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The SERBIAN CYRILLIC ALPHABET (Serbian : српска ћирилица/srpska ćirilica, pronounced ) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language , developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić . It is one of the two alphabets used to write standard modern Serbian , Bosnian and Montenegrin , the other being Latin .

Karadžić based his alphabet on the previous " Slavonic-Serbian
Slavonic-Serbian
" script, following the principle of "write as you speak and read as it is written", removing obsolete letters and letters representing iotified vowels , introducing ⟨J⟩ from the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
instead, and adding several consonant letters for sounds specific to Serbian phonology. During the same period, Croatian linguists led by Ljudevit Gaj adapted the Latin alphabet, in use in western South Slavic areas, using the same principles. As a result of this joint effort, Cyrillic and Latin alphabets for Serbo-Croatian have a complete one-to-one congruence, with the Latin digraphs Lj, Nj, and Dž counting as single letters.

Vuk's Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet was officially adopted in Serbia
Serbia
in 1868, and was in exclusive use in the country up to the inter-war period. Both alphabets were co-official in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and later in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia . Due to the shared cultural area, Gaj's Latin alphabet saw a gradual adoption in Serbia since, and both scripts are used to write modern standard Serbian, Montenegrin and Bosnian; Croatian only uses the Latin alphabet. In Serbia, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
is seen as being more traditional, and has the official status (designated in the Constitution as the "official script ", compared to Latin's status of "script in official use" designated by a lower-level act). It is also an official script in Bosnia- Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and Montenegro, along with Latin.

The Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet was used as a basis for the Macedonian alphabet with the work of Krste Misirkov and Venko Markovski .

CONTENTS

* 1 Official use * 2 Modern alphabet

* 3 Early history

* 3.1 Early Cyrillic
Cyrillic
* 3.2 Medieval Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic

* 4 Karadžić\'s reform

* 5 Modern history

* 5.1 Austria-Hungary * 5.2 World War II * 5.3 Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
* 5.4 Contemporary period

* 6 Special
Special
letters * 7 Differences from other Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabets * 8 See also

* 9 References

* 9.1 Sources

* 10 External links

OFFICIAL USE

Cyrillic
Cyrillic
is in official use in Serbia, Montenegro
Montenegro
and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Although the Bosnian language "officially accept both alphabets", the Latin script is almost always used in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
, whereas Cyrillic
Cyrillic
is in everyday use in Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
(and is used only by the Serbs in the country). The Serbian language in Croatia
Croatia
is officially recognized as a minority language, however, the use of Cyrillic
Cyrillic
in bilingual signs has sparked protests and vandalism .

Cyrillic
Cyrillic
is an important symbol of Serbian identity. In Serbia, official documents are printed in Cyrillic
Cyrillic
only even though, according to a 2014 survey, 47% of the Serbian population write in the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
whereas 36% write in Cyrillic.

MODERN ALPHABET

Example of proper cursive modern Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet Capital letters of the Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet

The following table provides the upper and lower case forms of the Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet, along with the equivalent forms in the Serbian Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
and the International Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) value for each letter:

CYRILLIC LATIN IPA VALUE

А а A a /ä /

Б б B b /b /

В в V v /v /

Г г G g /ɡ /

Д
Д
д D d /d /

Ђ ђ Đ đ /dʑ /

Е е E e /e /

Ж ж Ž ž /ʐ /

З з Z z /z /

И и I i /i /

Ј ј J j /ʝ /

К к K k /k /

Л л L l /l /

Љ љ Lj lj /ʎ /

М м M m /m /

CYRILLIC LATIN IPA VALUE

Н н N n /n /

Њ њ Nj nj /ɲ /

О о O o /ɔ /

П п P p /p /

Р р R r /ɾ /

С с S s /s /

Т т T t /t /

Ћ ћ Ć ć /tɕ /

У у U u /u /

Ф ф F f /f /

Х х H h /x /

Ц ц C c /ts /

Ч ч Č č /ʈʂ /

Џ џ Dž dž /ɖʐ /

Ш ш Š š /ʂ /

EARLY HISTORY

See also: History of Serbia
History of Serbia
SERBIAN CYRILLIC, from Comparative orthography of European languages. Source: Vuk Stefanović Karadžić "Srpske narodne pjesme" (Serbian folk poems), Vienna
Vienna
, 1841

EARLY CYRILLIC

Main article: Early Cyrillic
Cyrillic

According to tradition, Glagolitic was invented by the Byzantine Christian missionaries and brothers Cyril and Methodius in the 860s, amid the Christianization of the Slavs . Glagolitic appears to be older, predating the introduction of Christianity, only formalized by Cyril and expanded to cover non-Greek sounds. Cyrillic
Cyrillic
was created by the orders of Boris I of Bulgaria by Cyril's disciples, perhaps at the Preslav Literary School
Preslav Literary School
in the 890s.

The earliest form of Cyrillic
Cyrillic
was the ustav, based on Greek uncial script, augmented by ligatures and letters from the Glagolitic alphabet for consonants not found in Greek. There was no distinction between capital and lowercase letters. The literary Slavic language was based on the Bulgarian dialect of Thessaloniki.

