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The Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet (Serbian: српска ћирилица/srpska ćirilica, pronounced [sr̩̂pskaː t͡ɕirǐlit͡sa]) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script
Cyrillic script
for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić. It is one of the two alphabets used to write standard modern Serbian, Bosnian and Montenegrin, the other being Latin. Karadžić based his alphabet on the previous "Slavonic-Serbian" script, following the principle of "write as you speak and read as it is written", removing obsolete letters and letters representing iotified vowels, introducing ⟨J⟩ from the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
instead, and adding several consonant letters for sounds specific to Serbian phonology. During the same period, Croatian linguists led by Ljudevit Gaj adapted the Latin alphabet, in use in western South Slavic areas, using the same principles. As a result of this joint effort, Cyrillic and Latin alphabets for Serbo-Croatian have a complete one-to-one congruence, with the Latin digraphs Lj, Nj, and Dž counting as single letters. Vuk's Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet was officially adopted in Serbia
Serbia
in 1868, and was in exclusive use in the country up to the inter-war period. Both alphabets were co-official in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
and later in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Due to the shared cultural area, Gaj's Latin alphabet
Gaj's Latin alphabet
saw a gradual adoption in Serbia since, and both scripts are used to write modern standard Serbian, Montenegrin and Bosnian; Croatian only uses the Latin alphabet. In Serbia, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
is seen as being more traditional, and has the official status (designated in the Constitution as the "official script", compared to Latin's status of "script in official use" designated by a lower-level act). It is also an official script in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro, along with Latin. The Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet was used as a basis for the Macedonian alphabet with the work of Krste Misirkov
Krste Misirkov
and Venko Markovski.

Contents

1 Official use 2 Modern alphabet 3 Early history

3.1 Early Cyrillic 3.2 Medieval Serbian Cyrillic

4 Karadžić's reform 5 Modern history

5.1 Austria-Hungary 5.2 World War II 5.3 Yugoslavia 5.4 Contemporary period

6 Special
Special
letters 7 Differences from other Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabets 8 Variations 9 See also 10 References 11 Sources 12 Further reading 13 External links

Official use[edit] Cyrillic
Cyrillic
is in official use in Serbia, Montenegro
Montenegro
and Bosnia and Herzegovina.[1] Although the Bosnian language
Bosnian language
"officially accept[s] both alphabets",[1] the Latin script is almost always used in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina,[1] whereas Cyrillic
Cyrillic
is in everyday use in Republika Srpska[1] (and is used only by the Serbs in the country).[2] The Serbian language
Serbian language
in Croatia
Croatia
is officially recognized as a minority language, however, the use of Cyrillic
Cyrillic
in bilingual signs has sparked protests and vandalism. Cyrillic
Cyrillic
is an important symbol of Serbian identity.[3] In Serbia, official documents are printed in Cyrillic
Cyrillic
only[4] even though, according to a 2014 survey, 47% of the Serbian population write in the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
whereas 36% write in Cyrillic.[5] Modern alphabet[edit] The following table provides the upper and lower case forms of the Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet, along with the equivalent forms in the Serbian Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
and the International Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) value for each letter:

Serbian cyrillic (Times New Roman)

Cyrillic Latin IPA value

А а A a /ä/

Б
Б
б B b /b/

В в V v /v/

Г
Г
г G g /ɡ/

Д
Д
д D d /d/

Ђ ђ Đ đ /dʑ/

Е е E e /e/

Ж ж Ž ž /ʒ/

З з Z z /z/

И и I i /i/

Ј ј J j /ʝ/

К к K k /k/

Л л L l /l/

Љ љ Lj lj /ʎ/

М м M m /m/

Cyrillic Latin IPA value

Н н N n /n/

Њ њ Nj nj /ɲ/

О о O o /ɔ/

П
П
п P p /p/

Р р R r /r/

С с S s /s/

Т
Т
т T t /t/

Ћ ћ Ć ć /tɕ/

У у U u /u/

Ф ф F f /f/

Х х H h /x/

Ц ц C c /ts/

Ч ч Č č /tʃ/

Џ џ Dž dž /dʒ/

Ш
Ш
ш Š š /ʃ/

Early history[edit] See also: History of Serbia

Serbian Cyrillic, from Comparative orthography of European languages. Source: Vuk Stefanović Karadžić
Vuk Stefanović Karadžić
"Srpske narodne pjesme" (Serbian folk poems), Vienna, 1841

