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v t e

The Serbs
Serbs
(Serbian: Срби / Srbi, pronounced [sr̩̂bi]) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans. The majority of Serbs
Serbs
inhabit the nation state of Serbia
Serbia
(with a minority in disputed Kosovo), as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia
Croatia
and Montenegro. They form significant minorities in Macedonia and Slovenia. There is a large Serb diaspora in Western Europe, and outside Europe
Europe
there are significant communities in North America
North America
and Australia. The Serbs
Serbs
share many cultural traits with the rest of the peoples of Southeast Europe. They are predominantly Eastern Orthodox Christians by religion. The Serbian language
Serbian language
is official in Serbia, co-official in Kosovo
Kosovo
and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and is spoken by the plurality in Montenegro.

Contents

1 Ethnology 2 History

2.1 Middle Ages 2.2 Early modern period 2.3 Modern period

3 Demographics

3.1 Diaspora

4 Language 5 Culture

5.1 Art, music, theatre and cinema 5.2 Literature 5.3 Education and science 5.4 Names 5.5 Religion 5.6 Symbols 5.7 Traditions and customs 5.8 Cuisine 5.9 Sport

6 See also 7 Annotations 8 Reference 9 Sources

9.1 Books 9.2 Web

10 External links

Ethnology The modern identity of Serbs
Serbs
is rooted in Eastern Orthodoxy
Eastern Orthodoxy
and traditions. In the 19th century, the Serbian national identity
Serbian national identity
was manifested, with awareness of history and tradition, medieval heritage, cultural unity, despite living under different empires. Three elements, together with the legacy of the Nemanjić dynasty, were crucial in forging identity and preservation during foreign domination: the Serbian Orthodox
Serbian Orthodox
Church, the Serbian language, and Kosovo
Kosovo
Myth.[23] When the Principality of Serbia
Serbia
gained independence from the Ottoman Empire, Orthodoxy became crucial in defining the national identity, instead of language which was shared by other South Slavs
Slavs
( Croats
Croats
and Bosniaks).[24] The tradition of slava, the family saint feast day, is an important ethnic marker of Serb identity,[25] and is usually regarded their most significant and most solemn feast day.[26] The origin of the ethnonym is unclear (see Names of the Serbs and Serbia). Genetic studies on Serbs
Genetic studies on Serbs
show that they have close affinity with the rest of the Balkan peoples and especially those within former Yugoslavia; Y-DNA results show that haplogroups I2a and R1a together stand for roughly two thirds of the makeup (as of 2014).[27] Serbia has among the tallest people in the world, after Montenegro
Montenegro
and Netherlands, with an average male height of 1.82 metres (6 ft 0 in).[28] History Main articles: History of the Serbs
History of the Serbs
and History of Serbia Middle Ages

Nemanjić dynasty
Nemanjić dynasty
members, most important dynasty of Serbia
Serbia
in the Middle Ages

Slavs
Slavs
invaded and settled the Balkans
Balkans
in the 6th and 7th centuries.[29] Up until the late 560s their activity was raiding, crossing from the Danube, though with limited Slavic settlement mainly through Byzantine foederati colonies.[30] The Danube
Danube
and Sava
Sava
frontier was overwhelmed by large-scale Slavic settlement in the late 6th and early 7th century.[31] What is today central Serbia
Serbia
was an important geo-strategical province, through which the Via Militaris
Via Militaris
crossed.[32] This area was frequently intruded by barbarians in the 5th and 6th centuries.[32] The numerous Slavs
Slavs
mixed with and assimilated the descendants of the indigenous population.[33] The history of the early medieval Serbian Principality is recorded in the 10th-century work De Administrando Imperio, which describes the Serbs
Serbs
as a people living in Roman Dalmatia, subordinate the Byzantine Empire.[34] Numerous small Serbian states were created, chiefly under Vlastimorović and Vojislavjević dynasties, located in modern Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia. With the decline of the Serbian state of Duklja
Duklja
in the late 11th century, "Raška" separated from it and replaced it as the most powerful Serbian state.[35] Prince Stefan Nemanja
Stefan Nemanja
(r. 1169–96) conquered the neighbouring territories of Kosovo, Duklja
Duklja
and Zachlumia. The Nemanjić dynasty
Nemanjić dynasty
ruled over Serbia
Serbia
until the 14th century. Nemanja's older son, Stefan Nemanjić, became Serbia's first recognized king, while his younger son, Rastko, founded the Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
in the year 1219, and became known as Saint Sava
Sava
after his death.[36] Over the next 140 years, Serbia
Serbia
expanded its borders, from numerous minor principalities, reaching to an unified Serbian Empire. Its cultural model remained Byzantine, despite political ambitions directed against the empire. The medieval power and influence of Serbia
Serbia
culminated in the reign of Stefan Dušan, who ruled the state from 1331 until his death in 1355. Ruling as Emperor from 1346, his territory included Macedonia, northern Greece, Montenegro, and almost all of modern Albania.[37] When Dušan died, his son Stephen Uroš V became Emperor.[38] With Turkish invaders beginning their conquest of the Balkans
Balkans
in the 1350s, a major conflict ensued between them and the Serbs, the first major battle was the Battle of Maritsa
Battle of Maritsa
(1371),[38] in which the Serbs were defeated.[39] With the death of two important Serb leaders in the battle, and with the death of Stephen Uroš that same year, the Serbian Empire
Serbian Empire
broke up into several small Serbian domains.[38] These states were ruled by feudal lords, with Zeta controlled by the Balšić family, Raška, Kosovo
Kosovo
and northern Macedonia held by the Branković family
Branković family
and Lazar Hrebeljanović
Lazar Hrebeljanović
holding today's Central Serbia
Serbia
and a portion of Kosovo.[40] Hrebeljanović was subsequently accepted as the titular leader of the Serbs
Serbs
because he was married to a member of the Nemanjić dynasty.[38] In 1389, the Serbs
Serbs
faced the Ottomans at the Battle of Kosovo
Kosovo
on the plain of Kosovo
Kosovo
Polje, near the town of Pristina.[39] Both Lazar and Sultan
Sultan
Murad I
Murad I
were killed in the fighting.[41] The battle most likely ended in a stalemate, and Serbia
Serbia
did not fall to the Turks until 1459.[41] Early modern period The Serbs
Serbs
had taken an active part in the wars fought in the Balkans against the Ottoman Empire, and also organized uprisings; because of this, they suffered persecution and their territories were devastated – major migrations from Serbia
Serbia
into Habsburg territory ensued.[42] After allied Christian forces had captured Buda from the Ottoman Empire in 1686 during the Great Turkish War, Serbs
Serbs
from Pannonian Plain (present-day Hungary, Slavonia
Slavonia
region in present-day Croatia, Bačka
Bačka
and Banat
Banat
regions in present-day Serbia) joined the troops of the Habsburg Monarchy as separate units known as Serbian Militia.[43] Serbs, as volunteers, massively joined the Austrian side.[44]

