January is the coolest month, with average maximum
temperatures of 16.0 °C (61 °F) and minimum of
5.7 °C (42 °F).
Precipitation varies from 400 to 650 mm (15.7 to 25.6 in)
per year, with frequent torrential rain. December is the wettest
month, with an average rainfall of 99 millimetres (3.9 in). On
average there are 50.5 days of rain.
Climate data for
Seville Airport (1981-2010)
Record high °C (°F)
Mean maximum °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Mean minimum °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)
Average snowy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología
Seville is the capital of the autonomous community of Andalusia. The
historical edifice of the
Palace of San Telmo
Palace of San Telmo is now the seat of the
presidency of the Andalusian Autonomous Government. The administrative
headquarters are in Torre Triana, in La Cartuja. The Hospital de las
Cinco Llagas (literally, "Hospital of the Five Holy Wounds") is the
current seat of the Parliament of Andalusia. Since 2015 the government
of the autonomous community is a coalition between the centre-left
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party or Partido Socialista Obrero Español
(PSOE) and the centrist Ciudadanos; its president is Susana Díaz.
Elections to the autonomous community are held every four years.
Palace of San Telmo, seat of the presidency of the Andalusian
Seville is the capital of the
Autonomous Community of Andalusia,
according to Article 4 of the Statute of Autonomy of Andalucía of
2007, and is the capital of the
Province of Seville
Province of Seville as well.
The Common Council of
Seville has 33 councillors and a mayor, with
elections every four years. Since 2011, the government of the city has
been by the conservative People's Party or Partido Popular (PP), and
Juan Ignacio Zoido Álvarez has been mayor. The City Hall is on the
Plaza Nueva, in the El Arenal neighbourhood. The administration of the
City is decentralized into 11 districts.
Districts and neighbourhoods
Main article: Districts and neighbourhoods of Seville
Seville has 11 districts, further divided into 108 neighbourhoods.
San Pablo-Santa Justa
Main article: Sights and landmarks of Seville
See also: Azulejo
The Alcázar, the Cathedral, and the Archivo General de Indias
(General Archive of the Indies) are
UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Giralda and the Cathedral of Seville
The St. Mary of the See Cathedral was built from 1401–1519 after the
Reconquista on the former site of the city's mosque. It is among the
largest of all medieval and Gothic cathedrals, in terms of both area
and volume. The interior is the longest nave in Spain, and is lavishly
decorated, with a large quantity of gold evident. La
Giralda is a
tower attached to the Cathedral that dates back to the twelfth
century. It was originally built as part of a mosque when the Moors
Spain and was later added onto by the Christians. Tourists
today can climb the tower by walking up a series of ramps that were
previously used by officials who rode their horses to the top of the
Giralda gets its name from the weathervane attached to the
very top of it, as "gira" means "turning one" in the Spanish language.
The Alcázar facing the cathedral was developed from a previous
Moorish Palace. Construction was started in 1181 and continued for
over 500 years, mainly in the
Mudéjar style, but also in the
Renaissance style. The popular TV show
Game of Thrones
Game of Thrones has shot many
scenes at this location.
Torre del Oro
Torre del Oro was built as a watchtower and defensive barrier on
the river. A chain was strung through the water from the base of the
tower to prevent boats from traveling into the river port.
The City Hall was built in the 16th century in high
by master architect Diego de Riaño. The façade to Plaza Nueva was
built in the 19th century in Neoclassical style.
Palace of San Telmo, formerly the University of Sailors, and later
the Seminary, is now the seat for the Andalusian Autonomous
Government. It is one of the most emblematic buildings of baroque
architecture, mainly to its world-renowned churrigueresque principal
façade and the impressive chapel.
Royal Tobacco Factory
Royal Tobacco Factory is housed on the original site of the first
tobacco factory in Europe, a vast 18th century building in Baroque
style and the purported inspiration for the opera Carmen.
The Metropol Parasol, in La Encarnación square, is the world's
largest wooden structure. A monumental umbrella-like building
designed by the German architect Jürgen Mayer, finished in 2011. This
modern architecture structure houses the central market and an
underground archaeological complex. The terrace roof is a city
The General Archive of the Indies, is the repository of extremely
valuable archival documents illustrating the history of the Spanish
Empire in the Americas and the Philippines. The building itself, an
unusually serene and Italianate example of Spanish Renaissance
architecture, was designed by Juan de Herrera.
The Plaza de España, in
Maria Luisa Park
Maria Luisa Park (Parque de Maria Luisa), was
built by the architect Aníbal González for the 1929 Exposición
Ibero-Americana. It is an outstanding example of Regionalist Revival
Architecture, a bizarre and loftily conceived mixture of diverse
historic styles, such as
Art Deco and lavishly ornamented with typical
The neighbourhood of Triana, situated on the west bank of the
Guadalquivir River, played an important role in the history of the
city and constitutes by itself a folk, monumental and cultural center.
On the other hand, La Macarena neighbourhood is located on the
northern side of the city centre. It contains some important monuments
and religious buildings, such as the Museum and Catholic Church of La
Macarena or the Hospital de las Cinco Llagas.
Plaza de España, panoramic view.
Museum of Fine Arts of Seville
The most important art collection of
Seville is the Museum of Fine
Arts of Seville. It was established in 1835 in the former
La Merced. It holds many masterworks by Murillo, Pacheco, Zurbarán,
Valdés Leal, and others masters of the
Baroque Sevillian School,
containing also Flemish paintings of the 15th and 16th centuries.
Museum of Arts and Traditions
Other museums in
The Archaeological Museum, which contains collections from the
Tartessian and Roman periods, located in América square at the María
The Museum of Arts and Traditions, also in América Square, in front
of the Archaeological museum.
The Andalusian Contemporary Art Center, situated in the neighbourhood
of La Cartuja.
The Naval Museum, housed in the golden Torre del Oro, next to the
The Carriages Museum, in the
Los Remedios neighbourhood.
