Sequoia sempervirens /sɪˈkɔɪ.ə sɛmpərˈvaɪrənz/ is the
sole living species of the genus Sequoia in the cypress family
Cupressaceae (formerly treated in Taxodiaceae). Common names include
coast redwood, coastal redwood and California redwood. It is an
evergreen, long-lived, monoecious tree living 1,200–1,800 years or
more. This species includes the tallest living trees on Earth,
reaching up to 379 feet (115.5 m) in height (without the roots)
and up to 29.2 feet (8.9 m) in diameter at breast height (dbh).
These trees are also among the oldest living things on Earth. Before
commercial logging and clearing began by the 1850s, this massive tree
occurred naturally in an estimated 2,100,000 acres (8,500 km2)
along much of coastal California (excluding southern California where
rainfall is not sufficient) and the southwestern corner of coastal
Oregon within the United States.
The name sequoia sometimes refers to the subfamily Sequoioideae, which
includes S. sempervirens along with
Metasequoia (dawn redwood). Here, the term redwood on its
own refers to the species covered in this article, and not to the
other two species.
3 Distribution and habitat
5 Cultivation and uses
6.1 Tallest trees
6.2 Other notable examples
7 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
David Don described the redwood as the evergreen
Taxodium sempervirens) in his colleague Aylmer Bourke
Lambert's 1824 work A description of the genus Pinus. Austrian
Stephan Endlicher erected the genus Sequoia in his 1847 work
Synopsis coniferarum, giving the redwood its current binomial name of
Sequoia sempervirens. Endlicher probably derived the name Sequoia
from the Cherokee name of George Gist, usually spelled Sequoyah, who
developed the still-used Cherokee syllabary. The redwood is one of
three living species, each in its own genus, in the subfamily
Sequoioideae. Molecular studies have shown the three to be each
other's closest relatives, generally with the redwood and giant
Sequoiadendron giganteum) as each other's closest relatives.
However, Yang and colleagues in 2010 queried the polyploid state of
the redwood and speculate that it may have arisen as an ancient hybrid
between ancestors of the giant sequoia and dawn redwood (Metasequoia).
Using two different single copy nuclear genes, LFY and NLY, to
generate phylogenetic trees, they found that Sequoia was clustered
Metasequoia in the tree generated using the LFY gene, but with
Sequoiadendron in the tree generated with the
NLY gene. Further
analysis strongly supported the hypothesis that Sequoia was the result
of a hybridization event involving
Metasequoia and Sequoiadendron.
Thus, Yang and colleagues hypothesize that the inconsistent
relationships among Metasequoia, Sequoia, and
Sequoiadendron could be
a sign of reticulate evolution (in which two species hybridize and
give rise to a third) among the three genera. However, the long
evolutionary history of the three genera (the earliest fossil remains
being from the Jurassic) make resolving the specifics of when and how
Sequoia originated once and for all a difficult matter—especially
since it in part depends on an incomplete fossil record.
The coast redwood can reach 115 m (377 ft) tall with a trunk
diameter of 9 m (30 ft). It has a conical crown, with
horizontal to slightly drooping branches. The bark can be very thick,
up to 1-foot (30 cm), and quite soft and fibrous, with a bright
red-brown color when freshly exposed (hence the name redwood),
weathering darker. The root system is composed of shallow,
wide-spreading lateral roots.
The leaves are variable, being 15–25 mm (5⁄8–1 in)
long and flat on young trees and shaded shoots in the lower crown of
old trees. On the other hand, they are scale-like, 5–10 mm
(1⁄4–3⁄8 in) long on shoots in full sun in the upper crown
of older trees, with a full range of transition between the two
extremes. They are dark green above and have two blue-white stomatal
Leaf arrangement is spiral, but the larger shade leaves
are twisted at the base to lie in a flat plane for maximum light
The species is monoecious, with pollen and seed cones on the same
plant. The seed cones are ovoid, 15–32 mm
(9⁄16–1 1⁄4 in) long, with 15–25 spirally arranged
scales; pollination is in late winter with maturation about 8–9
months after. Each cone scale bears three to seven seeds, each seed
3–4 mm (1⁄8–3⁄16 in) long and 0.5 mm
(0.02 in) broad, with two wings 1 mm (0.04 in) wide.
