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Serbian culture
Serbian culture
refers to the culture of Serbia
Serbia
and of ethnic Serbs. The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
had a great influence on the culture; Serbs
Serbs
were initially governing the Byzantine and Frankish frontiers in the name of the emperors and were later through their sworn alliance given independence, baptized by Greek missionaries and adopted the Cyrillic script, with Latin
Latin
and Catholic
Catholic
influences in the southern regions. The Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
gained autocephaly from Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1219, whereas Stephen the First Crowned was declared king by the Pope. The Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
influenced the maritime regions in the Middle Ages. The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
conquered Serbia
Serbia
in 1459 and ruled the territory for several centuries, the consequences of which suppressed Serbian culture
Serbian culture
but also greatly influenced Serbian Art, especially in the southern regions. Meanwhile, in northern regions Habsburg Monarchy expanded into modern Serbian territory starting from the end of the 17th century, culturally bounding this part of the nation to Central Europe
Europe
rather than Balkans. Central Serbia
Serbia
was the first to emancipate as the Principality of Serbia
Serbia
in 1815, and started to gradually expand into Ottoman and Habsburg-held regions. Following Serbia's autonomy after the Serbian revolution
Serbian revolution
and eventual independence, the culture of Serbia
Serbia
was restrengthened within its people.

Contents

1 Life

1.1 Religion 1.2 Names

1.2.1 Given names 1.2.2 Surnames

2 Cuisine

2.1 Background 2.2 Homemade meals 2.3 Desserts 2.4 Drinks

3 Language 4 Literature 5 Traditions and customs 6 Humour 7 Serb
Serb
folklore 8 Serbian visual arts 9 Serbian performing arts

9.1 Music 9.2 Theatre and cinema

10 Serbian handcrafts 11 Serbian media 12 Sport 13 Cultural institutions 14 National symbols 15 See also 16 References 17 Sources 18 External links

18.1 Online references 18.2 Other references

Life[edit] Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Serbia See also: Serbian Orthodox Church

Church of St. Mark in Belgrade
Belgrade
is built in the Moravian (Moravska) style.

Cathedral of Saint Sava

Conversion of the South Slavs
South Slavs
from Paganism to Christianity
Christianity
began in the early 7th century, long before the Great Schism, the split between the Greek Orthodox East and the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
West, the Serbs
Serbs
were first Christinaized during the reign of Heraclius (610-641) but were fully Christianized by Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Missionaries (Saints) Cyril and Methodius in 869 during Basil I, who sent them after Knez Mutimir, had acknowledged the suzerainty of the Byzantine Empire. After the Schism, those who lived under the Byzantine sphere of influence became Orthodox and those who lived under the Roman sphere of influence became Catholic. Later, with the arrival of the Ottoman Empire, many Serbs
Serbs
converted to Islam. Their modern descendants are considered to be members of the Gorani and Bosniak
Bosniak
ethnic groups.

The White Angel

The Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
was the westernmost bastion of the Eastern Orthodox Christianity
Christianity
in Europe, which shaped its historical fate through contacts with Catholicism
Catholicism
and Islam. During World War II, the Serbs, living in a wide area, were persecuted by various peoples and organizations. The Catholic
Catholic
Croats within the Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
recognized the Serbs
Serbs
only as "Croats of the Eastern faith" and had the ideological vision that 1/3 of the Serbs
Serbs
were to be murdered, 1/3 were to be converted and the last third expelled. The outcome of these visions was the death of at least 700,000 people, the religious conversion of 250,000 and the expulsion of 250,000. Names[edit] Main article: Serbian name Given names[edit] As with most Western cultures,[citation needed] a child is given a first name chosen by their parents but approved by the godparents of the child (the godparents usually approve the parent's choice). The given name comes first, the surname last, e.g. "Željko Popović", where "Željko" is a first name and "Popović" is a family name. Female names end with -a, e.g. Dragan -> Dragana. Popular names are mostly of Serbian (Slavic), Christian (Biblical), Greek and Latin
Latin
origin.

Serbian: Bogdan, Dragan, Goran, Radovan, Slobodan, and Zoran. Greek: Nikola, Đorđe, Aleksandar, Jelena, and Katarina. Biblical: Ana, Jovan, Marko, Petar, Pavle, Mihajlo and Gavrilo. Latin: Srđan, Antonije, and Roman.