Flamenco Art Museum
Bullfighting Museum, in the La Maestranza bullring
Palace of the Countess of Lebrija, a private collection which
contains many of the mosaic floors discovered in the nearby Roman town
The "Centro Velázquez" (
Velázquez Centre) located at the Old Priests
Hospital in the touristic Santa Cruz neighbourhood.
The Antiquarium in Metropol Parasol, an underground museum which
exhibits in situ Roman and
The Castillo de San Jorge (Castle of St. George) is situated near the
Triana market, next to the Isabel II bridge. It was the last seat for
the Spanish Inquisition.
The Museum and Treasure of La Macarena, where the collection of the
Macarena brotherhood is exhibited. This exhibition gives visitors an
accurate impression of Seville's
Seville Holy Week.
La Casa de la Ciencia de Sevilla - Science Museum, opposite the María
Museum of Pottery in Triana.
Pabellon de la Navegación (Pavilion of Navigation).
Parks and gardens
Parque de María Luisa
Parque de María Luisa (María Luisa Park), is a monumental park
built for the 1929
World's Fair held in Seville, the Exposición
Ibero-Americana. The so-called Jardines de las Delicias (literally,
Delighting Gardens), closer to the river, are part of the Parque de
The Alcázar Gardens, within the grounds of the Alcázar palace,
consist of several sectors developed in different historical styles.
The Birth of a New Man statue of Christopher Columbus.
The Gardens of Murillo and the Gardens of Catalina de Ribera, both
along and outside the South wall of the Alcázar, lie next to the
Santa Cruz quarter.
The Parque del Alamillo y San Jerónimo, the largest park in
Andalusia, was originally built for
Seville Expo '92
Seville Expo '92 to reproduce the
Andalusian native flora. It lines both
Guadalquivir shores around the
San Jerónimo meander.
The impressive 32-metres-high bronze sculpture, The Birth of a New Man
(popularly known as Columbus's Egg, el Huevo de Colón), by the
Georgian sculptor Zurab Tsereteli, is located in its northwestern
The American Garden, also completed for Expo '92, is in La Cartuja. It
is a public botanical garden, with a representative collection of
American plants donated by different countries on the occasion of the
world exposition. Despite its extraordinary botanical value, it
remains a mostly abandoned place.
The Alcázar Gardens
Jesus of the Great Power (Juan de Mesa, 1620), in the Holy Week
Bienal de Flamenco
Seville is home to the bi-annual flamenco festival La Bienal, which
claims to be “the biggest flamenco event worldwide” and lasts for
nearly a month. 
Velá de Santiago y Santa Ana
In the district of Triana, the Velá de Santiago y Santa Ana is held
every July and includes sporting events, performances and cultural
activities as the city honors St. James and St. Ana. 
Holy Week in Seville
Semana Santa is celebrated all over
Spain and Latin America, but the
Seville is large and well-known as a Fiesta of
International Tourist Interest. Local brotherhoods, or
“costaleros”, organize floats and processions throughout the week,
reenacting the story of the Passion of Christ. There is traditional
music and art incorporated into the processions, making Semana Santa
an important source of both material and immaterial Sevillian cultural
identity.    
The April Fair
Seville is internationally renowned for the solemn but decorative
Holy Week and the colourful and lively fair held
two weeks after. During the Feria, families, businesses and
organisations set up casetas (marquees) in which they spend the week
dancing, drinking, and socialising. Traditionally, women wear
elaborate flamenco dresses and men dress in their best suits. The
marquees are set up on a permanent fairground in the district of Los
Remedios, in which each street is named after a famous
Street in 'La Alfalfa', neighbourhood known for its important
nightlife and its musical scene, beside Alameda, El Arenal and Triana
Seville had a vibrant rock music scene in the 1970s and 1980s 
with bands like Triana, Alameda and Smash, who fused Andalusia's
traditional flamenco music with British-style progressive rock. The
punk rock group
Reincidentes and indie band Sr Chinarro, as well as
singer Kiko Veneno, rose to prominence in the early 1990s. The city's
music scene now features rap acts such as SFDK, Mala Rodríguez,
Dareysteel, Tote King, Dogma Crew, Bisley DeMarra, Haze and Jesuly.
Seville's diverse music scene is reflected in the variety of its
The city is also home to many theatres and performance spaces where
classical music is performed, including Teatro Lope de Vega, Teatro La
Maestranza, Teatro Central, the Real Alcazar Gardens and the Sala
Despite its name, the sevillana dance, commonly presented as flamenco,
is not thought to be of Sevillan origin. However, the folksongs called
sevillanas are authentically Sevillan, as is the four-part dance
performed with them.
Main article: Flamenco
The Triana district in
Seville is considered a birthplace of flamenco,
where it found its beginning as an expression of the poor and
marginalized. Seville’s Gypsy population, known as Flamencos, were
instrumental in the development of the art form. While it began as and
remains a representation of Andalusian culture, it has also become a
national heritage symbol of Spain.     There are more
flamenco artists in
Seville than anywhere else in the country,
supporting an entire industry surrounding it and drawing in a
significant amount of tourism for the city. 
The tapas scene is one of the main cultural attractions of the city:
people go from one bar to another, enjoying small dishes called tapas
(literally "lids" or "covers" in Spanish, referring to their probable
origin as snacks served on small plates used to cover drinks). Local
specialities include fried and grilled seafood (including squid, choco
(cuttlefish), swordfish, marinated dogfish, and ortiguillas), grilled
and stewed meat, spinach with chickpeas, Jamón ibérico, lamb kidneys
in sherry sauce, snails, caldo de puchero, and gazpacho. A sandwich
known as a serranito is the typical and popular version of fast food.