The seeds are released when the cone scales dry out and open at
maturity. The pollen cones are ovular and 4–6 mm
(3⁄16–1⁄4 in) long.
Its genetic makeup is unusual among conifers, being a hexaploid (6n)
and possibly allopolyploid (AAAABB). Both the mitochondrial and
chloroplast genomes of the redwood are paternally inherited.
Distribution and habitat
Sunlight shining through redwoods in Muir Woods
Fog is of major importance in coast redwood ecology. Redwood National
Coast redwoods occupy a narrow strip of land approximately 750 km
(470 mi) in length and 5–47 mi (8.0–75.6 km) in
width along the Pacific coast of North America; the most southerly
grove is in Monterey County, California, and the most northerly groves
are in extreme southwestern Oregon. The prevailing elevation range is
98–2,460 ft (30–750 m) above sea level, occasionally
down to 0 and up to 3,000 ft (about 920 m). They usually grow
in the mountains where precipitation from the incoming moisture off
the ocean is greater. The tallest and oldest trees are found in deep
valleys and gullies, where year-round streams can flow, and fog drip
is regular. The trees above the fog layer, above about 2,296 ft
(700 m), are shorter and smaller due to the drier, windier, and
colder conditions. In addition, Douglas fir, pine, and tanoak often
crowd out redwoods at these elevations. Few redwoods grow close to the
ocean, due to intense salt spray, sand, and wind. Coalescence of
coastal fog accounts for a considerable part of the trees' water
The northern boundary of its range is marked by groves on the Chetco
River on the western fringe of the Klamath Mountains, near the
Oregon border. The largest (and tallest) populations are in
Redwood National and State Parks
Redwood National and State Parks (Del Norte and Humboldt Counties) and
Humboldt Redwoods State Park
Humboldt Redwoods State Park (Humboldt County, California), with the
majority located in the much larger Humboldt County. The southern
boundary of its range is the Los Padres National Forest's Silver Peak
Wilderness in the
Santa Lucia Mountains
Santa Lucia Mountains of the
Big Sur area of
Monterey County, California. The southernmost grove is in the Southern
Redwood Botanical Area, just north of the national forest's Salmon
Creek trailhead. The southernmost grove can be seen from
California Highway 1
California Highway 1 at the approximate coordinates 35°49'42 N
The prehistoric fossil range of the genus is considerably greater,
with a subcosmopolitan distribution including Europe and Asia until
about 5 million years ago. During the last ice age, perhaps as
recently as 10,000 years ago, redwood trees grew as far south as the
Los Angeles area (coast redwood bark found in subway excavations and
at La Brea tar pits).
This native area provides a unique environment with heavy seasonal
rains up to 100 inches (2,500 mm) annually. Cool coastal air and
fog drip keep this forest consistently damp year round. Several
factors, including the heavy rainfall, create a soil with fewer
nutrients than the trees need, causing them to depend heavily on the
entire biotic community of the forest, especially complete recycling
of the trees when dead. This forest community includes coast Douglas
fir, Pacific madrone, tanoak, western hemlock, and other trees, along
with a wide variety of ferns, mosses, mushrooms, and redwood sorrel.
Redwood forests provide habitat for a variety of amphibians, bird,
mammals, and reptiles.
Old-growth redwood stands provide habitat for
the federally threatened spotted owl and the California-endangered
Coast redwoods are resistant to insect attack, fungal infection, and
rot. These properties are conferred by concentrations of terpenoids
and tannic acid in redwood leaves, roots, bark, and wood. Despite
these chemical defenses, redwoods are still subject to insect
infestations; none, however, are capable of killing a healthy
tree. Redwoods also face predation from mammals: black bears are
reported to consume the inner bark of small redwoods, and black-tailed
deer are known to eat redwood sprouts.