The Great Serb Migrations, led by Patriarch Arsenije III Carnojevic, 17th century.

In 1688, the Habsburg army took Belgrade
Belgrade
and entered the territory of present-day Central Serbia. Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden called Serbian Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević
Arsenije III Čarnojević
to raise arms against the Turks; the Patriarch accepted and returned to the liberated Peć. As Serbia
Serbia
fell under Habsburg control, Leopold I granted Arsenije nobility and the title of duke. In early November, Arsenije III met with Habsburg commander-in-chief, General Enea Silvio Piccolomini in Prizren; after this talk he sent a note to all Serb bishops to come to him and collaborate only with Habsburg forces. A large migration of Serbs
Serbs
to Habsburg lands was undertaken by Patriarch Arsenije III.[45] The large community of Serbs
Serbs
concentrated in Banat, southern Hungary
Hungary
and the Military Frontier included merchants and craftsmen in the cities, but mainly refugees that were peasants.[45] The Serbian Revolution
Serbian Revolution
for independence from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
lasted eleven years, from 1804 until 1815.[46] The revolution comprised two separate uprisings which gained autonomy from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
that eventually evolved towards full independence (1835–1867).[47][48] During the First Serbian Uprising, led by Duke Karađorđe Petrović, Serbia
Serbia
was independent for almost a decade before the Ottoman army was able to reoccupy the country. Shortly after this, the Second Serbian Uprising began. Led by Miloš Obrenović, it ended in 1815 with a compromise between Serbian revolutionaries and Ottoman authorities.[49] Likewise, Serbia
Serbia
was one of the first nations in the Balkans
Balkans
to abolish feudalism.[50] Modern period In the early 1830s Serbia
Serbia
gained autonomy and its borders were recognized, with Miloš Obrenović
Miloš Obrenović
being recognized as its ruler. The last Ottoman troops withdrew from Serbia
Serbia
in 1867, although Serbia's independence was not recognized internationally until the Congress of Berlin in 1878.[42]

Gavrilo Princip, who assassinated Franz Ferdinand, which triggered the start of World War I.

Serbia
Serbia
fought in the Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
of 1912–13, which forced the Ottomans out of the Balkans
Balkans
and doubled the territory and population of the Kingdom of Serbia. In 1914, a young Bosnian Serb
Bosnian Serb
student named Gavrilo Princip
Gavrilo Princip
assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, which directly contributed to the outbreak of World War I.[51] In the fighting that ensued, Serbia
Serbia
was invaded by Austria-Hungary. Despite being outnumbered, the Serbs
Serbs
subsequently defeated the Austro-Hungarians at the Battle of Cer, which marked the first Allied victory over the Central Powers
Central Powers
in the war.[52] Further victories at the battles of Kolubara and the Drina meant that Serbia
Serbia
remained unconquered as the war entered its second year. However, an invasion by the forces of Germany, Austria- Hungary
Hungary
and Bulgaria overwhelmed the Serbs
Serbs
in the winter of 1915, and a subsequent withdrawal by the Serbian Army
Serbian Army
through Albania
Albania
took the lives of more than 240,000 Serbs. Serb forces spent the remaining years of the war fighting on the Salonika Front
Salonika Front
in Greece, before liberating Serbia
Serbia
from Austro-Hungarian occupation in November 1918.[53]