MEDIEVAL SERBIAN CYRILLIC

See also: Serbian manuscripts

Part of the Serbian literary heritage of the Middle Ages are works such as Vukan Gospels , St. Sava\'s Nomocanon , Dušan\'s Code , Munich Serbian Psalter , and others. The first printed book in Serbian was the Cetinje Octoechos (1494).

KARADžIć\'S REFORM

Vuk Karadžić

Vuk Stefanović Karadžić (l. 1787–1864) fled Serbia
Serbia
during the Serbian Revolution in 1813, to Vienna. There he met Jernej Kopitar , a linguist with interest in slavistics. Kopitar and Sava Mrkalj helped Vuk to reform the Serbian language and its orthography. He finalized the alphabet in 1818 with the Serbian Dictionary.

Karadžić reformed the Serbian literary language and standardised the Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet by following strict phonemic principles on the Johann Christoph Adelung ' model and Jan Hus
Jan Hus
' Czech alphabet . Karadžić's reforms of the Serbian literary language modernised it and distanced it from Serbian and Russian Church Slavonic , instead bringing it closer to common folk speech, specifically, to the dialect of Eastern Herzegovina
Herzegovina
which he spoke. Karadžić was, together with Đuro Daničić , the main Serbian signatory to the Vienna
Vienna
Literary Agreement of 1850 which, encouraged by Austrian authorities, laid the foundation for the Serbian language, various forms of which are used by Serbs in Serbia
Serbia
, Montenegro
Montenegro
, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and Croatia today. Karadžić also translated the New Testament
New Testament
into Serbian, which was published in 1868.

He wrote several books; Mala prostonarodna slaveno-serbska pesnarica and Pismenica serbskoga jezika in 1814, and two more in 1815 and 1818, all with the alphabet still in progress. In his letters from 1815-1818 he used: Ю, я, Ы and Ѳ. In his 1815 song book he dropped the Ѣ.

The alphabet was officially adopted in 1868, four years after his death.

From the Old Slavic script Vuk retained these 24 letters:

А а Б б В в Г г Д
Д
д Е е Ж ж З з

И и К к Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р

С с Т т У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш

He added one Latin letter:

Ј ј

Vuk's dictionary

And 5 new ones:

Љ љ Њ њ Ћ ћ Ђ ђ Џ џ

He removed:

Ѥ ѥ (је) Ѣ, ѣ (јат) І ї (и) Ѵ ѵ (и) Ѹ ѹ (у) Ѡ ѡ (о) Ѧ ѧ (мали јус) Ѫ ѫ (велики јус) Ы ы (јери, тврдо и)

Ю ю (ју) Ѿ ѿ (от) Ѳ ѳ (т) Ѕ ѕ (дз) Щ щ (шт) Ѯ ѯ (кс) Ѱ ѱ (пс) Ъ ъ (тврди полуглас) Ь ь (меки полуглас) Я я (ја)

MODERN HISTORY

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY

Orders issued on the 3 and 13 October 1914 banned the use of Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia , limiting it for use in religious instruction. A decree was passed on January 3, 1915, that banned Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
completely from public use. An imperial order in October 25, 1915, banned the use of Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
in the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
, except "within the scope of Serb Orthodox Church authorities".

WORLD WAR II

On April 25, 1941, Grand Mufti Haj Amin al-Husseini of Jerusalem, who was made chief architect of the Nazi German offensive in Bosnia, had Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
outlawed. In 1941, the Nazi puppet Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
banned the use of Cyrillic, having regulated it on 25 April 1941, and in June 1941 began eliminating "Eastern " (Serbian) words from the Croatian language, and shut down Serbian schools.

YUGOSLAVIA

The Serbian Cyrillic script was one of the two official scripts used to write the Serbo-Croatian language in Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
since its establishment in 1918, the other being Latin script (latinica).

With the collapse of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in the 1990s, Serbo-Croatian was divided into its variants on ethnic lines (as it had been in pre-Yugoslav times) and Cyrillic
Cyrillic
is no longer used officially in Croatia, while in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and Montenegro
Montenegro
the Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
stayed the official constitutional script.

CONTEMPORARY PERIOD

Under the Constitution of Serbia
Serbia
of 2006, Cyrillic script is the only one in official use.

SPECIAL LETTERS

The ligatures ⟨Љ ⟩ and ⟨Њ ⟩, together with ⟨Џ ⟩, ⟨Ђ ⟩ and ⟨Ћ ⟩ were developed specially for the Serbian alphabet.

* Karadžić based the letters ⟨Љ ⟩ and ⟨Њ ⟩ on a design by Sava Mrkalj , combining the letters ⟨Л ⟩ (L) and ⟨Н ⟩ (N) with the soft sign (Ь). * Karadžić based ⟨Џ ⟩ on letter "Gea" in the Romanian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet . * ⟨Ћ ⟩ was adopted by Karadžić to represent the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate (IPA : /tɕ/). The letter was based on, but different in appearance to, the letter Djerv, which is the 12th letter of the Glagolitic alphabet
Glagolitic alphabet
; that letter had been used in written Serbian since the 12th century, to represent /ɡʲ/, dʲ/ and /dʑ/. * Karadžić adopted a design by Lukijan Mušicki for the letter ⟨Ђ ⟩. It was based on the letter ⟨Ћ ⟩, as adapted by Karadžić. * ⟨Ј ⟩ was adopted from the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
.