Typical desserts from
Seville include pestiños, a honey-coated sweet
fritter; torrijas, fried slices of bread with honey; roscos fritos,
deep-fried sugar-coated ring doughnuts; magdalenas or fairy cakes;
yemas de San Leandro, which provide the city's
convents with a source of revenue; and tortas de aceite, a thin
sugar-coated cake made with olive oil. Polvorones and mantecados are
Christmas products, whereas pestiños and torrijas are
typically consumed during the Holy Week.
Seville oranges grow on trees lining the city streets.
Formerly, large quantities were collected and exported to Britain to
be used in marmalade. Today the fruit is used
predominantly as compost locally, rather than as a foodstuff.
According to legend, the Arabs brought the bitter orange to Seville
from East Asia via Iraq around the 10th century to beautify and
perfume their patios and gardens, as well as to provide shade. The
flowers of the tree are a source of neroli oil, commonly used in
perfumery and in skin lotions for massage.
Avenida de la Constitución during Christmas
Seville is the most populated city in southern Spain, and has the
largest GDP (gross domestic product) of any in Andalusia,
accounting for one quarter of its total GDP. All municipalities in
the metropolitan area depend directly or indirectly on Seville's
economy, while agriculture dominates the economy of the smaller
villages, with some industrial activity localised in industrial parks.
The Diputacion de Sevilla (Deputation of Seville), with provincial
headquarters in the Antiguo Cuartel de Caballería (Old Cavalry
Barracks) on Avenida Menendez Pelayo, provides public services to
distant villages that they can not provide themselves. The
University of Seville
University of Seville and the University Pablo de Olavide are
important centres of learning in western
Andalusia as they offer a
wide range of academic courses; consequently the city has a large
number of students from
Huelva and Cádiz.
The economic activity of
Seville cannot be detached from the
geographical and urban context of the city; the capital of Andalusia
is the centre of a growing metropolitan area. Aside from traditional
neighbourhoods such as Santa Cruz, Triana and others, those further
away from the centre, such as Nervión, Sevilla Este, and El Porvenir
have seen recent economic growth. Until the economic crisis of 2007,
this urban area saw significant population growth and the development
of new industrial and commercial parks.
During this period, availability of infrastructure in the city
contributed to the growth of an economy dominated by the service
sector, but in which industry still holds a considerable
Guadalquivir River, Schindler Tower and Sevilla Tower on the Isla de
La Cartuja, designed by the architect César Pelli
The 1990s saw massive growth in investment in infrastructure in
Seville, largely due to its hosting of the Universal Exposition of
Seville in 1992. This economic development of the city and its urban
area is supported by good transportation links to other Spanish
cities, including a high-speed
AVE railway connection to Madrid, and a
new international airport.
Seville has the only inland port in Spain, located 80 km
(50 mi) from the mouth of the
Guadalquivir River. This harbour
complex offers access to the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, and
allows trade in goods between the south of
Extremadura) and Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. The port
has undergone reorganisation. Annual tonnage rose to 5.3 million
tonnes of goods in 2006.
Cartuja 93 is a research and development park. employing 15,000
Cajasol Tower skyscraper is under construction in the
park for the Spanish bank Cajasol's headquarters and offices. The
tower was started in March 2008 and is expected to be finished in
2015. With a height of 180.5 metres (592 feet) and 40 floors, it will
be the tallest building in Andalusia.
Seville has conference facilities, including the Congress Palace. Its
Parque Tecnológico y Aeronáutico Aerópolis (Technological and
Aeronautical Park) is focused on the aircraft industry. Outside of
Seville are nine
PS20 solar power towers
PS20 solar power towers which use the city's sunny
weather to provide most of it with clean and renewable energy.
Heineken brewery in Seville
Research and development
The Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en Sevilla (CSIC)
is based in the former Pavilion of Peru in the Maria Luisa Park. In
April 2008 the city council of
Seville provided a grant to renovate
the building to create the Casa de la Ciencia (Science Center) to
encourage popular interest in science. The internationally
recognised company Neocodex has its headquarters in Seville; it
maintains the first and largest
DNA bank in
Spain and has made
significant contributions to scientific research in genetics.
Seville is also considered an important technological and research
centre for renewable energy and the aeronautics industry.
The output of the research centres in Sevillan universities working in
tandem with city government, and the numerous local technology
companies, have made
Seville a leader among Spanish cities in
technological research and development. The Parque Científico
Cartuja 93 is a nexus of private and public investment in
various fields of research.
Principal fields of innovation and research are: telecommunications,
new technologies, biotechnology (with applications in local
agricultural practices), environment and renewable energy.
Seville is served by the TUSSAM (Transportes Urbanos de Sevilla) bus
network which runs buses throughout the city. The Consorcio de
Transportes de Sevilla communicates by bus with all the satellite
towns of Seville.
Two bus stations serve transportation between surrounding areas and
other cities: Plaza de Armas Station, with destinations north and
west, and Prado de
San Sebastián Station, covering routes to the
south and east. Plaza de Armas station has direct bus lines to many
Spanish cities and with Lisbon, in Portugal.
Seville metro ("Metro de Sevilla" in Spanish) is a light metro
network serving the city of
Seville and its metropolitan area. The
system is totally independent of any other rail or street traffic. All
stations were built with platform screen doors.
It was the sixth Metro system to be built in Spain, after those in
Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia,
Bilbao and Palma de Mallorca. Currently,
it is the fifth biggest Metro company in
Spain by number of passengers
carried (more than 12,000,000 in 2009).
The metro of Sevilla has 1 line with 22 stations and is currently
expanding, with 3 more different lines projected.
MetroCentro is a surface tramway serving the centre of the city. It
began operating in October 2007.
The service has just five stops: Plaza Nueva, Archivo de Indias,
Puerta de Jerez, Prado de
San Sebastián and San Bernardo, all as part
of Phase I of the project. It is expected to be extended to Santa
AVE station, including four new stops: San Francisco Javier,
Eduardo Dato, Luis de Morales and Santa Justa. This extension was
postponed although the City Council had made expanding the metro lines
a priority.
