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SERGE is a type of twill fabric that has diagonal lines or ridges on both sides, made with a two-up, two-down weave . The worsted variety is used in making military uniforms , suits , great coats and trench coats . Its counterpart, silk serge, is used for linings. French serge is a softer, finer variety. The word is also used for a high quality woolen woven fabric.

ETYMOLOGY AND HISTORY

The name is derived from Old French serge, itself from Latin serica, from Greek σηρικός (serikos), meaning "silken". The early association of silk serge, Greece, and France is shown by the discovery in Charlemagne
Charlemagne
's tomb of a piece of silk serge dyed with Byzantine motifs, evidently a gift from the Byzantine Imperial Court in the 8th or 9th century AD. It also appears to refer to a form of silk twill produced in the early renaissance in or around Florence, used for clerical cassocks. A reference can be found in Don Quixote
Don Quixote
: "I am more pleased to have found it than anyone had given me a Cassock of the best Florentine serge" (The Curate, Book I, Chapter VI).

From early Saxon times, most English wool ("staples") was exported. In the early 16th century it went mainly to a Royal monopoly at Calais (then an English possession) and was woven into cloth in France or the Low Countries . However, with the capture of Calais
Calais
by the French on 7 January 1558, England began expanding its own weaving industry. This was greatly enhanced by the European Wars of Religion (Eighty Years\' War , French Wars of Religion ); in 1567 Calvinist refugees from the Low Countries included many skilled serge weavers, while Huguenot refugees in the early 18th century included many silk and linen weavers.

Denim is a cotton fabric with a similar weave; its name is believed to be derived from "serge de Nîmes" after Nîmes
Nîmes
in France.

SEE ALSO

* Tweed * Red Serge

REFERENCES

* ^ "serge", AccessScience, McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings

* ^ " Fabric swatch NO. 1 SERGE" (Sep/Oct 2010) Selvedge No. 36, p.79, London ISSN 1742-254X The article discusses the way in which the fabric serge has been used throughout history. * ^ Online Etymology Dictionary * ^ Lambert, Tim. "A History of Southampton". www.localhistories.org. Retrieved 26 November 2017. * ^ "BBC - Legacies - Immigration and Emigration - England - London - The world in a city". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 26 November 2017. * ^ Bryson, Bill (2016) . "'Manifest Destiny': Taming the West". Made in America. Transworld Publishers. p. 182. ISBN 978-1-784-16186-6 .

* Images from World History: Early Byzantine history (7 - 11th c. A.D.)

* v * t * e

Fabric

WOVEN

* Aertex * Airdura * Airguard * Barathea * Barkcloth * Batiste * Bedford cord * Bengaline * Beta cloth * Bombazine
Bombazine
* Brilliantine * Broadcloth * Buckram * Bunting * Burlap * C change * Calico * Cambric
Cambric
* Canvas
Canvas
* Chambray * Capilene
Capilene
* Cedar bark * Challis * Char cloth * Charmeuse * Charvet * Cheesecloth
Cheesecloth
* Chiffon * Chino * Chintz
Chintz
* Cloqué * Cloth of gold
Cloth of gold
* Cordura
Cordura
* Corduroy
Corduroy
* Duck * Coutil * Crape * Crêpe * Cretonne * Dazzle * Denim * Dimity * Donegal tweed
Donegal tweed
* Dornix * Dowlas * Drill * Drugget * Eolienne
Eolienne
* Flannel
Flannel
* Foulard * Fustian * Gabardine * Gauze * Gazar
Gazar
* Georgette * Ghalamkar * Gingham * Grenadine * Grenfell Cloth * Grosgrain * Habutai * Haircloth
Haircloth
* Harris Tweed
Harris Tweed
* Herringbone * Himroo * Hodden * Irish linen * Jamdani
Jamdani
* Kerseymere * Khādī * Khaki drill * Kente cloth * Lamé * Lawn * Linsey-woolsey
Linsey-woolsey
* Loden * Longcloth * Mackinaw * Madapolam * Madras * Moleskin * Muslin
Muslin
* Nainsook * Nankeen * Ninon * Oilskin * Organdy * Organza * Osnaburg * Ottoman * Oxford * Paduasoy
Paduasoy
* Percale * Pongee * Poplin * Rakematiz * Rayadillo * Rep * Rinzu * Ripstop * Russell cord * Saga Nishiki
Saga Nishiki
* Samite * Sateen * Satin * Saye * Scarlet * Seersucker * Sendal * Serge * Scrim * Shot silk * Stuff * Taffeta * Tais * Toile
Toile
* Tucuyo * Tweed * Twill
Twill
* Ultrasuede
Ultrasuede
* Vegetable flannel
Vegetable flannel
* Ventile
Ventile
* Vinyl coated polyester * Viyella * Voile * Wadmal * Wigan * Whipcord * Zephyr * Zorbeez

FIGURED WOVEN

* Brocade * Camlet * Damask
Damask
* Lampas * Songket

PILE WOVEN

* Baize
Baize
* Chenille * Corduroy
Corduroy
* Crimplene * Fustian * Mockado * Moquette
Moquette
* Plush
Plush
* Polar fleece
Polar fleece
* Terrycloth * Velours du Kasaï * Velvet
Velvet
* Velveteen * Zibeline
Zibeline

NONWOVEN

* Felt
Felt
* Cedar bark

KNITTED

* Boiled wool * Coolmax * Machine knitting * Milliskin
Milliskin
* Jersey * Velour
Velour

NETTED

* Bobbinet * Carbon fiber * Lace * Mesh * Needlerun net
Needlerun net
* Ninon * Tulle

TECHNICAL

* Ballistic nylon * Ban-Lon * Conductive * Darlexx * E-textiles * Gannex * Gore-Tex * Silnylon * Spandex * Stub-tex * SympaTex * Windstopper

PATTERNS

* Argyle * Bizarre silk * Chiné * Herringbone * Houndstooth
Houndstooth
* Paisley * Pin stripes * Polka dot
Polka dot
* Shweshwe * Tartan
Tartan
(plaid) * Tattersall

TEXTILE FIBERS

* Acrylic * Alpaca * Angora * Cashmere * Coir * Cotton
Cotton
* Eisengarn * Hemp
Hemp
* Jute * Kevlar
Kevlar
* Linen * Mohair * Nylon
Nylon
* Microfiber
Microfiber
* Olefin * Pashmina
Pashmina
* Polyester
Polyester
* Piña
Piña
* Ramie * Rayon * Sea silk
Sea silk
* Silk * Sisal
Sisal
* Spandex * Spider silk * Wool
Wool

Finishing and printing

* Androsia * Batik * Beetling
Beetling
* Bingata * Bògòlanfini * Burnout * Calendering * Decatising * Devoré * Finishing * Fulling * Heatsetting * Mercerization * Moire * Nap * Rogan printing * Rōketsuzome
Rōketsuzome
* Roller printing * Sanforization
Sanforization
* Tenterhook * Textile
Textile
printing * Warp printing * Waxed cotton * Woodblock printing * Indienne

FABRIC MILLS

* Carlo Barbera * Cerruti * Dormeuil
Dormeuil
* Drago * Ermenegildo Zegna
Ermenegildo Zegna
* E. Thom