Servius Tullius was the legendary sixth king of Rome, and the second
of its Etruscan dynasty. He reigned 575–535 BC. Roman and Greek
sources describe his servile origins and later marriage to a daughter
of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, Rome's first Etruscan king, who was
assassinated in 579 BC. Servius is said to have been the first Roman
king to accede without election by the Senate, having gained the
throne by popular support; and the first to be elected by the Senate
alone, without reference to the people.
Several traditions describe Servius' father as divine.
Servius' mother as a captured Latin princess enslaved by the Romans;
her child is chosen as Rome's future king after a ring of fire is seen
around his head. The Emperor
Claudius discounted such origins and
described him as an originally Etruscan mercenary, named Mastarna, who
fought for Caelius Vibenna.
Servius was a popular king, and one of Rome's most significant
benefactors. He had military successes against
Veii and the Etruscans,
and expanded the city to include the Quirinal,
Viminal and Esquiline
hills. He is traditionally credited with the institution of the
Compitalia festivals, the building of temples to
Fortuna and Diana
and, less plausibly, the invention of Rome's first true coinage.
Despite the opposition of Rome's patricians, he expanded the Roman
franchise and improved the lot and fortune of Rome's lowest classes of
citizens and non-citizens. According to Livy, he reigned for 44 years,
until murdered by his daughter Tullia and son-in-law Lucius Tarquinius
Superbus. In consequence of this "tragic crime" and his hubristic
arrogance as king, Tarquinius was eventually removed. This cleared the
way for the abolition of Rome's monarchy and the founding of the Roman
Republic, whose groundwork had already been laid by Servius' reforms.
1.1 Ancient sources
2 Servius' origins
2.1 Parentage and birth
2.2 Early life
3.1 Servian reforms
3.1.1 Curiate reform and census
3.2 Tribal and boundary expansions
4 Historical appraisals
4.2 Etruscan Servius
7 External links
Before its establishment as a Republic, Rome was ruled by kings (Latin
reges, singular rex). In Roman tradition, Rome's founder
Servius Tullius was the sixth, and his successor Tarquinius
Superbus (Tarquin the Proud) was the last. The nature of Roman
kingship is unclear; most Roman kings were elected by the senate, as
to a lifetime magistracy, but some claimed succession through dynastic
or divine right. Some were native Romans, others were foreign. Later
Romans had a complex ideological relationship with this distant past.
In Republican mores and institutions kingship was abhorrent; and
remained so, in name at least, during the Empire. On the one hand,
Romulus was held to have brought Rome into being more-or-less at a
stroke, so complete and purely Roman in its essentials that any
acceptable change or reform thereafter must be clothed as restoration.
On the other, Romans of the Republic and Empire saw each king as
contributing in some distinctive and novel way to the city's fabric
and territories, or its social, military, religious, legal or
Servius Tullius has been described as
Rome's "second founder", "the most complex and enigmatic" of all its
kings, and a kind of "proto-Republican magistrate".
The oldest surviving source for the overall political developments of
the Roman kingdom and Republic is Cicero's De republica ("On the
State"), written in 44 BC. The main literary sources for Servius'
life and achievements are the Roman historian
Livy (59 BC – AD 17),
whose Ab urbe condita was generally accepted by the Romans as the
standard, most authoritative account; Livy's near contemporary
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and
Plutarch (c. 46 – 120 AD); their own
sources included works by Quintus Fabius Pictor, Diocles of
Quintus Ennius and Cato the Elder. Livy's sources
probably included at least some official state records, he excluded
what seemed implausible or contradictory traditions, and arranged his
material within an overarching chronology. Dionysius and Plutarch
offer various alternatives not found in Livy, and Livy's own pupil,
the etruscologist, historian and emperor Claudius, offered yet
another, based on Etruscan tradition.