The Santa Justa Train Station is served by the
AVE high-speed rail
system, operated by the Spanish state-owned rail company Renfe. A
five-line commuter rail service (Cercanías) joins the city with the
Seville is on the Red Ciudades AVE, a net created
Seville next to 17 major cities of
Spain with high-speed rail.
Sevici Bicycle station
Sevici community bicycle programme has integrated bicycles into
the public transport network. Bicycles are available for hire around
the city at low cost and green bicycle lanes can be seen on most major
streets. The number of people using bicycles as a means of transport
Seville has increased substantially in recent years, multiplying
tenfold from 2006 to 2011. As of 2015[update], an estimated 9
percent of all mechanized trips in the city (and 5.6 percent of all
trips including those on foot) are made by bicycle.
The city council signed a contract with the multinational corporation
JCDecaux, an outdoor advertising company. The public bicycle rental
system is financed by a local advertising operator in return for the
city signing over a 10-year licence to exploit citywide billboards.
The overall scheme is called Cyclocity by JCDecaux, but each
city's system is branded under an individual name.
Several planes at San Pablo Airport
San Pablo Airport
San Pablo Airport is the main airport for
Seville and is Andalusia's
second busiest airport, after Malaga. The airport handled 4,051,392
passengers and just under 5,000 tonnes of cargo in 2009. It has
one terminal and one runway.
It is one of many bases for the Spanish low cost carrier Vueling, and
from November 2010
Ryanair will base two aircraft at the airport.
Seville is the only commercial river port of Spain, and the only
inland city in the country where cruise ships can arrive in the
historical centre. On 21 August 2012, the Muelle de las Delicias,
controlled by the Port Authority of Seville, hosted the cruise ship
Azamara Journey for two days, the largest ship ever to visit the town.
This vessel belongs to the shipping company Royal Caribbean and can
accommodate up to 700 passengers.
Seville has one ring road, the SE-30, which connects with the dual
carriageway of the south, the A-4, that directly communicates the city
with Cádiz, Cordoba and Madrid. Also there is another dual
carriageway, the A-92, linking the city with Estepa, Antequera,
Guadix and Almeria. The A-49 links
Algarve in the south of Portugal.
Sevilla Public Transportation Statistics
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit
in Sevilla, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 34 min. 7%
of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The
average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public
transit is 8 min, while 15% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on
average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a
single trip with public transit is 5.6 km, while 7% travel for
over 12 km in a single direction.
Faculty of Communication (University of Seville)
Seville is home to three public universities: the University of
Seville, founded in 1505, the Pablo de Olavide University, founded in
1997, and the International University of Andalusia, founded in
Additionally, there is the School of Hispanic American Studies,
founded in 1942, the Menéndez Pelayo International University, based
in Santander, which operates branch campuses in Seville, and Loyola
University Andalusia. International primary and secondary schools:
Lycée Français de Séville (French school)
Deutsche Schule Sevilla (German school)
St. George's British School of Seville
Seville is also home to many international schools and colleges that
cater to American students who come to study abroad
Maria Antonietta of Spain,
Queen consort of Sardinia
Queen consort of Sardinia (1729–1785)
The family of the Arabic historian and sociologist Ibn Khaldun
13th-century poet Ibn Sahl of Seville
Renaissance composer Cristóbal de Morales, Francisco Guerrero
16th-century novelist Mateo Alemán
Lope de Rueda
Lope de Rueda and Hermanos Alvarez Quintero
Historian of New
Spain Bartolomé de Las Casas
Baroque painters Diego Velázquez,
Valdés Leal and Murillo
Explorer and astronomer Antonio de Ulloa
Fernando de Herrera
Fernando de Herrera and Gutierre de Cetina
Romantic poet Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer
Bullfighters Juan Belmonte, Curro Romero,
Ignacio Sánchez Mejías and
Joselito el Gallo
Second Spanish Republic
Second Spanish Republic Prime Minister Diego Martinez, communist
politician José Díaz and Carlist politician Manuel Fal.
Vicente Aleixandre (Nobel Laureate)
Antonio and Manuel Machado
Jose Julio Cabanillas Serrano continuing in the 21st–century
Composer Joaquín Turina
Cartoonist William Haselden
Actors Juan Diego, Paco León
Architect Santiago Cirugeda, RIBA's 2015 International Fellowships.
Actresses Soledad Miranda, Verónica Sánchez,
Carmen Sevilla, Paz
Vega, Azucena Hernández
Teresa Sánchez López who won the title of Miss National in the Miss
Spain contest 1984 and, representing Spain, was close to the crown of
Miss Universe in 1985 (1st runner up).
Eva Maria González
Eva Maria González beauty queen and model who was
Miss España 2003
Singers Isabel Pantoja, Juanita Reina, Lole y Manuel, Paquita Rico, El
Caracol, Falete, Pastora Soler, and Mala Rodríguez
Comedian Manuel Summers
Miguel Buiza Fernández-Palacios
Miguel Buiza Fernández-Palacios who became Captain
General of the Spanish Republican Navy
Association footballers José Antonio Reyes, Fernando "Nando" Muñoz,
Ricardo Serna, Sergio Ramos, Jesús Navas, Antonio Puerta, Carlos
Marchena, Jesús Capitán "Capi"
Olympic swimmer Fátima Madrid
Politicians Felipe González, President of the Government of Spain
from 1982 to 1996, and Alfonso Guerra, vice-president from 1982 to
Dancer Maria Pages
El Risitas, humorist
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
Isidoro de Sevilla
Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer
Maria Antonietta of Spain
Antonio de Ulloa
Bartolomé de las Casas
La Cartuja Olympic Stadium
Seville is the hometown of two rival association football teams: Real
Betis Balompié and Sevilla Fútbol Club, both teams are playing in
the La Liga. Both teams have only won the league once each: Betis in
1935 and Sevilla in 1946. Only Sevilla has won European
competitions, winning consecutive
UEFA Cup finals in 2006 and 2007
UEFA Europa League
UEFA Europa League in 2014, 2015 and 2016. Sevilla's
stadium, the Ramón Sánchez Pizjuán, was a venue during the 1982
FIFA World Cup and four years later hosted the 1986 European Cup
Final. Seville's Olympic Stadium on the Isla de
La Cartuja was the
venue for the 2003
UEFA Cup Final.