Surnames[edit] Most Serbian surnames (like Bosnian, Croatian and Montenegrin) have the surname suffix -ić (pronounced [t͡ɕ], Cyrillic: -ић). This is often transliterated as -ic or -ici. In history, Serbian names have often been transcribed with a phonetic ending, -ich or -itch. This form is often associated with Serbs
Serbs
from before the early 20th century: hence Milutin Milanković is usually referred to, for historical reasons, as Milutin Milankovitch. The -ić suffix, with variants "-ović"/"-ević", is originally a Slavic diminutive and its meaning has been extended to creating patronymics. Thus the surname Petr(ov)ić signifies little Petar, as does, for example, "-sen"/"-son" in Scandinavian and to a lesser extent German and English names or a common prefix Mac ("son of") in Scottish & Irish, and O' (grandson of) in Irish names. It is estimated that some two thirds of all Serbian surnames end in -ić but that some 80% of Serbs
Serbs
carry such a surname with many common names being spread out among tens and even hundreds of non-related extended families. Other common surname suffixes are -ov or -in which is the Slavic possessive case suffix, thus Nikola's son becomes Nikolin, Petar's son Petrov, and Jovan's son Jovanov. Those are more typical for Serbs
Serbs
from Vojvodina. The two suffixes are often combined. The most common surnames are Marković, Nikolić, Petrović, and Jovanović. Cuisine[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (October 2010)

Main article: Serbian cuisine Most people in Serbia
Serbia
will have three meals daily, breakfast, lunch and dinner, with lunch being the largest and most important meal. However, traditionally, only lunch and dinner existed, with breakfast being introduced in the second half of the 19th century.[1]

Ćevapčići
Ćevapčići
(the national dish)

Pljeskavica

Background[edit] Traditional Serbian cuisine
Serbian cuisine
is varied and can be said to be a mix of central European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern cuisine.[citation needed] Ćevapčići
Ćevapčići
consisting of grilled heavily seasoned mixed ground meat patties is considered to be the national dish. Other notable dishes include Koljivo
Koljivo
used in religious rituals, Serbian salad, Sarma (stuffed cabbage), podvarak (roast meat with sauerkraut) and Moussaka. Česnica
Česnica
is a traditional bread for Christmas
Christmas
Day. Homemade meals[edit] A number of foods which are simply bought into Supermarkets from the West, are often made at home in Serbia. These include rakija (fruit brandy), slatko, jam, jelly, and pickled foods (notably sauerkraut, ajvar and sausage). The reasons for this range from economical to cultural. Food preparation is a strong part of the Serbian family tradition.

Sljivovica, the national drink of Serbia

Desserts[edit] Serbian desserts are a mixture of other Balkan desserts and desserts native to central Serbia. Desserts served are usually Uštipci, Tulumbe, Krofne and Palačinke
Palačinke
(crepes). Slatko
Slatko
is a traditional Serbian dessert popular throughout Serbia
Serbia
and it can be found in most Serbian restaurants in the Balkans
Balkans
and in the diaspora. Drinks[edit] Beer
Beer
is widely consumed in Serbia. The most popular brands are Jelen Pivo and Lav Pivo. Rakija, a plum brandy commonly known by popular brand name Slivovitz
Slivovitz
(original spelling šljivovica, from šljiva = plum) is a distilled fermented plum juice. This is the national drink of Serbia
Serbia
with 70% of domestic plum production being used to make it. Domestic wine is also popular. Turkish coffee
Turkish coffee
is widely consumed as well. Language[edit] Main article: Serbian language

Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
and Serbian Latin, from Comparative orthography of European languages. Source: Vuk Stefanović Karadžić
Vuk Stefanović Karadžić
"Srpske narodne pjesme" (Serbian folk poems), Vienna, 1841

Serbs
Serbs
speak the Serbian language, a member of the South Slavic group of languages, specifically in the Southwestern Slavic group with the Southeastern Slavic languages
Slavic languages
including Macedonian and Bulgarian. It is mutually intelligible with the standard Croatian and Bosnian language (see Differences in standard Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian) and some linguists still consider it part of the pre-war Serbo-Croatian language. The Serbian language
Serbian language
comprises several dialects, the standard language is based on the Stokavian dialect. It is an official language in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Montenegro. In Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, the Macedonia and Romania, it is a regionally recognized minority language. There are several variants of the Serbian language. The older forms of Serbian are Old Serbian and Russo-Serbian, a version of the Church Slavonic language.