Parentage and birth
Most Roman sources name Servius' mother as Ocrisia, a young noblewoman
taken at the Roman siege of Corniculum and brought to Rome, either
pregnant by her husband, who was killed at the siege: or as a
virgin. She was given to Tanaquil, wife of king Tarquinius, and though
slave, was treated with the respect due her former status. In one
variant, she became wife to a noble client of Tarquinius. In others,
she served the domestic rites of the royal hearth as a Vestal Virgin,
and on one such occasion, having damped the hearth flames with a
sacrificial offering, she was penetrated by a disembodied phallus that
rose from the hearth. According to Tanaquil, this was a divine
manifestation, either of the household Lar or Vulcan himself. Thus
Servius was divinely fathered and already destined for greatness,
despite his mother's servile status; for the time being,
Ocrisia kept this a secret.
Servius' birth to a slave of the royal household made him part of
Tarquin's extended familia. Ancient sources infer him as protégé,
rather than adopted son, as he married Tarquinius' and Tanaquil's
daughter, named by some sources as Gegania. All sources agree that
before his accession, either in his early childhood or later,
members of the royal household witnessed a nimbus of fire about his
head while he slept, a sign of divine favour, and a great portent.
He proved a loyal, responsible son-in-law. When given governmental and
military responsibilities, he excelled in both.
In Livy's account, Tarquinius Priscus had been elected king on the
death of the previous king, Ancus Marcius, whose two sons were too
young to inherit or offer themselves for election. When Servius'
popularity and his marriage to Tarquinius' daughter made him a likely
successor to the throne, these sons attempted to seize the throne for
themselves. They hired two assassins, who attacked and severely
Tanaquil immediately ordered the palace to be
shut, and publicly announced from a palace window that Tarquinius had
appointed Servius as regent; meanwhile, Tarquinius died of his wounds.
When his death became public knowledge, the senate elected Servius as
king, and the sons of Ancus fled to exile in Suessa Pometia. Livy
describes this as the first occasion that the people of Rome were not
involved in the election of the king. In Plutarch, Servius reluctantly
consented to the kingship at the death-bed insistence of Tanaquil.
Early in his reign, Servius warred against
Veii and the Etruscans. He
is said to have shown valour in the campaign, and to have routed a
great army of the enemy. His success helped him to cement his position
at Rome. According to the Fasti Triumphales, Servius celebrated
three triumphs over the Etruscans, including on 25 November 571 BC and
25 May 567 BC (the date of the third triumph is not legible on the
Main article: Servian constitution
Most of the reforms credited to Servius extended voting rights to
certain groups — in particular to Rome's citizen-commoners (known in
the Republican era as plebs), minor landholders hitherto disqualified
from voting by ancestry, status or ethnicity. The same reforms
simultaneously defined the fiscal and military obligations of all
Roman citizens. As a whole, the so-called Servian reforms probably
represent a long-drawn, complex and piecemeal process of populist
policy and reform, extending from Servius' predecessors, Ancus Marcius
and Tarquinius Priscus, to his successor Tarquinius Superbus, and into
the Middle and Late Republic. Rome's military and territorial
expansion and consequent changes in its population would have made
franchise regulation and reform an ongoing necessity, and their
wholesale attribution to Servius "cannot be taken at face value".
Curiate reform and census
Until the Servian reforms, the passing of laws and judgment was the
prerogative of the comitia curiata (curiate assembly), made up from
thirty curiae; Roman sources describe ten curiae for each of three
aristocratic tribes or clans, each supposedly based on one of Rome's
central hills, and claiming patrician status by virtue of their
descent from Rome's founding families. These tribes comprised
approximately 200 gentes (clans), each of which contributed one
senator ("elder") to the Senate. The senate advised the king, devised
laws in his name, and was held to represent the entire populus Romanus
(Roman people); but it could only debate and discuss. Its decisions
had no force unless approved by the comitia curiata. By the time of
Servius, if not long before, the tribes of the comitia were a minority
of the population, ruling a multitude who had no effective voice in
their own government.
Rome's far more populous citizen-commoners could participate in this
assembly in limited fashion, and perhaps offer their opinions on
decisions but only the comitia curiata could vote. A minority thus
exercised power and control over the majority. Roman tradition held
that Servius formed a comitia centuriata of commoners to displace the
comitia curiata as Rome's central legislative body. This required his
development of the first Roman census, making Servius the first Roman
censor. For the purposes of the census, citizens assembled by
tribe in the
Campus Martius to register their social rank, household,
property and income. This established an individual's tax obligations,
his ability to muster arms for military service when required to do
so, and his assignment to a particular voting bloc.