Seville housed the tennis
Davis Cup final in 2004 and 2011, and the
7th Athletics World Championships. The city unsuccessfully bid for the
2004 and 2008 Summer Olympics, for which the 60,000-seat
La Cartuja was designed to stage.
Seville has one important
basketball club, the CB Sevilla, that plays in ACB League. Seville's
Guadalquivir river is one of only three FISA approved international
training centres for rowing and the only one in Spain; the 2002 World
Rowing Championships and the
2013 European Rowing Championships were
The picaresque novel
Rinconete y Cortadillo
Rinconete y Cortadillo by Miguel de Cervantes
takes place in the city of Seville.
La Femme et le pantin
La Femme et le pantin (The Woman and the Puppet) (1898) by
Pierre Louÿs, adapted for film several times, is set mainly in
Seville is the setting for the legend of
Don Juan (inspired by the
real aristocrat Don Miguel de Mañara) on the Paseo
Seville is the primary setting of many operas, the best known of which
Carmen (based on Mérimée's novella), Rossini's The
Barber of Seville, Verdi's La forza del destino, Beethoven's Fidelio,
Don Giovanni and The Marriage of Figaro, and Prokofiev's
Betrothal in a Monastery.
Seville is the setting of the novel The
Seville Communion by Arturo
Seville is both the location and setting for much of the 1985 Doctor
Who television serial "The Two Doctors".
Seville is also used as one of the locations in Dan Brown's Digital
Seville is one of the settings in Jostein Gaarder's book The Orange
Seville is the hometown of the two main characters in the 2000 film
The Road to El Dorado
The Road to El Dorado by DreamWorks Pictures. Miguel and Tulio are con
artists that stow away on a ship bound for the
New World and win a map
for the fabled lost city of gold, El Dorado, and are invariably seen
as gods by the locals.
Arthur Koestler's book
Spanish Testament is based on the writer's
experiences while held in the
Seville prison, under a sentence of
death, during the Spanish Civil War.
Robert Wilson's police novel The Hidden Assassins (2006) concerns a
terrorist incident in
Seville and the political context thereof, with
much local colour.
The Plaza de España in the
Parque de María Luisa
Parque de María Luisa appears in George
Lucas' Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones as well as in
Lawrence of Arabia as the British Army headquarters in Cairo, while
the courtyard was the King Alfonso XIII Hotel.
The Plaza of the Americas also appeared in Lawrence, substituting for
Jerusalem, and in Anthony Mann's El Cid. It also appears as the Palace
of Vladek Sheybal's Bashaw in
The Wind and the Lion
The Wind and the Lion (1975).
The Plaza de España in the
Parque de María Luisa
Parque de María Luisa appears in the
movie The Dictator, starring Sacha Baron Cohen, as the palace of the
The Alcázar and other sites appear in the television series Game of
Thrones, in the cities of Dorne.
The Tomb in
Seville by Norman Lewis.
Casa de Pilatos
Casa de Pilatos
Casa de Pilatos garden
Casa de Pilatos
Casa de Pilatos garden
The 'Adriática' building
Plaza de Toros de la Real Maestranza - panoramic view
Museum of Fine Arts of Seville
Interior of the Alcázar
The Chapel of El Carmen, next to the Triana bridge
Plaza de Toros de la Real Maestranza
Fountain in front of the Giralda
Plaza de España
Plaza de España
Guadalquivir river over the city of Seville
Palacio de San Telmo, now headquarters of the Presidency of Andalusia
The courtyard of the cathedral, as seen from the Giralda
The roof of the cathedral as seen from the
The tomb of Christopher Columbus, inside the Cathedral of Seville
Isabel II bridge, a.k.a. Triana bridge (Puente de Triana)
Gate Puerta de la Macarena and Basílica de la Macarena
Archivo de Indias
Puente del V Centenario
Plaza del Altozano in Triana
Barqueta Bridge at night
Torre Triana in La Cartuja
Carriage at the
Avenida de la Constitución
Street in the Jewish Quarter
Casa de los Pinelos in Jewish Quarter
Lope de Vega Theater
Alameda de Hércules
Plaza del Triunfo
South façade of the Cathedral of St. Mary of Seville.
Hall of Ambassadors in the Alcázar of Seville.
General Archive of the Indies
Torre del Oro
Torre del Oro (The Golden Tower) and the
San Pablo Arena
Benito Villamarin Stadium (Real Betis)
Twin towns and sister cities
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Spain
Seville is twinned with the following cities: The relationship
Seville and Kansas City is due to a small replica of the
Giralda tower, Sevilla's cathedral belltower, that exists in Kansas
Signagi, Georgia (1999)
Angers, France, since 2000
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Columbus, Ohio, United States
Kansas City, Missouri, United States
Tifariti, Western Sahara
Ho Chi Minh City,
Seville has been given titles by Spanish monarchs and heads of state
throughout its history.
Very Noble, by King
Ferdinand III of Castile
Ferdinand III of Castile after his reconquest of
Very Loyal, by King
Alfonso X of Castile for supporting him against a
rebellion. See also the Motto "NO8DO".
Very Heroic, by King Ferdinand VII of
Spain by Royal Document on 13
October 1817 for support against the French invasion.
Invictus (Invincible in Latin), by Queen Isabella II of
Spain for the
city's resistance against General Van Halen's asedium and bombing in
Mariana, by General
Francisco Franco in 1946 for the city's devotion
to the Virgin Mary.
