The SERENGETI NATIONAL PARK is a
Tanzanian national park in the
Serengeti ecosystem in the Mara and Simiyu regions. It is famous for
its annual migration of over 1.5 million white-bearded (or brindled)
wildebeest and 250,000 zebra and for its numerous
Nile crocodile and
honey badger .
* 1 History
* 2 Geography
* 3 Wildlife
* 4 Administration and protection
* 5 Proposed road across the northern
* 6 Proposed extension of park boundaries to
* 7 In popular culture
* 8 Properties and lodges
* 9 Gallery
* 10 References
* 11 Further reading
* 12 External links
A group of lions in a tree on the
Maasai people had been grazing their livestock in the open plains
Mara Region , which they named "endless plains", for around
200 years when the first European explorer, Austrian
Oscar Baumann ,
visited the area in 1892. The name "Serengeti" is an approximation of
the word used by the Maasai to describe the area, siringet, which
means "the place where the land runs on forever".
The first American to enter the Serengeti,
Stewart Edward White ,
recorded his explorations in the northern
Serengeti in 1913. He
returned to the
Serengeti in the 1920s and camped in the area around
Seronera for three months. During this time, he and his companions
shot 50 lions.
Because the hunting of lions made them scarce, the British colonial
administration made a partial game reserve of 800 acres (3.2 km2) in
the area in 1921 and a full one in 1929. These actions were the basis
Serengeti National Park, which was established in 1951.
Serengeti gained more fame after the initial work of Bernhard
Grzimek and his son Michael in the 1950s. Together, they produced the
book and film
Serengeti Shall Not Die , widely recognized as one of
the most important early pieces of nature conservation documentary.
To preserve wildlife, the British evicted the resident Maasai from
the park in 1959 and moved them to the
Ngorongoro Conservation Area
Ngorongoro Conservation Area .
There is still considerable controversy surrounding this move, with
claims made of coercion and deceit on the part of the colonial
The park is Tanzania's oldest national park and remains the flagship
of the country's tourism industry, providing a major draw to the
Northern Safari Circuit encompassing
Lake Manyara National Park
Lake Manyara National Park ,
Tarangire National Park
Tarangire National Park ,
Arusha National Park
Arusha National Park and the Ngorongoro
Conservation Area . It has over 2,500 lions and more than 1 million
The park covers 14,750 square kilometres (5,700 sq mi) of grassland
plains, savanna , riverine forest, and woodlands. The park lies in
northwestern Tanzania, bordered to the north by the Kenyan border,
where it is continuous with the
Maasai Mara National Reserve . To the
southeast of the park is the
Ngorongoro Conservation Area
Ngorongoro Conservation Area , to the
southwest lies Maswa Game Reserve , to the west are the Ikorongo and
Grumeti Game Reserves , and to the northeast and east lies the
Loliondo Game Control Area . Together, these areas form the larger
Serengeti ecosystem .
The park is usually described as divided into three regions-
Serengeti plains: the almost treeless grassland of the south is
the most emblematic scenery of the park. This is where the wildebeest
breed, as they remain in the plains from December to May. Other hoofed
animals - zebra, gazelle, impala, hartebeest , topi , buffalo,
waterbuck - also occur in huge numbers during the wet season. "Kopjes"
are granite florations that are very common in the region, and they
are great observation posts for predators, as well as a refuge for
hyrax and pythons .
* Western corridor: the black clay soil covers the savannah of this
region. The Grumeti River and its gallery forests is home to Nile
crocodiles , patas monkeys , hippopotamus , and martial eagles . The
migration passes through from May to July.
