Senkaku Islands (尖閣諸島, Senkaku-shotō, variants:
尖閣群島 Senkaku-guntō and 尖閣列島 Senkaku-rettō) are
a group of uninhabited islands controlled by
Japan in the East China
Sea. They are located roughly due east of Mainland China, northeast of
Taiwan, west of Okinawa Island, and north of the southwestern end of
the Ryukyu Islands. They are also known as the Diaoyu Islands
(Chinese: 钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿; pinyin: Diàoyúdǎo jí qí
fùshǔ dǎoyǔ; also simply 钓鱼岛) in Mainland China, the
Diaoyutai Islands (Chinese: 釣魚台列嶼; pinyin: Diàoyútái liè
yǔ) in Taiwan, and the Pinnacle Islands.
Following the discovery of potential undersea oil reserves in 1968 in
the area and the 1971 transfer of administrative control of the
islands from the
United States to Japan, the latter's sovereignty over
the territory is disputed by both the
People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China (PRC)
Republic of China
Republic of China (also known as Taiwan).
China claims the discovery and ownership of the islands from the 14th
Japan had ownership of the islands from 1895 until its
surrender at the end of World War II. The
United States administered
the islands as part of the
United States Civil Administration of the
Ryukyu Islands from 1945 until 1972, when the islands returned to
Japanese control under the
Okinawa Reversion Agreement between the
United States and Japan.
The islands are disputed between
China and between
Taiwan. Despite the diplomatic stalemate between
China and Taiwan,
both governments agree that the islands are part of
Taiwan as part of
Toucheng Township in Yilan County.
Japan regards the islands as a part
of the city of Ishigaki in
Okinawa Prefecture and acknowledges the
claims of neither
China nor Taiwan, but has not allowed the Ishigaki
administration to develop the islands.
1.1 Early history
1.2 Control of the islands by
Japan and the US
2.1 Flora and fauna
4 See also
7 Further reading
8 External links
An extract from a map of Asia (
China and Tartary) drawn by Jean
Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville in 1752.
Records of these islands date back to as early as the 15th century
when they were referred as Diaoyu in books such as Voyage with a Tail
Wind (simplified Chinese: 顺风相送; traditional Chinese:
順風相送; pinyin: Shùnfēng Xiāngsòng) (1403)  and Record
of the Imperial Envoy's Visit to Ryūkyū (simplified Chinese:
使琉球录; traditional Chinese: 使琉球錄; pinyin: Shĭ Liúqiú
Lù) (1534). Adopted by the Chinese Imperial Map of the Ming Dynasty,
the Chinese name for the island group (Diaoyu) and the Japanese name
for the main island (Uotsuri) both mean "fishing".
Historically, the Chinese had used the uninhabited islands as
navigational markers in making the voyage to the
Ryukyu Kingdom upon
commencement of diplomatic missions to the kingdom, "resetting the
compass at a particular isle in order to reach the next one".
The first published description of the islands in Europe appears in a
book imported by
Isaac Titsingh in 1796. His small library of Japanese
Sangoku Tsūran Zusetsu (三国通覧図説, An
Illustrated Description of Three Countries) by Hayashi Shihei.
This text, which was published in
Japan in 1785, described the
Ryūkyū Kingdom. Hayashi followed convention in giving the
islands their Chinese names in his map in the text, where he coloured
them in the same pink as China.
In 1832, the
Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland
supported the posthumous abridged publication of Titsingh's French
The name, "Pinnacle Isles" was first used by James Colnett, who
charted them during his 1789-1791 voyage in the Argonaut. William
Robert Broughton sailed past them in November 1797 during his voyage
of discovery to the North Pacific in HMS Providence, and referred to
Uotsuri Island as "Peaks Island". Reference was made to the
islands in Edward Belcher's 1848 account of the voyages of HMS
Sammarang. Captain Belcher observed that "the names assigned in
this region have been too hastily admitted." Belcher reported
anchoring off Pinnacle Island in March 1845.