Stone Flower, a monument dedicated to the victims, including Serbs, of Jasenovac concentration camp

Serbs
Serbs
subsequently formed the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats
Croats
and Slovenes with other South Slavic peoples. The country was later renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and was led from 1921 to 1934 by King Alexander I of the Serbian Karađorđević dynasty.[54] During World War II, Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers
Axis powers
in April 1941. The country was subsequently divided into many pieces, with Serbia
Serbia
being directly occupied by the Germans.[55] Serbs
Serbs
in the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) experienced persecution at the hands of the Croatian ultra-nationalist, fascist Ustaše, who attempted to exterminate the Serb population in death camps. More than half a million Serbs
Serbs
were killed in the territory of Yugoslavia during World War II. Serbs
Serbs
in occupied Yugoslavia subsequently formed a resistance movement known as the Yugoslav Army in the Homeland, or the Chetniks. The Chetniks
Chetniks
had the official support of the Allies until 1943, when Allied support shifted to the Communist Yugoslav Partisans, a multi-ethnic force, formed in 1941, which also had a large majority of Serbs
Serbs
in its ranks in the first two years of war. Later, after the fall of Italy (September 1943), other ethnic groups joined Partisans in larger numbers.[55] At the end of the war, the Partisans, led by Josip Broz Tito, emerged victorious. Yugoslavia subsequently became a Communist state. Tito died in 1980, and his death saw Yugoslavia plunge into economic turmoil.[56] Yugoslavia disintegrated in the early 1990s, and a series of wars resulted in the creation of five new states. The heaviest fighting occurred in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, whose Serb populations rebelled and declared independence. The war in Croatia ended in August 1995, with a Croatian military offensive known as Operation Storm
Operation Storm
crushing the Croatian Serb
Croatian Serb
rebellion and causing as many as 200,000 Serbs
Serbs
to flee the country. The Bosnian War
Bosnian War
ended that same year, with the Dayton Agreement
Dayton Agreement
dividing the country along ethnic lines. In 1998–99, a conflict in Kosovo
Kosovo
between the Yugoslav Army and Albanians
Albanians
seeking independence erupted into full-out war, resulting in a 78-day-long NATO bombing campaign which effectively drove Yugoslav security forces from Kosovo.[57] Subsequently, more than 200,000 Serbs
Serbs
and other non- Albanians
Albanians
fled the province.[58] On 5 October 2000, Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosević
Slobodan Milosević
was overthrown in a bloodless revolt after he refused to admit defeat in the 2000 Yugoslav general election.[59] Demographics There are nearly 8 million Serbs
Serbs
living in their autochthonous region of Western Balkans. In Serbia
Serbia
(the nation state), around 6 million people identify themselves as Serbs, and constitute about 83% of the population. More than a million live in Bosnia and Herzegovina (predominantly in Republika Srpska), where they are one of the three constituent ethnic groups. The ethnic communities in Croatia
Croatia
and Montenegro
Montenegro
number some 186,000 and 178,000 people, respectively, while another estimated 146,000 still inhabit the disputed area of Kosovo.[1] Smaller minorities exist in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Macedonia, some 36,000 and 39,000 people, respectively. Outside of Western Balkans, Serbs
Serbs
are an officially recognized minority in Romania
Romania
(18,000), Hungary
Hungary
(7,000), Albania, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. There is a large diaspora in Western Europe, particularly in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, France, and Sweden. Outside Europe, there are significant Serb communities in the United States, Canada, Australia, South America
South America
and Southern Africa. Diaspora Main article: Serb diaspora

Geographical distribution of the diaspora

There are over 2 million Serbs
Serbs
in diaspora throughout the world, although some sources put that figure as high as 4 million.[60] The existence of a large diaspora is mainly a consequence of either economic or political (coercion or expulsions) reasons. There were several waves of Serb emigration:

The first wave took place since the end of 19th century and lasted until World War II
World War II
and was caused by economic reasons; particularly large numbers of Serbs
Serbs
(mainly from peripheral ethnic areas such as Herzegovina, Montenegro, Dalmatia, and Lika) emigrated to the United States. The second wave took place after the end of World War II. At this time, members of royalist Chetniks
Chetniks
and other political opponents of communist regime fled the country mainly going overseas (United States and Australia) and, to a lesser degree, United Kingdom. The third wave, and by far the largest wave, was economic emigration started in the 1960s when several Western European countries signed bilateral agreements with Yugoslavia allowing the recruitment of industrial workers to those countries, and lasted until the end of the 1980s. Main destinations were West Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, and to a lesser extent France
France
and Sweden. That generation of diaspora is collectively known as gastarbajteri, after German gastarbeiter ("guest-worker"), since most of the emigrants headed for German-speaking countries. The most recent emigration took place during the 1990s, and was caused by both political and economic reasons. The Yugoslav wars
Yugoslav wars
caused many Serbs
Serbs
from Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
to leave their countries in the first half of the 1990s. The economic sanctions imposed on Serbia
Serbia
caused an economic collapse with an estimated 300,000 people leaving Serbia
Serbia
during that period, 20% of which had a higher education.[61][62]

