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The serval (Leptailurus serval) /ˈsɜːrvəl/ is a wild cat native to Africa. It is rare in North Africa
North Africa
and the Sahel, but widespread in sub-Saharan countries except rainforest regions. On the IUCN
IUCN
Red List it is listed as Least Concern.[1] It is the sole member of the genus Leptailurus and was first described by German naturalist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber
Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber
in 1776. Eighteen subspecies are recognised. The serval is a slender, medium-sized cat that stands 54–62 cm (21–24 in) at the shoulder and weighs 9–18 kg (20–40 lb). It is characterised by a small head, large ears, a golden-yellow to buff coat spotted and striped with black, and a short, black-tipped tail. The serval has the longest legs of any cat relative to its body size. Active in the day as well as at night, servals tend to be solitary with minimal social interaction. Both sexes establish highly overlapping home ranges of 10 to 32 km2 (4–12 sq mi), and mark them with feces and saliva. Servals are carnivores – they prey on rodents (particularly vlei rats), small birds, frogs, insects, and reptiles. The serval uses its sense of hearing to locate the prey; to kill small prey, it leaps over 2 m (6 ft 7 in) above the ground to land on the prey on its forefeet, and finally kills it with a bite on the neck or the head. Mating takes place at different times of the year in different parts of their range, but typically once or twice a year in an area. After a gestational period of two to three months, a litter of one to four is born. Weaning occurs at one month, and kittens begin hunting on their own at six months. The juveniles leave their mother at 12 months. The serval prefers areas with cover such as reeds and tall grasses and proximity to water bodies, such as wetlands and savannahs. It occurs in protected areas across its range, and hunting of servals is either prohibited or regulated in several countries.

Contents

1 Taxonomy and phylogeny 2 Etymology 3 Characteristics 4 Ecology and behaviour

4.1 Hunting and diet 4.2 Reproduction

5 Habitat and distribution 6 Threats and conservation 7 Relationship with human beings 8 Hybrid 9 References 10 External links

Taxonomy and phylogeny[edit] The scientific name of the serval is Leptailurus serval. It is the sole member of the genus Leptailurus.[2] The species was first described by German naturalist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber
Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber
as Felis
Felis
serval.[3] In 1858, Russian naturalist Nikolai Severtzov proposed the genus name Leptailurus.[4] In the 19th and 20th centuries, some taxonomists inspected serval skins and identified two species on the basis of coat pattern: Felis serval (serval), with large, pronounced spots, and F. servalina or F. ornata (servaline cat), marked by freckle-sized dots.[5] F. servalina was first described in 1839 by Irish naturalist William Ogilby from Sierra Leone;[6] in 1867, British zoologist John Edward Gray
John Edward Gray
described F. herschelii from an Indian skin, which was probably the same as the servaline cat.[7] In 1907, British zoologist Reginald Innes Pocock commented that the two forms should be considered independent species, but reverted from this in 1917.[8] Eventually, the two forms came to be recognised as the same species. Another form, F. himalayanus (Himalayan serval), was described from a skin procured from the Himalayan region; however, Scottish naturalist William Jardine noted in The Naturalist's Library (1843) that no such specimen had been identified by him or his colleagues, and that it differed considerably from the common serval.[9] In 1944, Pocock identified three races of the serval from northern Africa.[10] The phylogenetic relationships of the serval have remained in dispute; in 1997, palaeontologists M. C. McKenna and S. K. Bell classified Leptailurus as a subgenus of Felis, while others like O. R. P. Bininda-Edmonds (of the Technical University of Munich) have grouped it with Felis, Lynx
Lynx
and Caracal. Studies in the 2000s and the 2010s show that the serval, along with the caracal and the African golden cat, forms one of the eight lineages of Felidae. According to a 2006 genetic study, the Caracal
Caracal
lineage came into existence 8.5 mya, and the ancestor of this lineage arrived in Africa 8.5–5.6 mya.[11][12] Up to 18 subspecies are currently recognised,[2] although some authors recognize fewer:[13]