The institution of the census and the comitia centuriata are
speculated as Servius' attempt to erode the civil and military power
of the Roman aristocracy, and seek the direct support of his newly
enfranchised citizenry in civil matters; if necessary, under arms.
The comitia curiata continued to function through the Regal and
Republican eras, but the Servian reform had reduced its powers to
those of a largely symbolic "upper house"; its noble members were
expected to do no more than ratify decisions of the comitia
The census grouped Rome's male citizen population in classes,
according to status, wealth and age. Each class was subdivided into
groups called centuriae (centuries), nominally of 100 men (Latin
centum = 100) but in practice of variable number, further divided
as seniores (men aged 46 – 60, of a suitable age to serve as "home
guards" or city police) and iuniores (men aged 17 – 45, to serve as
front-line troops when required). Adult male citizens were obliged,
when called upon, to fulfill military service according to their
means, which was supposedly assessed in archaic asses. A citizen's
wealth and class would therefore have defined their position in the
civil hierarchies, and up to a point, within the military; but despite
its apparent military character, and its possible origins as the
mustering of the citizenry-at-arms, the system would have primarily
served to determine the voting qualifications and wealth of individual
citizens for taxation purposes, and the weight of their vote — wars
were occasional but taxation was a constant necessity — and the
comitia centuriata met whenever required to do so, in peace or war.
Though each century had voting rights, the wealthiest had the most
centuries, and voted first. Those beneath them were convened only in
the event of deadlock or indecision; the lowest class was unlikely to
vote at all.
The Roman army's centuria system and its order of battle are thought
to be based on the civilian classifications established by the census.
The military selection process picked men from civilian centuriae and
slipped them into military ones. Their function depended on their age,
experience, and the equipment they could afford. The wealthiest class
of iuniores (aged 17 – 45) were armed as hoplites, heavy infantry
with helmet, greaves, breastplate, shields (clipeus), and spears
(hastae). Each battle line in the phalanx formation was composed of a
single class. Military specialists, such as trumpeters, were
chosen from the 5th class. The highest officers were of aristocratic
origin until the early Republic, when the first plebeian tribunes were
elected by the plebeians from their own number. Cornell suggests that
this centuriate system made the equites, who "consisted mainly, if not
exclusively, of patricians" but voted after infantry of the first
class, subordinate to the relatively low-status infantry.
Tribal and boundary expansions
The Servian reforms increased the number of tribes and expanded the
city, which was protected by a new rampart, moat and wall. The
enclosed area was divided into four administrative regiones (regions,
or quarters); the Suburana, Esquilana, Collina and Palatina. Servius
himself is said to have taken a new residence, on the Esquiline.
The situation beyond the walls is unclear, but thereafter,
membership of a Roman voting-tribe would have depended on residence
rather than kinship, ancestry and inheritance. This would have brought
significant numbers of urban and rural plebs into active political
life; and a significant number of these would have been allocated to
centuries of the first class, and therefore likely to vote. The
city of Rome's division into "quarters" remained in use until 7 BC,
Augustus divided the city into 14 new regiones. In modern Rome,
an ancient portion of surviving wall is attributed to Servius, the
remainder supposedly being rebuilt after the sack of Rome in 390/387
BC by the Gauls.
Some Roman historians believed
Servius Tullius responsible for Rome's
earliest true, minted coinage, replacing an earlier and less
convenient currency of raw bullion. This is unlikely, though he may
have introduced the official stamping of raw currency. Money
played a minimal role in the Roman economy, which was almost entirely
agrarian at this time. Debt and debt bondage, however, were probably
rife. The form of such debts had little resemblance to those of
cash-debtors, compelled to pay interest to money-lenders on an advance
of capital. Rather, wealthy landowners would make an "advance loan" of
seed, foodstuffs or other essentials to tenants, clients and
smallholders, in return for a promise of labour services. The terms of
such "loans" compelled defaulters to sell themselves, or their
dependants, to their creditor; or, if smallholders, to surrender their
farm. Wealthy aristocratic landholders thus acquired additional farms
and service for very little outlay. Dionysius claims that Servius
paid such debts "from his own purse", and forbade voluntary and
compulsory debt bondage. In reality, these practices persisted
well into the Republican era.