Language Main article: Serbian language

Linguistic map of Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Croatia; Serbian language
Serbian language
in yellow

Vuk Karadžić, reformer of modern Serbian language

Serbs
Serbs
speak Serbian, a member of the South Slavic group of languages, specifically the Southwestern group. Standard Serbian is a standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian, and therefore mutually intelligible with Standard Croatian and Standard Bosnian (see Differences in standard Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian), which are all based on the Shtokavian dialect.[63] Serbian is an official language in Serbia
Serbia
and Bosnia- Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and is a recognized minority language in Montenegro
Montenegro
(although spoken by a plurality of population), Croatia, Macedonia, Romania, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia. Older forms of literary Serbian are Church Slavonic of the Serbian recension, which is still used for ecclesiastical purposes, and Slavonic-Serbian—a mixture of Serbian, Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic
and Russian used from mid-18th century to the first decades of the 19th century. Serbian has active digraphia, using both Cyrillic and Latin alphabets.[64] Serbian Cyrillic
Serbian Cyrillic
was devised in 1814 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić, who created the alphabet on phonemic principles.[65] Loanwords in the Serbian language
Serbian language
besides common internationalisms are mostly from Turkish, German and Italian, while words of Hungarian origin are present mostly in the north and Greek words are predominant in the liturgy.[citation needed] Serbian word that is used in many of the world's languages is "vampire" (vampir).[66][67][68][69] Culture Literature, icon painting, music and dance and mediaeval architecture are the artistic forms for which Serbia
Serbia
is best known. Traditional Serbian visual art (specifically frescoes, and to some extent icons), as well as ecclesiastical architecture is highly reflective of Byzantine traditions, with some Mediterranean and Western influence. In the modern times (since the 19th century) Serbs
Serbs
also have a noteworthy classical music and works of philosophy.[70] Notable philosophers include Branislav Petronijević, Radomir Konstantinović, Ksenija Atanasijević, Nikola
Nikola
Milošević, Mihailo Marković, Svetozar Marković, Mihailo Đurić. Art, music, theatre and cinema Main articles: Serbian art, Music of Serbia, and Cinema of Serbia

Emir Kusturica, film director who won the Palme d'Or
Palme d'Or
twice

Kosovo
Kosovo
Maiden (1919) by Serbian artist Uroš Predić.

During the 12th and 13th centuries, many icons, wall paintings and manuscript miniatures came into existence, as many Serbian Orthodox monasteries and churches such as those at Studenica, Sopoćani, Gračanica and Visoki Dečani
Visoki Dečani
were built.[71] The architecture of some of these monasteries is world-famous.[36] During the same period UNESCO protected Stećak
Stećak
monumental medieval tombstones were built. Since the mid-1800s, Serbia
Serbia
has produced many famous painters who are representative of general European artistic trends.[71] One of the most prominent of these was Paja Jovanović, who painted massive canvases on historical themes such as the Great Serb Migrations. Painter Uroš Predić
Uroš Predić
was also very prominent in the field of Serbian art, painting the Kosovo
Kosovo
Maiden, which was completed in 1919.[72] While Jovanović and Predić were both realist painters, artist Đura Jakšić was an accomplished Romanticist. Painters Petar
Petar
Lubarda, Vladimir Veličković
Vladimir Veličković
and Ljubomir Popović
Ljubomir Popović
were famous for their surrealism.[73] Traditional Serbian music includes various kinds of bagpipes, flutes, horns, trumpets, lutes, psalteries, drums and cymbals. The kolo is the traditional collective folk dance, which has a number of varieties throughout the regions. Composer and musicologist Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac is considered one of the most important founders of modern Serbian music.[74][75] Serbia
Serbia
has produced many talented filmmakers, the most famous of whom are Dušan Makavejev,[76] Živojin Pavlović, Goran
Goran
Paskaljević, Emir Kusturica, Želimir Žilnik and Srdan Golubović. Želimir Žilnik and Stefan Arsenijević won the Golden Bear
Golden Bear
award at Berlinale. Kusturica became world-renowned after winning the Palme d'Or
Palme d'Or
twice at the Cannes Film Festival, numerous other other prizes, and is a UNICEF
UNICEF
National Ambassador for Serbia.[77] Several Serbs
Serbs
have featured prominently in Hollywood. The most notable of these are Academy-award winners Karl Malden,[78] Steve Tesich, Peter Bogdanovich
Peter Bogdanovich
and actresses Milla Jovovich and Stana Katic. Literature Main article: Serbian literature Most literature written by early Serbs
Serbs
was about religious themes. Various gospels, psalters, menologies, hagiographies, and essays and sermons of the founders of the Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
were written. At the end of the 12th century, two of the most important pieces of Serbian medieval literature were created– the Miroslav Gospels
Miroslav Gospels
and the Vukan Gospels, which combined handwritten Biblical texts with painted initials and small pictures.[36] Notable Baroque-influenced authors were Andrija Zmajević, Gavril Stefanović Venclović, Jovan Rajić, Zaharije Orfelin
Zaharije Orfelin
and others. Dositej Obradović
Dositej Obradović
was the most prominent figure of the Age of Enlightenment, while the most notable Classicist writer was Jovan Sterija Popović, although his works also contained elements of Romanticism. Modern Serbian literature
Serbian literature
began with Vuk Karadžić's collections of folk songs in the 19th century, and the writings of Njegoš. The first prominent representative of Serbian literature
Serbian literature
in the 20th century was Jovan Skerlić, who wrote in pre– World War I
World War I
Belgrade
Belgrade
and helped introduce Serbian writers to literary modernism. The most important Serbian writer in the inter-war period was Miloš Crnjanski.[79] The first Serb authors who appeared after World War II
World War II
were Mihailo Lalić and Dobrica Ćosić.[80] Having become the cultural center of the region, other notable post-war Yugoslav authors such as Ivo Andrić and Meša Selimović, a Bosnian Croat and Bosniak respectively, were assimilated to Serbian culture, and both identified as Serbs.[79] Andrić went on to win the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
in 1961.[80] Danilo Kiš, another popular Serbian writer, was known for writing A Tomb for Boris Davidovich, as well as several acclaimed novels.[81] Amongst contemporary Serbian writers, Milorad Pavić stands out as being the most critically acclaimed, with his novels Dictionary of the Khazars, Landscape Painted with Tea and The Inner Side of the Wind bringing him international recognition. Highly revered in Europe
Europe
and in South America, Pavić is considered one of the most intriguing writers from the beginning of the 21st century.[82]