L. s. beirae (Wroughton, 1910) L. s. brachyurus (Wagner, 1841) L. s. constantinus (Forster, 1780) L. s. faradjius (J. A. Allen, 1924) L. s. ferrarii (de Beaux, 1924) L. s. hamiltoni (Roberts, 1931) L. s. hindei (Wroughton, 1910) L. s. kempi (Wroughton, 1910) L. s. kivuensis (Lönnberg, 1919) L. s. lipostictus (Pocock, 1907) L. s. lonnbergi (Cabrera, 1910) L. s. mababiensis (Roberts, 1932) L. s. pantastictus (Pocock, 1907) L. s. phillipsi (G. M. Allen, 1914) L. s. pococki (Cabrera, 1910) L. s. robertsi (Ellerman, Morrison-Scott and Hayman, 1953) L. s. serval (Schreber, 1776) L. s. togoensis (Matschie, 1893)

The 2006 study gave the phylogenetic relationships of the serval as follows:[11][12]

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
( Catopuma
Catopuma
badia)

Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Caracal

Serval
Serval
(Leptailurus serval)

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal)

African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis)

Margay
Margay
(L. wieldii)

Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita)

Colocolo
Colocolo
(L. colocolo)

Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi)

Kodkod
Kodkod
('L. guigna)

Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus)

Lynx

Etymology[edit] The name Leptailurus may have been constructed from the medieval Greek λεπταλέος or λεπτός meaning "fine, delicate".[14] The name "serval" could have been derived from the Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
words Lupus cervalis ("deer-like wolf") or from its Portuguese equivalent lobo-cerval (referring to the Iberian lynx). The first recorded use of this name dates back to 1771.[15] Another name for the serval is "tierboskat",[16] Afrikaans
Afrikaans
for tiger-forest-cat. Characteristics[edit]

A close-up of a serval.

The serval is a slender, medium-sized cat; it stands 54 to 62 cm (21–24 in) at the shoulder and weighs 8 to 18 kg (18–40 lb), but females tend to be lighter. The head-and-body length is typically between 67 and 100 cm (26–39 in).[17] Males tend to be sturdier than females.[8] Prominent characteristics include the small head, large ears, spotted and striped coat, long legs and a black-tipped tail that is around 30 cm (12 in) long.[16][18] The serval has the longest legs of any cat relative to its body size, largely due to the greatly elongated metatarsal bones in the feet.[5][19] The toes are elongated as well, and unusually mobile.[5] The coat is basically golden-yellow to buff, and extensively marked with black spots and stripes.[8] The spots show great variation in size. Melanistic servals are also known.[5] Facial features include the brownish or greenish eyes, white whiskers on the snout and near the ears, ears as large as those of a domestic cat (but large relative to the size of the head) and black on the back with a white horizontal band in the middle, whitish chin, and spots and streaks on the cheeks and the forehead. Three to four black stripes run from the back of the head onto the shoulders, and then break into rows of spots. The white underbelly has dense and fluffy basal fur, and the soft guard hairs (the layer of fur protecting the basal fur) are 5–10 centimetres (2–4 in) long. Guard hairs are up to 3 centimetres (1 1⁄4 in) long on the neck, back and the flanks, and are merely 1 centimetre (1⁄2 in) long on the face.[18][20][8] The closely set ears are black on the back with a horizontal white band;[8] the ears can rotate up to 180 degrees independently of each other.[5] The serval has a good sense of smell, hearing and vision.[18]

A leucistic serval at Big Cat
Cat
Rescue[21]

The serval is similar to the sympatric caracal, but has a narrower spoor, a rounder skull, and lacks its prominent ear tufts. The African golden cat is darker, with different cranial features.[8] It resembles the cheetah in its build and coat pattern, though not in size.[18] The serval shares its adaptations to its marshy habitat with the jungle cat; both cats have large and sharp ears that help in locating the prey efficiently, and their long legs raise them above muddy ground and water.[22] Ecology and behaviour[edit]

Serval
Serval
has eyespots on the backs of its ears.

