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The medieval history of the Serer people of Senegambia
Senegambia
is partly characterised by resisting Islamization from perhaps the 11th century during the Almoravid
Almoravid
movement (which would later result in the Serers of Takrur migration to the south), to the 19th century Marabout movement of Senegambia
Senegambia
and continuation of the old Serer paternal dynasties.

CONTENTS

* 1 Resistance to Islam, 11th century * 2 In Senegambia, southward migration * 3 Migration from Kabuu to Sine * 4 King Njaajan Njie * 5 Defeat of Portuguese slave raiders * 6 19th century Marabout Movement * 7 The effects of Islam * 8 Present * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 Bibliography

RESISTANCE TO ISLAM, 11TH CENTURY

Further information: Muslim conquest of the Sudan

According to Galvan (2004), "The oral historical record, written accounts by early Arab and European explorers, and physical anthropological evidence suggest that the various Serer peoples migrated south from the Fuuta Tooro region ( Senegal
Senegal
River valley) beginning around the eleventh century, when Islam first came across the Sahara." :p.51 Over generations these people, possibly Pulaar speaking herders originally, migrated through Wolof areas and entered the Siin and Saluum river valleys. This lengthy period of Wolof-Serer contact has left us unsure of the origins of shared "terminology, institutions, political structures, and practices." :p.52

Professor Étienne Van de Walle gave a slightly later date, writing that "The formation of the Sereer ethnicity goes back to the thirteenth century, when a group came from the Senegal
Senegal
River valley in the north fleeing Islam, and near Niakhar met another group of Mandinka origin, called the Gelwar, who were coming from the southeast (Gravrand 1983). The actual Sereer ethnic group is a mixture of the two groups, and this may explain their complex bilinear kinship system".

After the Arab invasion of North Africa, the Berbers of the north advanced Islam via the Almoravid
Almoravid
movement, penetrating parts of Africa, Europe and Asia. After the fall of the Ghana empire , the Serers resisted conversion and engaged in the battlefield to defend not only the Serer religion , but also their own power and wealth especially the Serer "Lamanic class" whose wealth and power was achieved through the Lamanic lineage .

The Serer earned their living from agriculture, animal husbandry , fishing, boat building (an ancient Serer tradition) and transporting people over the river.

The jihads that had affected Tekrur in the 11th century which led to the Serers of Tekrur exodus only affected those Serers living in Tekrur at the time. It did not apply to all Serer people. The Serer people are very diverse and spread throughout the Senegambia
Senegambia
founding towns and villages, the Serer names of these towns and villages still remain today.

“ ...the Serer traversed vast expanses of territory during pre-colonial times and saw the entire region as their home, as their history of migration in the area clearly shows.. ”

—  Godfrey Mwakikagile ,

IN SENEGAMBIA, SOUTHWARD MIGRATION

In the Senegambia
Senegambia
region , the Serer people were ruled by Lamanes . The Serer who have migrated from Tekrur to join their distant Serer relatives created a southward migration for Mandinka migrants. Godfrey Mwakikagile proposed that the Mandinkas were either defeated in battle or incorporated into Serer society. The Serers ruled over the Wolof kingdom of Jolof . They were ruling Jolof before the Jaw, Ngom, Mengue (or Mbengue) and Njie dynasties (who were all Serers with the exeception of the Mengue dynasty who were Lebou – Mengue or Mbengue is a Lebou surname). However, these Serer and Lebou rulers of Jolof (predominantly a Wolof area) became assimilated into Wolof culture.

MIGRATION FROM KABUU TO SINE

The actual foundation of the Kingdom of Sine is unclear, but in the late 14th century Mandinka migrants entered the area. They were led by a matrilineal clan known as the Gelwaar. Here they encountered the Serer, who had already established a system of lamanic authorities, and established a Gelwaar led state with its capital in or near a Serer lamanic estate centred at Mbissel . :p.54

Marriages between the Serer paternal clans such as Faye and Joof to the Guelwar women created the Serer paternal dynasties and a Guelowar maternal dynasty. According to Serer oral tradition a king named Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh (many variations in spelling: Maissa Wali, Maissa Wally also known as Maysa Wali Jon or Maysa Wali Dione) – (reigned 1350) was the first Guelowar
Guelowar
king of Sine. Having served for several years as legal advisor to The Great Council of Lamans and assimilated into Serer culture, he was elected and crowned the firstking of Sine in (1350). His sisters and nieces were married off to the Serer nobility and the offspring of these unions where the kings of Sine and later Saloum
Saloum
( Maad a Sinig and Maad Saloum respectively).