Livy describes the distribution of land
grants to poor and landless citizens by Servius and others as the
political pursuit of popular support from citizens of little merit or
Servius is credited with the construction of Diana's temple on the
Aventine Hill, to mark the foundation of the so-called Latin
League; His servile birth-mythos, his populist leanings and his
reorganisation of the vici appear to justify the Roman belief that he
founded or reformed the
Compitalia festivals (held to celebrate the
Lares that watched over each local community), or allowed for the
first time their attendance and service by non-citizens and
slaves. His personal reputation and achievements may have led to
his historical association with temples and shrines to Fortuna; some
sources suggest that the two were connected during Servius' lifetime,
via some form of "sacred marriage".
Plutarch explicitly identifies the
Porta Fenestella ("window gate") of the Royal palace as the window
Tanaquil announced Servius' regency to the people; the
Fortuna was said to have passed through the same window, to
become Servius' consort.
In Livy's history,
Servius Tullius had two daughters, Tullia the Elder
and Tullia the Younger. He arranged their marriage to the two sons of
his predecessor, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus. The younger Tullia married
Arruns Tarquinius. The elder Tullia and Lucius Tarquinius procured the
murders of their respective siblings, married, and conspired to remove
Servius Tullius. Tullia encouraged Lucius Tarquinius to secretly
persuade or bribe senators, and Tarquinius went to the senate-house
with a group of armed men. Then he summoned the senators and gave a
speech criticising Servius: for being a slave born of a slave; for
failing to be elected by the Senate and the people during an
interregnum, as had been the tradition for the election of kings of
Rome; for being gifted the throne by a woman; for favouring the lower
classes of Rome over the wealthy; for taking the land of the upper
classes for distribution to the poor; and for instituting the census,
which exposed the wealthy upper classes to popular envy.
Servius Tullius arrived at the senate-house to defend his
position, Tarquinius threw him down the steps and Servius was murdered
in the street by Tarquin's men. Soon after, Tullia drove her chariot
over her father's body. For Livy, Tarquinius' impious refusal to
permit his father-in-law's burial earned him the sobriquet Superbus
(“arrogant” or “proud”), and Servius' death is a "tragic
crime" (tragicum scelus), a dark episode in Rome's history and just
cause for the abolition of the monarchy. Servius thus becomes the last
of Rome's benevolent kings; the place of this outrage – which Livy
seems to suggest as a crossroads – is known thereafter as Vicus
Sceleratus (street of shame, infamy or crime). His murder is
parricide, the worst of all crimes. This morally justifies Tarquin's
eventual expulsion and the abolition of Rome's aberrant, "un-Roman"
monarchy. Livy's Republic is partly founded on the achievements and
death of Rome's last benevolent king.
Claims of divine ancestry and divine favour were often attached to
charismatic individuals who rose "as if from nowhere" to become
dynasts, tyrants and hero-founders in the ancient Mediterranean
world. Yet all these legends offer the father as divine, the
mother – virgin or not – as princess of a ruling house, never as
slave. The disembodied phallus and its impregnation of a virgin slave
of Royal birth are unique to Servius.
Livy and Dionysius ignore or
reject the tales of Servius' supernatural virgin birth; though his
parents came from a conquered people, both are of noble stock. His
ancestry is an accident of fate, and his character and virtues are
entirely Roman. He acts on behalf of the Roman people, not for
personal gain; these Roman virtues are likely to find favour with the
gods, and win the rewards of good fortune.
The details of Servius' servile birth, miraculous conception and links
Fortuna were doubtless embellished after his own time, but
the core may have been propagated during his reign. His
unconstitutional and seemingly reluctant accession, and his direct
appeal to the Roman masses over the heads of the senate may have been
interpreted as signs of tyranny. Under these circumstances, an
extraordinary personal charisma must have been central to his success.
