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A SENATE is a deliberative assembly , often the upper house or chamber of a bicameral legislature or parliament . The name comes from the ancient Roman Senate
Roman Senate
(Latin: Senatus), so-called as an assembly of the senior (Latin: senex meaning "the elder" or "old man") and therefore allegedly wiser and more experienced members of the society or ruling class .

Thus, the literal meaning of the word "senate" is: ASSEMBLY OF ELDERS.

Many countries have an assembly named a senate, composed of senators who may be elected , appointed, have inherited the title, or gained membership by other methods, depending on the country. Modern senates typically serve to provide a chamber of "sober second thought" to consider legislation passed by a lower house , whose members are usually elected.

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview * 2 Alternative meanings * 3 National senates in the world * 4 Defunct senates * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

OVERVIEW

The modern word Senate
Senate
is derived from the word senātus (senate), which comes from senex, “old man”. The members or legislators of a senate are called SENATORS. The Latin word senator was adopted into English with no change in spelling. Its meaning is derived from a very ancient form of social organization, in which advisory or decision-making powers are reserved for the eldest men. For the same reason, the word senate is correctly used when referring to any powerful authority characteristically composed by the eldest members of a community, as a deliberative body of a faculty in an institution of higher learning is often called a senate. This form adaptation was used to show the power of those in body and for the decision-making process to be thorough, which could take a long period of time. The original senate was the Roman Senate
Roman Senate
, which lasted until 580 (various efforts to revive it were made in Medieval Rome). In the Eastern Roman Empire , the Byzantine Senate continued until the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
, circa 1202–1204.

Modern democratic states with bicameral parliamentary systems are sometimes equipped with a senate, often distinguished from an ordinary parallel lower house , known variously as the “House of Representatives ”, “ House of Commons
House of Commons
”, “Chamber of Deputies ”, “ National Assembly ”, “ Legislative Assembly ”, or "House of Assembly ", by electoral rules. This may include minimum age required for voters and candidates, proportional or majoritarian or plurality system , and an electoral basis or collegium. Typically, the senate is referred to as the upper house and has a smaller membership than the lower house. In some federal states senates also exist at the subnational level. In the United States
United States
all states with the exception of Nebraska
Nebraska
(whose legislature is a unicameral body called the “Legislature” but whose members refer to themselves as “senators”) have a state senate. There is also the US Senate at the federal level. Similarly in Argentina
Argentina
, in addition to the Senate at federal level, eight of the country's provinces , Buenos Aires , Catamarca , Corrientes
Corrientes
, Entre Ríos , Mendoza , Salta , San Luis (since 1987) and Santa Fe , have bicameral legislatures with a Senate. Córdoba and Tucumán changed to unicameral systems in 2001 and 2003 respectively.

In Australia
Australia
and Canada
Canada
, only the upper house of the federal parliament is known as the Senate. All Australian states other than Queensland
Queensland
have an upper house known as a Legislative council . Several Canadian provinces also once had a Legislative Council, but these have all been abolished, the last being Quebec
Quebec
's Legislative council in 1968.

In Germany
Germany
, the last Senate
Senate
of a State parliament, the Senate
Senate
of Bavaria
Bavaria
, was abolished in 1999.

Senate
Senate
membership can be determined either through elections or appointments. For example, elections are held every three years for half the membership of the Australian Senate
Australian Senate
, the term of a senator being six years. In contrast, members of the Canadian Senate are appointed by the Governor General upon the recommendation of the Prime Minister of Canada
Canada
, holding the office until they resign, are removed, or retire at the mandatory age of 75.

ALTERNATIVE MEANINGS

The terms Senate
Senate
and Senator, however, do not necessarily refer to a second chamber of a legislature:

* The Senate of Finland was, until 1919, the executive branch and the supreme court. * The Senate
Senate
of Latvia (lv) fulfilled a similar judicial function during the interbellum (1918-1940). * In German politics:

In the Bundesländer (Federated States) of Germany
Germany
which form a City State (in German: Stadtstaat), i.e. Berlin
Berlin
( Senate
Senate
of Berlin
Berlin
), Bremen ( Senate of Bremen ) and Hamburg
Hamburg
( Senate
Senate
of Hamburg
Hamburg
), the Senates (Senat in German ) are the executive branch, with Senator (Senator) being the holders of ministerial portfolios.

In a number of cities which were former members of the Hanse (a medieval confederacy of port cities mainly at the shores of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea), such as Greifswald
Greifswald
, Lübeck , Rostock
Rostock
, Stralsund , or Wismar , the city government is also called a Senate.

However, in Bavaria
Bavaria
, the Senate
Senate
was a second legislative chamber until its abolition in 1999.

* In German jurisdiction:

The term Senat (senate) in higher courts of appeal refers to the "bench " in its broader metonymy meaning, describing members of the judiciary collectively (usually five judges ), often occupied with a particular subject-matter jurisdiction . However, the judges are not called "senators". The German term Strafsenat (literally "Penal Senate") in a German court translates to Bench of penal-law jurisdiction and Zivilsenat (literally "Civil Senate") to Bench of private-law jurisdiction . The Federal Constitutional Court of Germany consists of two senates of eight judges each. In its case the division is mostly of an organizational nature, as a matter of dividing the work load; both senates handle the same kind of constitutional cases. At some points in the past, one senate was considered more conservative and the other more liberal, but that is not the case as of 2011.