In the 1870s and 1880s, the English name Pinnacle Islands was used by
the British navy for the rocks adjacent to the largest island
Uotsuri-shima / Diaoyu Dao (then called 和平嶼 hô-pîng-sū,
"Peace Island" in Hokkien); Kuba-shima / Huangwei Yu (then called
Ti-a-usu); and Taishō-tō / Chiwei Yu.
A Japanese navy record issued in 1886 first started to identify the
islets using equivalents of the Chinese and English terms employed by
the British. The name "Senkaku Retto" is not found in any Japanese
historical document before 1900 (the term "Senkaku Gunto" began being
used in the late 19th century), and first appeared in print in a
geography journal published in 1900. It was derived from a translation
of the English name Pinnacle Islands into a Sinicized Japanese term
"Sento Shoto" (as opposed to "Senkaku Retto", i.e., the term used by
the Japanese today), which has the same meaning.
One islet of the group – Uotsuri
The collective use of the name "Diaoyutai" to denote the entire group
began with the advent of the controversy in the 1970s.
Control of the islands by
Japan and the US
As the uninhabited islets were historically used as maritime
navigational markers, they were never subjected to administrative
control other than the recording of the geographical positions on
maps, descriptions in official records of Chinese missions to the
Ryukyu Kingdom, etc.
Japanese workers at a bonito fishery processing plant on Uotsuri-shima
sometime around 1910
The Japanese central government annexed the islands in early 1895
after emerging victorious from the First Sino-Japanese War. Around
1900, Japanese entrepreneur Koga Tatsushirō (古賀 辰四郎)
constructed a bonito fish processing plant on the islands, employing
over 200 workers. The business failed around 1940 and the islands have
remained deserted ever since. In the 1970s, Koga Tatsushirō's son
Zenji Koga and Zenji's wife Hanako sold four islets to the Kurihara
family of Saitama Prefecture. Kunioki Kurihara owned Uotsuri,
Kita-Kojima, and Minami-Kojima. Kunioki's sister owns Kuba.
The islands came under US government occupation in 1945 after the
Japan ended World War II. In 1969, the United Nations
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE) identified
potential oil and gas reserves in the vicinity of the Senkaku
Islands. In 1971, the Okinawa Reversion Treaty passed the U.S.
Senate, returning the islands to Japanese control in 1972. Also in
Republic of China
Republic of China (Taiwan) government and People's Republic
China government officially began to declare ownership of the
Since 1972, when the islands reverted to Japanese government control,
the mayor of Ishigaki has been given civic authority over the
territory. The Japanese central government, however, has prohibited
Ishigaki from surveying or developing the islands. In 1979 an
official delegation from the Japanese government composed of 50
academics, government officials from the Foreign and Transport
ministries, officials from the now-defunct Okinawa Development Agency,
and Hiroyuki Kurihara, visited the islands and camped on Uotsuri for
about four weeks. The delegation surveyed the local ecosystem, finding
moles and sheep, studied the local marine life, and examined whether
the islands would support human habitation.
From 2002 to 2012, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
paid the Kurihara family ¥25 million a year to rent Uotsuri,
Minami-Kojima and Kita-Kojima. Japan's Ministry of Defense rents Kuba
island for an undisclosed amount. Kuba is used by the U.S. military as
a practice aircraft bombing range. Japan's central government
completely owns Taisho island.
On December 17, 2010, Ishigaki declared January 14 as "Pioneering Day"
to commemorate Japan's 1895 annexation of the Senkaku Islands. China
condemned Ishigaki's actions. In 2012, both the Tokyo Metropolitan
and Japanese central governments announced plans to negotiate purchase
of Uotsuri, Kita-Kojima, and Minami-Kojima from the Kurihara
On September 11, 2012, the Japanese government nationalized its
control over Minami-kojima, Kita-kojima, and Uotsuri islands by
purchasing them from the Kurihara family for ¥2.05 billion.