Henry Gravrand reported an oral tradition describing what he called the "Battle of Troubang", a dynastic war between the two maternal royal houses of Ñaanco and the Guelowar
Guelowar
,an off-shot and relatives of the Ñaanco (Nyanthio or Nyanco) maternal dynasty of Kaabu , in modern-day Guinea Bissau
Guinea Bissau
. In reporting this tradition, Henry Gravrand did not notice that this is actually a description of the 1867 (or 1865) Battle of Kansala .

KING NJAAJAN NJIE

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See also: Kingdom of Jolof , Kingdom of Sine , and Waalo

Njaajan Njie (English spelling in Gambia
Gambia
, Ndiandiane Ndiaye or N'Diadian N'Diaye – French spelling in Senegal
Senegal
, or Njaajaan Njaay - in the Serer language , also known as Amudu Bubakar b. 'Umar, is the traditional founder of the Jolof Empire by the Wolof people . Traditional stories of the ancestry of this leader vary. One suggests that he was "the first and only son of a noble and saintly Arab father Abdu Darday and a "Tukuler" woman, Fatamatu Sail." This gives him an Almoravid
Almoravid
lineage, ie a Berber and Islamic background, on his father's side, and a link on his mother's side to Takrur . James Searing adds that "In all versions of the myth, Njaajaan Njaay speaks his first words in Pulaar rather than Wolof, emphasizing once again his character as a stranger of noble origins." Njaajan Njie was the founder of the first Wolof kingdom and claimed by the Wolof as their ancestor.

John Donnelly Fage suggests although dates in the early 13th century (and others say 12th century) are usually ascribed to this king and the founding of the empire, a more likely scenario is "that the rise of the empire was associated with the growth of Wolof power at the expense of the ancient Sudanese state of Takrur, and that this was essentially a fourteenth-century development."

DEFEAT OF PORTUGUESE SLAVE RAIDERS

In 1446, a Portuguese caravel carrying the Portuguese slave trader - Nuno Tristão and his party attempted to enter Serer territory in order to carry out slave raiding . None of the adult passengers of that caravel survived. They all succumbed to Serer poisoned arrows except five young Portuguese (or less). One of them was left with the task to charter the caravel back to Portugal
Portugal
. Nuno was amongst those killed.

19TH CENTURY MARABOUT MOVEMENT

Main article: The Battle of Fandane-Thiouthioune

The Battle of Fandane-Thiouthioune also known as The Battle of Somb was a religious war (but also partly motivated by conquest – empire building ) between the Muslim
Muslim
Marabout movement of Senegambia
Senegambia
and the Serer people of Sine. On 18 July 1867, the leader of the Marabouts Maba Diakhou Bâ launched a jihad in the Serer Kingdom of Sine but was defeated and killed by the forces of Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof , King of Sine.

Maba Diakhou, a rather charismatic leader in the Marabout sect saw the propagation of Islam in Senegambia
Senegambia
and an Islamic empire as his divine mission. Although he did not achieve an Islamic empire, he had managed to conquer several villages in Senegal
Senegal
and Gambia
Gambia
and his movement was responsible for the Islamization of many Senegambians .

THE EFFECTS OF ISLAM

"...it is not false to conclude that besides theoretical, constitutional arguments based on modern law, there was an historical dimension to the crisis of December 1962, which helps explain that some members of this first government of modern Senegal
Senegal
could not get used to the idea of being surbordinates to a Serer head of state, L.S. Senghor ( Léopold Sédar Senghor ). Indeed, this president's ethnic community remains the object of scorn, of prejudices of Senegal's dominant communities. For the latter, conversion to Islam is still seen, somehow as a sign of progress and open-mindness, compared to these Serer peasants who long held on to their "pagan" beliefs and who became Muslims or converted to Christianity only recently..." M T Rosalie Akouele Abbey,

Although by the end of the twentieth century most Serer had converted to Islam(about 85% by the 1990s), Serer people's medieval to 19th century history in resisting Islamization has created a division between "believers" of Islam and "non-believers" such as the orthodox Serers who adhere to Serer religion . Klein notes that : "The most important factor dividing the peoples of Senegambia
Senegambia
was the differential impact of Islam. In this, the Serer stood out as the one group that had undergone no conversion."(Martin A. Klein)

This division is not just religious but also has an ethnic dimension. As recent converts to Islam, the Serers irrespective of their religious affiliation are the object of prejudice especially in Senegal
Senegal
where they make up the third largest ethnic group. As opponents of Islam for nearly a millennia , anti-Serer sentiments are not uncommon. However, the Serer countries, especially the Sine area of Senegal, is reported to be a true bastion of the anti-Islamic .