The serval is active in the day as well as at night; activity might peak in early morning, around twilight and at midnight. Servals might be active for a longer time on cool or rainy days. During the hot midday, they rest or groom themselves in the shade of bushes and grasses. Servals remain cautious of their vicinity, though they may be less alert when no large carnivores or prey animals are around. Servals walk as much as 2 to 4 kilometres (1 1⁄4 to 2 1⁄2 miles) every night.[16][17] Servals will often use special trails to reach certain hunting areas. A solitary animal, there is little social interaction among servals except in the mating season, when pairs of opposite sexes may stay together. The only long-lasting bond appears to be of the mother and her cubs, which leave their mother only when they are a year old.[8] Both males and females establish home ranges, and are most active only in certain regions ('core areas') within them. The area of these ranges can vary from 10 to 32 square kilometres (4 to 12 square miles); prey density, availability of cover and human interference could be significant factors in determining their size.[8][23] Home ranges might overlap extensively, but occupants show minimal interaction. Aggressive encounters are rare, as servals appear to mutually avoid one another rather than fight and defend their ranges. Agonistic behaviour involves vertical movement of the head (contrary to the horizontal movement observed in other cats), raising the hair and the tail, displaying the teeth and the white band on the ears, and yowling. Individuals mark their ranges and preferred paths by spraying urine on nearby vegetation, dropping scats along the way, and rubbing their mouth on grasses or the ground while releasing saliva. Servals tend to be sedentary, shifting only a few kilometres away even if they leave their range.[8][17] The serval is vulnerable to hyaenas and wild dogs. It will seek cover to escape their view, and, if the predator is very close, immediately flee in long leaps, changing its direction frequently and with the tail raised.[17] The serval is an efficient, though not frequent, climber; an individual was observed to have climbed a tree to a height of more than 9 metres (30 feet) to escape dogs.[5] Like many cats, the serval is able to purr;[24] it also has a high-pitched chirp, and can hiss, cackle, growl, grunt and meow.[5] Hunting and diet[edit]

A serval in South Africa

The serval is a carnivore that preys on rodents, particularly vlei rats, small birds, frogs, insects and reptiles, and also feeds on grass that can facilitate digestion or act as an emetic. Up to 90% of the preyed animals weigh less than 200 grams (7 oz); occasionally it also hunts larger prey such as duikers, hares, flamingoes and young antelopes.[5] The percentage of rodents in the diet has been estimated at 80-97%.[23][25][26] Apart from vlei rats, other rodents recorded frequently in the diet include the African grass rat, African pygmy mouse and multimammate mice.[8] Servals locate prey by their strong sense of hearing. To kill small prey, the serval will slowly stalk it, then pounce on it with the forefeet directed toward the chest, and finally land on it with its forelegs outstretched. The prey, receiving a blow from one or both of the serval's forepaws, is incapacitated, and the serval gives it a bite on the head or the neck and immediately swallows it. Snakes are dealt more blows and even bites, and may be consumed even as they are moving. Larger prey, such as larger birds, are killed by a sprint followed by a leap to catch them as they are trying to flee, and are eaten slowly. Servals have been observed caching large kills to be consumed later by concealing them in dead leaves and grasses. Servals typically get rid of the internal organs of rodents while eating, and pluck feathers from birds before consuming them. During a leap, a serval can reach more than 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) above the ground and cover a horizontal distance of up to 3.6 metres (11 ft 10 in); the cat can even change direction mid-air. Servals appear to be efficient hunters; a study in Ngorongoro
Ngorongoro
showed that servals were successful in half of their hunting attempts, regardless of the time of hunting, and a mother serval was found to have a success rate of 62%. The number of kills in a 24-hour period averaged 15 to 16. Scavenging has been observed, but very rarely.[5][8] Reproduction[edit]