The oldest known coast redwood is about 2,200 years old; many
others in the wild exceed 600 years. The numerous claims of older
trees are incorrect. Because of their seemingly timeless
lifespans, coast redwoods were deemed the "everlasting redwood" at the
turn of the century; in Latin, sempervirens means "ever green" or
"everlasting". Redwoods must endure various environmental disturbances
to attain such great ages. In response to forest fires, the trees have
developed various adaptations. The thick, fibrous bark of coast
redwoods is extremely fire-resistant; it grows to at least a foot
thick and protects mature trees from fire damage. In addition,
the redwoods contain little flammable pitch or resin. If damaged
by fire, a redwood will readily sprout new branches or even an
entirely new crown, and if the parent tree is killed, new buds
will sprout from its base. Fires, moreover, appear to actually
benefit redwoods by causing substantial mortality in competing species
while having only minor effects on redwood. Burned areas are favorable
to the successful germination of redwood seeds. A study published
in 2010, the first to compare post-wildfire survival and regeneration
of redwood and associated species, concluded fires of all severity
increase the relative abundance of redwood and higher-severity fires
provide the greatest benefit.
Redwoods often grow in areas prone to flooding. Deposits of sediment
following floods can form impermeable barriers which suffocate tree
roots, and the unstable soil in flooded areas often causes trees to
lean to one side, increasing their chance to be toppled over by wind.
Immediately after a flood, redwoods grow their existing roots upwards
into recently deposited sediment layers. A second root system then
develops from adventitious buds on the newly buried trunk and the old
root system dies. To counter lean, redwoods will increase wood
production on their vulnerable side, creating a supporting
buttress. These adaptations create forests of almost exclusively
redwood trees in flood-prone regions.
The height of S. sempervirens is closely tied to fog
availability; taller trees become less frequent as fog becomes less
frequent. As S. sempervirens’ height increases,
transporting water via water potential to the leaves becomes
increasingly more difficult due to gravity. Despite the
high rainfall that the region receives (up to 100 cm), the leaves
in the upper canopy are perpetually stressed for water. This
water stress is exacerbated by long droughts in the summer. Water
stress is believed to cause the morphological changes in the leaves,
stimulating reduced leaf length and increased leaf succulence.
To supplement their water needs, redwoods utilize frequent summer fog
Fog water is absorbed through multiple pathways. Leaves
directly take in fog from the surrounding air through the epidermal
tissue, bypassing the xylem. Coast redwoods also absorb water
directly through their bark. The uptake of water through leaves
and bark repairs and reduces the severity of xylem embolisms,
which occur when cavitations form in the xylem preventing the
transport of water and nutrients.
Fog may also collect on redwood
leaves, drip to the forest floor, and be absorbed by the tree's roots.
This fog drip may form 30% of the total water used by a tree in a
A ring of redwoods as seen from below
Coast redwood reproduces both sexually by seed and asexually by
sprouting of buds, layering, or lignotubers.
Seed production begins at
10–15 years of age. Cones develop in the winter and mature by fall.
In the early stages, the cones look like flowers, and are commonly
called "flowers" by professional foresters, although this is not
strictly correct. Coast redwoods produce many cones, with redwoods in
new forests producing thousands per year. The cones themselves
hold 90–150 seeds, but viability of seed is low, typically well
below 15% with one estimate of average rates being 3 to 10
percent. The low viability may discourage seed predators,
which do not want to waste time sorting chaff (empty seeds) from
edible seeds. Successful germination often requires a fire or flood,
reducing competition for seedlings. The winged seeds are small and
light, weighing 3.3–5.0 mg (200–300 seeds/g;
5,600–8,500/ounce). The wings are not effective for wide dispersal,
and seeds are dispersed by wind an average of only 60–120 m
(200–390 ft) from the parent tree. Seedlings are susceptible to
fungal infection and predation by banana slugs, bush rabbits, and
nematodes. Most seedlings do not survive their first three
years. However, those that become established grow very fast, with
young trees known to reach 20 m (66 ft) tall in 20 years.