PRESENT

Main article: Serer people

At present, the Serer population is estimated to be over 1.8 million based on population figures for Senegal
Senegal
, Gambia
Gambia
and Mauritania
Mauritania
(2011) – excluding the Serers living in the West and elsewhere. They are more numerous in Senegal
Senegal
than in Gambia
Gambia
and Mauritania. Though traditionally mixed-farmers, boat builders and land owners, the Serers are found in all major professions including politics, medicine, literature, commerce, law, agriculture, etc. Polyculture
Polyculture
and boat building is still practiced by some Serers. Due to their Lamanic land inheritance system, they tend to have valuable land. Recently however, President Abdoulaye Wade
Abdoulaye Wade
's land reform law has affected many Serer farming communities in Senegal
Senegal
and they've lost their properties.

SEE ALSO

* Serer ancient history * Timeline of Serer history * Roog (Serer deity) * Serer religion * Serer people

* Senegal
Senegal
portal * Gambia
Gambia
portal * Mauritania
Mauritania
portal * Serer portal * History portal * Middle Ages portal

NOTES

* ^ See Mwakikagile , Ethnic Diversity and Integration in the Gambia:, p224 Klein, Islam and Imperialism in Senegal
Senegal
Sine-Saloum, 1847–1914, pp 7 & La civilisation Sereer, Pangool p 13 * ^ Klein, Martin, Islam and Imperialism in Senegal, Sine-Saloum, 1847–914 pp 62–93 * ^ Sarr , Histoire du Sine Saloum, pp 37–39 * ^ Diouf, Niokhobaye. pp 727–729 (pp 16–18) * ^ A B C Galvan, Dennis Charles, The State Must Be Our Master of Fire: How Peasants Craft Culturally Sustainable Development in Senegal Berkeley, University of California Press, 2004 p.51 * ^ Van de Walle, Étienne (2006). African Households: Censuses And Surveys. M.E. Sharpe. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-7656-1619-7 . * ^ David Robinson. Muslim
Muslim
Societies in African History. Muslim Societies in African History (New Approaches to African History). * ^ Lombard, Maurice, The golden age of Islam p 84. Markus Wiener (2003), ISBN 1-55876-322-8 * ^ Diouf, Mamadou, & Leichtman, Mara, "New perspectives on Islam in Senegal: conversion, migration, wealth, power, and femininity", Palgrave Macmillan (2009), the University of Michigan, ISBN 0-230-60648-2 * ^ Diouf, Mamadou, "History of Senegal: Islamo-Wolof model and its outskirts", Maisonneuve & Larose (2001), ISBN 2-7068-1503-5 * ^ Oliver, Roland Anthony, & Fage, J. D., "Journal of African History", Volume 10, Cambridge University Press (1969) * ^ "The African archaeological review", Volumes 17–18, Plenum Press (2000) * ^ Hopkins, J. F. P., & Levtzion, Nehemia, "Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History", pp 77–79, Cambridge University Press (1981) (Scholar) * ^ Trimingham, John Spencer, "A history of Islam in West Africa", pp 174, 176 & Ethnic diversity p 97 * ^ See : Gamble, David P. (in French) Becker, Charles, "Vestiges historiques, trémoins matériels du passé clans les pays sereer"', Dakar, 1993., CNRS – ORS TO M * ^ Mwakikagile, Godfrey , "The Gambia
Gambia
and Its People: Ethnic Identities and Cultural Integration in Africa", p 136. (2010), ISBN 9987-16-023-9 * ^ Mwakikagile, Godfrey, "Ethnic Diversity and Integration in the Gambia", p225 * ^ Mwakikagile, Godfrey, "Ethnic Diversity and Integration in the Gambia", p 224 * ^ Klein, Martin A. Islam and Imperialism in Senegal. Sine-Saloum, 1847-1914, Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-0621-6 p.8 * ^ A B Sarr, Alioune , Histoire du Sine-Saloum (Sénégal) Introduction, bibliographie et notes par Charles Becker. 