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MARCUS ANNAEUS SENECA, known as SENECA THE ELDER and SENECA THE RHETORICIAN (/ˈsɛnɪkə/ ; 54 BC – c. 39 AD), was a Roman rhetorician and writer, born of a wealthy equestrian family of Cordoba , Hispania
Hispania
. Seneca lived through the reigns of three significant emperors; Augustus
Augustus
(ruled 27 BC – 14 AD), Tiberius
Tiberius
(ruled 14 AD – 37 AD) and Caligula
Caligula
(ruled 37 AD – 41 AD). He was the father of the stoic philosopher Seneca the Younger
Seneca the Younger
(Lucius) who was tutor of Nero
Nero
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background * 2 Works * 3 Editions * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links

BACKGROUND

Seneca the Elder is the first of the gens Annaea of whom there is definite knowledge. His praenomen is uncertain, but in any case Marcus is an arbitrary conjecture of Raphael of Volterra
Raphael of Volterra
. During a lengthy stay on two occasions at Rome
Rome
, Seneca attended the lectures of famous orators and rhetoricians, to prepare for an official career as an advocate . His 'ideal ' orator was Cicero
Cicero
, and Seneca disapproved of the florid tendencies of the oratory of his time. A passage in Controversiae expresses a critique of the Asiatic style of Arellius Fuscus , calling "his ornament too contrived, his word arrangement more effeminate than could be tolerated by a mind in training for such chaste and rigorous precepts" (2 pr. 1). Yet Seneca's own writing for fictitious speakers and situations aims above all at a striking effect on the audience and is characterized by "mannerism", "exaggerated use of the colores" and "use of a brilliant, precious style, one that has recourse to all the artifices of Asianism, from the accumulation of the rhetorical figures to densely epigrammatic expression to care over the rhythm of the period."

During the civil wars , his sympathies, like those of his native place, were probably with Pompey
Pompey
. By his wife Helvia of Corduba , he had three sons: the eldest was Lucius Annaeus Novatus - later known as Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus - who was a Roman politician and rhetorician; the middle was Seneca the Younger
Seneca the Younger
, the tutor of the Emperor Nero
Nero
and a Stoic philosopher; and the youngest was Marcus Annaeus Mela , a philosopher and a procurator , who was the father of the poet Lucan .

As he died before his son Seneca the Younger
Seneca the Younger
was banished by Claudius (41; Seneca, ad Helviam, ii. 4), and the latest references in his writings are to the period immediately after the death of Tiberius
Tiberius
, he probably died about 38 AD.

WORKS

At an advanced age, at the request of his sons, he prepared, it is said from memory, a collection of various school themes and their treatment by Greek and Roman orators. This collection, frequently called Declamations, he arranged in ten books of Controversiae (imaginary legal cases) in which seventy-four themes were discussed, the opinions of the rhetoricians upon each case being given from different points of view, then their division of the case into different single questions (divisio), and, finally, the devices for making black appear white and extenuating injustice (colores).

Each book was introduced by a preface, in which the characteristics of individual rhetoricians were discussed in a 'lively' manner. The work is incomplete, but the gaps can be to a certain extent 'filled up', with the aid of an epitome made in the 4th or 5th century for the use of schools. The romantic elements were utilized in the collection of anecdotes and tales called Gesta Romanorum . For Books I, II, VII, IX, and X we possess both the original and the epitome; for the remainder, we have to rely upon the epitome alone. Even with the aid of the latter, only seven of the prefaces are available.

The Controversiae were supplemented by the Suasoriae (exercises in hortatory or deliberative oratory), in which the question is discussed whether certain things 'should, or should not be done'. The whole forms the most important authority for the history of contemporary oratory.

Seneca was also the author of a lost historical work, containing the history of Rome
Rome
from the beginning of the civil wars almost down to his own death, after which it was published by his son. Of this we learn something from the younger Seneca's De vita patris (H. Peter, Historicorum Romanorum fragmenta, 1883, pp. 292, 301), of which the beginning was discovered by Barthold Georg Niebuhr
Barthold Georg Niebuhr
. The father's claim to the authorship of the rhetorical work, generally ascribed to the son during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, was vindicated by the Renaissance humanists Raffaello Maffei and Justus Lipsius
Justus Lipsius
.

EDITIONS

* Faber (Paris, 1587) * JF Gronovius (Leiden, 1649, Amsterdam, 1672) * (critical) Conrad Bursian (Leipzig, 1857) * Adolf Kiessling (Leipzig, 1872) * Hermann Johannes Müller (Prague, 1887)

NOTES

* ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
, William Smith , Editor. * ^ Elaine Fantham , in Cambridge History of Literary Criticism, vol. 1, 1989, p. 279 * ^ Gian Biagio Conte , Latin Literature: A History, trans. Sodolow, JHU Press, 1994, p. 405 * ^ Emily Wilson, The Greatest Empire: A Life of Seneca. Oxford University Press, 2014. p.117

REFERENCES

* This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

FURTHER READING

* Article by O. Rossbach in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyklopädie, i. pt. 2 (1894) *