Vuk Karadžić, reformer of the Modern Serbian language

Serbian is the only European language with active digraphia, using both Cyrillic
Cyrillic
and Latin
Latin
alphabets. Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet was devised in 1814 by Vuk Karadžić, who created the alphabet on phonemic principles, the Cyrillic
Cyrillic
itself has its origins in Cyril and Methodius transformation from the Greek script. Loanwords in the Serbian language
Serbian language
are mostly from Turkish, German and Italian, words of Hungarian origin is present mostly in the north and Greek words mostly in the liturgy. Two Serbian words that are used in many of the world's languages are vampire and paprika. Slivovitz
Slivovitz
and ćevapčići are Serbian words which have spread together with the Serbian food/drink they refer to. Paprika
Paprika
and Slivovitz
Slivovitz
are borrowed via German; paprika itself entered German via Hungarian. Vampire
Vampire
entered most West European languages through German-language texts in the early 18th century and has since spread widely in the world. Literature[edit] Main article: Serbian literature Miroslav's Gospel
Miroslav's Gospel
is one of the earliest works of Serbian literature dating from between 1180 and 1191 and one of the most important works of the medieval period. This work was entered into UNESCO's Memory of the World program in 2005. Serbian epic poetry
Serbian epic poetry
was a central part of medieval Serbian literature
Serbian literature
based on historic events such as the Battle of Kosovo. In the 20th century, Serbian literature
Serbian literature
flourished and a myriad of young and talented writers appeared.

Miroslav's Gospel

The most well known authors are Ivo Andrić, Miloš Crnjanski, Meša Selimović, Borislav Pekić, Danilo Kiš, Milorad Pavić, David Albahari, Miodrag Bulatović, Dobrica Ćosić, Zoran Živković and many others. Jelena Dimitrijević and Isidora Sekulić
Isidora Sekulić
are two early 20th century women writers. Svetlana Velmar-Janković is the best known female novelist in Serbia
Serbia
today. Andrić's novel The Bridge on the Drina
The Bridge on the Drina
won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1961. Milorad Pavić is perhaps the most widely acclaimed Serbian author today, most notably for his Dictionary of the Khazars (Хазарски речник/Hazarski Rečnik), which has been translated into 24 languages. Traditions and customs[edit] Main article: Serbian traditions Serbs
Serbs
have many traditions. The Slava
Slava
is exclusive custom of the Serbs, each family has one patron saint that they venerate on their feast day. The Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
uses the traditional Julian Calendar, as per which Christmas
Christmas
Day (December 25) falls currently on January 7 of the Gregorian Calendar, thus the Serbs
Serbs
celebrate Christmas
Christmas
on January 7, shared with the Orthodox churches of Jerusalem, Russia, Georgia, Ukraine and the Greek Old Calendarists.

Slava, Serbian Orthodox Patron saint veneration Kumstvo, God-parenthood in the Serbian Orthodox Church Pobratimstvo, blood-brotherhood Kolo, Serbian folk dance in circle. Serbian Christmas
Christmas
traditions

Badnjak (Serbian), Christmas
Christmas
tradition

Serbian epic poetry, Epic poetry

The Serbs
Serbs
are a highly family-oriented society. A glance into a Serbian dictionary and the richness of their terminology related to kinship speaks volumes.

Slava
Slava
prepared for a Serbian family feast in honour of their Patron Saint, John the Baptist

Of all Slavs and Orthodox Christians, only Serbs
Serbs
have the custom of slava. The Slava
Slava
is the celebration of a family's patron saint; unlike most customs that are common for the whole people, each family separately celebrates its own saint (of course, there is a lot of overlap) who is considered its protector. A slava is inherited, mostly, though not exclusively from father to son (if a family has no son and a daughter stays in parental house and her husband moves in, her Slava, not his, is celebrated). Each household has only one saint it celebrates, which means that the occasion brings all of the family together. However, since many saints (e.g. St. Nicholas, St. John the Baptist, St. George, St. Archangels of Gabriel and Michael, and the Apostles St. Peter and Paul) have two feast days, both are marked. The traditional dance is a circle dance called kolo, which is common among Serbs, Montenegrins and Macedonians. It is a collective dance, where a group of people (usually several dozen, at the very least three) hold each other by the hands or around the waist dancing, forming a circle (hence the name), semicircle or spiral. It is called Oro in Montenegro. Similar circle dances also exist in other cultures of the region.

Badnjaks on sale at Kalenić Market, Belgrade.