Early Cyrillic[edit] Main article: Early Cyrillic According to tradition, Glagolitic was invented by the Byzantine Christian missionaries and brothers Cyril and Methodius in the 860s, amid the Christianization of the Slavs. Glagolitic appears to be older, predating the introduction of Christianity, only formalized by Cyril and expanded to cover non-Greek sounds. Cyrillic
Cyrillic
was created by the orders of Boris I of Bulgaria by Cyril's disciples, perhaps at the Preslav Literary School
Preslav Literary School
in the 890s.[6] The earliest form of Cyrillic
Cyrillic
was the ustav, based on Greek uncial script, augmented by ligatures and letters from the Glagolitic alphabet for consonants not found in Greek. There was no distinction between capital and lowercase letters. The literary Slavic language was based on the Bulgarian dialect of Thessaloniki.[6] Medieval Serbian Cyrillic[edit] See also: Serbian manuscripts Part of the Serbian literary heritage of the Middle Ages are works such as Vukan Gospels, St. Sava's Nomocanon, Dušan's Code, Munich Serbian Psalter, and others. The first printed book in Serbian was the Cetinje Octoechos
Cetinje Octoechos
(1494). Karadžić's reform[edit]

Vuk Karadžić

Vuk Karadžić
Vuk Karadžić
(1787–1864) fled Serbia
Serbia
during the Serbian Revolution in 1813, to Vienna. There he met Slovene Jernej Kopitar
Jernej Kopitar
linguist and slavist, who along with Austrian Serb philologist Sava Mrkalj
Sava Mrkalj
helped Vuk reform the Serbian language
Serbian language
and its orthography. Karadžić finalized the alphabet in 1818 with the Serbian Dictionary. Karadžić reformed the Serbian literary language and standardised the Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet by following strict phonemic principles on the Johann Christoph Adelung' model and Jan Hus' Czech alphabet. Karadžić's reforms of the Serbian literary language modernised it and distanced it from Serbian and Russian Church Slavonic, instead bringing it closer to common folk speech, specifically, to the Eastern Herzegovinian dialect which he himself spoke. Karadžić was, together with scholar Đuro Daničić, the main Serbian signatory to the Vienna Literary Agreement of 1850 which, encouraged by Austrian authorities, laid the foundation for the Serbian language, various forms of which are used by Serbs in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Croatia
Croatia
today. Karadžić also translated the New Testament
New Testament
into Serbian, which was published in 1868. He wrote several books; Mala prostonarodna slaveno-serbska pesnarica and Pismenica serbskoga jezika in 1814, and two more in 1815 and 1818, all with the alphabet still in progress. In his letters from 1815-1818 he used: Ю, я, Ы and Ѳ. In his 1815 song book he dropped the Ѣ.[7] The alphabet was officially adopted in 1868, four years after his death.[8]

From the Old Slavic script Vuk retained these 24 letters:

А а Б
Б
б В в Г
Г
г Д
Д
д Е е Ж ж З з

И и К к Л л М м Н н О о П
П
п Р р

С с Т
Т
т У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш
Ш
ш

He added one Latin letter:

Ј ј

Vuk's dictionary

And 5 new ones:

Љ љ Њ њ Ћ ћ Ђ ђ Џ џ

He removed:

Ѥ ѥ (yе) Ѣ, ѣ (yat) І ї (i) Ѵ ѵ (i) Ѹ ѹ (u) Ѡ ѡ (о) Ѧ ѧ (small yus) Ѫ ѫ (big yus) Ы ы (yeri, hard i)

Ю ю (yu) Ѿ ѿ (оt) Ѳ ѳ (t) Ѕ ѕ (dz) Щ щ (sht) Ѯ ѯ (ks) Ѱ ѱ (ps) Ъ ъ (hard sign) Ь ь (soft sign) Я я (yа)