When Servius expanded Rome's influence and boundaries, and reorganised
its citizenship and armies, his "new Rome" was still centered on the
Casa Romuli or "hut" of Romulus. Servius became a second
Romulus, a benefactor to his people, part human, part divine; but
his slave origins remain without parallel, and make him all the more
remarkable: for Cornell, this is "the most important single fact about
him". The story of his servile birth evidently circulated far
Mithridates VI of Pontus
Mithridates VI of Pontus sneered that Rome had made kings
of servos vernasque Tuscorum (Etruscan slaves and domestic
Painting from the
François Tomb at Vulci, depicting the liberation of
Caelius Vibenna. Macstarna is on the left
Claudius' story of Servius as an Etruscan named Macstarna was
published as an incidental scholarly comment within the Oratio Claudii
Caesaris of the Lugdunum Tablet. There is some support for this
Etruscan version of Servius, in wall paintings at the François
Tomb in Etruscan Vulci. They were commissioned some time in the second
half of the 4th century BC. One panel shows heroic Etruscans putting
foreign captives to the sword. The victims include an individual named
Gneve Tarchunies Rumach, interpreted as a Roman named Gnaeus
Tarquinius, although known Roman history records no Tarquinius of
that praenomen. The victors include Aule and Caile Vipinas – known
to the Romans as the Vibenna brothers – and their ally Macstrna
[Macstarna], who seems instrumental in winning the day.
certain that Macstarna was simply another name for Servius Tullius,
who started his career as an Etruscan ally of the Vibenna brothers and
helped them settle Rome's Caelian Hill. Claudius' account evidently
drew on sources unavailable to his fellow-historians, or rejected by
them. There may have been two different, Servius-like figures, or two
different traditions about the same figure. Macstarna may have been
the name of a once celebrated Etruscan hero, or more speculatively, an
Etruscan rendering of Roman magister (magistrate). Claudius' "Etruscan
Servius" seems less a monarch than a freelance Roman magister, an
"archaic condottiere" who placed himself and his own band of armed
clients at Vibenna's service, and may later have seized, rather
than settled Rome's Caelian Hill. If the Etruscan Macstarna was
identical with the Roman Servius, the latter may have been less
monarch than some kind of proto-Republican magistrate given permanent
office, perhaps a magister populi, a war-leader, or in Republican
parlance, a dictator.
Servius' political reforms and those of his successor Tarquinius
Superbus undermined the bases of aristocratic power and transferred
them in part to commoners. Rome's ordinary citizens became a distinct
force within Roman politics, entitled to participate in government and
bear arms on its behalf, despite the opposition and resentment of
Rome's patricians and senate. Tarquinius was ousted by a conspiracy of
patricians, not plebeians. Once in existence, the comitia
centuriata could not be unmade, or its powers reduced: as Republican
Rome's highest court of appeal, it had the capacity to overturn court
decisions, and the Republican senate was constitutionally obliged to
seek its approval. In time, the comitia centuriata legitimized the
rise to power of a plebeian nobility, and plebeian consuls.
Servius' connections to the Lar and his reform of the vici connect him
directly to the founding of Compitalia, instituted to publicly and
piously honour his divine parentage – assuming the Lar as his father
– to extend his domestic rites into the broader community, to mark
his maternal identification with the lower ranks of Roman society and
to assert his regal sponsorship and guardianship of their rights. Some
time before the Augustan
Compitalia reforms of 7 BC, Dionysius of
Halicarnassus reports Servius' fathering by a Lar and his founding of
Compitalia as ancient Roman traditions. In Servius,
ready association with a popular benefactor and refounder of Rome,
whose reluctance to adopt kingship distanced him from its taints.
Augustus brought the
Compitalia and its essentially plebeian
festivals, customs and political factions under his patronage and if
need be, his censorial powers. He did not, however, trace his
lineage and his re-founding to Servius – who even with part-divine
ancestry still had servile connections – but with Romulus, patrician
founding hero, ancestor of the divine Julius Caesar, descendant of
Venus and Mars.
Plutarch admires the Servian reforms for their
imposition of good order in government, the military and public
morality, and Servius himself as the wisest, most fortunate and best
of all Rome's kings.
^ According to Livy, Ab Urbe Condita; the dates are accepted by most
ancient Romans writers.
^ a b Cornell, TJ (1995). The Beginnings of Rome. London: Routledge.