Seville Public Library
Seville Statement on Violence
^ Demographia: World Urban Areas - Demographia, 2015
^ Salma Khadra Jayyusi; Manuela Marín (1992). The Legacy of Muslim
Spain. BRILL. p. 136. ISBN 978-90-04-09599-1. Retrieved 7
Muslim Relations. A Bibliographical History. Volume 4
(1200–1350). BRILL. 3 August 2012. p. 9.
ISBN 978-90-04-22854-2. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
^ SPAL: Revista de prehistoria y arqueología de la Universidad de
Sevilla. Secretariado de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Sevilla.
1998. p. 93. Retrieved 8 February 2013. La presencia de fenicios
en la antigua Sevilla parece constatada por el topónimo Spal que en
diversas lenguas semíticas significa "zona baja", "llanura verde" o
^ "La Emergencia de Sevilla" (PDF). Universidad de Sevilla. Retrieved
11 May 2011.
^ "La invasión árabe. Los árabes y el elemento árabe en español"
(PDF). Retrieved 11 May 2011.
^ "Leyendas de Sevilla – 5 Hércules y la fundación de Sevilla".
aznalfarache.blogspot.com. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
^ Manuel Jesús Roldán Salgueiro (2007). Historia de Sevilla.
Almuzara. ISBN 978-84-88586-24-7. Retrieved 9 February
^ José María de Mena (1985). Historia de Sevilla. Plaza &
Janés. p. 39. ISBN 978-84-01-37200-1. Retrieved 9 February
^ "Proyecto Puntual de Investigación 1999: Intervención Puntual:
"Estudios estratigráficos y análisis constructivos"". Real Alcázar
(in Spanish). Real Alcázar de Sevilla. Archived from the original on
2013-08-15. Los restos antrópicos más antiguos se situaban sobre
esta terraza, bajo la muralla Septentrional del Alcázar, datados en
el s. VII-VIII a.C.
^ Elizabeth Nash (16 September 2005). Seville, Cordoba, and
Granada : A Cultural History: A Cultural History. Oxford
University Press, USA. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-19-972537-3.
^ "Antiguas Murallas y Puertas de Sevilla". Degelo.com. Retrieved 12
^ "Ruiz, Hernán. 'Blueprints of Seville's Cathedral and Giralda'".
Fidas.es. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 10
^ Joseph F. O'Callaghan (1975). A History of Medieval Spain. Cornell
University Press. p. 353. ISBN 978-0-8014-9264-8. Retrieved
6 February 2013.
^ John Julius Norwich (1 April 2001). Great Architecture of the World.
Da Capo Press, Incorporated. p. 271. ISBN 978-0-306-81042-8.
Retrieved 15 May 2013.
^ A. MacKay: "POPULAR MOVEMENTS AND POGROMS IN FIFTEENTH-CENTURY
CASTILE", Past and Present (1972) 55 (1): 33–67.
doi:10.1093/past/55.1.33. Oxford University Press
^ Levine Melammed, Renee. "Women in Medieval Jewish Societies." Women
and Judaism: New Insights and Scholarship. Ed. Frederick E.
Greenspahn. New York: New York University Press, 2009. 105-106.
^ "Demografía de Sevilla en el siglo XVI".
Retrieved 23 July 2012.
^ "99.06.01: Human-Environment Relations: A Case Study of Donana
National Park, Andalucia,
Spain and the Los Frailes Mine Toxic Spill
of 1998". Yale.edu. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
^ "Un campus, una ciudad". Universidad de Sevilla.
^ María Serrera, Ramón María (21 February 2009). "¿200 óperas
sevillanas?". El Correo de Andalucía. Retrieved 23 July
2012. [permanent dead link]
^ Antigüedad del Castillo-Olivares, María Dolores (1990). "El
arquitecto Melchor Cano y la teoría de la ciudad. Espacio, Tiempo y
Forma". Historia del Arte. VII. Madrid: UNED. 3: 417–439.
^ Santiago Cirugeda; et al. Collectives Architectures. Vibok Works.
ISBN 978-84-939058-2-8. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
^ Cristóbal Belda Navarro; María Teresa Marín Torres (2002). Quince
Miradas Sobre Los Museos. EDITUM. p. 260.
ISBN 978-84-8371-311-2. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
^ "La UNIA acoge en Sevilla unas jornadas de arteypensamiento sobre
Capital y Territorio". Universidad Internacional de Andalucía.
Archived from the original on 8 January 2014. Retrieved 2 February
^ Diego A. Cardoso Bueno: Sevilla. El Casco Antiguo. Historia, Arte y
Guadalquivir (2006). ISBN 84-8093-154-X .
Consultado el 24 March 2010
^ Fernández Paradas, Mercedes; La implantación del alumbrado
público de electricidad en la Andalucía del primer del tercio del S.
XX, Universidad de Málaga, España [04-09-2012].
^ Henry Robinson Luce (January 1929). Time. 13. Time, Inc. p. 25.
Retrieved 6 February 2013.
^ a b c The Spanish Civil War, Hugh Thomas, Penguin, 1961, p. 221–3,
^ Lonely Planet Andalucia. Books.google.com. 1 January 2007.
ISBN 9781740599733. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
^ Stanley G. Payne (2008). Franco and Hitler: Spain, Germany, and
World War II. Yale University Press. p. 123.
^ Wayne H. Bowen (2006).
Spain During World War II. University of
Missouri Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-8262-6515-9.
^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (January 2004). History of World War
II. Marshall Cavendish. p. 611.
^ Christian Pfister; Rudolf Brázdil; Rüdiger Glaser (14 March 2013).
Climatic Variability in Sixteenth-Century
Europe and Its Social
Dimension. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 272.
^ Rowan Moore. "Metropol Parasol,
Seville by Jürgen Mayer H –
review Art and design". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-11-24.
^ barba, eduardo. "La factura final de las "setas" es de 102 millones,
el doble de lo presupuestado". ABC de Sevilla. Retrieved
Metropol Parasol Urban Project in
www.andalucia.com. Retrieved 2016-03-02.