Modern history[edit] Austria-Hungary[edit] Orders issued on the 3 and 13 October 1914 banned the use of Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, limiting it for use in religious instruction. A decree was passed on January 3, 1915, that banned Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
completely from public use. An imperial order in October 25, 1915, banned the use of Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
in the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina, except "within the scope of Serb Orthodox Church authorities".[9][10] World War II[edit] On April 25, 1941, Grand Mufti Haj Amin al-Husseini
Haj Amin al-Husseini
of Jerusalem, who was made chief architect of the Nazi German offensive in Bosnia, had Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
outlawed.[11] In 1941, the Nazi puppet Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
banned the use of Cyrillic,[12] having regulated it on 25 April 1941,[13] and in June 1941 began eliminating "Eastern" (Serbian) words from the Croatian language, and shut down Serbian schools.[14][15] Yugoslavia[edit] The Serbian Cyrillic script
Cyrillic script
was one of the two official scripts used to write the Serbo-Croatian language
Serbo-Croatian language
in Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
since its establishment in 1918, the other being Latin script (latinica). With the collapse of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in the 1990s, Serbo-Croatian was divided into its variants on ethnic lines (as it had been in pre-Yugoslav times) and Cyrillic
Cyrillic
is no longer used officially in Croatia, while in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Montenegro
Montenegro
the Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
stayed the official constitutional script.[16] Contemporary period[edit] Under the Constitution of Serbia
Serbia
of 2006, Cyrillic script
Cyrillic script
is the only one in official use.[17] Special
Special
letters[edit] The ligatures ⟨Љ⟩ and ⟨Њ⟩, together with ⟨Џ⟩, ⟨Ђ⟩ and ⟨Ћ⟩ were developed specially for the Serbian alphabet.

Karadžić based the letters ⟨Љ⟩ and ⟨Њ⟩ on a design by Sava Mrkalj, combining the letters ⟨Л⟩ (L) and ⟨Н⟩ (N) with the soft sign (Ь). Karadžić based ⟨Џ⟩ on letter "Gea" in the Romanian Cyrillic alphabet.[citation needed] ⟨Ћ⟩ was adopted by Karadžić to represent the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate (IPA: /tɕ/). The letter was based on, but different in appearance to, the letter Djerv, which is the 12th letter of the Glagolitic alphabet; that letter had been used in written Serbian since the 12th century, to represent /ɡʲ/, dʲ/ and /dʑ/. Karadžić adopted a design by Lukijan Mušicki
Lukijan Mušicki
for the letter ⟨Ђ⟩. It was based on the letter ⟨Ћ⟩, as adapted by Karadžić. ⟨Ј⟩ was adopted from the Latin alphabet.

⟨Љ⟩, ⟨Њ⟩ and ⟨Џ⟩ were later adopted for use in the Macedonian alphabet. Differences from other Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabets[edit]

There are non-italic and italic glyphs of some letters б, г, д, п, т in different languages; note that both forms of д are quite acceptable in handwritten Russian cursive

Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
does not use several letters encountered in other Slavic Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabets. It does not use hard sign (ъ) and soft sign (ь), but the aforementioned soft-sign ligatures instead. It does not have Russian/Belorussian Э, the semi-vowels Й or Ў, nor the iotated letters Я (Russian/Bulgarian ya), Є (Ukrainian ye), Ї (yi), Ё (Russian yo) or Ю (yu), which are instead written as two separate letters: Ja, Je, Jи, Jo, Jy. J can also be used as a semi-vowel, in place of й. The letter Щ is not used. When necessary, it is transliterated as either ШЧ or ШT. Serbian and Macedonian italic and cursive forms of lowercase letters б, г, д, п, and т, differ from those used in other Cyrillic alphabets (in Serbian ш can optionally be underlined, whereas in Macedonian it is never underlined). That presents an obstacle in Unicode
Unicode
modeling, as the glyphs differ only in italic versions, and historically non-italic letters have been used in the same code positions. Serbian professional typography uses fonts specially crafted for the language to overcome the problem, but texts printed from common computers contain East Slavic rather than Serbian italic glyphs.[18] Cyrillic
Cyrillic
fonts from Adobe,[19] Microsoft (Windows Vista and later) and a few other font houses[citation needed] include the Serbian variations (both regular and italic). If the underlying font and Web technology provides support, the proper glyphs can be obtained by marking the text with appropriate language codes. Thus, in non-italic mode:

<span lang="sr">бгдпт</span>, produces бгдпт, same (except for the shape of б) as <span lang="ru">бгдпт</span>, producing бгдпт

whereas:

<span lang="sr" style="font-style: italic">бгдпт</span> gives бгдпт, and <span lang="ru" style="font-style: italic">бгдпт</span> produces бгдпт.

Since Unicode
Unicode
unified different characters in same script,[20] OpenType
OpenType
locl (locale) support must be present to display the correct variant. Programs like Mozilla Firefox, LibreOffice
LibreOffice
(currently under Linux
Linux
only), and some others provide required OpenType
OpenType
support. Starting from CSS 3, web authors also have to use this: font-feature-settings: 'locl';. Of course, font families like GNU FreeFont, DejaVu, Ubuntu, Microsoft "C*" fonts from Windows Vista
Windows Vista
and above must be used.