China's Foreign Ministry objected saying Beijing would not "sit back
and watch its territorial sovereignty violated."
Japan constructed a lighthouse and wharf featuring Japanese
flag insignia on the islets.
A cluster of islets – Uotsuri-shima (left), Kita-Kojima and
A geological map of Uotsuri-shima drawn by Japanese geologist Hisashi
Kuroiwa in 1900.
The island group are known to consist of five uninhabited islets and
three barren rocks.
China has identified and named as many as 71
islets that belong to this group after the Japanese Cabinet released
names of 39 uninhabited islands.
These minor features in the
East China Sea
East China Sea are located approximately
120 nautical miles northeast of Taiwan, 200 nautical miles east of the
Chinese mainland and 200 nautical miles southwest of the Japanese
island of Okinawa.
In ascending order of distances, the island cluster is located:
140 km (76 nmi; 87 mi) east of Pengjia Islet, ROC
170 km (92 nmi; 110 mi) north of Ishigaki Island, Japan
186 km (100 nmi; 116 mi) northeast of Keelung, ROC
410 km (220 nmi; 250 mi) west of Okinawa Island, Japan
The five islands and three rocks, numbered for the table below.
Islands in the group
Highest elevation (m)
Diàoyú Dǎo (钓鱼岛/釣魚島)
25°46′N 123°31′E / 25.767°N 123.517°E / 25.767;
Chìwěi Yǔ (赤尾屿/赤尾嶼)
25°55′N 124°34′E / 25.917°N 124.567°E / 25.917;
Huángwěi Yǔ (黄尾屿/黄尾嶼)
25°56′N 123°41′E / 25.933°N 123.683°E / 25.933;
Běi Xiǎodǎo (北小岛/北小島)
25°45′N 123°36′E / 25.750°N 123.600°E / 25.750;
Nán Xiǎodǎo (南小岛/南小島)
25°45′N 123°36′E / 25.750°N 123.600°E / 25.750;
Dà Běi Xiǎodǎo (大北小岛/大北小島)
25°49′N 123°36′E / 25.817°N 123.600°E / 25.817;
Dà Nán Xiǎodǎo (大南小岛/大南小島/南岩)
25°47′N 123°37′E / 25.783°N 123.617°E / 25.783;
Fēi Jiāo Yán (飞礁岩/飛礁岩)
25°45′N 123°33′E / 25.750°N 123.550°E / 25.750;
The depth of the surrounding waters of the continental shelf is
approximately 100–150 metres (330–490 ft) except for the
Okinawa Trough on the south.
The existence of the back-arc basin complicates descriptive issues.
According to Professor
Ji Guoxing of the Asia-Pacific Department at
Shanghai Institute for International Studies,
The Okinawa trough in context of back-arc basins of the world.
China's interpretation of the geography is that
Okinawa Trough proves that the continental shelves of
Japan are not connected, that the Trough serves as the boundary
between them, and that the Trough should not be ignored ....
Japan's interpretation of the geography is that
...the trough is just an incidental depression in a continuous
continental margin between the two countries ... [and] the trough
should be ignored ....
Flora and fauna
Permission for collecting herbs on three of the islands was recorded
in an Imperial Chinese edict of 1893.
Uotsuri-shima, the largest island, has a number of endemic species
such as the
Senkaku mole (Mogera uchidai) and Okinawa-kuro-oo-ari ant.
Due to the introduction of domestic goats to the island in 1978, the
Senkaku mole is now an endangered species.
Albatross are observed in the islands. Amongst all islands, Minami
Kojima is one of the few breeding places of the rare short-tailed
albatross (Phoebastria albatrus).