^ Based on the reckoning of Roman historians, the Roman kingdom lasted
about 250 years; either the list of kings is implausibly short, or
their reigns are implausibly long. The earliest kings in particular
could represent the attributes and achievements of several distinct
personalities. See further discussion in Cornell, 120 - 121, 226.
^ Cornell, pp. 57 - 60
^ Cornell, pp. 120 - 121, 226.
^ Cornell, p.2
^ Cornell, pp. 6, 199 - 122.
^ Cornell, pp. 21 - 26.
^ For Claudius' theory on Servius' origins, see the text of the Lyons
Livy gives her husband's name as Servius Tullius, chief man of
Corniculum ("[…] qui princeps in illa urbe fuerat […]"); the son
is named after the father. See Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1.39. Dionysius
offers a near identical version as "the most likely".
^ Plutarch, Moralia, On the fortune of the Romans, 10, 64: available
online (Loeb) at Thayer's website 
^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1.39.
^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1.39: see also Dionysius, 4.
^ Plutarch, Moralia, On the fortune of the Romans, 10, 64: available
online (Loeb) at Thayer's website .
Plutarch cites Valerius Antias,
Fragment 12; in Peter, Frag. Hist. Rom. p154., for the appearance of
the nimbus around the sleeping Servius in adulthood, while as his wife
^ Cornell, 131: see Dionysus of Halicarnassus, 4.3.
^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1.40
^ Livy, 1.41.
^ Plutarch, Moralia, On the fortune of the Romans, 10, 64: available
online (Loeb) at Thayer's website : see also Ovid, Fasti, 6.627 ff;
Livy, 1#39I.39; Pliny, Natural History, 36 & 70.27.204.
^ Livy, 1.42
^ Cornell, pp. 144 - 147, 173 -175, 183 (military character of
reforms, especially in census).
^ Cornell, pp. 115 - 118.
Census derives from Latin censere, "to judge" or "to estimate".
^ Cornell, pp. 194 - 197.
^ Cornell, p. 25.
^ The Servian "centuries" are therefore held to mean "groups".
^ The as of this era represented a particular weight of bronze — one
pound, according to Cornell — much heavier than the later as; its
value cannot therefore be represented as a fraction or equivalent of
later Roman coinage (as, sesterce or denarius). See Cornell, pp. 180 -
^ Cornell, pp.186 - 190, 194 - 196.
^ See Cornell, p. 179, who is citing Livy, 1.43, and Dionysius of
Halicarnassus IV, 16 - 18. Descriptions of the armour and arms to be
supplied by members of each class are almost certainly learned,
speculative introjections by
Livy and Dionysius.
^ Lendon, J.E., Soldiers & Ghosts: A History of Battle in
Classical Antiquity, Yale University Press (2005),
ISBN 0-300-11979-8, ISBN 978-0-300-11979-4, p. 182: The
Greek-style phalanx was known to the Romans of the Regal era, and
their front-line fighting men were armed identically to early Greek
^ Cornell, p. 196.
^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1.44. The named regions, in this sequence (I
- IV), are in Varro, Lingua Latina, 5. 45.
^ Similar tribal areas, perhaps known as pagi, may have extended into
the surrounding Roman territories (ager Romanus), and some of their
inhabitants would have qualified for citizenship under the Servian
class reforms. Discussion in Cornell, pp. 176 - 179.
^ Cornell, pp. 173.
^ Servius is credited as inventor of minted bronze coinage by Pliny
the Elder, on the authority of Timaeus (circa 360 BC):
Servius with the first issues of minted silver coinage. See discussion
in Crawford, Michael H., "The Early Roman Economy, 753 - 280 BC",
Publications de l'École française de Rome, 1976, Volume 27 Numéro 1
^ See discussion in Cornell, pp. 281-283
^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities 4.9
^ Livy, 2.46, 3.39.9. See also Cicero's assertion that Rome should be
governed not by the general populace but by the"best men" (optimates):
see Cicero, Pro Sestio, 96.
^ Beard, North, Price, Religions of Rome: Vol. 1, a History, 1998, p.
^ Lott, John. B., The Neighborhoods of Augustan Rome, Cambridge,
Cambridge University Press, 2004. p. 31 ff.
