SERBIAN (српски / _srpski_, pronounced ) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs . It is the official language of Serbia and one of the three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina . In addition, it is a recognized minority language in Montenegro , Croatia , Macedonia , Romania , Hungary , Slovakia , and the Czech Republic .
Standard Serbian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian (more specifically on Šumadija-Vojvodina and Eastern Herzegovinian dialects ), which is also the basis of Standard Croatian , Bosnian , and Montenegrin . The other dialect spoken by Serbs is Torlakian in southeastern Serbia, which is transitional to Macedonian and Bulgarian .
Serbian is practically the only European standard language with complete synchronic digraphia , using both Cyrillic and Latin alphabets; speakers read the two scripts equally well. The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet was devised in 1814 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić , who created the alphabet on phonemic principles. The Latin alphabet was designed by Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj in 1830.
* 1 Classification
* 2 Geographic distribution
* 2.1 Status in Montenegro
* 3 Differences between standard Serbian and standard Croatian and Bosnian
* 4 Writing system
* 4.1 Alphabetic order * 4.2 Conjugation
* 5 Vocabulary * 6 Serbian literature
* 7 Dictionaries
* 7.1 Standard dictionaries * 7.2 Bilingual dictionaries * 7.3 Historical dictionaries * 7.4 Etymological dictionaries * 7.5 Dialect dictionaries
* 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links
See also: History of Serbo-Croatian
Serbian is a standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian , a Slavic language (Indo-European ), of the South Slavic subgroup. Other standardized forms of Serbo-Croatian are Bosnian , Croatian , and Montenegrin . It has lower intelligibility with the Eastern South Slavic languages Bulgarian and Macedonian , than with Slovene (Slovene is part of the Western South Slavic subgroup, but there are still significant differences in vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation to the standardized forms of Serbo-Croatian, although it is closer to the Kajkavian and Chakavian dialects of Serbo-Croatian ).
Figures of speakers according to countries:
* Serbia : 6,540,699 (official language) * Bosnia and Herzegovina : 1,086,027 (co-official language) * Germany: 568,240 * Austria: 350,000 * Montenegro : 265,890 (recognized minority language) * Switzerland: 186,000 * United States: 172,874 * Sweden: 120,000 * Italy: 106,498 * Canada: 72,690 * Australia: 55,114 * Croatia : 52,879 (recognized minority language) * Slovenia : 38,964 * Republic of Macedonia : 35,939 (recognized minority language) * Romania : 22,518 (recognized minority language)
STATUS IN MONTENEGRO
Serbian was the official language of Montenegro until 2007 when the new Constitution of Montenegro replaced the Constitution of 1992. Amid opposition from pro-Serbian parties, the Montenegrin language was made the sole official language of the country, and Serbian was given the status of a recognised minority language along with Bosnian, Albanian , and Croatian.
According to the 2011 census, 42.88% still declare Serbian to be their native language, while Montenegrin is declared by 36.97% of the population.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN STANDARD SERBIAN AND STANDARD CROATIAN AND BOSNIAN
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Main article: Comparison of standard Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian See also: Serbo-Croatian phonology and Serbo-Croatian grammar
Although Serbian language authorities have recognized the official status of both scripts in contemporary Standard Serbian for more than half of a century now, due to historical reasons, the Cyrillic script was made the official script of Serbia's administration by the 2006 Constitution . However, the law does not regulate scripts in standard language , or standard language itself by any means, leaving the choice of script as a matter of personal preference and to the free will in all aspects of life (publishing, media, trade and commerce, etc.), except in government paperwork production and in official written communication with state officials, which have to be in Cyrillic. Even in official government documents this constitutional requirement is rarely enforced. Serbian is a rare example of synchronic digraphia , a situation where all literate members of a society have two interchangeable writing systems available to them. Media and publishers typically select one alphabet or another. For example, the public broadcaster, Radio Television of Serbia , predominantly uses the Cyrillic script whereas the privately run broadcasters, like RTV Pink , predominantly use the Latin script.
A survey from 2014 showed that 47% of the Serbian population favors the Latin alphabet whereas 36% favors the Cyrillic one.