Coast redwoods can also reproduce asexually by layering or sprouting
from the root crown, stump, or even fallen branches; if a tree falls
over, it will regenerate a row of new trees along the trunk, so many
trees naturally grow in a straight line. Sprouts originate from
dormant or adventitious buds at or under the surface of the bark. The
dormant sprouts are stimulated when the main adult stem gets damaged
or starts to die. Many sprouts spontaneously erupt and develop around
the circumference of the tree trunk. Within a short period after
sprouting, each sprout will develop its own root system, with the
dominant sprouts forming a ring of trees around the parent root crown
or stump. This ring of trees is called a "fairy ring". Sprouts can
achieve heights of 2.3 m (7.5 ft) in a single growing
Redwoods may also reproduce using burls. A burl is a woody lignotuber
that commonly appears on a redwood tree below the soil line, though
usually within 3 metres (10 ft) in depth from the soil surface.
Coast redwoods develop burls as seedlings from the axils of their
cotyledon, a trait that is extremely rare in conifers. When
provoked by damage, dormant buds in the burls sprout new shoots and
roots. Burls are also capable of sprouting into new trees when
detached from the parent tree, though exactly how this happens is yet
to be studied. Shoot clones commonly sprout from burls and are often
turned into decorative hedges when found in suburbia.
Cultivation and uses
An example of a bonsai redwood, from the Pacific
Skyline-to-the-Sea Trail passing through a fallen California
Coast redwood is one of the most valuable timber species in the
lumbering industry. In California, 899,000 acres (3,640 km2) of
redwood forest are logged, virtually all of it second growth.
Though many entities have existed in the cutting and management of
redwoods, perhaps none has had a more storied role than the Pacific
Lumber Company (1863–2008) of Humboldt County, California, where it
owned and managed over 200,000 acres (810 km2) of forests,
primarily redwood. Coast redwood lumber is highly valued for its
beauty, light weight, and resistance to decay. Its lack of resin makes
it resistant to fire.
P.H. Shaughnessy, Chief Engineer of the
San Francisco Fire Department
"In the recent great fire of San Francisco, that began April 18th,
1906, we succeeded in finally stopping it in nearly all directions
where the unburned buildings were almost entirely of frame
construction, and if the exterior finish of these buildings had not
been of redwood lumber, I am satisfied that the area of the burned
district would have been greatly extended."
Because of its impressive resistance to decay, redwood was extensively
used for railroad ties and trestles throughout California. Many of the
old ties have been recycled for use in gardens as borders, steps,
house beams, etc. Redwood burls are used in the production of table
tops, veneers, and turned goods.
Yurok people, who occupied the region before European settlement,
carried out regular burnings of redwood forests to bolster tanoak
populations from which they harvested acorns, to maintain forest
openings, and to boost populations of useful plant species such as
those for medicine or basketmaking.
Extensive logging of redwoods began in the early nineteenth century.
The trees were felled by ax and saw onto beds of tree limbs and shrubs
to cushion their fall. Stripped of their bark, the logs were
transported to mills or waterways by oxen or horse. Loggers then
burned the accumulated tree limbs, shrubs, and bark. The repeated
fires favored secondary forests of primarily redwoods as redwood
seedlings sprout readily in burned areas. The introduction of
steam engines allowed logs to be dragged through long skid trails to
nearby railroads, furthering the reach of loggers beyond the land
nearby rivers previously used to transport trees. This method of
harvesting, however, disturbed large amounts of soil, producing
secondary-growth forests of species other than redwood such as
Douglas-fir, grand fir, and western hemlock. After World War II,
trucks and tractors gradually replaced steam engines, giving rise to
two harvesting approaches: clearcutting and selection harvesting.
Clearcutting involved felling all the trees in a particular area and
was encouraged by tax law which exempted all standing timber from
taxation if 70% of trees in the area were harvested. Selection
logging, by contrast, called for the removal 25% to 50% of mature
trees in the hopes that the remaining trees would allow for future
growth and reseeding. This method, however, encouraged growth of
other tree species, converting redwood forests into mixed forests of
redwood, grand fir, Sitka spruce, and western hemlock.
Moreover, the trees left standing were often felled by windthrow; that
is, they were often blown over by the wind.