Wildebeest on the main highway of the Western Corridor
Northern Serengeti: the landscape is dominated by open woodlands
Commiphora ) and hills, ranging from
Seronera in the
south to the Mara River on the Kenyan border. Apart from the migratory
wildebeest and zebra (which occur from July to August, and in
November), this is the best place to find elephant , giraffe , and dik
Human habitation is forbidden in the park with the exception of staff
Tanzania National Parks Authority , researchers and staff of
Frankfurt Zoological Society , and staff of the various lodges,
campsites and hotels. The main settlement is Seronera, which houses
the majority of research staff and the park's main headquarters,
including its primary airstrip . A group of flamingo in a small
An African leopardess and her cub in a tree on the Serengeti
Tanzanian cheetah in the
Grey crowned crane
Grey crowned crane in
Serengeti National Park,
Tanzania A herd
of elephants in the morning in
Serengeti National Park A Superb
starling in the
Serengeti National Park
The park is worldwide known for its incredible scenery and
magnificent wildlife. Some of the most popular animals among tourists
Masai lion : the
Serengeti is believed to hold the largest
population of lions in Africa due in part to the abundance of prey
species. More than 3,000 lions live in this ecosystem.
African leopard : these reclusive predators are commonly seen in
Seronera region but are present throughout the national park with
the population at around 1,000.
Tanzanian cheetah : the fastest running land animal can reach
speeds of up to 70 mph. The ability to be so quick allows them to
capture prey that no other animals can catch. It is estimated there
are over 1,000 individuals living in the park.
African bush elephant
African bush elephant : the herds have recovered successfully from
population lows in the 1980s caused by poaching , numbering over 5,000
individuals, and are largely located in the northern regions of the
Eastern black rhinoceros : mainly found around the kopjes in the
centre of the park, very few individuals remain due to rampant
poaching. Individuals from the Masai Mara Reserve cross the park
border and enter
Serengeti from the northern section at times.
African buffalo : still abundant and present in healthy numbers.
Serengeti wildebeest: the park is home to spectacular migration
events. Large ungulates from Grant's gazelles to blue wildebeests
travel across vast tracts of land as the seasons change. The
population of migratory wildebeests is approximately 1.2 million.
An impala in the park
Apart from the vast herds of migratory and some resident wildebeest
and zebra , the park is also densely packed with other plains game
including half a million Thomson\'s and Grant\'s gazelle , over 8,000
Masai giraffe , warthog , topi , common eland , waterbuck , grey
duiker , impala , klipspringer , roan antelope , bushbuck , lesser
kudu , fringe-eared oryx and coke\'s hartebeest .
Carnivores include about 4,000 spotted hyena , two species of jackals
African golden wolf , honey badger , striped hyena , serval , seven
species of mongooses , two species of otters and the recently
East African wild dog
East African wild dog (extinct since 1991). Apart from
the safari staples, primates such as yellow and olive baboons and
vervet monkey , patas monkey , black-and-white colobus are also seen
in the gallery forests of the Grumeti River.
Other mammals are include aardvark , aardwolf , bat-eared fox ,
ground pangolin , crested porcupine , three species of hyraxes , cape
Serengeti National Park has also great ornithological interest,
boasting about 500 bird species, including
Masai ostrich ,
secretarybird , kori bustards , helmeted guineafowls , southern ground
hornbill , crowned cranes , marabou storks , yellow-billed stork ,
lesser flamingo , martial eagles , lovebirds , oxpeckers , and many
species of vultures .
Serengeti National Park are include
Nile crocodile ,
leopard tortoise , serrated hinged terrapin , rainbow agama , Nile
monitor , chameleons , African python , black mamba , black-necked
spitting cobra , puff adder .
ADMINISTRATION AND PROTECTION
Because of its biodiversity and ecological significance, the park has
been listed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization as a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site . As a national park, it is
designated as a
Category II protected area under the system developed
International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature , which means
that it should be managed, through either a legal instrument or
another effective means, to protect the ecosystem or ecological
processes as a whole.
The administrative body for all parks in
Tanzania is the Tanzania
National Parks Authority . Myles Turner was one of the park's first
game wardens and is credited with bringing its rampant poaching under
control. His autobiography, My
Serengeti Years: The Memoirs of an
African Game Warden, provides a detailed history of the park's early
"Snapshot Serengeti" is a science project by the University of
Minnesota Lion Project, which seeks to classify over 30 species of
animals within the park using 225 camera traps to better understand
how they interact with each other and lions.
PROPOSED ROAD ACROSS THE NORTHERN SERENGETI
In July 2010, President
Jakaya Kikwete renewed his support for an
upgraded road through the northern portion of the park to link Mto wa
Mbu , southeast of
Ngorongoro Crater , and
Lake Victoria .