SOUTH SLAVIC LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS
Western South Slavic
* ( Prekmurje Slovene * Resian )
* SERBO-CROATIAN STANDARD LANGUAGES * Bosnian * Croatian * Montenegrin
* Serbian ( Slavonic-Serbian )
* SERBO-CROATIAN DIALECTS
* (Bunjevac * Dubrovnik
Eastern Herzegovinian Smederevo–Vršac
* Šumadija–Vojvodina * Užican )
* (Burgenland * Molise )
* Kajkavian * Torlakian
* SERBO-CROATIAN ACCENTS
* Comparison of standard Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian
Eastern South Slavic
* Church Slavonic (Old )
* BULGARIAN * Dialects * Banat
* Torlakian * Meshterski
* (Western * Southeastern
* Northern * Torlakian )
* SERBIAN–BULGARIAN–MACEDONIAN * Transitional Bulgarian dialects
* Torlakian * Gora dialect
* CROATIAN–SLOVENIAN * Kajkavian
* Gaj\'s Latin a * Serbian Cyrillic
* Bulgarian Cyrillic * Macedonian Cyrillic * Montenegrin * Slavica * Slovene
* Bohoričica * Dajnčica * Metelčica
* Glagolitic * Early Cyrillic
a Includes Banat Bulgarian alphabet .
* v * t * e
The sort order of the _ćirilica_ (ћирилица) alphabet:
* Cyrillic order called _Azbuka_ (азбука): А Б В Г Д Ђ Е Ж З И Ј К Л Љ М Н Њ О П Р С Т Ћ У Ф Х Ц Ч Џ Ш
The sort order of the _latinica_ (латиница) alphabet:
* Latin order called _Abeceda_ (абецеда): A B C Č Ć D Dž Đ E F G H I J K L Lj M N Nj O P R S Š T U V Z Ž
Serbian verbs are conjugated in four past forms—perfect , aorist , imperfect , and pluperfect —of which the last two have a very limited use (imperfect is still used in some dialects, but the majority of native Serbian speakers consider it archaic), one future tense (also known as the first future tense, as opposed to the second future tense or the future exact, which is considered a tense of the conditional mood by some contemporary linguists), and one present tense . These are the tenses of the indicative mood. Apart from the indicative mood, there is also the imperative mood . The conditional mood has two more tenses: the first conditional (commonly used in conditional clauses, both for possible and impossible conditional clauses) and the second conditional (without use in the spoken language—it should be used for impossible conditional clauses). Serbian has active and passive voice .
As for the non-finite verb forms, Serbian has one infinitive , two adjectival participles (the active and the passive), and two adverbial participles (the present and the past).
See also: Loanwords in Serbian
Most Serbian words are of native Slavic lexical stock, tracing back to the Proto- Slavic language . There are many loanwords from different languages, reflecting cultural interaction throughout history. Notable loanwords were borrowed from Greek, Latin, Italian, Turkish, Hungarian, Russian, and German.
Main article: Serbian literature _ Miroslavljevo jevanđelje _ (The Gospel of Miroslav), a manuscript , ca. 1186
Serbian literature emerged in the Middle Ages , and included such works as _Miroslavljevo jevanđelje_ (Miroslav\'s Gospel ) in 1192 and _Dušanov zakonik_ (Dušan\'s Code ) in 1349. Little secular medieval literature has been preserved, but what there is shows that it was in accord with its time; for example, _Serbian Alexandride_, a book about Alexander the Great , and a translation of _ Tristan and Iseult _ into Serbian. Although not belonging to the literature proper, the corpus of Serbian literacy in the 14th and 15th centuries contains numerous legal, commercial and administrative texts with marked presence of Serbian vernacular juxtaposed on the matrix of Serbian Church Slavonic .
In the mid-15th century, Serbia was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and for the next 400 years there was no opportunity for the creation of secular written literature. However, some of the greatest literary works in Serbian come from this time, in the form of oral literature, the most notable form being Serbian epic poetry . The epic poems were mainly written down in the 19th century, and preserved in oral tradition up to the 1950s, a few centuries or even a millennium longer than by most other "epic folks". Goethe and Jacob Grimm learned Serbian in order to read Serbian epic poetry in the original. By the end of the 18th century, the written literature had become estranged from the spoken language. In the second half of the 18th century, the new language appeared, called Slavonic-Serbian . This artificial idiom superseded the works of poets and historians like Gavrilo Stefanović Venclović, who wrote in essentially modern Serbian in the 1720s. These vernacular compositions have remained cloistered from the general public and received due attention only with the advent of modern literary historians and writers like Milorad Pavić . In the early 19th century, Vuk Stefanović Karadžić promoted the spoken language of the people as a literary norm.