^ M. Kottek; J. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel (2006). "World
Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorol.
Z. 15 (3): 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved 22
^ "Sevilla Aeropuerto: Sevilla Aeropuerto - Valores extremos absolutos
- Selector -
Agencia Estatal de Meteorología
Agencia Estatal de Meteorología - AEMET. Gobierno de
España". Aemet.es (in Spanish). 1956-02-12. Retrieved
^ "Highest Temperature Extremes". NOAA Satellite and Information
Service. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
^ "Sevilla cumple sesenta años sin ver la nieve en sus calles".
^ "Valores climatológicos normales: Sevilla Aeropuerto – Agencia
Estatal de Meteorología – AEMET. Gobierno de España" (in Spanish).
Archived from the original on 18 November 2012.
^ "Metropol Parasol: The World's Largest Wooden Structure Opens in
Seville Inhabitat – Green Design Will Save the World".
inhabitat.com. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
^ "Ordenación Urbana – Metropol Parasol". Sevilla21.com. Archived
from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
^ "Plaza De Espańa And
Maria Luisa Park
Maria Luisa Park Sevilla – Seville".
Sevilla5.com. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
^ Quintero, Josephine. "The City of Sevilla, the
Maria Luisa Park
Maria Luisa Park in
Sevilla, Andalucia, Spain". Andalucia.com. Retrieved 10 April
^ "ABC Hemeroteca". Hemeroteca.abc.es. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
^ "la Bienal de
Flamenco de Sevilla". www.labienal.com.
^ "La velá de Santiago y Santa Ana en Triana, Sevilla". Visitar
Sevilla (in Spanish).
^ Palma, María Luisa; Palma, Luis; Aguado, Luis Fernando (8 June
2012). "Determinants of cultural and popular celebration attendance:
the case study of
Seville Spring Fiestas". Journal of Cultural
Economics. 37 (1): 87–107. doi:10.1007/s10824-012-9167-5.
Holy Week in Seville". Tourism of Seville.
^ "Popular festivities in Seville, Spain:
Easter Week in Sevilla in
Spain Info US. 23 April 2007.
^ "Itinerario Oficial Semana Santa de Sevilla 2018".
www.semana-santa.org (in Spanish).
^ "Feria de Abril, Seville". Exploreseville.com. Retrieved 12 March
^ http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001592/159293E.pdf Seville:
UNESCO City of Music. Retrieved 2/13/2018
^ Ruiz, Ana (2007). Vibrant Andalusia : The spice of life in
southern Spain. New York: Algora Publ. ISBN 0-87586-539-9.
^ Brown, Joshua (2014). "
Flamenco capital: Tradition, revolution and
renewal in Seville, Spain". UC Riverside. Retrieved 28 February
^ Washabaugh, William (2012).
Flamenco music and national identity in
Spain. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. ISBN 9781409434856.
^ Manuel, Peter. "Andalusian, Gypsy, and class identity in the
contemporary flamenco complex". Ethnomusicology. 33 (1): 47.
^ Aoyama, Yuko (March 2009). "Artists, tourists, and the state:
Cultural tourism and the flamenco industry in Andalusia, Spain".
International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. 33 (1):
^ Elizabeth Nash (13 October 2005). Seville, Cordoba, and Granada:A
Cultural History: A Cultural History. Oxford University Press.
p. 14. ISBN 978-0-19-518204-0. Retrieved 8 February
^ a b "Sevilla aporta la cuarta parte del PIB y es la capital
económica de Andalucía". ABC de Sevilla. 20 February 2005.
^ "Rodríguez Villalobos afirma que los pequeños municipios necesitan
una figura supramunicipal para poder prestar servicios públicos".
Diputacion de Sevilla. Archived from the original on 6 July 2012.
Retrieved 24 July 2012.
^ "Atlas de la provincia de Sevilla". Map:Innovación tecnológica.
Diputación de Sevilla, Junta de Andalucía. Archived from the
original on 23 June 2013.
^ "Atlas de la provincia de Sevilla". Map:Empleo en el sector
terciario. Diputación de Sevilla, Junta de Andalucía. Archived from
the original on 23 June 2013.
^ "Atlas de la provincia de Sevilla" (PDF). Map:Industrial actividad.
Diputación de Sevilla, Junta de Andalucía. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 4 July 2012.
^ "Autoridad Portuaria de Sevilla". Portal.apsevilla.com (in Spanish).
1980-01-01. Retrieved 2016-11-24.
^ "PCTCartuja - Inicio". Cartuja93.es. Retrieved 2016-11-24.
^ Guadalupe Trigueros Gordillo (1998). La Universidad de Sevilla
Durante El Sexenio Revolucionario. Universidad de Sevilla. p. 96.
ISBN 978-84-472-0417-5. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
^ Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News: GEN. GEN Pub. 2007.
p. 15. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
^ "Planta Solar 10". Concentrating Solar Power Projects. National
Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE). 21
April 2009. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
^ Marchese, Marco, and Jonathan Potter. Entrepreneurship, SMEs and
Local Development in Andalusia, Spain. No. 2011/3. LEED Working Paper
Series, LEED programme, OECD Publishing, 2011. "...others in the
region are rather sector-oriented (e.g. Seville's Aerópolis
specialised in the aeronautics industry or Granada's based on health
^ Francisco Javier Monclús; Francisco Javier Monclús Fraga (2006).
Exposiciones internacionales y urbanismo: El proyecto Expo Zaragoza
2008. Univ. Politèc. de Catalunya. p. 106.
ISBN 978-84-8301-893-4. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
Seville goes Dutch".
London Cycling Campaign. Retrieved 22 May
^ "Research on the use of bicycles in the city of Seville, 2013".
