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Cassia auriculata L. Cassia densistipulata Taub.

Senna auriculata
Senna auriculata
is a legume tree in the subfamily Caesalpinioideae. It is commonly known by its local names matura tea tree, ranawara or avaram, (Kannada: ಆವರಿಕೆ āvarike, Telugu: తంగేడు taṃgēḍu, Tamil: ஆவாரை āvārai) or the English version avaram senna. It is the State flower
State flower
of Telangana. It occurs in the dry regions of India
India
and Sri Lanka. It is common along the sea coast and the dry zone in Sri Lanka.

A Senna auriculata
Senna auriculata
shrub

Contents

1 Description 2 Uses

2.1 Gardens 2.2 Medicinal uses

3 References 4 Footnotes

Description[edit] [1]

at Sindhrot in Vadodara
Vadodara
District of Gujarat, India.

Avaram senna is a much branched shrub with smooth cinnamon brown bark and closely pubescent brachlets. The leaves are alternate, stipulate, paripinnate compound, very numerous, closely placed, rachis 8.8-12.5 cm long, narrowly furrowed, slender, pubescent, with an erect linear gland between the leaflets of each pair, leaflets 16-24, very shortly stalked 2-2.5 cm long 1-1.3 cm broad, slightly overlapping, oval oblong, obtuse, at both ends, mucronate, glabrous or minutely downy, dull green, paler beneath, stipules very large, reniform-rotund, produced at base on side of next petiole into a filliform point and persistent. Its flowers are irregular, bisexual, bright yellow and large (nearly 5 cm across), the pedicels glabrous and 2.5 cm long. The racemes are few-flowered, short, erect, crowded in axils of upper leaves so as to form a large terminal inflorescence stamens barren; the ovary is superior, unilocular, with marginal ovules. The fruit is a short legume, 7.5–11 cm long, 1.5 cm broad, oblong, obtuse, tipped with long style base, flat, thin, papery, undulately crimpled, pilose, pale brown. 12-20 seeds per fruit are carried each in its separate cavity. Uses[edit] Gardens[edit] Senna auriculata
Senna auriculata
is suitable for landscaping roadways and home gardens. It tolerates drought and dry conditions, but not much cold. The flowers in racemes are also attractive.[2] Medicinal uses[edit] This plant is said to contain a cardiac glucoside (sennapicrin) and sap, leaves and bark yield anthraquinones, while the latter contains tannins.[1] The root is used in decoctions against fevers, diabetes, diseases of urinary system and constipation. The leaves have laxative properties. The dried flowers and flower buds are used as a substitute for tea in case of diabetes patients. It is also believed to improve the complexion in women. The powdered seed is also applied to the eye, in case of chronic purulent conjunctivitis. In Africa the bark and seeds are said to give relief in rheumatism, eye diseases, gonorrhea, diabetes and gout.[1] The plant has been shown to have antibacterial activity in the laboratory.[3] References[edit]

^ a b c Jayaweera (1981)[verification needed] ^ Martin (1983), de Silva (1998) ^ Maneemegalai, S. and T. Naveen. (2010).Evaluation of antibacterial activity of flower extracts of Cassia auriculata. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 14 8-20.

Footnotes[edit]

Dassanayake, M.D. & Fosberg, F.R. (eds.) (1981): A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon (Vol. II)[verification needed]. Smithsonian Institution and National Science Foundation, Washington D.C., Amerind Publishing Co Pvt Ltd, New Dellhi. de Silva, N. (1998): A selection of indigenous trees for traditional landscapes in Sri Lanka. Deveco Designers and publishers (Pvt) Ltd. Jayaweera, D.M.A. (1981a): Medicinal plants (indigenous and exotic) used in Ceylon (Part I). The National Science Council of Sri Lanka, Colombo 7. Jayaweera, D.M.A. (1981b): Medicinal plants (indigenous and exotic) used in Ceylon (Part II). The National Science Council of Sri Lanka, Colombo 7. Jayaweera, D.M.A. (1981c): Medicinal plants (indigenous and exotic) used in Ceylon (Part III). The National Science Council of Sri Lanka, Colombo 7. Jayaweera, D.M.A. (1982): Medicinal plants (indigenous and exotic) used in Ceylon (Part IV). The National Science Council of Sri Lanka, Colombo 7. Jayaweera, D.M.A. (1992): Medicinal plants (indigenous and exotic) used in Ceylon (Part V). The National Science Council of Sri Lanka, Colombo 7. Martin E.C. (1983): Landscape Plants in Design: A Photographic Guide . AVI Publishing Company, Westport, Connecticut. ISBN 0-87055-429-8 Perera, D.L. & de Silva, G. (2002): Compendium of Medicinal plants. A Sri Lankan study (Vol. 1+2). Ayurvedic Department, Sri Lanka. Rao, P.S.; Venkaiah, K. & Padmaja, R. (1999): Field Guide on Medicinal Plants. Forest Department, Andhra Pradesh, India. United States Department of Agriculture
United States Department of Agriculture
(USDA) (2007): USDA Plants Profile: Cassia auriculata. Retrieved 2007-DEC-20.

v t e

Sources of tannins

Sources of condensed tannins

Areca catechu
Areca catechu
seed

arecatannins

Broad bean

Vicia faba

Grape

Vitis vinifera

Mimosa bark

Acacia mollissima

Myrtan or black marlock

Eucalyptus redunca

Quebracho wood

Sources of hydrolysable tannins

Chestnut
Chestnut
wood Dhawa

Anogeissus latifolia

Myrobalan fruit

Terminalia chebula

Oak
Oak
bark Oak
Oak
wood Valonia oak

Quercus macrolepis

Sumac

Tanner's sumach leaves - Rhus coriaria
Rhus coriaria
or Chinese gall on Rhus chinensis

Tara pod

Tara spinosa

Other sources by organ

Barks

General : Tanbark Acacias (most notably Acacia pycnantha
Acacia pycnantha
and Acacia decurrens) Alder

Alnus sp

Avaram

Senna auriculata

Babul

Acacia nilotica

Birch

Betula sp

Button mangrove

Conocarpus erectus

Hemlock

Tsuga
Tsuga
sp

Larch

Larix sp

Mangrove Pine

Pinus sp

Spruce

Picea sp

Urunday

Myracrodruon urundeuva

Willow

Salix caprea

Leaves

Badan

Bergenia crassifolia

Gambier

Uncaria gambir

Redoul

Coriaria myrtifolia

Roots

Canaigre

Rumex hymenosepalus

Garouille

Quercus coccifera

Sea lavender

Limonium
Limonium
sp

Woods

Cutch

Senegalia catechu

Fruit

Divi-divi pod

Libidibia coriaria

Sant pod

Acacia nilotica

Teri pod

Moullava digyna

Galls

Gall
Gall
oak

Quercus lusitanica Quercus infectoria

Whole plant

Prosopis
Prosopis
sp. bark and wood

Prosopis
Prosopis
humilis Prosopis
Prosopis
nigra

Tanoak

Notholithocarpus

Tizra heartwood and root

Rhus pentaphylla

Undetermined organ

Anadenanthera colubrina
Anadenanthera colubrina
(vilca)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q2724356 EoL: 703261 GBIF: 2956966 GRIN: 313459 IPNI: 518328-1 ITIS: 820809 NCBI: 948713 Plant
Plant
List: ild-30178

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