^ Cornell, pp. 146 - 148. cf. images of a "goddess at the window" and
forms of ruler-marriage to a tutelary deity.
Plutarch credits Servius
with the appreciative foundation of a temple
Fortuna Primigenia, and
Fortuna Obsequens – and "the greater part" of her titles and
honours: due gratitude from one who "through good fortune, had been
promoted from the family of a captive enemy to the kingship" - see
Plutarch, Moralia, On the fortune of the Romans, 10.58-63. English
version (Loeb) at Thayer's website . For possible locations of the
Porta Fenestella and the associated Nova Via, see also T. P. Wiseman,
"Where Was the Nova Via?", Papers of the British School at Rome, 72,
2004, pp. 167-183.
^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1.42, 1.46, 1.47.
^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1.49
^ The Compital shrines of the
Lares of the vici (s.vicus) or political
wards were sited at crossroads; cf their popular association with
^ Feldherr, Andrew. Spectacle and Society in Livy's History. Berkeley:
University of California Press, c1998 (online) 
^ Cornell, 132-3: these include Caeculus, legendary founder of
Praeneste: dynastic founders such as Sargon, Cyrus and Ptolemy Soter:
and tyrants and usurpers such as Cypselus, Agathocles and Hiero II.
^ Servius' extraordinary paternity and maternity as native Roman
founder-traditions are discussed in Wiseman, T. P. Remus: A Roman
Myth. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995, 58 - 60.
^ Cornell, 130 - 133.
^ Grandazzi, 45.
^ Grandazzi, 206 - 211.
^ Cornell, 131, 146.
^ Cornell, p. 132.
^ Eleanor Huzar, in Temporini/Haase (eds), Aufstieg und Niedergang der
römischen Welt, (ANRW), Sprache und Literatur (Literatur der
julisch-claudischen und der flavischen Zeit), 1984, p.623. No
evidence remains to attest the quality of Claudius' Etruscan
scholarship or his grasp of the Etruscan language, despite his
production of a multi-volume work, now lost, on Etruscan history.
^ In Claudius' speech, Macstarna is Caelius Vibenna's sodalis
fidelissimus (most faithful companion)
^ Cornell, 133 - 141, 143 - 145, 235; Cornell describes these
speculated connections as attractive but flimsy, being based entirely
on the slight orthographic similarities of "macstrna" and "magister".
^ Servius' reforms reflect a general trend in the Graeco-Roman world,
whose rulers increasingly sought a popular base of support, appealing
directly to the commoner-soldiery and if possible, bypassing the
aristocracy; in the ancient world, this was effectively the definition
of tyranny. See Cornell, 148, 238.
^ Cornell, pp. 195 - 197, 334 - 335.
^ Lott, 31: citing Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 4.14.3-4. See also
Beard, North, Price, Religions of Rome, Vol. 1, A History, Cambridge
University Press, 1998. p 184, for Augustan reforms and their
connection to older, traditionally Servian social and religious
^ Plutarch, Moralia, On the fortune of the Romans, 10.58-63. English
version (Loeb) at Thayer's website 
Beard, M., Price, S., North, J., Religions of Rome: Volume 1, a
History, illustrated, Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Cornell, T., The beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze
Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000 – 264 BC), Routledge, 1995.
Grandazzi, Alexandre, The foundation of Rome: myth and history,
Cornell University Press, 1997, ISBN 978-0-8014-8247-2 
Lendon, J.E., Soldiers & Ghosts: A History of Battle in Classical
Antiquity, Yale University Press (2005), ISBN 0-300-11979-8,
Smith, William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, 1870, under
The Roman Assemblies
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus
King of Rome
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus
Kings of Rome
Romulus (753–717 BC)
Numa Pompilius (717–673 BC)
Tullus Hostilius (673–642 BC)
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Lucius Tarquinius Priscus
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus (616–579 BC)
Servius Tullius (578–535 BC)
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Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (535–510 BC/509 BC)
Founding of Rome
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus
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Aruns (son of Tarquinius Superbus)
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Culture and society
Apollo of Veii
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Corpus Speculorum Etruscorum
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Siege of Rome (509 BC)
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National Etruscan Museum
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Ancient Roman religion and mythology
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Glossary of ancient Roman religion
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