Rich marine biodiversity adjacent to the islands have been regarded
but have been poorly studied. Seemingly, varieties of larger fish and
animals inhabit or migrate through the area, including tunas, sharks,
marlins, critically endangered hawksbill sea turtles, dolphins, pilot
whales, sperm whales, and humpback whales.
Two of the disputed islets – Kita-Kojima (left) and Minami-Kojima
Senkaku Islands dispute
Territorial sovereignty over the islands and the maritime boundaries
around them are disputed between the People's Republic of China, the
Republic of China
Republic of China (Taiwan), and Japan.
The People's Republic and
Taiwan claim that the islands have been a
part of Chinese territory since at least 1534. They acknowledge that
Japan took control of the islands in 1894–1895 during the first
Sino-Japanese War, through the signature of the Treaty of Shimonoseki.
They assert that the
Potsdam Declaration (which
Japan accepted as part
of the San Francisco Peace Treaty) required that
control of all islands except for "the islands of Honshū, Hokkaidō,
Kyūshū, Shikoku and such minor islands as we determine", and they
state that this means control of the islands should pass to China.
Japan does not accept that there is a dispute, asserting that the
islands are an integral part of Japan.
Japan has rejected claims
that the islands were under China's control prior to 1895, and that
these islands were contemplated by the
Potsdam Declaration or affected
by the San Francisco Peace Treaty.
In 2012 Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs created a website in
support of its claims, In late 2014 National Marine Data and
Information Service, a department under the State Oceanic
People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China created a website of its
own to support its claims. In 2016, Chinese fishing, Coast
Guard and other vessels were entering the territorial waters around
the islands almost daily and in August 2016 the Japanese foreign
Fumio Kishida told China’s foreign minister Wang Yi "that
the activity represented an escalation of tensions" according to
Japanese sources. It was the first meeting of the top diplomats since
Permanent Court of Arbitration
Permanent Court of Arbitration ruling against China's South China
Sea claims and was coincident with a three-party meeting
(including South Korea) relative to a North Korean submarine-launched
missile in the Sea of Japan.
People's Republic of China–
Republic of China–
International relations portal
The Guardian (November 23, 2013). "
China imposes airspace
restrictions over Japan-controlled Senkaku islands". Retrieved
December 3, 2013.
China imposes airspace restrictions over
Japan-controlled Senkaku islands
France24 (November 27, 2013). "US defies
China to fly over disputed
Senkaku islands". Retrieved December 3, 2013. The zone covers the
Tokyo-controlled Senkaku islands
^ 中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室 (2012-09-25).
《钓鱼岛是中国的固有领土》白皮书 (in Chinese).
^ 釣魚臺列嶼相關文獻 (in Chinese). Ministry of Foreign
Affairs (Republic of China).
^ 我們的釣魚臺 (in Chinese). Central News Agency (Republic of
^ National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Senkaku-guntō, Japan,
retrieved September 20, 2010.
^ National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Senkaku-rettō, Japan,
retrieved September 20, 2010.
^ Xinhua (September 9, 2013). "Chinese coast guard continues patrol
Diaoyu Islands". usa.chinadaily.com.cn.
^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs Republic of China. "The Republic of
Sovereignty Claims over the Diaoyutai Islands and the East
China Sea Peace Initiative". www.mofa.gov.tw. Retrieved November 24,
^ "Diaoyutai tensions stoked by arrival of
China coast guard".
www.taipeitimes.com. August 17, 2013.
China preparing for Diaoyutai conflict: expert".
www.chinapost.com.tw. November 24, 2013.