The coast redwood is naturalized in New Zealand, notably at
Whakarewarewa Forest, Rotorua. Redwood has been grown in New
Zealand plantations for over 100 years, and those planted in New
Zealand have higher growth rates than those in California, mainly due
to even rainfall distribution through the year. Other areas of
successful cultivation outside of the native range include Great
Britain, Italy, Portugal, Haida Gwaii, middle elevations of
Hawaii, Hogsback in South Africa, a small area in central Mexico
(Jilotepec), and the southeastern United States from eastern Texas to
Maryland. It also does well in the Pacific Northwest (Oregon,
Washington, and British Columbia), far north of its northernmost
native range in southwestern Oregon. Coast redwood trees were used in
a display at Rockefeller Center and then given to Longhouse Reserve in
East Hampton, Long Island, New York, and these have now been living
there for over twenty years and have survived at 2 °F
This fast-growing tree can be grown as an ornamental specimen in those
large parks and gardens that can accommodate its massive size. It has
gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.
Dried resin of a redwood tree
The foliage of an "albino"
Sequoia sempervirens exhibiting lack of
Trees over 200 feet (60 m) are common, and many are over
300 ft (90 m). The current tallest tree is the Hyperion
tree, measuring 379.3 ft (115.61 m). The tree was
Redwood National Park
Redwood National Park during the summer of 2006 by Chris
Atkins and Mchael Taylor, and is thought to be the world's tallest
living organism. The previous record holder was the Stratosphere Giant
Humboldt Redwoods State Park
Humboldt Redwoods State Park at 370.2 ft (112.84 m) (as
measured in 2004). Until it fell in March 1991, the "Dyerville Giant"
was the record holder. It, too, stood in Humboldt Redwoods State Park
and was 372 ft (113.4 m) high and estimated to be
1,600 years old. This fallen giant has been preserved in the
As of 2016, no living specimen of other tree species exceeds
100 m (328.1 ft). Numerous historic reports exist of Redwood
trees 350 to 400 feet high, a tree reportedly 375 feet (114.3 m) in
length was felled in Sonoma County by the Murphy Brothers saw mill in
the 1870s another claimed to be 380 ft (115.8 m) was cut
down in 1914, and one tree was even reported to be 424 ft
(129.2 m) was felled in November 1886 by the Elk River Mill and
Lumber Co. in Humboldt County, yielding 79,736 marketable board feet
from 21 cuts. However, these accounts and many others must
be viewed with some skepticism as limited evidence corroborates the
measurements, and exaggerated claims were not uncommon in the lumber
Fairly solid evidence indicates that coast redwoods were the world's
largest trees before logging, with numerous historical specimens
reportedly over 400 ft (122 m). The theoretical maximum
potential height of coast redwoods is thought to be limited to between
400 and 425 ft (121.9 and 129.5 m), as evapotranspiration is
insufficient to transport water to leaves beyond this range.
Further studies have indicated this cap is eased by fog, which is
prevalent in these trees' natural environment.
The largest known living coast redwood is Grogan's Fault, discovered
in 2014 by Chris Atkins and Mario Vaden in Redwood National Park,
with a main trunk volume of at least 38,299 cubic feet
(1,084.5 m3). Other high-volume coast redwoods include
Iluvatar, with a main trunk volume of 36,470 cubic feet
(1,033 m3),:160 and the Lost Monarch, with a main trunk
volume of 34,914 cu ft (988.7 m3).
About 230 albino redwoods (mutant individuals that cannot manufacture
chlorophyll) are known to exist, reaching heights of up to
20 m (66 ft). These trees survive as parasites,
obtaining food by grafting their root systems with those of normal
trees. While similar mutations occur sporadically in other conifers,
no cases are known of such individuals surviving to maturity in any
other conifer species. Recent research news reports
that albino redwoods can store higher concentrations of toxic metals,
going so far as comparing them to organs or "waste dumps".