Serbs
Serbs
have their own customs regarding Christmas. The Serbian Orthodox Church uses the Julian calendar, so Christmas
Christmas
currently falls on January 7 of the Gregorian calendar. Early in the morning of Christmas Eve, the head of the family would go to a forest in order to cut badnjak, a young oak, the oak tree would then be brought into the church to be blessed by the priest. Then the oak tree would be stripped of its branches with combined with wheat and other grain products would be burned in the fireplace. The burning of the badnjak is a ritual which is most certainly of pagan origin and it is considered a sacrifice to God (or the old pagan gods) so that the coming year may bring plenty of food, happiness, love, luck and riches. Nowadays, with most Serbs
Serbs
living in towns, most simply go to their church service to be given a small parcel of oak, wheat and other branches tied together to be taken home and set afire. The house floor and church is covered with hay, reminding worshippers of the stable in which Jesus
Jesus
was born. Christmas
Christmas
Day itself is celebrated with a feast, necessarily featuring roasted piglet as the main meal. The most important Christmas
Christmas
meal is česnica, a special kind of bread. The bread contains a coin; during the lunch, the family breaks up the bread and the one who finds the coin is said to be assured of an especially happy year. Christmas
Christmas
is not associated with presents like in the West, although it is the day of Saint Nicholas, the protector saint of children, to whom presents are given. However, most Serbian families give presents on New Year's Day. Santa Claus (Deda Mraz (literally meaning Grandpa Frost)) and the Christmas
Christmas
tree (but rather associated with New Year's Day) are also used in Serbia
Serbia
as a result of globalisation. Serbs
Serbs
also celebrate the Old New Year (currently on January 14 of the Gregorian Calendar). On Orthodox Easter, Serbs
Serbs
have the tradition of Slavic Egg decorating. Another related feature, often lamented by Serbs
Serbs
themselves, is disunity and discord; as Slobodan Naumović puts it, "Disunity and discord have acquired in the Serbian popular imaginary a notorious, quasi-demiurgic status. They are often perceived as being the chief malefactors in Serbian history, causing political or military defeats, and threatening to tear Serbian society completely apart." That disunity is often quoted as the source of Serbian historic tragedies, from the Battle of Kosovo
Battle of Kosovo
in 1389 to Yugoslav wars
Yugoslav wars
in the 1990s.[2] Even the contemporary notion of "two Serbia's"—one supposedly national, liberal and Eurocentric, and the other conservative, nationalist and Euroskeptic—seems to be the extension of the said discord.[3] Popular proverbs "two Serbs, three political parties" and "God save us from Serbs
Serbs
that may unite!", and even the unofficial Serbian motto "Only Unity Saves the Serbs" (Samo sloga Srbina spasava) illustrate the national frustration with the inability to unite over important issues. Humour[edit] Serbian humour is centuries old. The most common type of humour is Black Humour and Serbian jokes are often imitated by other peoples from the Balkans, often with a twist. As with many other peoples, there are popular stereotypes on the local level: in popular jokes and stories, northern Serbs
Serbs
of Vojvodina
Vojvodina
(Lale)[4] are perceived as phlegmatic, undisturbed and slow; Montenegrins are lazy and pushy; southern Serbs
Serbs
are misers; Bosnians are raw and simple; Serbs
Serbs
from Central Serbia
Serbia
(Šumadija) are often portrayed as capricious and malicious, etc. Also, policemen and blondes are mocked as being stupid. But all that is pure conjecture, of course. Serb
Serb
folklore[edit] Main article: Serbian folklore

Slavic mythology, pagan folklore Serbian epic poetry

Serbian visual arts[edit] Main article: Serbian art

Battle of Kosovo
Battle of Kosovo
(1870), painting by Adam Stefanović, depicting the Battle of Kosovo
Battle of Kosovo
that took place in 1389.

The Ottoman conquest of Serbia
Serbia
during the 15th century is traditionally said to have had a negative impact of the visual arts. The church was not subdued to the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate at Constantinople
Constantinople
and the nobility was suppressed. As the nobility and church were the main sources of patronage for architects and artists, the early modern period is considered an artistically less productive period in the art of Serbia. Despite the general trend, remarkable monuments were built.

Serbian Migrations (1896) by Paja Jovanović
Paja Jovanović
depicts the Great Serb Migrations, on display in the National Museum of Serbia

There was some resumption of artistic endeavour after the restoration of the Serbian patriarch in 1557. Djordje Mitrofanović was the leading painter of the early 17th century with his work on the church at the Morača Monastery
Morača Monastery
considered as amongst his best. The Husein-Pasha Mosque in Pljevlja
Pljevlja
(Montenegro) is the most notable Muslim structure in the Balkans
Balkans
and dates from the middle of the 16th century.