^ Lai 2013, p. 208 cites Hagstrom 2005; "The islands are also
called 'Pinnacle Islands' for convenience and neutrality sake by
^ Lee, Seokwoo. Territorial Disputes among Japan,
China and Taiwan
Senkaku Islands (Boundary & Territory Briefing
Vol.3 No.7). IBRU. p. 6. ISBN 1897643500. The question of
Senkaku Islands remained relatively dormant throughout
the 1950s and 1960s, probably because these small uninhabited islands
held little interest for the three claimants. The Senkaku Islands
issue was not raised until the Economic Commission for Asia and the
Far East (hereinafter 'ECAFE') of the United Nations Economic and
Social Council suggested the possible existence of large hydrocarbon
deposit in the waters off the Senkaku Islands. ... This development
prompted vehement statements and counter-statements among the
^ Pan, Junwu (2009). Toward a New Framework for Peaceful Settlement of
China's Territorial and Boundary Disputes. Martinus Nijhoff
Publishers. p. 140. ISBN 9004174281. Obviously, primarily
regional interests in oil and gas resources that may lie under the
seas drive the two major disputes. The Diaoyu/
Senkaku Islands issue
did not re-surface until 1969 when the Economic Commission for Asia
and the Far East of the United Nations Economic and Social Council
reported that the continental shelf of the East
China "might contain
one of the most prolific oil and gas reservoirs of the world, possibly
comparing favourably with the Persian Gulf." Then both
China and Japan
had high expectations that there might be large hydrocarbon deposits
in the waters off the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands. The Law of the Sea at
that time emphasized the theory of natural prolongation in determining
continental shelf jurisdiction. Ownership of the Diaoyu/Senkaku
Islands would permit the owner to a large area of the continental
shelf that may have rich sources of gas and oil. Such a dispute is
obviously related to the awakening interest by the world's states in
developing offshore energy resources to meet the demand of their
^ Takamine, Tsukasa (2012). Japan’s Development Aid to China, Volume
200: The Long-running Foreign Policy of Engagement. Routledge.
p. 129. ISBN 0415352037. The islands had temporarily come
under American control after the Second World War, but the sovereignty
over the islands, was handed over to
Japan in 1972 with the reversion
of Okinawa．However, the PRC and
Taiwan governments both made a
territorial claim to the Senkaku Islands, soon after the United Nation
Economic Commission issued in 1969 a report suggesting considerable
reserve of submarine oil and gas resources around the islands.
^ Drifte, Reinhard (2012). Japan's Security Relations with
1989: From Balancing to Bandwagoning?. Routledge. p. 49.
ISBN 1134406673. The dispute surfaced with the publication of a
seismic survey report under the auspices of the UN Economic Commission
for Asia and the Far East (ECSFE) in 1968, which mentioned the
possibility of huge oil and gas reserves in the area; this was
confirmed by a Japanese report in 1969. Greg Austin mentions that
Beijing started its claim to the
Senkaku Islands for the first time in
1970, after Japanese government protested to the government in Taiwan
about its allocation of oil concessions in the East
including the area of the Senkaku Islands.
^ Lee, Seokwoo. Territorial Disputes among Japan,
China and Taiwan
Senkaku Islands (Boundary & Territory Briefing
Vol.3 No.7). IBRU. pp. 10–11. ISBN 1897643500. For a long
time following the entry into force of the San Francisco Peace Treaty
Taiwan raised no objection to the fact that the Senkaku Islands
were included in the area placed under US administration in accordance
with the provisions of Article of the treaty, and USCAP No. 27. In
Taiwan had taken up the question of
sovereignty over the islands until the latter half of 1970 when
evidence relating to the existence of oil resources deposited in the
East China Sea
East China Sea surfaced. All this clearly indicates that China/Taiwan
had not regarded the
Senkaku Islands as a part of Taiwan. Thus, for
Japan, none of the alleged historical, geographical and geological
arguments set forth by China/
Taiwan are acceptable as valid under
international law to substantiate China's territorial claim over the
^ Lee, Seokwoo. (2002). Territorial Disputes Among Japan,
Taiwan Concerning the Senkaku Islands, pp. 10–13., p. 10, at Google
^ McDorman, Ted L. (2005). "Central Pacific and East Asian Maritime
Boundaries" in International Maritime Boundaries, Vol. 5, pp. 3441.,
p. 3441, at Google Books
^ Title: Liang zhong hai dao zhen jing / [Xiang Da jiao zhu].Imprint:
Beijing : Zhonghua shu ju : Xin hua shu dian Beijing fa xing
suo fa xing, 2000 reprint edition. Contents: Shun feng xiang song--Zhi
nan zheng fa. (順風相送--指南正法). ISBN 7-101-02025-9.
pp96 and pp253. The full text is available at wikisource.