While he said that the road would lead to much-needed development in
poor communities, others, including conservation groups and foreign
Kenya , argued that the road could irreparably damage
the great migration and the park's ecosystem.
The African Network for Animal Welfare sued the
in December 2010 at the
East African Court of Justice in
prevent the road project. The court ruled in June 2014 that the plan
to build the road was unlawful because it would infringe the East
African Community Treaty under which member countries must respect
protocols on conservation, protection, and management of natural
resources. The court, therefore, restrained the government from going
ahead with the project.
PROPOSED EXTENSION OF PARK BOUNDARIES TO LAKE VICTORIA
Government officials have proposed expanding the
Park to reach
Lake Victoria because increasingly intense droughts are
threatening the survival of millions of animals.
IN POPULAR CULTURE
●The park was the location of filming for The Grassland Landscape
Serengeti along with Masai Mara
●The Fictional Gigantogiraffa was based on the
Giraffe of the
Serengeti National Park
PROPERTIES AND LODGES
* Buffalo Luxury Camp
* Dunia Camp
* Four Seasons Safari Lodge Serengeti
* Ikoma Tented Camp
* Kati Kati Camp
* Kiota Camp
* Lemala Kuria Hills Lodge
* Mbuzi Mawe Serena Camp
* Robanda Tented Camp
* Sayari Camp
Serengeti Bushtops Camp
Serengeti Pioneer Camp
Evening skyline *
A tree at dusk *
Stripes of zebra
Closer view of a human settlement
* ^ "Dar registers "three wonders"".
Daily News (Tanzania) . 20
August 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
* ^ The official Map of
Tanzania with New Regions and Districts,
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Human Settlements Development, 21
* ^ "Simiyu Region". Retrieved 22 October 2016.
* ^ "Dr. Oscar Baumann", Information about northern Tanzania: a
personal scrapbook of "cuttings" from published sources
* ^ A B C "Heartbreak on the Serengeti", National Geographic
Magazine, reported by Robert M. Poole, February 2006
* ^ "Stewart Edward White", Information about northern Tanzania: a
personal scrapbook of "cuttings" from published sources
Tanzania in figures 2012, National Bureau of Statistics,
Ministry of Finance, June 2013, page 12
* ^ Mduma H, Musyoki C, Maliti Kyale D, Nindi S, Hamza K, Ndetei R,
Machoke M, Kimutai D, Muteti D, Maloba M, Bakari S, and Kohi E.
"Aerial Total Count of Elephants and Buffaloes in the Serengeti-Mara
Ecosystem" (PDF). WWF-World Wide Fund For Nature (Formerly World
Wildlife Fund), Nairobi, Kenya. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors
list (link )
* ^ "
Serengeti - Myles Turner". Retrieved 22 October 2016.
* ^ "Snapshot Serengeti". Retrieved 12 December 2012.
* ^ "
Serengeti Road Plan Offers Prospects and Fears", New York
Times, reported by Jeffrey Gettleman, 30 October 2010
* ^ "
Serengeti Highway threatens great migration", Agence
France-Presse, reported by Francois Ausseill, reprinted at
StarAfrica.com, 29 October 2010
* ^ "Controversy over
Serengeti road plan deepens", Business Daily,
reported by Paul Wafula, 7 October 2010
* ^ "
Serengeti road case", The Citizen, reported by
Zephania Ubwani, 21 June 2014, accessed 23 November 2014
* ^ "Thirsty
Serengeti wildlife to get new water hole: Lake
Victoria", Reuters, reported by Kizito Makoye, 15 September 2014,
accessed 4 November 2014
* ^ "
Serengeti National Park Archives - Tanzania-Getaways".
Retrieved 22 October 2016.
* Homewood, K. W. & Rodgers, W. A. (1991), Maasailand Ecology:
Pastoralist Development and Wildlife Conservation in Ngorongoro,
Tanzania, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-40002-3 .
* Turner, Myles (1988), My
Serengeti Years: the Memoirs of an
African Games Warden, New York: W. W. Norton, ISBN 0-393-02576-4