Kosovo Maiden
Kosovo Maiden
(1919) by Uroš Predić, based on the Serbian epic poem.

A "Baroque" church 'Our Lady of the Rocks' on an island in the Boka Kotorska, in Montenegro
Montenegro
is one of the most notable pieces of architecture in the Serbian lands from the early modern period. There are many fine specimens of silverware dating from the 17th century there. Traditional Serbian art
Serbian art
was beginning to show some Baroque influences at the end of the 18th century as shown in the works of Nikola
Nikola
Nešković, Teodor Kračun and Jakov Orfelin. There was somewhat of a resurgence in Serbian art
Serbian art
in the 19th century as Serbia
Serbia
gradually regained its autonomy. Prince Aleksandar commissioned the building of a Monument to the Insurgents
Monument to the Insurgents
in Karađorđev Park in 1848 in Vračar. Serbian paintings showed the influence of Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism
and Romanticism
Romanticism
during the 19th century. Anastas Jovanović
Anastas Jovanović
was a pioneering photographer in Serbia
Serbia
taking the photos of many leading citizens. Kirilo Kutlik set up the first school of art in Serbia
Serbia
in 1895. Many of his students went to study in Western Europe, especially France and Germany and brought back avant-garde styles. Nadežda Petrović
Nadežda Petrović
was influenced by Fauvism
Fauvism
while Sava Šumanović
Sava Šumanović
worked in Cubism. After World War I, the Belgrade
Belgrade
School of Painting developed in the capital with some members such as Milan Konjović
Milan Konjović
working in a Fauvist manner, while others such as Marko Čelebonović
Marko Čelebonović
working in a style called Intimisme based on the use of colours. The most famous Serbian painters were Paja Jovanović
Paja Jovanović
and Uroš Predić, painting in the Realist style. Their monumental paintings of historical events have inspired generations of Serbian artists. Serbian performing arts[edit] Music[edit] Main article: Music of Serbia

Marija Šerifović
Marija Šerifović
won the Eurovision Contest for Serbia
Serbia
in 2007.

Serbian music dates from the medieval period with strong church and folk traditions. Church music in Serbia
Serbia
of the time was based on the Osmoglasnik a cycle of religious songs based on the resurrection and lasting for eight weeks. During the Nemanjić dynasty
Nemanjić dynasty
and under other rulers such as Stefan Dušan, musicians enjoyed royal patronage. There was a strong folk tradition in Serbia
Serbia
dating from this time. During Ottoman rule, Serbs
Serbs
were forbidden to own property, to learn to read and write and denied the use of musical instruments. Church music had to be performed in private. Gusle, a one-stringed instrument, was used by Serbian peasants during this time in an effort to find a loophole through the stringent Ottoman laws. Filip Višnjić
Filip Višnjić
was a particularly notable guslar (gusle player). In the 18th century, Russian and Greek chant schools were established and the Serbian Orthodox Church accepted Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic
into their liturgy.

Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac

Folk music enjoyed a resurgence in the nineteenth century. Jozip Slezenger founded the Prince's Band playing music based on traditional tunes. Stevan Mokranjac, a composer and musicologist collected folk songs as well as performing his own work. Kornelije Stankovic
Kornelije Stankovic
wrote the first Serbian language
Serbian language
works for choirs. Traditional Serbian folk music remains popular today especially in rural areas. Western rock and pop music has become increasingly popular especially in cities with rock acts such as Riblja Čorba
Riblja Čorba
and Đorđe
Đorđe
Balašević incorporating political statements in their music. Turbo-folk
Turbo-folk
combined Western rock and pop styles with traditional folk music vocals. Serbian immigrants have taken their musical traditions to nations such as the US and Canada. Marija Šerifović
Marija Šerifović
won first place at the 2007 Eurovision Song Contest, and Serbia
Serbia
was the host of the 2008 contest. Theatre and cinema[edit] Main article: Cinema of Serbia Serbia
Serbia
has a well-established theatrical tradition with many theatres. The Serbian National Theatre
Serbian National Theatre
was established in 1861 with its building dating from 1868. The company started performing opera from the end of the 19th century and the permanent opera was established in 1947. It established a ballet company. Bitef, Belgrade
Belgrade
International Theatre Festival, is one of the oldest theatre festivals in the world. New Theatre Tendencies is the constant subtitle of the Festival. Founded in 1967, Bitef
Bitef
has continually followed and supported the latest theater trends. It has become one of five most important and biggest European festivals. It has become one of the most significant culture institutions of Serbia. Cinema was established reasonably early in Serbia
Serbia
with 12 films being produced before the start of World War II. The most notable of the prewar films was Mihailo Popovic's The Battle of Kosovo
Battle of Kosovo
in 1939.