⟨Љ ⟩, ⟨Њ ⟩ and ⟨Џ ⟩ were later adopted for use in the Macedonian alphabet .

DIFFERENCES FROM OTHER CYRILLIC ALPHABETS

There are non-italic and italic glyphs of some letters б, г, д, п, т in different languages; note that both forms of д are quite acceptable in handwritten Russian cursive

Serbian Cyrillic
Cyrillic
does not use several letters encountered in other Slavic Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabets. It does not use hard sign (ъ) and soft sign (ь), but the aforementioned soft-sign ligatures instead. It does not have Russian/Belorussian Э, the semi-vowels Й or Ў, nor the iotated letters Я (Russian/Bulgarian ya), Є (Ukrainian ye), Ї (yi), Ё (Russian yo) or Ю (yu), which are instead written as two separate letters: Ja, Je, Jи, Jo, Jy. J can also be used as a semi-vowel, in place of й. The letter Щ is not used. When necessary, it is transliterated as either ШЧ or ШT.

Serbian and Macedonian italic and cursive forms of lowercase letters б , г , д , п , and т , differ from those used in other Cyrillic alphabets (in Serbian ш can optionally be underlined, whereas in Macedonian it is never underlined). That presents an obstacle in Unicode
Unicode
modeling, as the glyphs differ only in italic versions, and historically non-italic letters have been used in the same code positions. Serbian professional typography uses fonts specially crafted for the language to overcome the problem, but texts printed from common computers contain East Slavic rather than Serbian italic glyphs. Cyrillic
Cyrillic
fonts from Adobe, Microsoft ( Windows Vista and later) and a few other font houses include the Serbian variations (both regular and italic).

If the underlying font and Web technology provides support, the proper glyphs can be obtained by marking the text with appropriate language codes. Thus, in non-italic mode:

* бгдпт, produces бгдпт, same (except for the shape of б) as * бгдпт, producing бгдпт

whereas:

* бгдпт gives бгдпт, and * бгдпт produces бгдпт.

Since Unicode
Unicode
unified different characters in same script, OpenType locl (locale) support must be present to display the correct variant. Programs like Mozilla Firefox
Mozilla Firefox
, LibreOffice
LibreOffice
(currently under Linux only), and some others provide required OpenType support. Starting from CSS 3, web authors also have to use this: font-feature-settings: 'locl';. Of course, font families like GNU
GNU
FreeFont , DejaVu , Ubuntu , Microsoft "C*" fonts from Windows Vista and above must be used.

SEE ALSO

* Gaj\'s Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
* Yugoslav braille * Yugoslav manual alphabet * Montenegrin alphabet * Romanization of Serbian * Serbian calligraphy

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D Ronelle Alexander (15 August 2006). Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, a Grammar: With Sociolinguistic Commentary. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-0-299-21193-6 . * ^ Tomasz Kamusella (15 January 2009). The Politics of Language and Nationalism in Modern Central Europe. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-55070-4 . In addition, today, neither Bosniaks nor Croats, but only Serbs use Cyrillic
Cyrillic
in Bosnia. * ^ Entangled Histories of the Balkans: Volume One: National Ideologies and Language Policies. BRILL. 13 June 2013. pp. 414–. ISBN 978-90-04-25076-5 . * ^ http://www.novosti.rs/vesti/planeta.300.html:558012-%D0%8B%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%9A%D0%B5-%D1%9B%D0%B8%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%BB%D0%B8%D1%86%D0%B5-%D0%B8%D0%B7-%D0%A6%D1%80%D0%BD%D0%B5-%D0%93%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B5 * ^ http://www.b92.net/kultura/vesti.php?nav_category=1087&yyyy=2014&mm=12&dd=16&nav_id=936784 * ^ A B Cubberley, Paul (1996) "The Slavic Alphabets". in Daniels, Peter T., and William Bright, eds. (1996). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507993-0 . * ^ The life and times of Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, p. 387 * ^ Vek i po od smrti Vuka Karadžića (in Serbian), Radio-Television of Serbia, 7 February 2014 * ^ Andrej Mitrović, Serbia's great war, 1914-1918 p.78-79. Purdue University Press, 2007. ISBN 1-55753-477-2 , ISBN 978-1-55753-477-4 * ^ Ana S. Trbovich (2008). A Legal Geography of Yugoslavia\'s Disintegration. Oxford University Press. p. 102. * ^ David J. Jonsson (2006). Islamic Economics and the Final Jihad. Xulon Press. p. 90. * ^ Sabrina P. Ramet (2006). The Three Yugoslavias: State-building and Legitimation, 1918-2005. Indiana University Press. pp. 312–. ISBN 0-253-34656-8 . * ^ Enver Redžić (2005). Bosnia and