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* _Rečnik srpskohrvatskog književnog i narodnog jezika_ (Dictionary of Serbo-Croatian standard language and vernaculars) is the biggest dictionary of Serbian and still unfinished. Starting with 1959, 16 volumes were published, about 40 are expected. Works of Croatian authors are excerpted, if published before 1991. * _Rečnik srpskohrvatskoga književnog jezika_ in 6 volumes, started as a common project of Matica srpska and Matica hrvatska , but only the first three volumes were also published in Croato-Serbian (hrvatskosrpski). * _Rečnik srpskoga jezika_ (ISBN 978-86-7946-004-2 ) in one volume, published in 2007 by Matica srpska , which on more than 1500 pages in A4 format explains more than 85.000 entries. Several volume dictionaries were published in Croatia (for the Croatian language) since the 1990s (_Anić_, _Enciklopedijski rječnik_, _Hrvatski rječnik_).
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* Standard dictionaries * Specialized dictionaries * Phraseological dictionaries
Vuk Karadžić 's _ Srpski rječnik _, first published in 1818, is the earliest dictionary of modern literary Serbian. The _Rječnik hrvatskoga ili srpskoga jezika_ (I–XXIII), published by the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts from 1880 to 1976, is the only general historical dictionary of Serbo-Croatian. Its first editor was Đuro Daničić , followed by Pero Budmani and the famous Vukovian Tomislav Maretić . The sources of this dictionary are, especially in the first volumes, mainly Štokavian . There are older, pre-standard dictionaries, such as the 1791 German–Serbian dictionary .
The standard and the only completed etymological dictionary of Serbian is the "Skok ", written by the Croatian linguist Petar Skok : _Etimologijski rječnik hrvatskoga ili srpskoga jezika_ ("Etymological Dictionary of Croatian or Serbian"). I-IV. Zagreb 1971–1974.
There is also a new monumental _Etimološki rečnik srpskog jezika _ (Etymological Dictionary of Serbian). So far, two volumes have been published: I (with words on A-), and II (Ba-Bd).
There are specialized etymological dictionaries for German, Italian, Croatian, Turkish, Greek, Hungarian, Russian, English and other loanwords (cf. chapter _word origin_).
* Kosovsko-resavski dialect dictionaries:
* Gliša Elezović, Rečnik kosovsko-metohiskog dijalekta I-II. 1932/1935.
* Prizren-Timok (Torlakian) dialect dictionaries:
* Brana Mitrović, Rečnik leskovačkog govora. Leskovac 1984. * Nikola Živković, Rečnik pirotskog govora. Pirot, 1987. * Miodrag Marković, Rečnik crnorečkog govora I-II. 1986/1993. * Jakša Dinić, Rečnik timočkog govora I-III.1988–1992. * Jakša Dinić, Timocki dijalekatski recnik, (Institut za srpski jezik, Monografije 4; ISBN 978-86-82873-17-4 ) Beograd 2008, * Momčilo Zlatanović, Rečnik govora južne Srbije. Vranje, 1998, 1–491.
* East-Herzegovinian dialect dictionaries:
* Milija Stanić, Uskočki rečnik I–II. Beograd 1990/1991. * Miloš Vujičić, Rečnik govora Prošćenja kod Mojkovca. Podgorica, 1995. * Srđan Musić, Romanizmi u severozapadnoj Boki Kotorskoj. 1972. * Svetozar Gagović, Iz leksike Pive. Beograd 2004.
* Zeta-Pešter dialect:
* Rada Stijović, Iz leksike Vasojevića. 1990. * Drago Ćupić – Željko Ćupić, Rečnik govora Zagarača. 1997. * Vesna Lipovac-Radulović, Romanizmi u Crnoj Gori – jugoistočni dio Boke Kotorske. Cetinje – Titograd, 1981. * Vesna Lipovac-Radulović, Romanizmi u Budvi i Paštrovićima. Novi Sad 1997.
* Rečnik sprskih govora Vojvodine. Novi Sad. * Mile Tomić, Rečnik radimskog govora – dijaspora, Rumunija. 1989.
* Language secessionism in Serbo-Croatian * Mutual intelligibility * Pluricentric Serbo-Croatian language * Dialects of Serbo-Croatian * Romano-Serbian language (mix with Romany) * Šatrovački (slang form) * Serbian proverbs * Abstand and ausbau languages
* ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia . The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory . The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement . Kosovo has received formal recognition as an independent state from 111 out of 193 United Nations member states .