1986-87, p 19 * ^ For Maysa Wali's reign, see : Sarr, Alioune, "Histoire du Sine-Saloum" (Sénégal), (introduction, bibliographie et notes par Charles Becker), in Bulletin de l'IFAN, tome 46, série B, nos 3–4, 1986–1987. p 19. See also : (in French) Éthiopiques, Volume 2, pp 100–101, Grande imprimerie africaine (1984) * ^ A B Ngom, Biram,(Babacar Sédikh Diouf). "La question Gelwaar et l’histoire du Siin", Dakar, Université de Dakar, 1987, 69 p. * ^ A B Sarr, Alioune, "Histoire du Sine-Saloum" (Sénégal), (introduction, bibliographie et notes par Charles Becker), in Bulletin de l'IFAN, tome 46, série B, nos 3-4, 1986–1987. p 19 * ^ Gravrand, Henry, "Le Gabou dans les traditions orales du Ngabou", Éthiopiques 28 special issue No, socialist journal of Black African culture (1981) * ^ Sarr, Alioune, p 19 * ^ Innes, Gordon, Suso, Bamba, Kanute, Banna , Kanute, Dembo, ""Sunjata : three Mandinka versions", p128, Psychology Press, 1974. ISBN 0-7286-0003-X * ^ Fage, J. D., Oliver, Roland Anthony, "The Cambridge history of Africa", p282, Cambridge University Press, 1975. ISBN 0-521-20413-5 * ^ A.A. Bartran (1979). John Ralph Willis, ed. Studies in West African Islamic History: Volume 1: The Cultivators of Islam. Routledge. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-7146-1737-4 . * ^ Searing, JAMES (2003). West African Slavery and Atlantic Commerce: The Senegal
Senegal
River Valley, 1700-1860. Cambridge University Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-521-53452-9 . * ^ Fiona Mc Laughlin; Salikoko S. Mufwene (2008). "The Ascent of Wolof as an Urban Vernacular and National Lingua Franca in Senegal". In Cécile B. Vigouroux, Salikoko S. Mufwene. Globalization and Language Vitality: Perspectives from Africa. Continuum. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-8264-9515-0 . Archived from the original on 9 July 2009. * ^ Anyidoho, Kofi, "Cross rhythms", Volume 1, "Occasional papers in African folklore", p 118, Trickster Press (1983) * ^ Fage, John Donnelly (1997). "Upper and Lower Guinea". In Roland Oliver. The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 3. Cambridge University Press. p. 484. ISBN 978-0-521-20981-6 . * ^ Hair, Paul Edward Hedley, "The Use of African Languages in Afro-European contacts in Guinea : 1440-1560", " Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
Language Review", no. 5, 1966, p. 13 * ^ Hair, Paul Edward Hedley, "Africa encountered: European contacts and evidence, 1450-1700", Variorum, 1997, pp 213–15 & 248, ISBN 0-86078-626-9 * ^ Sarr, Alioune, "Histoire du Sine-Saloum", Introduction, bibliographie et Notes par Charles Becker, BIFAN, Tome 46, Serie B, n° 3-4, 1986–1987. pp 37-39 * ^ Diouf, Niokhobaye. "Chronique du royaume du Sine" Suivie de notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. (1972). Bulletin de l'Ifan, Tome 34, Série B, n° 4, (1972). (pp 727–729, pp 16–18) * ^ Sarr, Alioune, "Histoire du Sine-Saloum " (Sénégal) Introduction, bibliographie et notes par Charles Becker. 1986-87, pp 37-39 * ^ Klein, pp 90-91 & 103 * ^ Diouf, Niokhobaye, pp 728–29 * ^ A B Lipschutz, Mark R., & Rasmussen, R. Kent, "Dictionary of African historical biography", p 128, 2nd Edition, University of California Press (1989), ISBN 0-520-06611-1 * ^ A B C Abbey, M T Rosalie Akouele, "Customary Law and Slavery in West Africa", Trafford Publishing (2011), pp 481–482, ISBN 1-4269-7117-6 * ^ Olson, James Stuart (1996). The Peoples of Africa: An Ethnohistorical Dictionary. Greenwood. p. 516. ISBN 978-0313279188 . * ^ Thiaw, Issa Laye , "La Religiosité des Sereer, Avant et Pendant Leur Islamisation", Éthiopiques, No: 54, Revue Semestrielle de Culture Négro-Africaine. Nouvelle Série, Volume 7, 2e Semestre 1991. * ^ A B Thiam, Iba Der , "Maba Diakhou Ba Almamy du Rip" (Sénégal), Paris, ABC, Dakar-Abidjan, NEA, 1977, p44 * ^ A B Klein, p 7 * ^ Thiaw, Issa Laye, "La Religiosité des Sereer, Avant et Pendant Leur Islamisation", Éthiopiques, No: 54, Revue Semestrielle de Culture Négro-Africaine, Nouvelle Série, Volume 7, 2e Semestre 1991 * ^ Galvan, "The state must be our master of fire:", pp 41, 44, 65, 260 & 305 * ^ Blanchet, Gilles "Élites et changements en Afrique et au Sénégal", ORSTOM (1983) pp 182–185 * ^ Ubink, Janine M, Hoekema, André J, Assies, Willem J, "Legalising Land Rights: Local Practices, State Responses and Tenure Security in Africa, Asia and Latin America", pp 259–287, Amsterdam University Press, 2010. ISBN 90-8728-056-4