The National Theatre in Belgrade

Cinema prospered after World War II. The most notable postwar director was Dušan Makavejev who was internationally recognised for Love Affair: Or the Case of the Missing Switchboard Operator in 1969 focusing on Yugoslav politics. Makavejev's Montenegro
Montenegro
was made in Sweden in 1981. Zoran Radmilović was one of the most notable actors of the postwar period. Serbian cinema continued to make progress in the 1990s and today despite the turmoil of the 1990s. Emir Kusturica
Emir Kusturica
won two Golden Palms for Best Feature Film at the Cannes Film Festival, for When Father Was Away on Business in 1985 and then again for Underground in 1995. In 1998, Kusturica won a Silver Lion for directing Black Cat, White Cat. As at 2001, there were 167 cinemas in Serbia
Serbia
(excluding Kosovo) and over 4 million Serbs
Serbs
went to the cinema in that year. In 2005, San zimske noći (A Midwinter Night's Dream ) directed by Goran Paskaljević caused controversy over its criticism of Serbia's role in the Yugoslav wars
Yugoslav wars
in the 1990s. Serbian handcrafts[edit] Serbia
Serbia
has a long tradition of handicrafts. Đakovica
Đakovica
in Kosovo
Kosovo
was known for its black pottery. Pirot
Pirot
in eastern Serbia
Serbia
became known for its ceramics under the Ottomans with the potters following Byzantine designs. It also became a centre for the production of Kilims or rugs. The Slavs introduced jewellery making to Serbia
Serbia
in the sixth century AD. Metalworking started to develop on a significant scale following the development of a Serbian state. Workshops were set up in towns, large estates and in monasteries. The Studenica Monastery was known for the quality of its goldsmithing. Coins were minted not only by the kings but some of the wealthier nobility. The nobility also was influenced by the wealth of the Byzantine court. Metalworking like many other arts and crafts went into decline following the Ottoman conquest. However, there was a partial revival in later centuries with a strong Baroque
Baroque
influence notably the 17th century silverware at "Our Lady on the Rocks" on Boka Kotorska. Serbian media[edit] Main article: Media of Serbia As of 2001, there were 27 daily newspapers and 580 other newspapers published in Serbia.[citation needed] Some of these newspapers have Internet editions. Politika
Politika
founded in 1904 is the oldest daily newspaper in the Balkans. There were also 491 periodical magazines published in Serbia
Serbia
with the Nedeljne informativne novine (NIN) and Vreme
Vreme
amongst the most notable.[citation needed] Television broadcasting started in 1958 with every country in the former Yugoslavia having its own station. In Serbia, the state television station was known as RTB and became known as RTS (Radio Television of Serbia) after the breakup of Yugoslavia. From the time of Yugoslavia until the Bulldozer Revolution
Bulldozer Revolution
in 2000, state broadcasting was controlled by the ruling party. The RTS station was bombed during NATO's 1999 air-strikes against Yugoslavia, as they claimed this was being used for propaganda. There was some private broadcasting with the B92
B92
radio and television station starting in 1989 although it was shut down in 1999 during the hostilities. After the fall of Milošević, RTS became known as "new" RTS as an assertion of independence while B92
B92
commenced broadcasting. During 2001, there were 70 television centres in Serbia
Serbia
of which 24 were privately owned. In 2003, there was a return to censorship as the Government of Zoran Živković temporarily imposed a state of emergency following the assassination of Zoran Djindjic and the European Federation of Journalists
European Federation of Journalists
continues to hold concerns over media freedom in the country. Sport[edit] Main article: Sport in Serbia

