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SERER, sometimes called SERER-SINE "Serer proper" (_Seereer-Siin_, etc.) after its prestige dialect , is a language of the Senegambian branch of Niger–Congo spoken by 1.2 million people in Senegal and 30,000 in the Gambia . It is the principal language of the Serer people .

CONTENTS

* 1 Classification

* 2 Phonology

* 2.1 Consonants

* 3 Serer greetings * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 Bibliography

CLASSIFICATION

Serer is one of the Senegambian languages , which are characterized by consonant mutation . The traditional classification of Atlantic is that of Sapir (1971), which found that Serer was closest to Fulani . However, a widely cited misreading of the data by Wilson (1989) inadvertently exchanged Serer for Wolof . Dialects of Serer are Serer Sine (the prestige dialect ), Segum, Fadyut-Palmerin, Dyegueme (Gyegem), and Niominka . They are mutually intelligible .

Not all Serer people speak Serer. About 200,000 speak Cangin languages . Because the speakers are ethnically Serer, these are commonly thought to be Serer dialects. However, they are not closely related: Serer is significantly closer to Fulani than it is to Cangin.

PHONOLOGY

CONSONANTS

Consonants

LABIAL ALVEOLAR PALATAL VELAR UVULAR GLOTTAL

NASAL

_m_ m

_n_ n

_ñ_ ɲ

_ŋ_ ŋ

STOP _p_ p _b_ b ᵐb _t_ t _d_ d ⁿd _c_ c _j_ ɟ ᶮɟ _k_ k _g_ g ᵑɡ _q_ q

ᶰɢ ʔ

IMPLOSIVE _ƥ_ ɓ̥ _ɓ_ ɓ _ƭ_ ɗ̥ _ɗ_ ɗ _ƈ_ ʄ̊ _ƴ_ ʄ

FRICATIVE _f_ f

_s_ s

_x_ x

_h_ h

Approximant (Lateral )

_y_ j

_w_ w

_l_ l

FLAP

_r_ ɾ

The voiceless implosives are highly unusual sounds.

SERER GREETINGS

The following greetings and responses are spoken in most regions of Senegal that have Serer speakers.

* _Nam fi'o?_ (pronounced _nam feeyoh_) = How are you doing? * _Mexe meen._ (pronounced _may hay men_) = I am here. * _Ta mbind na?_ (pronounced, _tah mbind nah_) = How is the family? * _Owa maa._ (pronounced _owa maa_) = It is good.

In Senegalese culture, greetings are very important. Sometimes, people will spend several minutes greeting each other.

SEE ALSO

* Serer portal * Senegal portal * Gambia portal * Mauritania portal

* Cangin languages

NOTES

* ^ Serer at _ Ethnologue _ (18th ed., 2015) * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Serer". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Lewis, M. Paul (ed.), 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International, Ethnologue.com. Figures for (2006) The Gambia only. * ^ Sapir, David, 1971. "West Atlantic: an inventory of the languages, their noun-class systems and consonant alternation". In Sebeok, ed, _Current trends in linguistics,_ 7: _linguistics in sub-Saharan Africa_. Mouton, 45–112 * ^ Mc Laughlin (2005 :203)

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Fall, Papa Oumar (2013). "The ethnolinguistic classification of Seereer in question.". _in Africa: Challenges of Multilingualism, ds Altmayer, Claus / Wolff, H. Ekkehard, Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford_: 47–60. * McLaughlin, Fiona (1994). " Consonant mutation in Seereer-Siin". _Studies in African Languages_. 23: 279–313. * McLaughlin, Fiona (2000). " Consonant mutation and reduplication in Seereer-Siin". _Phonology_. 17: 333–363. doi :10.1017/S0952675701003955 . * Mc Laughlin, Fiona (2005), "Voiceless implosives in Seereer-Siin", _Journal of the International Phonetic Association_, 35 (2): 201–214, doi :10.1017/S0025100305002215 * Crétois, L. (1972). _Dictionnaire sereer-français (différents dialects)_ (in French). Dakar: Centre de Linguistique Appliquée de Dakar. * Fal, A. (1980). _Les nominaux en sereer-siin: Parler de Jaxaaw_ (in French). Dakar: Nouvelles Editions Africaines. * Senghor, L. S. (1994). "L'harmonie vocalique en sérère (dialecte du Dyéguème)". _Journal de la Société des Linguistes_ (in French). 14: 17–23.