Redwood with a large burl in Humboldt Redwoods State Park
Heights of the tallest coast redwoods are measured yearly by
experts. Even with recent discoveries of tall coast redwoods above
100 metres (330 ft), it is likely that no taller trees will be
Ten tallest Sequoia sempervirens
Redwood National and State Parks
Redwood National and State Parks (RNP)
Humboldt Redwoods State Park
Humboldt Redwoods State Park (HRSP)
Montgomery Woods State Natural Reserve
Diameter stated is as measured at 1.4 m (about 4.5 ft) above
average ground level (at breast height). Details of the precise
locations for most tallest trees were not announced to the general
public for fear of causing damage to the trees and the surrounding
habitat. The tallest coast redwood easily accessible to the public
is the Founders
Tree in Humboldt Redwoods State Park, standing over
346 ft tall. A taller coast redwood is also accessible to the
public in Tall Trees Grove of Redwood National Park.
Other notable examples
The Navigation (or Blossom Rock) trees were two especially tall
sequoias located in the
Oakland Hills used as a navigation aid by
sailors to avoid the treacherous Blossom Rock near Yerba Buena
One of the largest redwood stumps ever found (31 ft. diameter) is
Oakland Hills in the
Roberts Regional Recreation Area
Roberts Regional Recreation Area section
of Redwood Regional Park. Only a single old-growth redwood (the
Grandfather) remains from the original forest.
Crannell Creek Giant was documented to have at least 61,500 cu ft
trunk volume - about 17% larger than the current biggest tree. It was
felled around 1945.
Lindsey Creek tree
Bury Me in Redwood Country
Redwood National and State Parks
Humboldt Redwoods State Park
Los Padres National Forest
Northern California coastal forests (WWF ecoregion)
Pacific temperate rain forest (WWF ecoregion)
Sequoiadendron giganteum - Giant Sequoia
List of superlative trees
^ Farjon, A. & Schmid, R. (2013). "Sequoia sempervirens". The IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2013: e.T34051A2841558.
doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T34051A2841558.en. Retrieved 16
^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University
Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library
^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived
from the original (xls) on 2015-01-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
^ The related
Sequoiadendron giganteum is commonly referred to as
^ "Sequoia gigantea is of an ancient and distinguished family".
Nps.gov. 2007-02-02. Retrieved 2012-08-07.
^ Don, David (1824). Lambert, Aylmer Bourke, ed. A description of the
genus Pinus :illustrated with figures, directions relative to the
cultivation, and remarks on the uses of the several species. 2.
London, United Kingdom: J. White. p. 24.
^ Endlicher, Stephan (1847). Synopsis Coniferarum. St. Gallen:
Scheitlin & Zollikofer.
^ Muleady-Mecham, Nancy E (2017). "Bulletin of the Southern California
Academy of Science". 116: 137–146.
^ Yang, Z.Y.; Ran, J.H.; Wang, X.Q. (2012). "Three Genome-based
Cupressaceae s.l: Further Evidence for the Evolution of
Gymnosperms and Southern Hemisphere Biogeography". Molecular
Phylogenetics and Evolution. 64: 452–470.
doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2012.05.004. PMID 22609823.
Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endlicher". www.efloras.org: Flora of
North America. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
^ Ahuja, MR; Neale, DB (2002). "Origins of Polyploidy in Coast Redwood
(Sequoia sempervirens) and Relationship of Coast Redwood to other
Genera of Taxodiaceae". Silvae Genetica. 51 (2–3): 93–100.
^ Neale, DB; Marshall, KA; Sederoff, RR (1989). "
Mitochondrial DNA are Paternally Inherited in Sequoia sempervirens".
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 86 (23): 9347–9.
PMC 298492 . PMID 16594091.
^ Farjon, A. (2005). Monograph of
Cupressaceae and Sciadopitys. Royal
Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 1-84246-068-4.
^ "Redwood fog drip". Bio.net. 1998-12-02. Retrieved 2012-08-07.
^ "Los Padres National Forest". Redwoodhikes.com. Retrieved
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Noss, Reed (2000). The Redwood Forest:
History, Ecology, and Conservation of the Coast Redwoods. Island
Press. ISBN 1559637269. OCLC 925183647.
^ a b c d e f g h i j Earle, Christopher J. "Sequoia sempervirens".
Gymnosperm Database. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ a b c d e f g 1922-, Becking, Rudolf Willem, (1982-01-01). Pocket
flora of the redwood forest. Island Press. ISBN 0933280025.