^ a b Suganuma, p. 49., p. 49-54, at Google Books
^ WorldCat, Sangoku Tsūran Zusetsu; alternate romaji Sankoku Tsūran
^ Cullen, Louis M. (2003). A History of Japan, 1582–1941: Internal
and External Worlds, p. 137., p. 137, at Google Books
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The Economist. London:
Economist Group (Christmas Specials 2012).
December 22, 2012. ISSN 0013-0613. Archived from the original on
February 26, 2014. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
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London... This Navigation is no ways dangereous were you sure of your
Latitude and to make Pinnicle Isle”. James Colnett, The Journal ...
aboard the Argonaut from April 26, 1789 to Nov. 3, 1791, ed. with
introd. and notes by F. W. Howay, Toronto, Champlain Society Vol.26,
^ William Robert Broughton, William Robert Broughton's Voyage of
Discovery to the North Pacific, 1795-1798, edited by Andrew
David ; with an introduction by Barry Gough, Ashgate for the
Hakluyt Society, Farnham, England; Burlington, VT, 2010, p.202.
^ Suganuma, Unryu. (2001). Sovereign Rights and Territorial Space in
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Vol. I, pp. 315., p. 315, at Google Books; Belcher, Vol. II, pp.
572–574., p. 572, at Google Books
^ Belcher, Vol. I, at Google Books; excerpt at p. 317, "On the 16th,
we endeavoured to obtain observations on Tia-usu; a landing was
effected, but the absence of sun prevented our obtaining satisfactory
observations, and bad weather coming on hastened our departure. This
group, comprehending hô-pîng-san (和平山, "Peace Island",
Uotsuri-shima), Pinnacle Rocks, and Tias-usu (Kuba-shima), form a
triangle, of which the hypothenuse, or distance between Hoa-pin-san
and Tia-usu, extends about fourteen miles, and that between Hoa-pinsan
and the Southern Pinnacle, about two miles."
^ Suganuma, p. 90., p. 90, at Google Books; Jarrad, Frederick W.
China Sea Directory, Vol. IV, pp. 141–142., p. 141, at
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^ Koo, Min Gyo (2009). Disputes and Maritime Regime Building in East
Asia, p. 103 n2. citing Park (1973) "Oil under Troubled Waters: The
Northeast Asia Seabed Controversy," 14 HILJ (Harvard International Law
Journal) 212, 248–249; also Park, Choon-Ho. (1972)Continental Shelf
Issues in the Yellow Sea and the East
China Sea. Kingston, Rhode
Island: Law of the Sea Institute, pp. 1–64.
^ a b c d Kaneko, Maya, (Kyodo News) "Ishigaki fishermen fret over
Japan Times, December 8, 2010, p. 3.
^ "BBC News -
Japan confirms disputed islands purchase plan".
bbc.co.uk. 2012. Retrieved September 10, 2012. Kunioki Kurihara
^ a b c d Ito, Masami, "Owner OK with metro bid to buy disputed
Japan Times, May 18, 2012, pp. 1-2
^ "Senkaku/Diaoyutai Islands". Globalsecurity.org.
^ Finney, John W. "Senate Endorses Okinawa Treaty; Votes 84 to 6 for
Island's Return to Japan," New York Times. November 11, 1971.