Variations[edit]

There are also variations of some letters like Л,Љ and Д
Д
that can also be written like the Greek letters Lambda and Delta. See also[edit]

Gaj's Latin alphabet Yugoslav braille Yugoslav manual alphabet Montenegrin alphabet Romanization of Serbian Serbian calligraphy

References[edit]

^ a b c d Ronelle Alexander (15 August 2006). Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, a Grammar: With Sociolinguistic Commentary. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-0-299-21193-6.  ^ Tomasz Kamusella (15 January 2009). The Politics of Language and Nationalism in Modern Central Europe. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-55070-4. In addition, today, neither Bosniaks nor Croats, but only Serbs use Cyrillic
Cyrillic
in Bosnia.  ^ Entangled Histories of the Balkans: Volume One: National Ideologies and Language Policies. BRILL. 13 June 2013. pp. 414–. ISBN 978-90-04-25076-5.  ^ http://www.novosti.rs/vesti/planeta.300.html:558012-%D0%8B%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%9A%D0%B5-%D1%9B%D0%B8%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%BB%D0%B8%D1%86%D0%B5-%D0%B8%D0%B7-%D0%A6%D1%80%D0%BD%D0%B5-%D0%93%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B5 ^ http://www.b92.net/kultura/vesti.php?nav_category=1087&yyyy=2014&mm=12&dd=16&nav_id=936784 ^ a b Cubberley, Paul (1996) "The Slavic Alphabets". in Daniels, Peter T., and William Bright, eds. (1996). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507993-0. ^ The life and times of Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, p. 387 ^ Vek i po od smrti Vuka Karadžića (in Serbian), Radio-Television of Serbia, 7 February 2014  ^ Andrej Mitrović, Serbia's great war, 1914-1918 p.78-79. Purdue University Press, 2007. ISBN 1-55753-477-2, ISBN 978-1-55753-477-4 ^ Ana S. Trbovich (2008). A Legal Geography of Yugoslavia's Disintegration. Oxford University Press. p. 102.  ^ David J. Jonsson (2006). Islamic Economics and the Final Jihad. Xulon Press. p. 90.  ^ Sabrina P. Ramet (2006). The Three Yugoslavias: State-building and Legitimation, 1918-2005. Indiana University Press. pp. 312–. ISBN 0-253-34656-8.  ^ Enver Redžić (2005). Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
in the Second World War. Psychology Press. pp. 71–. ISBN 978-0-7146-5625-0.  ^ Alex J. Bellamy (2003). The Formation of Croatian National Identity: A Centuries-old Dream. Manchester University Press. pp. 138–. ISBN 978-0-7190-6502-6.  ^ David M. Crowe (13 September 2013). Crimes of State Past and Present: Government-Sponsored Atrocities and International Legal Responses. Routledge. pp. 61–. ISBN 978-1-317-98682-9.  ^ Yugoslav Survey. 43. Jugoslavija Publishing House. 2002. Retrieved 27 September 2013.  ^ Article 10 of the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia
Serbia
(English version) ^ Janko Stamenović. "Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
Letters BE, GHE, DE, PE, TE* (collection of related items from Unicode
Unicode
mailing list)". Retrieved 2008-06-30.  ^ http://www.adobe.com/devnet/font/pdfs/5013.Cyrillic_Font_Spec.pdf ^ Unicode
Unicode
8.0.0 ch.02 p.14-15

Sources[edit]

Books

Đorđić, P. (1987). Istorija srpske ćirilice: paleografsko-filološki prilozi. Zavod za udžbenike i nastavna sredstva.  Đorđić, P. (1971). Istorija srpske ćirilice [History of Serbian Cyrillic]. Zavod za izdavanje udžbenika SR Srbije.  Wilson, Duncan (1970). The life and times of Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, 1787-1864: literacy, literature and national independence in Serbia. Clarendon Press. 

Journals

Bonkovski, R. (2009). "Srpska pisma". Nasleđe. Kragujevac. 6 (14-1): 99–105. ISSN 1820-1768. 

Further reading[edit]

Ivković, D., 2013. Pragmatics meets ideology: Digraphia and non-standard orthographic practices in Serbian online news forums. Journal of Language and Politics, 12(3), pp.335-356.

External links[edit]

Omniglot – Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian

v t e

Transliteration and transcription into Cyrillic

Existing systems

Chinese French Greek Japanese Korean Esperanto Arabic German Moldovan Romanian Serbian Mongolian Uyghur Hungarian Komi Yakut Georgian Chemical nomenclature

Standards

Alphabet
Alphabet
comparison Cyrillic
Cyrillic
script International Phonetic Alphabet Scientific transliteration of Cyrillic Sovietiza

.