Novak Djoković

Serbia
Serbia
is very successful in many sports. Among the most popular sports are football, basketball, water polo, sport shooting, handball, volleyball and tennis. The two most popular football clubs in Serbia
Serbia
are Red Star Belgrade and FK Partizan. Their supporters are the Delije
Delije
and the Grobari, respectively. The Serbian national football team
Serbian national football team
participated in the 2010 FIFA World Cup. In basketball, Serbian clubs are successful and participate regularly in European competitions, where they often make quarter-final and semi-final appearances. The Serbian national basketball team
Serbian national basketball team
is successful in international competitions, having won several FIBA World Championship, EuroBasket
EuroBasket
and Olympic gold medals. Serbian men's and women's teams are also World Champions in sports such as water polo and volleyball. Serbian tennis players have been successful. Novak Djoković
Novak Djoković
is the current World No. 1 and he has won ten Grand Slam Singles titles to date. Janko Tipsarević, Viktor Troicki, Jelena Janković and Ana Ivanović are also successful. The Serbia
Serbia
Davis Cup team won the 2010 Davis Cup Final held in the Belgrade
Belgrade
Arena. Cultural institutions[edit] At the beginning of the 21st century, there were 32 art galleries and 142 museums in Serbia.[citation needed] Belgrade
Belgrade
has many of the most significant with the National Museum of Serbia
Serbia
in Belgrade, the Gallery of Frescoes featuring Orthodox Church art, the Ethnographic Museum and the Princess Ljubica's Residence. Novi Sad
Novi Sad
contains the Vojvodina
Vojvodina
Museum as well as the Petrovaradin
Petrovaradin
fortress. Matica Srpska
Matica Srpska
is the oldest and most notable cultural and scientific organisation in today's Serbia. Its name is translated in Serbian as the Serbian matrix or parent body of the Serbs. It was founded in 1826 in Budapest
Budapest
and moved to Novi Sad
Novi Sad
in 1864. Amongst other achievements, it compiled a six-volume study of the Serbian language
Serbian language
between 1967 and 1976. Its journal Letopis Matice Srpske is one of the oldest periodicals examining scientific and cultural issues anywhere in the world. Vojvodina
Vojvodina
province of Austro- Hungary
Hungary
became attractive for Serbs
Serbs
ever since the fall of Serbia
Serbia
in the 15th century, and was the site of the Great Serbian Migrations, when Serbs
Serbs
colonized the area escaping Turkish vengeance. Sremski Karlovci
Sremski Karlovci
became the spiritual, political and cultural centre of the Serbs
Serbs
in the Habsburg Empire, with Metropolitan of the Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
residing in the town. To this day, Serbian Patriarch
Serbian Patriarch
retains the title of Metropolitan of (Sremski) Karlovci. The town featured the earliest Serb
Serb
and Slavic grammar school (Serbian: gimnazija/гимназија, French: Lycée) founded on August 3, 1791. In 1794, an Orthodox seminary was also founded in the town, ranking second oldest in the world (after the Spiritual Academy in Kiev). Novi Sad
Novi Sad
is home to Serbia's oldest professional theatre, founded in 1861 as Serbian National Theatre (serbian: Srpsko Narodno Pozorište), followed by Belgrade
Belgrade
in 1868; however two other cities claim this title: City of Kragujevac Knjazesko Srbski Teatar since 1835 and Subotica
Subotica
since 1851 (*there were theatres throughout Serbia
Serbia
long before that time but cannot be classified as "professional". There is a network of libraries with three national libraries, 689 public libraries, 143 higher education libraries and 11 non-specialised libraries as at 1998. The National Library of Serbia is the most significant of these. Project Rastko founded in 1997 is an Internet library of Serb
Serb
culture. Roots to the Serbian education system date back to 11th and 12th centuries when first Catholic
Catholic
colleges were founded in Vojvodina (Titel, Bac). Medieval Serbian education however was mostly conducted through the Serbian Orthodox monasteries ( UNESCO
UNESCO
protected Sopoćani, Studenica, Patriarchate of Peć) starting from the rise of Raška in the 12th century, when Serbs
Serbs
overwhelmingly embraced Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
rather than Catholicism. The first European-style higher education facilities however were founded in Catholic
Catholic
Vojvodina, Teacher's College
Teacher's College
in Subotica
Subotica
in 1689, although several facilities have functioned even before (e.g. Jesuit School in Belgrade, since 1609). Following short-lived Serbian independence between 1804 and 1813, Belgrade officially became an educational centre of the country (excluding Vojvodina). The University of Belgrade
Belgrade
is the biggest and most prestigious[citation needed] institution of higher education in Serbia, founded as the Belgrade
Belgrade
Higher School in 1808. The Gymnasium Jovan Jovanović Zmaj was founded in 1810 and many important Serb cultural figures studied there. Within the Government of Serbia, the Serbian Ministry for Culture is responsible for administering its cultural facilities. National symbols[edit]

Serbian tetragrammatic cross.