Petar II Petrović-Njegoš
Petar II Petrović-Njegoš
is considered one of the best poets of Serbian literature.

Ivo Andrić, a novelist, poet and short story writer who won the Nobel Prize in 1961.

Miloš Crnjanski, a poet of the expressionist wing of Serbian modernism and writer.

Borislav Pekić
Borislav Pekić
was a major writer and dramatist of the second half of the 20th century.

Education and science Many Serbs
Serbs
have contributed to the field of science and technology. Serbian American
Serbian American
scientist, inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla
is regarded as one of the most important inventors in history. He is renowned for his contributions to the discipline of electricity and magnetism in the late 19th and early 20th century. Physicist
Physicist
and physical chemist Mihajlo Pupin
Mihajlo Pupin
is best known for his landmark theory of modern electrical filters as well as for his numerous patents, while Milutin Milanković
Milutin Milanković
is best known for his theory of long-term climate change caused by changes in the position of the Earth in comparison to the Sun, now known as Milankovitch cycles.[83] Mihailo Petrović
Mihailo Petrović
is known for having contributed significantly to differential equations and phenomenology, as well as inventing one of the first prototypes of an analog computer. Roger Joseph Boscovich was a Ragusan physicist, astronomer, mathematician and polymath of paternal Serbian origin [84] [85] [86] [87] (although there are competing claims for Bošković's nationality) who produced a precursor of atomic theory and made many contributions to astronomy and also discovered the absence of atmosphere on the Moon. Jovan Cvijić founded modern geography in Serbia
Serbia
and made pioneering research on the geography of the Balkan Peninsula, Dinaric race
Dinaric race
and karst. Josif Pančić
Josif Pančić
made contributions to botany and discovered more than 100 new floral species including the Serbian spruce. Biologist and physiologist Ivan Đaja performed research in the role of the adrenal glands in thermoregulation, as well as pioneering work in hypothermia. [88][89] Valtazar Bogišić
Valtazar Bogišić
is considered to be a pioneer in the sociology of law and sociological jurisprudence. Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic is a Serbian American
Serbian American
biomedical engineer focusing on engineering human tissues for regenerative medicine, stem cell research and modeling of disease. She is one of the most highly cited scientists of all times. [90]

Nikola
Nikola
Tesla, inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist.

Mihajlo Pupin, physicist and physical chemist and a founding member of NACA which later became NASA.[91]

Jovan Cvijić, geographer, geologist, human geographer and ethnologist.

Milutin Milanković, mathematician, climatologist and geophysicist.