* In Scotland
Scotland
, judges of the High Court of Justiciary
High Court of Justiciary
are called Senators of the College of Justice . * In some, mostly federal countries with a unicameral legislature, some of the legislators are elected differently from the others and are called Senators. In federal countries, such Senators represent the territories, while the other members represent the people at large (this device is used to allow a federal representation without having to establish a bicameral legislature); this is the case with St. Kitts and Nevis , Comoros
Comoros
and Micronesia . In other, non-federal countries, the use of the term Senator marks some other difference between such members and the rest of the legislators (such as the method of selection); this is the case with the States of Jersey , Dominica
Dominica
's House of Assembly and the Saint Vincent House of Assembly . * In Wales
Wales
, the National Assembly for Wales
Wales
debating chamber is called the Senedd
Senedd
, pronounced 'Seneth'. * An academic senate is the governing body of some universities. * In Greece
Greece
during the early stages of the Greek War of Independence , various local legislative and executive bodies were established by the Greek rebels. Two of them were styled "senate": the Peloponnesian Senate
Senate
and the Senate
Senate
of Western Continental Greece
Greece
.

NATIONAL SENATES IN THE WORLD

* Afghanistan * Argentina
Argentina
* Austria * Australia
Australia
* Bahamas * Barbados * Belgium * Belize * Bolivia * Brazil * Burundi * Cambodia * Cameroon * Canada
Canada
* Chile * Colombia * Democratic Republic of the Congo * Republic of Congo * Czech Republic

* Dominican Republic * France * Gabon * Grenada * Haiti * Indonesia * Ireland * Italy * Ivory Coast * Jamaica * Japan * Jordan * Kenya * Kazakhstan * Lesotho * Liberia * Madagascar * Malaysia * Mexico

* Netherlands * Nigeria * Palau * Pakistan * Paraguay * Philippines * Poland * Romania * Russia * Rwanda * Saint Lucia * Somalia * South Africa * Spain * Swaziland * Trinidad and Tobago * United States
United States
* Uruguay * Zimbabwe

DEFUNCT SENATES

See also: List of abolished upper houses

ABOLISHED IN FAVOR OF UNICAMERAL SYSTEM

* 1863 Greece
Greece
* 1958 Sudan * 1966 Kenya (restored in 2013) * 1971 Ceylon
Ceylon
(now Sri Lanka) * 1990 Tucumán Province , Argentina
Argentina
* 1981 South Africa * 2000 Bavaria
Bavaria
, Germany
Germany
* 2001 Córdoba Province , Argentina
Argentina
* 2005 Chad

LEGISLATURE DISBANDED

* 603 Roman Republic/Empire * 1204 Byzantine Empire * 1865 Confederate States of America * 1831-1879 Montenegro * 1931-1941 Yugoslavia * 1939 Czechoslovakia * 1947 British Burma * 1952 Egypt * 1958 Cuba * 1959 Iraq * 1961 South Korea * 1969 Libya * 1972 Northern Ireland * 1972 Philippines (restored in 1987) * 1974 Ethiopia * 1975 South Vietnam

NEW CONSTITUTION ADOPTED

* 1847 Costa Rica
Costa Rica
* 1871 Costa Rica
Costa Rica
* 1886 El Salvador
El Salvador
* 1890 Japan * 1901-1903 Serbia * 1917 Russia * 1919 Costa Rica
Costa Rica
* 1919 Finland * 1926 Portugal * 1928 Albania * 1930 Bahia , Brazil * 1930 Ceará , Brazil * 1930 Pernambuco , Brazil * 1930 São Paulo , Brazil * 1935 Philippines (restored in 1945) * 1949 Malta * 1950 Indonesia * 1964 British Guiana (now Guyana) * 1970 Ceylon
Ceylon
* 1978 Ecuador * 1978 Philippines (restored in 1987) * 1979 Iran * 1979 Nicaragua * 1982 Turkey * 1993 Peru * 2000 Venezuela * 2012 Senegal * 2013 Fiji * 2014 Thailand

NOTES

* ^ A Greek Senate was reestablished in 1927, and abolished again in 1935. * ^ The Kenyan Senate
Senate
and House of Representatives were combined into a single National Assembly, under the 2010 Constitution, the Senate
Senate
is the upper house, with the National Assembly becoming the lower house. * ^ A South African Senate
Senate
was reconvened between 1994 and 1997, before being replaced by the National Council of Provinces . * ^ A B C The Philippine Senate
Senate
was abolished and restored twice. A new constitution in 1935 abolished the Senate
Senate
but an amendment in 1941 restored it in 1945. In 1972, the legislature was closed, and a passage of a new constitution in 1978 confirmed the abolition of the Senate; an approval of a new constitution in 1987 restored it. * ^ A B C The 1844 Constitution
Constitution
of the Republic of Costa Rica provided for a Senate; the Constitution
Constitution
of 1847, which replaced it, established a unicameral legislature. The Senate
Senate
was reestablished by the Constitution
Constitution
of 1859; the country reverted to unicameralism with the adoption of the 1871 Constitution. Costa Rica
Costa Rica
briefly restored the Senate
Senate
and bicameralism with the adoption of the 1917 Constitution, but that constitution was abrogated in 1919, whereupon the 1871 Constitution
Constitution
was restored; it remained in effect until 1949, when Costa Rica
Costa Rica
adopted its present Constitution, which provides for a unicameral legislature. * ^ The 1841 Constitution
Constitution
of the Republic of El Salvador established a bicameral legislature with a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate. The 1886 constitution replaced the bicameral legislature with a unicameral one.

SEE ALSO

* Senator for life

REFERENCES

* ^ Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Dictionary: senate * ^ See Senate
Senate
of Berlin
Berlin
, Senate of Bremen and Senate
Senate
of Hamburg
Hamburg
. * ^ Haggerty, Richard A. (ed.), El Salvador: A Country Study (1990), p. 144

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Livius.org: Roman

.