* ^ Including, as of 2006, 6.62 million in Serbia sans Kosovo (88% of the population), 1.49 million in Bosnia (37.1%), 400,000 in Montenegro (60%), 133,000 in Kosovo, 45,000 in Croatia, and 36,000 in Macedonia. _Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics_, 2nd ed. * ^ Lewis, M. Paul, ed. (2009). _Ethnologue: Languages of the World_ (16th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. * ^ Ec.Europa.eu * ^ B92.net * ^ "Minority Rights Group International : Czech Republic : Czech Republic Overview". Minorityrights.org. Retrieved 2012-10-24. * ^ "Národnostní menšiny v České republice a jejich jazyky" (PDF) (in Czech). Government of Czech Republic. p. 2. Podle čl. 3 odst. 2 Statutu Rady je jejich počet 12 a jsou uživateli těchto menšinových jazyků: , srbština a ukrajinština * ^ "Minority Rights Group International : Macedonia : Macedonia Overview". Minorityrights.org. Retrieved 2012-10-24. * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Serbian". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ David Dalby, _Linguasphere_ (1999/2000, Linguasphere Observatory), pg. 445, 53-AAA-g, "Srpski+Hrvatski, Serbo-Croatian". * ^ Benjamin W. Fortson IV, _Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction_, 2nd ed. (2010, Blackwell), pg. 431, "Because of their mutual intelligibility, Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian are usually thought of as constituting one language called Serbo-Croatian." * ^ Václav Blažek, "On the Internal Classification of Indo-European Languages: Survey" retrieved 20 Oct 2010, pp. 15-16. * ^ Montenegro Census 2011 data, Montstat, http://www.monstat.org/userfiles/file/popis2011/saopstenje/saopstenje(1).pdf * ^ Ljiljana Subotić; Dejan Sredojević; Isidora Bjelaković (2012), _Fonetika i fonologija: Ortoepska i ortografska norma standardnog srpskog jezika_ (in Serbo-Croatian), FILOZOFSKI FAKULTET NOVI SAD * ^ Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Or Montenegrin? Or Just \'Our Language\'?, _ Radio Free Europe _, February 21, 2009 * ^ http://www.deepdyve.com/lp/de-gruyter/digraphia-in-the-territories-of-the-croats-and-serbs-9biWZDK0Vs/1 * ^ Kordić, Snježana (2010). _Jezik i nacionalizam_ (PDF). Rotulus Universitas (in Serbo-Croatian). Zagreb: Durieux. p. 143. ISBN 978-953-188-311-5 . LCCN 2011520778 . OCLC 729837512 . OL 15270636W . Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. Retrieved 21 May 2015. (COBISS-Sr). * ^ Greenberg, Marc L., _A Short Reference Grammar of Slovene,_ (_LINCOM Studies in Slavic Linguistics_ 30). Munich: LINCOM, 2008. ISBN 3-89586-965-1 * ^ "Maternji jezik 2013". _Popis 2013_. 2016. * ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT" (PDF). Demo.istat.it. Retrieved 2014-10-03. * ^ "Ethno-Cultural Portrait of Canada, Table 1". _www12.statcan.ca_. 2001. Retrieved December 17, 2011. * ^ "The People of Australia - Statistics from the 2011 Census" (PDF). Department of Immigration and Border Protection. 2014: 59. ISBN 978-1-920996-23-9 . Ancestry * ^ "Australian Government Department of Immigration and Border Protection" (PDF). _Immi.gov.au_. 2013-04-21. Retrieved 2015-12-02. * ^ "Croatian Census 2011". 2011. Retrieved July 8, 2013. * ^ _Pro-Serbian parties oppose Montenegro constitution_ * ^ Ustav Crne Gore * ^ "The Constitution". The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 2010-12-06. * ^ http://www.b92.net/kultura/vesti.php?nav_category=1087&yyyy=2014&mm=12&dd=16&nav_id=936784
* Greenberg, Robert David (2004). _Language and identity in the Balkans: Serbo-Croatian and its disintegration_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-925815-4 . (reprinted in 2008 as ISBN 978-0-19-920875-3 ) * Gröschel, Bernhard (2003). "Postjugoslavische Amtssprachenregelungen – Soziolinguistische Argumente gegen die Einheitlichkeit des Serbokroatischen?" . _Srpski jezik_ (in German). 8 (1–2): 135–196. ISSN 0354-9259 . Retrieved 4 April 2015. (COBISS-Sr) * Pavle Ivić (1995). " Standard language as an instrument of culture and the product of national history". _The history of Serbian Culture_. Rastko. * _Recueil de dialectologie serbe_. SKA. 1911. * Irena Grickat (1975). _Studije iz istorije srpskohrvatskog jezika_. Narodna Biblioteka SR Srbije. * Savić, Viktor. "The Serbian Redaction of the Church Slavonic Language: From St. Clement, the Bishop of the Slavs, to St. Sava, the Serbian Archbishop." Slověne= Словѣне. International Journal of Slavic Studies 5.2 (2016): 231-339.
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