Two young servals

Both sexes become sexually mature when they are one to two years old. Oestrus
Oestrus
in females lasts one to four days; it typically occurs once or twice a year, though it can occur three or four times a year if the mother loses her litters.[27] Observations of captive servals suggest that when a female enters oestrus, the rate of urine-marking increases in her as well as the males in her vicinity. Zoologist Jonathan Kingdon described the behaviour of a female serval in oestrus in his 1997 book East African Mammals. He noted that she would roam restlessly, spray urine frequently holding her vibrating tail in a vertical manner, rub her head near the place she has marked, salivate continuously, give out sharp and short "miaow"s that can be heard for quite a distance, and rub her mouth and cheeks against the face of an approaching male. The time when mating takes place varies geographically; births peak in winter in Botswana, and toward the end of the dry season in the Ngorongoro
Ngorongoro
Crater. A trend generally observed across the range is that births precede the breeding season of murid rodents.[5] Gestation lasts for two to three months, following which a litter of one to four kittens is born. Births take place in secluded areas, for example in dense vegetation or burrows abandoned by aardvarks and porcupines. Blind at birth, newborn weigh nearly 250 grams (9 oz) and have soft, woolly hair (greyer than in adults) and unclear markings. The eyes open after nine to thirteen days. Weaning begins after a month of birth; the mother brings small kills to her kittens and calls out to them as she approaches the "den".[5] A mother with young kittens rests for a notably lesser time and has to spend almost twice the time and energy for hunting than do other servals.[23] If disturbed, the mother will shift her kittens one by one to a more secure place.[20] Kittens eventually start accompanying their mother to hunts. At around six months, they acquire their permanent canines and begin to hunt themselves; they leave their mother at about 12 months of age. They may reach sexual maturity from 12 to 25 months of age.[5] Life expectancy is about 10 years in the wild, and up to 20 years in captivity.[28] Habitat and distribution[edit]