^ a b Shirely, James Clifford. 1940. The Redwoods of Coast and Sierra.
University of California Press.
^ Ramage, B.S.; OʼHara, K.L.; Caldwell, B.T. (2010). "The role of
fire in the competitive dynamics of coast redwood forests". Ecosphere.
1 (6). article 20. doi:10.1890/ES10-00134.1.
^ a b c d Stone, Edward C.; Vasey, Richard B. (January 12, 1968).
"Preservation of Coast Redwoods on Alluvial Flats". Science. 159
(3811): 157–161. doi:10.1126/science.159.3811.157.
^ Harris, S. A. (1989). "Relationship of convection fog to
characteristics of the vegetation of Redwood National Park". MSc
^ a b Koch, G.W.; Sillett, S.C.; Jennings, G.M.; Davis, S.D. (2004).
"The limits to tree height". Nature. 428: 851–854.
doi:10.1038/nature02417. PMID 15103376.
^ a b Ishii, H. T.; Jennings, Gregory M.; Sillett, Stephen C.; Koch,
George W. (July 2008). "Hydrostatic constraints on morphological
exploitation of light in tall
Sequoia sempervirens trees". Oecologia.
156 (4): 751–63. doi:10.1007/s00442-008-1032-z.
^ Sperry, J. S.; Meinzer; McCulloh (May 2008). "Safety and efficiency
conflicts in hydraulic architecture: scaling from tissues to trees.
Plant". Plant, Cell, and Environment.
^ Mullen, L. P.; Sillett, S. C.; Koch, G. W.; Antonie, K. P.; Antoine,
M. E. (May 29, 2009). "Physiological consequences of height-related
morphological variation in
Sequoia sempervirens foliage" (PDF). Tree
Physiology. 29 (8): 999–1010. doi:10.1093/treephys/tpp037.
^ Ishii, H. T.; Azuma, Wakana; Kuroda, Keiko; Sillett, Stephen C. (May
26, 2014). "Pushing the limits to tree height: Could foliar water
storage compensate for hydraulic constraints in sequoia
sempervirens?". Functional Ecology. 28 (5): 1087–1093.
^ a b Burgess, S. S. O.; Dawson, T. E. (2004). "The contribution of
fog to the water relations of
Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don): foliar
uptake and prevention of dehydration". Plant, Cell and Environment.
27: 1023–1034. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3040.2004.01207.x.
^ Oldham, A. R.; Sillett, S. C.; Tomescu, A. M. F.; Koch, G. W. (July
2010). "The hydrostatic gradient, not light availability drives
height-related variation in
Sequoia sempervirens (Cupressaceae) leaf
anatomy". American Journal of Botany. 97 (7): 1087–97.
doi:10.3732/ajb.0900214. PMID 21616861.
^ Dawson, T. E. (1 September 1998). "
Fog in the California redwood
forest: Ecosystem inputs and used by plants" (PDF). Oecologia. 117:
^ Simonin, K. A.; Santiago, Louis S.; Dawson, Todd E. (July 2009).
Fog interception by
Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) crowns decouples
physiology from soil water deficit". Plant, Cell and Environment. 32
(7): 882–892. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3040.2009.01967.x.
^ a b c Earles, J. M.; Sperling, O.; Silva, L. C. R.; McElrone, A. J.;
Brodersen, C. R.; North, M. P.; Zwieniecki, M. A. (2015). "Bark water
uptake promotes localized hydraulic recovery in coastal redwood
crown". Plant, Cell & Environment. 39: 320–328.
^ Tognetti, R. A.; Longobucco, Anna; Rashi, Antonio; Jones, Mike B.
(2001). "Stem hydraulic properties and xylem vulnerability to embolism
in three co-occurring Mediterranean shrubs at a natural CO2 spring".
Australian Journal of
Plant Physiology. 28 (4): 257.
^ "Botanical Garden Logistics" (PDF). UC Berkeley – Biology 1B –
Plants & Their Environments (p. 13). Berkeley, California:
Department of Integrative Biology, University of California-Berkeley.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-13. Retrieved
IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species".
Species Survival Commission.