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Becker, Charles, "Vestiges historiques, trémoins matériels du passé clans les pays sereer"', Dakar, 1993., CNRS – ORS TO M * Asante, Molefi K., "The history of Africa: the quest for eternal harmony", Routledge (2007), ISBN 0-415-77139-0 * Mwakikagile, Godfrey , "Ethnic Diversity and Integration in the Gambia: The Land, the People and the Culture", (2010), ISBN 9987-9322-2-3 * Mwakikagile, Godfrey, "The Gambia
Gambia
and Its People: Ethnic Identities and Cultural Integration in Africa", (2010), ISBN 9987-16-023-9 * Klein, Martin A., " Islam and Imperialism in Senegal
Senegal
Sine-Saloum , 1847-1914", Edinburgh University Press (1968), ISBN 0-85224-029-5 * Gravrand, Henry , "La Civilisation sereer, Cossan – les origines", vol. 1, Nouvelles Editions africaines (1983), ISBN 2-7236-0877-8 * Gravrand, Henry "La civilisation Sereer, Pangool", Nouvelles Editions africaines du Sénégal (1990), ISBN 2-7236-1055-1 * Sarr, Alioune , "Histoire du Sine-Saloum", (Sénégal), Introduction, bibliographie et notes par Charles Becker, BIFAN, Tome 46, Serie B, n° 3-4, 1986-1987 * Diouf, Niokhobaye, "Chronique du royaume du Sine", (Sénégal), Suivie de notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. (1972). Bulletin de l'Ifan, Tome 34, Série B, n° 4, (1972) * Phillips, Lucie Colvin, "Historical dictionary of Senegal", Scarecrow Press (1981), ISBN 0-8108-1369-6 * Clark, Andrew F. & Philips, Lucie Colvin, "Historical Dictionary of Senegal", Second Edition, Scarecrow Press (1994), ISBN 0-8108-2747-6 * Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire. Bulletin de l'Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire, Volume 38. IFAN, 1976. * Gamble,David P., & Salmon, Linda K. (with Alhaji Hassan Njie), Gambian Studies No. 17. "People of The Gambia. I. The Wolof" (with notes on the Serer and the Lebou), San Francisco 1985 * Stride, G. T., Ifeka, Caroline, "Peoples and empires of West Africa: West Africa in history, 1000-1800", Africana Pub. Corp., (1971), * Lombard, Maurice, "The golden age of Islam", Markus Wiener Publishers (2003), ISBN 1-55876-322-8 * Page, Willie F., "Encyclopedia of African history and culture: African kingdoms (500 to 1500)", Vol.2, Facts on File
File
(2001), ISBN 0-8160-4472-4 * Hopkins, J. F. P., Levtzion, Nehemia, "Corpus of early Arabic sources for West African history" ("al-'Umari in Levtzion and Hopkins," eds. and trans. "Corpus"), Markus Wiener Publishers (2000), ISBN 1-55876-241-8 * Hopkins, J. F. P., & Levtzion, Nehemia, "Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History", Cambridge University Press (1981). (Scholar) * Streissguth, Thomas, " Senegal
Senegal
in Pictures, Visual Geography", Second Series, Twenty-First Century Books (2009), ISBN 1-57505-951-7 * Ajayi, J. F. Ade & Crowder, Michael, "History of West Africa", Vol. 1, Longman (1985), ISBN 0-582-64683-9 * Holt, Peter Malcolm, "The Indian Sub-continent, south-East Asia, Africa and the Muslim
Muslim
West", Vol. 2, Part 1, Cambridge University Press (1977), ISBN 0-521-29137-2 * Oliver, Roland Anthony, Fage, J. D., "Journal of African history", Volume 10, Cambridge University Press (1969) * Catchpole, Brian, Akinjogbin, I. A., "A history of West Africa in maps and diagrams", Collins Educational (1983) * Trimingham, John Spencer, "A history of Islam in West Africa", Oxford University Press, USA (1970) * Woodson, Carter Godwin , "The African background outlined: or, Handbook for the study of the Negro", The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History , inc., (1936) * Ayalon, David, & Sharon, Moshe, "Studies in Islamic history and civilization: in honour of Professor David Ayalon", BRILL (1986), ISBN 965-264-014-X * Olson, James Stuart, "The peoples of Africa: an ethnohistorical dictionary", Greenwood Publishing Group (1996), ISBN 0-313-27918-7 * Behrman, Lucy C., " Muslim