A serval at Diergaarde Blijdorp

The serval prefers areas with cover, such as reeds and tall grasses, and proximity to water bodies, such as wetlands and savannahs. It typically shuns rainforests and arid areas, though it can occur in semi-arid areas and cork oak forests in northern Africa, close to the Mediterranean Sea. Servals also occur on grasslands, moorlands and bamboo thickets at high altitudes; they are known to occur up to 3,800 m (12,500 ft) above sea level on Mount Kilimanjaro.[1][8] In the Luambe National Park
Luambe National Park
(Zambia), the population density was recorded as 0.1/km2 (0.26/sq mi) in 2011.[29] The serval is confined to Africa – it is rare in northern Africa and the Sahel, but widespread in southern Africa,[1] where their range is reportedly expanding.[29][30] In northern Africa, the serval is known only from Morocco and has been reintroduced in Tunisia, but is feared to be extinct in Algeria.[1] Threats and conservation[edit] The IUCN
IUCN
(International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) lists the serval as least concern; the animal is also included in CITES
CITES
Appendix II. A major threat to the survival of the serval include the degradation of wetlands and grasslands. Trade of serval skins, though on the decline, still occurs in countries such as Benin and Senegal. In western Africa, the serval has significance in traditional medicine. Pastoralists often kill servals to protect their animals, though servals generally do not prey upon livestock.[1] Servals occur in several protected areas across its range. Hunting of servals is prohibited in Algeria, Botswana, Congo, Kenya, Liberia, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Cape Province
Cape Province
(South Africa), and Tunisia; regulations apply in Angola, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Malawi, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Tanzania, Togo and Zambia.[1] Relationship with human beings[edit] The association of servals with human beings dates to the time of Ancient Egypt.[31] Servals are depicted as gifts or traded objects from Nubia
Nubia
in Egyptian art.[32] Like many other species of felid, servals are occasionally kept as pets, although their wild nature means that ownership of servals is regulated in most countries.[33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41] Hybrid[edit] Main article: Savannah cat On 7 April 1986, a healthy hybrid kitten between a male serval and a female domestic cat was born; this kitten was larger than a typical domestic kitten and resembled its father in its coat pattern. It appeared to have inherited a few domestic traits, such as tameness, from its mother. The hybrid cat may have a doglike habit of following its owner about, and can be a good swimmer. Over the years, savannah cats have gained popularity as pets.[42][43] References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g Thiel, C. (2015). "Leptailurus serval". The IUCN
IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e.T11638A50654625. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T11638A50654625.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018.  ^ a b Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
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Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 540. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ Schreber, J. C. D. (1778). "Der Serval". Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur, mit Beschreibungen. Erlangen: Wolfgang Walther.  ^ Severtzov, N. (1858). "Notice sur la classification multisériale des carnivores, spécialement des Félidés, et les études de zoologie générale qui s'y rattachent". Revue et Magasin de Zoologie, Pure et Appliquée (2). 10: 3–8; 145–150; 193–196; 241–246; 385–393.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Sunquist, M.; Sunquist, F. (2002). Wild Cats of the World. Chicago, US: University of Chicago Press. pp. 142–151. ISBN 978-0-226-77999-7.  ^ Gray, J. E., ed. (1869). Catalogue of Carnivorous, Pachydermatous, and Edentate Mammalia in the British Museum. London, UK: Natural History Museum. p. 24.  ^ Gray, J. E. (1874). "On the steppe-cat of Bokhara (Chaus caudatus)". The Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London: 31–33.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Kingdon, J.; Happold, D.; Butynski, T.; Hoffmann, M.; Happold, M.; Kalina, J. (2013). Mammals of Africa. London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 180–184. ISBN 978-1-4081-8996-2.  ^ Jardine, W. (1843). "Himalayan serval". The Naturalist's Library. 16: 230–231.  ^ Pocock, R. I. (1944). "Three races, one new, of the serval (Leptailurus) from North Africa". Journal of Natural History Series 11. 11 (82): 690–698. doi:10.1080/00222934408527466.  ^ a b Werdelin, L.; Yamaguchi, N.; Johnson, W. E.; O'Brien, S. J. (2010). "Phylogeny and evolution of cats (Felidae)". In Macdonald, D. W.; Loveridge, A. J. Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids (PDF) (Reprinted ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 59–82. ISBN 978-0-19-923445-5.  ^ a b Johnson, W. E.; Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W. J.; Antunes, A.; Teeling, E.; O'Brien, S. J. (2006). "The Late Miocene Radiation of Modern Felidae: A Genetic Assessment". Science. 311 (5757): 73–77. doi:10.1126/science.1122277. PMID 16400146.  ^ Wilson, Don E.; Mittermeier, Russell A., eds. (2009). Handbook of the Mammals of the World 1: Carnivores. Barcelona: Lynx
Lynx