Names Main article: Serbian naming customs There are several different layers of Serbian names. Serbian given names largely originate from Slavic roots: e.g., Vuk, Bojan, Goran, Zoran, Dragan, Milan, Miroslav, Vladimir, Slobodan, Dušan, Milica, Nevena, Vesna, Radmila. Other names are of Christian origin, originating from the bible (Hebrew, through Greek), such as Lazar, Mihailo, Ivan, Jovan, Ilija, Marija, Ana, Ivana. Along similar lines of non-Slavic Christian names are Greek ones such as: Stefan, Nikola, Aleksandar, Filip, Đorđe, Andrija, Jelena, Katarina, Vasilije, Todor, while those of Latin
Latin
origin include: Marko, Antonije, Srđan, Marina, Petar, Pavle, Natalija, Igor (through Russian). Most Serbian surnames are paternal, maternal, occupational or derived from personal traits. It is estimated that over two thirds of all Serbian surnames have the suffix -ić (-ић) ([itɕ]), a Slavic diminutive, originally functioning to create patronymics. Thus the surname Petrović means the "son of Petar" (from a male progenitor, the root is extended with possessive -ov or -ev). Due to limited use of international typewriters and unicode computer encoding, the suffix may be simplified to -ic, historically transcribed with a phonetic ending, -ich or -itch in foreign languages. Other common surname suffixes found among Serbian surnames are -ov, -ev, -in and -ski (without -ić) which is the Slavic possessive case suffix, thus Nikola's son becomes Nikolin, Petar's son Petrov, and Jovan's son Jovanov. Other, less common suffices are -alj/olj/elj, -ija, -ica, -ar/ac/an. The ten most common surnames in Serbia, in order, are Jovanović, Petrović, Nikolić, Marković, Đorđević, Stojanović, Ilić, Stanković, Pavlović and Milošević.[92] Religion Main article: Serbian Orthodox
Serbian Orthodox
Church

Left: Patriarchate of Peć in Kosovo, the seat of the Serbian Orthodox Church from the 14th century Right: Church of Saint Sava, one of the largest Orthodox churches in the world

Serbs
Serbs
are predominantly Orthodox Christians. The autocephalous Serbian Orthodox Church, established in 1219, is led by a Patriarch, and consists of three archbishoprics, six metropolitanates and thirty-one eparchies, having around 10 million adherents. Followers of the church form the largest religious group in Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro, and the second-largest in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Croatia. The church has an archbishopric in Macedonia and dioceses in Western Europe, North America and Australia.[93] The identity of ethnic Serbs
Serbs
was historically largely based on Orthodox Christianity and on the Serbian Church in particular, to the extent of the claims that those who are not its faithful are not Serbs. The conversion of the South Slavs
South Slavs
from paganism to Christianity took place before the Great Schism, the split between the Greek East and the Catholic West. After the Schism, those who lived under the Orthodox sphere of influence became Orthodox and those who lived under the Catholic sphere of influence became Catholic. Some ethnologists consider that the distinct Serb and Croat identities relate to religion rather than ethnicity. With the arrival of the Ottoman Empire, some Serbs
Serbs
converted to Islam. This was particularly, but not wholly, the case in Bosnia. Since the second half of the 19th century, some Serbs
Serbs
converted to Protestantism,[citation needed] while historically some Serbs
Serbs
were Catholics (especially in Dalmatia; e.g. Serb-Catholic movement in Dubrovnik).[94] The remainder of Serbs remain predominantly Serbian Orthodox
Serbian Orthodox
Christians. Symbols See also: National symbols of Serbia Among the most notable national and ethnic symbols are the flag of Serbia
Serbia
and the coat of arms of Serbia. The flag consists of a red-blue-white tricolour, rooted in Pan-Slavism, and has been used since the 19th century. Apart from being the national flag, it is also used officially in Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
(by Bosnian Serbs) and as the official ethnic flag of Croatian Serbs. The coat of arms, which includes both the Serbian eagle
Serbian eagle
and Serbian cross, has also been officially used since the 19th century, its elements dating back to the Middle Ages, showing Byzantine and Christian heritage. These symbols are used by various Serb organisations, political parties and institutions. The Three-finger salute, also called the "Serb salute", is a popular expression for ethnic Serbs
Serbs
and Serbia, originally expressing Serbian Orthodoxy and today simply being a symbol for ethnic Serbs
Serbs
and the Serbian nation, made by extending the thumb, index, and middle fingers of one or both hands.

Serbian national colours

Serbian shield

Three-finger salute

Traditions and customs Main article: Serb traditions

Folklore

Traditional clothing varies due to diverse geography and climate of the territory inhabited by the Serbs. The traditional footwear, opanci, is worn throughout the Balkans.[95] The most common folk costume of Serbia
Serbia
is that of Šumadija, a region in central Serbia,[96] which includes the national hat, the Šajkača.[97][98] Older villagers still wear their traditional costumes.[96] The traditional dance is the circle dance, called kolo.

Traditions

Slava
Slava
is the family's annual ceremony and veneration of their patron saint, a social event in which the family is together at the house of the patriarch. The tradition is an important ethnic marker of Serb identity.[25] Serbs
Serbs
usually regard the Slava
Slava
as their most significant and most solemn feast day.[26] Serbs
Serbs
have their own customs regarding Christmas, which includes the sacral tree, the badnjak, a young oak. On Orthodox Easter, Serbs
Serbs
have the tradition of Slavic Egg decorating.

Serbian folk attire from Šumadija
Šumadija
region.

Old Silent dance from Glamoč.

Slava, a family feast in honour of its patron saint.