^ Kyodo News, "Senkaku purchase bid made official",
September 11, 2012, p. 2
^ Ito, Masami, "Jurisdiction over remote Senkakus comes with
Japan Times, May 18, 2012, p. 1
^ Hongo, Jun, "Tokyo's intentions for Senkaku islets",
April 19, 2012, p. 2.
^ Agence France-Presse, "Senkaku memorial day riles China", Japan
Times, December 19, 2010, p. 1. Retrieved January 29, 2011.
Japan says it will purchase disputed islands from private owner,
angering China". Washington Post. AP. September 10, 2012. Retrieved
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^ Kyodo News, "
Taiwan activists threaten to land on Senkakus if Japan
doesn’t remove facilities",
Japan Times, 2 March 2015
^ How uninhabited islands soured China-
China announces geographic codes for Diaoyu Islands
China releases official names of disputed islands
^ UC Berkeley: UC Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation;
retrieved November 15, 2010.
^ Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrals (ACAP),
Breeding site details: Agincourt/P'eng-chia-Hsu
^ Geospatial Information Authority of
Japan (GSI), 魚釣島
^ GSI, 大正島 (Taishō-tō).
^ GSI, 久場島 (Kuba-shima).
^ Google Maps, 北小島 (Kita kojima); GSI, 北小島 (Kita kojima).
^ Google Maps, 南小島 (Minami Kojima)
^ GSI, 沖ノ北岩 (Okino Kitaiwa).
^ GSI, 沖ノ南岩 (Okino Minami-iwa).
^ GSI, 飛瀬 (Tobise).
^ Ji, Guoxing. (1995). "Maritime Jurisdiction in the Three China
Seas," p. 11; Sibuet, Jean-Claude et al. "Back arc extension in the
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^ a b Ji, p. 11.
^ Ji, p. 11; excerpt, "In 1893, Empress Dowager Tsu Shih of the Qing
Dynasty issued an imperial edict ....
China argues that discovery
accompanied by some formal act of usage is sufficient to establish
sovereignty over the islands."
^ Zoological Society of London, EDGE (Evolutionary Distinct &
Globally Endangered) Senkaku mole, 2006; retrieved November 15, 2010.
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the Southern California Channel Islands," Journal of California and
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Short-tailed Albatross, 'Diamedea albatrus, Its Status, Distribution
and Natural History." American Birds, 36(5):806–814.
^ 尖閣諸島の自然 - 尖閣諸島の魚たち
^ Netherlands Institute for the Law of the Sea (NILOS). (2000).
International Organizations and the Law of the Sea, p. 108., p. 108,
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^ Ji, pp. 11–12, 19.
Senkaku Islands Japanese Territory".
^ "钓鱼岛_钓鱼岛是中国的固有领土 (Diaoyu Islands
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^ Page, Jeremy, "Tribunal Rejects Beijing’s Claims to South China
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^ Dyer, Geoff, and Tom Mitchell, "South
China Sea: Building up
trouble", Financial Times, July 15, 2016. With high-resolution aerial
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^ Obe, Mitsuru, "
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Territorial disputes in East, South, and Southeast Asia
Islands and waters
Bhutanese enclaves ( )
Bolshoy Ussuriysky/Heixiazi Island1 ( )
Kashmir2 ( )
Khao Phra Wihan1 ( )
Korean Peninsula ( )
Mainland China ( )
North Borneo (Sabah)1 ( )
Sixty-Four Villages East of the River1 ( )
South Tibet / Arunachal Pradesh ( )
Tuva ( )
Mongolia1 ( )
Jiangxinpo / Northern Kachin1 ( )
Kuril ( )
Liancourt Rocks ( )
Noktundo1 ( )
Paracels ( )
Senkaku ( )
Scarborough Shoal ( )
Sir Creek1 ( )
Spratlys2 ( )
Taiwan Area ( )
Bạch Long Vĩ island1 ( )
Pedra Branca, Middle Rocks and South Ledge ( )
1: Inactive dispute
2: Divided among multiple claimants