* v * t * e

Serer topics

PEOPLES

SERER PEOPLES

* * Laalaa * Ndut * Niominka * Noon * Palor * Saafi * Seex

RELIGION

KEY TOPICS

* * Ciiɗ * Classical Ndut teachings * Creation myth * Criticism * Festivals * Jaaniiw * Junjung * Lamane * Sadax * Saltigue * Symbolism * Women

SUPREME DEITIES

* * Kokh Kox * Koox * Kopé Tiatie Cac * Roog (main)

OTHER DEITIES

* * Kumba Njaay * Takhar * Tiurakh

Saints and ancestral spirits

* * Ginaaru * Julang Joof * Laga Ndong * Lunguñ Joof * Mindiss * Moussa Sarr * Njemeh (of Languème ) * Njoxona * Ngojil Joof * Ngolum Joof

* Pangool

* list

SACRED SITES

* * Fatick * Sine River * Sine-Saloum * Somb * Point of Sangomar * Tattaguine * Tukar * Yaboyabo

* History * Philosophy * Science * Law * Geography * Politics

HISTORY

* Cekeen Tumulus * Khasso * Kingdom of Baol * Kingdom of Biffeche * kingdom of Saloum * Kingdom of Sine * Serer ancient history * Serer history (medieval era to present) * States headed by ancient Serer Lamanes * The Battle of Fandane-Thiouthioune * The Battle of Logandème * Timeline of Serer history * Western Sahara

Philosophy

* Science * Law

* Medicine

* medicinal plants

* CEMETRA

* Loup (healer)

* Saltigues and Loup practitioners

* MALANGO * Philosophy of beauty * Jom principle * Cosmology * Customary law

Geography Politics

* Farba Kaba * Jaraff * Serer countries

* Demographics * Culture

DEMOGRAPHICS

BY REGION

* * Gambia * Mauritania * Senegal

LANGUAGE

* * Cangin * Lehar * Ndut * Noon * Palor * Safen * Serer

CULTURE

* Birth * Chere * Death * Inheritance * Marriage * Mbalax * Njuup * Sabar * Tama * Tassu * Njom

ROYALTY

Kings and lamanes

* Lamane Jegan Joof * Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof * Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof * Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Fa Ndeb Joof * Maad a Sinig Mahecor Joof * Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh * Maad a Sinig Ama Joof Gnilane Faye Joof * Maad Ndaah Njemeh Joof * Maad Semou Njekeh Joof

Queens and queen mothers

* Lingeer Fatim Beye * Lingeer Ndoye Demba * Serer maternal clans

Dynasties and royal houses

* Faye family * Guelowar * Joof family * Joos Maternal Dynasty * The Royal House of Boureh Gnilane Joof * The Royal House of Jogo Siga Joof * The Royal House of Semou Njekeh Joof

Families and royal titles

* Buumi * Faye family * Joof family * Lamane * Lingeer * Loul * Maad Saloum * Maad a Sinig * Njie family * Sarr family * Sene family * Teigne * Thilas

* SERER PEOPLE CATEGORY

* SERER RELIGION CATEGORY

* Serer people portal

* Serer religion portal

* v * t * e

Languages of the Gambia

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE

* English

INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES

* Balanta * Cangin * Dyula * Fula * Karon * Kassonke * Mandinka * Mandjak * Pulaar * Serer * Soninke * Wolof

SIGN LANGUAGES

* Gambian Sign Language

* v * t * e

Languages of Senegal

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE

* French

NATIONAL LANGUAGES

* Balanta-Ganja * Hassaniyya * Jola-Fonyi * Mandinka * Mandjak * Mankanya * Noon * Pu