Muslim
brotherhoods and politics in Senegal", Harvard University Press (1970) * Buah, F. K., "West Africa since A.D. 1000: history notes", Volumes 1–2, Macmillan * "An introduction to the history of West Africa", p 21, CUP Archive * Diouf, Mamadou , & Leichtman, Mara, "New perspectives on Islam in Senegal: conversion, migration, wealth, power, and femininity", Palgrave Macmillan (2009), the University of Michigan, ISBN 0-230-60648-2 * Diouf, Mamadou, "History of Senegal: Islamo-Wolof model and its outskirts", Maisonneuve & Larose (2001), ISBN 2-7068-1503-5 * "The African archaeological review", Volumes 17–18, Plenum Press (2000) * Gregg, Emma, Trillo, Richard "Rough guide to the Gambia", Rough Guides (2003), ISBN 1-84353-083-X * Julien, Charles André, Fage, John Donnelly, Suso, Bamba; Kanute, Banna; & Kanute, Dembo, "Sunjata : three Mandinka versions", Psychology Press (1974), ISBN 0-7286-0003-X * Gravrand, Henry , "Le Gabou dans les traditions orales du Ngabou", Éthiopiques 28 special issue No. "socialist journal of Black African culture" (1981) * Colvin, Lucie Gallistel, "Historical Dictionary of Senegal", Scarecrow Press/ Metuchen. NJ – London (1981) ISBN 0-8108-1885-X * Éthiopiques, Volume 2, Grande imprimerie africaine (1984) * (Ning & Sain 1972) Colvin, Lucie Gallistel, "Historical Dictionary of Senegal", Scarecrow Press/ Metuchen. NJ – London (1981) ISBN 0-8108-1885-X * Anyidoho, Kofi, "Cross rhythms", Volume 1, "Occasional papers in African folklore", Trickster Press (1983) * Taal, Ebou Momar, " Senegambian
Senegambian
Ethnic Groups:" Common Origins and Cultural Affinities Factors and Forces of National Unity, Peace and Stability, (2010) * Foltz, William J., "From French West Africa to the Mali Federation", Volume 12 of Yale studies in political science, Yale University Press (1965) * Diop, Anta Cheikh & Modum, Egbuna P., "Towards the African renaissance: essays in African culture & development", 1946-1960, Karnak House (1996), ISBN 0-907015-85-9 * Hair, Paul Edward Hedley, "The Use of African Languages in Afro-European contacts in Guinea : 1440-1560", " Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
Language Review", no. 5, (1966) * Hair, Paul Edward Hedley, "Africa encountered: European contacts and evidence, 1450-1700", Variorum, 1997, ISBN 0-86078-626-9 * Coifman, Victoria Bomba, "History of the Wolof state of Jolof until 1860 including comparative data from the Wolof state of Walo", University of Wisconsin
University of Wisconsin
- Madison (1969) * Hindson, Ed & Caner, Ergun, "The Popular Encyclopedia of Apologetics: Surveying the Evidence for the Truth of Christianity", Harvest House Publishers (2008) ISBN 0-7369-2084-6 * Ham, Anthony, "West Africa", Lonely Planet (2009), ISBN 1-74104-821-4 * Messier, Ronald A., "The Almoravids and the meaning of jihad", ABC-CLIO (2010), ISBN 0-313-38589-0 * Powell, John, "Magill's Guide to Military History: A-Cor", Salem Press, (2001), ISBN 0-89356-015-4 * Johnson, G. Wesley, "The emergence of Black politics in Senegal: the struggle for power in the four communes, 1900-1920", Stanford University Press (1971), ISBN 0-8047-0783-9 * "Research in African literatures", Volume 37. University of Texas at Austin. African and Afro-American Studies and Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, African and Afro-American Studies and Research Center, University of Texas (at Austin) (2006) * Lipschutz, Mark R., Hoekema, André J; ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Serer topics