An Orthodox priest places the badnjak on a fire during Christmas
Christmas
Eve.

Cuisine Main article: Serbian cuisine

Christmas
Christmas
table is often made with pork and Russian salad

Ćevapi, or Ćevapčići, the national dish of Serbia, served with ajvar

Serbian cuisine
Serbian cuisine
is largely heterogeneous, with heavy Oriental, Central European and Mediterranean influences.[99] Despite this, it has evolved and achieved its own culinary identity. Food is very important in Serbian social life, particularly during religious holidays such as Christmas, Easter
Easter
and feast days, i.e., slava.[99] Staples of the Serbian diet include bread, meat, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. Traditionally, three meals are consumed per day. Breakfast generally consists of eggs, meat and bread. Lunch is considered the main meal, and is normally eaten in the afternoon. Traditionally, Turkish coffee
Turkish coffee
is prepared after a meal, and is served in small cups.[99] Bread is the basis of all Serbian meals, and it plays an important role in Serbian cuisine
Serbian cuisine
and can be found in religious rituals. A traditional Serbian welcome is to offer bread and salt to guests, and also slatko (fruit preserve). Meat is widely consumed, as is fish. Serbian specialties include kajmak (a dairy product similar to clotted cream), proja (cornbread), kačamak (corn-flour porridge), and gibanica (cheese and kajmak pie). Ćevapčići, caseless grilled and seasoned sausages made of minced meat, is the national dish of Serbia.[99] Šljivovica (Slivovitz) is the national drink of Serbia
Serbia
in domestic production for centuries, and plum is the national fruit. The international name Slivovitz is derived from Serbian.[100] Plum and its products are of great importance to Serbs
Serbs
and part of numerous customs.[101] A Serbian meal usually starts or ends with plum products and Šljivovica is served as an aperitif.[101] A saying goes that the best place to build a house is where a plum tree grows best.[101] Traditionally, Šljivovica (commonly referred to as "rakija") is connected to Serbian culture
Serbian culture
as a drink used at all important rites of passage (birth, baptism, military service, marriage, death, etc.), and in the Serbian Orthodox
Serbian Orthodox
patron saint celebration (slava).[101] It is used in numerous folk remedies, and is given certain degree of respect above all other alcoholic drinks. The fertile region of Šumadija
Šumadija
in central Serbia
Serbia
is particularly known for its plums and Šljivovica.[102] Serbia
Serbia
is the largest exporter of Slivovitz in the world, and second largest plum producer in the world.[103][104] Sport Main article: Sport in Serbia

Novak Djokovic, one of the greatest tennis players of all time.[105]

Serbs
Serbs
are famous for their sporting achievements, and have produced many talented athletes. Over the years Serbia
Serbia
has been home to many internationally renowned football players such as Dragan Džajić (officially recognized as "the best Serbian footballer of all times" by Football Association of Serbia; 1968 European Footballer of the Year third place) and more recent likes of Dejan Stanković (Serbia's most capped player), Nemanja Vidić
Nemanja Vidić
( Premier League Player of the Season
Premier League Player of the Season
and member of FIFPro World XI, both awards for 2008–09 and 2010–11 seasons respectively), Branislav Ivanović
Branislav Ivanović
and Nemanja Matić. Serbia
Serbia
has developed a reputation as one of the world's biggest exporters of expat footballers.[106] A total of 22 Serbian players have played in the NBA in the last two decades, including three-time NBA All-Star Predrag "Peja" Stojaković and NBA All-Star and FIBA Hall of Fame
FIBA Hall of Fame
inductee Vlade Divac. Serbian players that made a great impact in Europe
Europe
include four members of the FIBA Hall of Fame
FIBA Hall of Fame
from the 1960s and 1970s – Dragan Kićanović, Dražen Dalipagić, Radivoj Korać, and Zoran Slavnić – as well as recent stars such as Dejan Bodiroga
Dejan Bodiroga
(2002 All- Europe
Europe
Player of the Year), Aleksandar
Aleksandar
Đorđević
Đorđević
(1994 and 1995 Mr. Europa) and currently active Miloš Teodosić
Miloš Teodosić
(2009–2010 Euroleague MVP) and Nikola Jokić. The renowned "Serbian coaching school" produced many of the most successful European coaches of all times, such as Željko Obradović (a record eight Euroleague titles), Božidar Maljković (four Euroleague titles), Aleksandar
Aleksandar
Nikolić (three Euroleague titles), Dušan Ivković (two Euroleague titles), and Svetislav Pešić. Novak Đoković, twelve-time Grand Slam champion and 2011, 2014 and 2015 Laureus Sportsman of the Year, finished 2011, 2012, 2014, and 2015 as the No. 1 ranked player in the world. Ana Ivanovic
Ana Ivanovic
(champion of 2008 French Open) and Jelena Janković
Jelena Janković
were both ranked No. 1 in the WTA Rankings, while Nenad Zimonjić
Nenad Zimonjić
and Slobodan Živojinović were ranked No. 1 in doubles. The most successful water polo players are Vladimir Vujasinović, Aleksandar
Aleksandar
Šapić, Vanja Udovičić, Andrija Prlainović and Filip Filipović. Other noted Serbian athletes, including Olympic and world champions and medalists, are: swimmer Milorad Čavić, volleyball player Nikola Grbić, handball player Svetlana Kitić, long-jumper Ivana
Ivana
Španović, shooter Jasna Šekarić
Jasna Šekarić
and taekwondoist Milica
Milica
Mandić. See also

Serbia
Serbia
portal

List of Serb countries and regions List of Serbs

Annotations

^ It is estimated that there are between 11.5 to 12.5 million ethnic Serbs
Serbs
worldwide.