SIBUS. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
^ "The self-service bicycle sheme by JCDecaux". JCDecaux. 20 December
2012. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
^ "AENA – airport statistics". Aena.es. Retrieved 12 March
Ryanair anuncia su base número 44 en Sevilla". Ryanair.com. 23
^ El Puerto de Sevilla acogerá el mayor crucero de su historia
Archived 19 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Tuttocruceros.com 25
^ "Sevilla Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit
Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017. Material was copied
from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons
Attribution 4.0 International License.
^ "Inicio". Unia.es. 2016-10-21. Retrieved 2016-11-24.
^ "Inicio en Sede de Sevilla". Uimp.es. 22 March 2011. Retrieved 10
La Liga Champions". Topendsports.com. Retrieved 12 March
^ "Uefa Cup". Rsssf.com. 31 May 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
^ "Sevilla win Europa final after penalties". aljazeera.com. Retrieved
15 May 2014.
^ Jan Alsos. "1982 – Match Schedule". Planet World Cup. Retrieved 12
^ "1986 European Cup Final : FC
Barcelona v Steaua Bucharest –
Complete Game Film BETWEEN THE STICKS - ZWISCHEN DEN STOECKEN :
Weil Jemand Es Tun Muss". Lvironpigs.wordpress.com. Retrieved 12 March
^ "BBC SPORT Football Other European Porto end Celtic's Uefa
dream". BBC News. 21 May 2003. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
^ Wilkins, Luke (11 January 1996). "Olympic Games: 11 cities bid to
stage 2004 Games – Sport". The Independent. Retrieved 12 March
^ "CNN/SI – Olympics –
Seville seeking 2008 Olympic bid –
Wednesday May 05, 1999 12:37 PM". Sportsillustrated.cnn.com. 5 May
1999. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
^ a b c d e f "
Seville Information". DB-City. Retrieved 4 August
^ "Noticias - Sevilla Y
Barcelona Colaborarán Estrechamente Para
Difundir Los Valores Del Fórum". Noticias.info. Retrieved 10 April
^ a b Hermanamientos con Latinoamérica Archived 13 March 2016 at the
Wayback Machine. (102,91 kB). [29-9-2008]
^ "Columbus - Sister Cities". Columbus Sister Cities International,
Inc. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
^ "Nos Visitó El Poder Popular De Ciudad De La Habana " Comité Local
Pca-Sevilla". Pcasevilla.wordpress.com. Archived from the original on
13 March 2012. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
^ "Sister Cities, Public Relations".
Guadalajara municipal government.
Archived from the original on 2 March 2012. Retrieved 12 March
^ "Kansas City - Sister Cities". Sister City Association of Kansas
City, MO. Archived from the original on 21 November 2013. Retrieved 4
Spain – Kansas City Sister Cities". Kcsistercities.org.
Archived from the original on 9 February 2012. Retrieved 12 March
^ "Red de Hermanamientos entre Ciudades Marroquies y Andaluzas -
Convenios y hermanamientas". An-mar.org. 1 May 2006. Retrieved 10
Kraków otwarty na świat". Krakow.pl. Retrieved 19 July
^ "De los títulos de la Ciudad de Sevilla". Degelo.com.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "article
name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Seville.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Seville.
Seville in the Official Website of Tourism in Spain
Official website of the city council. (in Spanish)
Articles relating to Seville
World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites in Spain
For official site names, see each article or the List of World
Heritage Sites in Spain.
Caves of Altamira and Paleolithic Cave Art of Northern Spain1
Oviedo and the Kingdom of the Asturias
Roman walls of Lugo
Route of Santiago de Compostela1
Santiago de Compostela
Tower of Hercules
Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests5
Caves of Altamira and Paleolithic Cave Art of Northern Spain1
Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon
Pirineos - Monte Perdido2
Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin1
Route of Santiago de Compostela1
San Millán Yuso and Suso Monasteries
Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests5
Aranjuez Cultural Landscape
University and Historic Precinct of Alcalá de Henares
Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests5
Archaeological Ensemble of Mérida
Archaeological Site of Atapuerca
Ávila with its Extra-mural Churches
Heritage of Mercury. Almadén and Idrija3
Monastery of Santa María of Guadalupe
Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin1
Route of Santiago de Compostela1
Segovia and its Aqueduct
Prehistoric Rock-Art Sites in the Côa Valley and Siega Verde4
Archaeological Ensemble of Tarraco, Tarragona
Catalan Romanesque Churches of the Vall de Boí
Biodiversity and Culture)
Palau de la Música Catalana
Palau de la Música Catalana and Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona
Palmeral of Elche
Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin1
Serra de Tramuntana
Silk Exchange in Valencia
Works of Antoni Gaudí
Generalife and Albayzín, Granada
Cathedral, Alcázar and General Archive of the Indies, Seville
Dolmens Site of Antequera
Historic Centre of Córdoba
Renaissance Monuments of
Úbeda and Baeza
Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin1
San Cristóbal de La Laguna
Teide National Park
1 Shared with other region/s
2 Shared with France
3 Shared with Slovenia
4 Shared with Portugal
5 Shared with other regions in
Spain and other countries in Europe
Demolished landmarks in Seville
Castle of San Jorge
Palacio de Sánchez Dalp
Palacio del Marqués de Palomares
Gran Café de París
Triumphal arches for the arrival of Isabel II
Instituto de Higiene del Doctor Murga
Puerta de Triana
Puerta de San Fernando
Caños de Carmona
List of missing landmarks in Spain
Host cities of the IAAF World Championships in Athletics
Capitals of provinces of Spain
Castellón de la Plana
Capitals of autonomous communities of Spain
Palma (Balearic Islands)
Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country)
Santa Cruz &
Las Palmas (Canary Islands)
Toledo (Castile–La Mancha)
Valladolid (de facto, Castile and León)
Santiago de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela (Galicia)
Logroño (La Rioja)
Madrid (Community of Madrid)
Murcia (Region of Murcia)
Valencia (Valencian Community)
1 Autonomous cities.
ISNI: 0000 0001 2194 6