PEOPLES

SERER PEOPLES

* * Laalaa * Ndut * Niominka * Noon * Palor * Saafi * Seex

RELIGION

KEY TOPICS

* * Ciiɗ * Classical Ndut teachings * Creation myth * Criticism * Festivals * Jaaniiw * Junjung
Junjung
* Lamane * Sadax * Saltigue * Symbolism * Women

SUPREME DEITIES

* * Kokh Kox
Kokh Kox
* Koox
Koox
* Kopé Tiatie Cac
Kopé Tiatie Cac
* Roog
Roog
(main)

OTHER DEITIES

* * Kumba Njaay * Takhar
Takhar
* Tiurakh
Tiurakh

Saints and ancestral spirits

* * Ginaaru * Julang Joof * Laga Ndong * Lunguñ Joof * Mindiss * Moussa Sarr * Njemeh (of Languème ) * Njoxona * Ngojil Joof * Ngolum Joof

* Pangool

* list

SACRED SITES

* * Fatick
Fatick
* Sine River * Sine-Saloum * Somb
Somb
* Point of Sangomar
Point of Sangomar
* Tattaguine
Tattaguine
* Tukar
Tukar
* Yaboyabo

* History * Philosophy * Science * Law * Geography * Politics

HISTORY

* Cekeen Tumulus * Khasso
Khasso
* Kingdom of Baol
Baol
* Kingdom of Biffeche * kingdom of Saloum
Saloum
* Kingdom of Sine * Serer ancient history * Serer history (medieval era to present) * States headed by ancient Serer Lamanes
States headed by ancient Serer Lamanes
* The Battle of Fandane-Thiouthioune * The Battle of Logandème
The Battle of Logandème
* Timeline of Serer history * Western Sahara
Western Sahara

Philosophy

* Science * Law

* Medicine

* medicinal plants

* CEMETRA

* Loup (healer)

* Saltigues and Loup practitioners

* MALANGO * Philosophy of beauty * Jom principle * Cosmology * Customary law

Geography Politics

* Farba Kaba * Jaraff * Serer countries

* Demographics * Culture

DEMOGRAPHICS

BY REGION

* * Gambia
Gambia
* Mauritania
Mauritania
* Senegal
Senegal

LANGUAGE

* * Cangin * Lehar * Ndut * Noon * Palor * Safen * Serer

CULTURE

* Birth * Chere * Death * Inheritance
Inheritance
* Marriage * Mbalax
Mbalax
* Njuup * Sabar
Sabar
* Tama * Tassu * Njom

ROYALTY

Kings and lamanes

* Lamane Jegan Joof * Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof * Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof * Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Fa Ndeb Joof * Maad a Sinig Mahecor Joof * Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh
Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh
* Maad a Sinig Ama Joof Gnilane Faye Joof * Maad Ndaah Njemeh Joof * Maad Semou Njekeh Joof

Queens and queen mothers

* Lingeer Fatim Beye * Lingeer Ndoye Demba * Serer maternal clans
Serer maternal clans

Dynasties and royal houses

* Faye family
Faye family
* Guelowar
Guelowar
* Joof family * Joos Maternal Dynasty * The Royal House of Boureh Gnilane Joof * The Royal House of Jogo Siga Joof *