Edicions. pp. 141–142. ISBN 978-84-96553-49-1.  ^ Liddell, H. G. & Scott, R. (1889). "λεπταλέος λεπτός". An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford: Clarendon Press.  ^ "Serval". Merriam-Webster
Merriam-Webster
Dictionary. Retrieved 1 April 2016.  ^ a b c Liebenberg, L. (1990). A Field Guide to the Animal
Animal
Tracks of Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: D. Philip. p. 257. ISBN 978-0-86486-132-0.  ^ a b c d Estes, R. D. (2004). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates (4th ed.). Berkeley, US: University of California Press. pp. 361–363. ISBN 978-0-520-08085-0.  ^ a b c d Schütze, H. (2002). Field Guide to the Mammals of the Kruger National Park. Cape Town, South Africa: Struik Publishers. pp. 98–99. ISBN 978-1-86872-594-6.  ^ Hunter, L. (2015). Wild Cats of the World. London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. p. 75. ISBN 978-1-4729-2285-4.  ^ a b Skinner, J. D.; Chimimba, C. T. (2005). The Mammals of the Southern African Subregion (3rd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 419–422. ISBN 978-0-521-84418-5.  ^ "Pharaoh". Big Cat
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Rescue. July 14, 2016.  ^ Hunter, L.; Hinde, G. (2005). Cats of Africa: Behaviour, Ecology, and Conservation. Cape Town, South Africa: Struik Publishers. pp. 76; 158. ISBN 978-1-77007-063-9.  ^ a b c Geertsema, A. A. (1984). "Aspects of the ecology of the serval Leptailurus serval in the Ngorongoro
Ngorongoro
Crater, Tanzania". Netherlands Journal of Zoology. 35 (4): 527–610. doi:10.1163/002829685X00217.  ^ Eklund, Robert. "4.2 Purring serval". Retrieved 7 March 2013.  ^ Smithers, R. H. N. (1978). " Serval
Serval
Felis
Felis
serval – Schreber, 1776". South African Journal of Wildlife Research. 8 (1): 29–37.  ^ Bowland, J. M.; Perrin, M. R. (1993). "Diet of serval (Leptailurus serval) in a highland region of Natal". South African Journal of Zoology. 28 (3): 132–135. doi:10.1080/02541858.1993.11448308.  ^ Wackernagel, H. (1968). "A note on breeding the serval cat Felis serval at Basle Zoo". International Zoo Yearbook. 8 (1): 46–47. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1090.1968.tb00433.x.  ^ Tonkin, B. A. (1972). "Notes on longevity in three species of felids". International Zoo Yearbook. 12: 181–182. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1090.1972.tb02319.x.  ^ a b Thiel, C. (2011). Ecology and population status of the serval Leptailurus serval (Schreber, 1776) in Zambia (PDF) (Thesis). University of Bonn. pp. 1–265.  ^ Herrmann, E.; Kamler, J. F.; Avenant, N. L. (2008). "New records of servals Leptailurus serval in central South Africa". South African Journal of Wildlife Research. 38 (2): 185–188. doi:10.3957/0379-4369-38.2.185.  ^ Faure, E.; Kitchener, A. C. (2009). "An archaeological and historical review of the relationships between felids and people". Anthrozoös: A Multidisciplinary Journal of the Interactions of People & Animals. 22 (3): 221–238. doi:10.2752/175303709X457577.  ^ Engels, D. W. (2015). Classical Cat: The Rise and Fall of the Sacred Cat. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-69293-4.  ^ "Children, meet the new pet: a 3-stone African wild cat". 5 December 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2018 – via www.thetimes.co.uk.  ^ "Wild Cat
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Hybrid Fad In California Concerning To Pet Experts". 5 November 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2018.  ^ " Serval
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- San Diego Zoo
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Animals & Plants". animals.sandiegozoo.org. Retrieved 6 April 2018.  ^ Casey, Liam (6 October 2016). " Serval
Serval
cat owner rails against Ottawa's exotic animal bylaw". Retrieved 6 April 2018.  ^ "​Exotic pet laws in B.C." Retrieved 6 April 2018.  zero width space character in title= at position 1 (help) ^ "Regulations Concerning the Private Possession of Big Cats: Canada - Law Library of Congress". www.loc.gov. 1 June 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2018.  ^ "Regina family fights to keep African cat - CBC News". Retrieved 6 April 2018.  ^ News, 69 (8 November 2017). "African serval rescued after found roaming Reading streets". Retrieved 6 April 2018.  ^ "Family with two young children become first in Britain to adopt Serval". Retrieved 6 April 2018.  ^ "Blast from the Past: The Very First F1 Savannah" (PDF). Feline Conservation Federation. 51 (4): 32. 2007.  (Original essay: Wood, Suzi (November 1986). LIOC-ESCF 30 (6): 15.) ^ Frater, J. (2014). Listverse.com's Epic Book of Mind-Boggling Lists: Unbelievable Facts and Astounding Trivia on Movies, Music, Crime, Celebrities, History, and More. California, US: Ulysses Press. p. 232. ISBN 978-1-61243-297-7. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Leptailurus serval.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Leptailurus serval

Look up serval in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Species portrait of serval by the IUCN/SSC Cat
Cat
Specialist Group "Serval". African Wildlife Foundation. Retrieved 13 March 2007.  " Serval
Serval
fact sheet". San Diego Zoo. Retrieved 25 July 2013. 

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat
Domestic cat
(F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Cats portal Mammals portal Animals portal Africa portal

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q42699 ADW: Leptailurus ARKive: leptailurus-serval EoL: 1041048 EPPO: LPTLSE GBIF: 2435172 iNaturalist: 42025 ITIS: 552766 IUCN: 11638 MSW: 14000132 NCBI: 61

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