The Serbian Flag

Main article: Serb
Serb
heraldry

The Serbian flag is a red-blue-white horizontal tricolour. The Serbian eagle, a white two-headed eagle, which represents dual power and sovereignty (monarch and church), was the coat of arms of the Nemanjić dynasty. The Serbian cross
Serbian cross
is based on the Byzantine cross, but where the Byzantine Cross held 4 Greek letter 'V' (or 'B') meaning King of Kings, ruling over Kings,[5] the Serbian cross
Serbian cross
turned the Byzantine "B" into 4 Cyrillic
Cyrillic
letters of 'S' (C) with little stylistic modification, for a whole new message (traditionally rendered as Samo sloga Srbina spasava - Only Unity Saves the Serbs). If displayed on a field, traditionally it is on red field, but could be used with no field at all.

Both the eagle and the cross, besides being the basis for various Serbian coats of arms through history, are bases for the symbols of various Serbian organizations, political parties, institutions and companies. Serbian folk attire varies, mostly because of the very diverse geography and climate of the territory inhabited by the Serbs. Some parts of it are, however, common:

A traditional shoe that is called the opanak. It is recognizable by its distinctive tips that spiral backward. Each region of Serbia
Serbia
has a different kind of tips. A traditional hat that is called the Šajkača. It is easily recognizable by its top part that looks like the letter V or like the bottom of a boat (viewed from above), after which it got its name. It gained wide popularity in the early 20th century as it was the hat of the Serbian army in the First World War. It is still worn everyday by some villagers today, and it was a common item of headgear among Bosnian Serb
Serb
military commanders during the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
in the 1990s. However, the "Šajkača" is common mostly for the Serbian population living in the region of Central Serbia
Serbia
(Šumadija), while Serbs
Serbs
living in Vojvodina, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Croatia
Croatia
had different types of traditional hats, which are not similar to "šajkača". Different types of traditional hats could be also found in eastern and southern parts of Central Serbia.

See also[edit]

Cultural Heritage of Serbia Tourism in Serbia

References[edit]

^ Antonić, Dragomir (2006-07-23). Царство за гибаницу. Politika
Politika
33300 (in Serbian). Politika. p. 11.  ^ Slobodan Naumović. "The social origins and political uses of popular narratives on Serbian disunity" (PDF). Filozofija i društvo 2005 Issue 26, Pages: 65-104. Retrieved 2009-06-22.  ^ Branko Radun (2007-03-10). "Dve zadušnice za "dve Srbije"". Nova srpska politička misao. Retrieved 2010-12-05.  ^ Krojac. "Suveniri Srbije - Suvenir Lala". www.suvenirisrbije.com.  ^ "Byzantine Empire". www.crwflags.com. 

Sources[edit]

Trgovčević, Ljubinka (2006). "The enlightenment and the beginnings of modern Serbian culture". Balcanica. 37: 103–110.  Peić, Sava. Medieval Serbian culture. Alpine Fine Arts Collection (UK), 1994. Mihailovich, Vasa D. "Landmarks in Serbian Culture and History." Pittsburgh, Pa (1983). Janićijević, Jovan, ed. Serbian culture
Serbian culture
through centuries: selected list of recommended reading. Yugoslav Authors' Agency, 1990. THE HISTORY OF SERBIAN CULTURE (Internet ed.). Porthill Publishers. 1995. ISBN 1-870732-31-6.  Purković, Miodrag (1985). Srpska kultura srednjega veka. Izd. Srpske pravoslavne eparhije za zapadnu Evropu.  (in Serbian)

External links[edit] Online references[edit]

Serbia
Serbia
Ministry of Culture Radio Television Serbia
Serbia
(in Serbian) European Federation of Journalists
European Federation of Journalists
Serbia
Serbia
page Serbian info culture page Serbian info Art History page Encarta Yugoslavia article Encarta Yugoslav literature page Serbian medieval literature history Columbia University Yugoslav Literature article Treasures National Library Serbia

Other references[edit]

" Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2005 "Serbia", Grove Art Online, 2005 "Serbia", Grove Music Online, 2005 The Statesman's Yearbook 2005: The Politics, Cultures and Economies of the World, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004, ISBN 1-4039-1481-8

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