The former president of the Diaspora
Diaspora
Board, A. Čotrić, estimated 11.5 million in 2014.[107] The Serbian Ministry for Diaspora
Diaspora
estimated 12.5 million in 2013.[108] The NIN Magazine estimated 12.1 million in 2011.[108][109]

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Crippe, Chadd (4 April 2013). "Davis Cup: Djokovic a true national hero in Serbia". The Idaho Statesman.  "Population by Ethnicity, censuses 1971–2011". Croatian Bureau of Statistics.  Great Serbian scientists. Consulate General of the Republic of Serbia.  Gall, Carlotta (7 May 2000). "New Support to Help Serbs
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Return to Homes in Kosovo". The New York Times. 

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Ethnic groups in Serbia

Serbs Hungarians Romani Bosniaks Albanians Croats Slovaks Montenegrins Vlachs Romanians Yugoslavs Macedonians Ethnic Muslims Bulgarians Bunjevci Rusyns Gorani Germans Czechs Jews Armenians Arabs Turks Greeks Chinese

See also Demographic history of Serbia

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Ethnic groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Constitutive peoples

Bosniaks Croats Serbs

National minorities

Albanians Czechs Germans Hungarians Italians Jews Kosovars (part of Albanians
Albanians
in Bosnia) Macedonians Montenegrins Poles Roma Romanians Russians Ruthenians Slovaks Slovenians Turks Ukrainians

See also 1991 census 2013 census Demographics Demographic History

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Ethnic groups of Montenegro

Montenegrins Serbs Bosniaks Albanians Muslims Croats Roma (Ashkali-Egyptians) Macedonians Yugoslavs Turks

See also Demographics Demographic history

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Ethnic groups in Croatia

Nation

Croats

National minorities

Albanians Austrians Bosniaks Bulgarians Czechs Germans Hungarians Italians (Dalmatia, Istria) Jews Macedonians Montenegrins Poles Romani Romanians Russians Rusyns Serbs
Serbs
(Dubrovnik, Vukovar, Zagreb) Slovaks Slovenes Turks Ukrainians Vlachs

Others

Arbanasi Istro-Romanians Yugoslavs

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Eastern Christianity

Cultural sphere
Cultural sphere
of Christian traditions that developed since Early Christianity in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Eastern Africa, Asia Minor, Southern India, and parts of the Far East.

Communions

Eastern Orthodox Church Oriental Orthodoxy Eastern Catholic Churches Assyrian Church of the East Ancient Church of the East

History

Eastern Orthodox Church Byzantine Empire Ecumenical council Church of the East Council of Chalcedon Iconoclastic controversy St Thomas Christians Christianization of Bulgaria Christianization of Kievan Rus' East–West Schism

Scriptures

Books Canon Old Testament New Testament

Theology

Hesychasm Icon Apophaticism Filioque
Filioque
clause Miaphysitism Dyophysitism Nestorianism Theosis Theoria Phronema Philokalia Praxis Theotokos Hypostasis Ousia Essence–energies distinction Metousiosis¨

Worship

Sign of the cross Divine Liturgy Iconography Asceticism Omophorion

Ethnic groups with significant adherence

Majorities

Indo-European

Armenians Aromanians Belarusians Bulgarians Greeks

including Greek Cypriots

Macedonians Megleno-Romanians Moldovans Montenegrins Ossetians Romanians Russians Serbs Ukrainians

Afro-Asiatic

Agaw Amhara Assyrians Copts Chaldean Catholics Maronites Tigrayans

Turkic

Chuvash Dolgans Gagauz Khakas Kryashens Yakuts

Kartvelian

Georgians

including Svans
Svans
and Mingrelians

Finno-Ugric

Izhorians Karelians Khanty Komi Mansi Mari Mordvins Setos Udmurts Vepsians Votes

Samoyedic

Enets Nenets Nganasans Selkups

Chukotko-Kamchatkan

Alyutors Itelmens Kereks Koryaks

Dené–Yeniseian

Kets Tlingits

Eskimo–Aleut

Aleuts Yupiks

Northwest Caucasian

Abkhazians

Nakh

Batsbi

Minorities

Adyghe

Kabardians

Kists Albanians Altai Arabs Buryats Chukchi Estonians

Setos Kihnu

Finns Inuit Malayali Oromos Romani Rusyns Saami

Eastern Christianity
Eastern Christianity
portal

Authority control

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