^ a b c d Lowell, Phillip G. (1990). A Review of Redwood Harvesting:
Another Look — 1990. California Department of Forestry and Fire
^ "Kia Ora - Welcome to The Redwoods
Whakarewarewa Forest". Rotorua
District Council. Retrieved November 10, 2011.
^ "Redwood History". The New Zealand Redwood Company. Retrieved
November 11, 2017.
^ "Distribution within Europe". Retrieved 2011-08-14.
^ "Longhouse". Retrieved 2011-08-14.
Sequoia sempervirens AGM / RHS Gardening".
Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-08-07.
^ Scientific American: Supplement. Munn and Company. 1877-01-01.
^ Carder, A (1995). Forest giants of the world: past and present.
Ontario: Fitzhenry and Whiteside. ISBN 978-1-55041-090-7.
^ Redwood Lumber Industry, Lynwood Carranco. Golden West Books, 1982 -
^ "Fort Worth Daily Gazette, Fort Worth, Texas. December 9th, 1886 -
Page 2". Chroniclingamerica.loc.gov. Retrieved 2012-08-07.
^ "Does size matter? John Driscoll/The Times-Standard, Eureka,
California. September 8th, 2006". Times-standard.com. Retrieved
^ a b Van Pelt, Robert (2001). Forest Giants of the Pacific Coast.
Global Forest Society and University of Washington Press. pp. 16,
42. ISBN 0-295-98140-7.
^ "Climate explains why West Coast trees are much taller than those in
the East". Retrieved 2015-03-10.
^ Wendell D. Flint (1 January 2002). To Find the Biggest Tree. Sequoia
Natural History Association. ISBN 978-1-878441-09-6.
^ "Cotati residents, scientists scramble to save albino redwood".
^ Stienstra, T (2007-10-11). "It's no snow job: handful of redwoods
are rare albinos".
San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved
^ "Ghost Redwoods: Solving the Albino Redwoods Mystery".
^ "Mystery Of White Trees Among California's Redwoods May Be
^ "Alameda". California State Parks Office of Historic
^ Herron Zamora, Jim (August 14, 2006). "The 'Grandfather' of
San Francisco Chronicle.
^ Fimrite, Peter (May 8, 2013). "Hidden Redwood is Remnant of Forest
San Francisco Chronicle.
^ Slack, Gordy (July 1, 2004). "In the Shadow of Giants".
* Noss, R. F., ed. (2000). The Redwood Forest: history, ecology and
conservation of the Coast Redwood. Island Press, Washington, D.C.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sequoia sempervirens.
Wikispecies has information related to Sequoia sempervirens
Wikisource has the text of a 1920
Encyclopedia Americana article about
Institute for Redwood Ecology Includes photo gallery, canopy views,
epiphytes, and arboreal animals
Gymnosperm Database - Sequoia sempervirens
US National Park Service Redwood
Muir Woods National Monument
Save the Redwoods League Non-profit organization: education,
protection and restoration
Sempervirens Fund Non-profit organization
ICT Int. Gallery sensors installation by Dr. Stephen Sillet & team
Bury Me in Redwood Country
Bury Me in Redwood Country Documentary film about coast redwoods
"Science on the SPOT: Albino redwoods, ghosts of the forest". YouTube
video from Quest. KQED. 2010-08-26. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
Redwood Timelapse California Redwoods, YouTube. This is a short film
about the Coastal Redwoods of California.
One Man’s Mission to Revive the Last Redwood Forests Short Film
Showcase, On YouTube by National Geographic. Published on 28 May 2016;
"Redwood Forests - Lumber Felling & Milling 1940's". YouTube video
from Historia - Bel99TV. 2013-02-02. Retrieved 2014-11-17.
Humboldt Redwoods State Park
Humboldt Redwoods State Park (CA) Humboldt Redwoods Interpretive
Preston, Richard. "Climbing the Redwoods" - 2/14-21/2005 New Yorker
article about redwoods and climbing.
More about Sequoia sempervirens:
Popular Science, November 1943, Saga of the Redwoods
Old World Species:
New World Species:
Old World Species:
New World Species:
Plant List: kew-2484394