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An ABJAD (pronounced /ˈæbdʒɑːd/ or /ˈæbdʒæd/ ) is a type of writing system where each symbol stands for a consonant , leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel . The name abjad is based on the old Arabic
Arabic
alphabet's first four letters – a, b, j, d – to replace the common terms "CONSONANTARY", "CONSONANTAL ALPHABET" or "syllabary " to refer to the family of scripts called West Semitic .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Terminology * 3 Origins

* 4 Impure abjads

* 4.1 Addition of vowels

* 5 Abjads and the structure of Semitic languages * 6 Comparative chart of Abjads, extinct and extant * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Sources

ETYMOLOGY

The name "abjad" (abjad أبجد) is derived from pronouncing the first letters of the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet in order. The ordering (abjadī) of Arabic
Arabic
letters used to match that of the older Hebrew
Hebrew
, Phoenician and Semitic alphabets; ʾ b g d.

TERMINOLOGY

According to the formulations of Daniels, abjads differ from alphabets in that only consonants, not vowels, are represented among the basic graphemes . Abjads differ from abugidas , another category defined by Daniels, in that in abjads, the vowel sound is implied by phonology , and where vowel marks exist for the system, such as nikkud for Hebrew
Hebrew
and ḥarakāt for Arabic
Arabic
, their use is optional and not the dominant (or literate) form. Abugidas mark the vowels (other than the "inherent" vowel) with a diacritic , a minor attachment to the letter, or a standalone glyph . Some abugidas use a special symbol to suppress the inherent vowel so that the consonant alone can be properly represented. In a syllabary , a grapheme denotes a complete syllable, that is, either a lone vowel sound or a combination of a vowel sound with one or more consonant sounds.

The antagonism of abjad versus alphabet, as it was formulated by Daniels, has been rejected by other scholars because abjad is also used as a term not only for the Arabic
Arabic
numeral system but, which is most important in terms of historical grammatology, also as term for the alphabetic device (i.e. letter order) of ancient Northwest Semitic scripts in opposition to the 'south Arabian' order. This caused fatal effects on terminology in general and especially in (ancient) Semitic philology. Also, it suggests that consonantal alphabets, in opposition to for instance the Greek alphabet, were not yet true alphabets and not yet entirely complete, lacking something important to be a fully working script system. It has also been objected that, as a set of letters, an alphabet is not the mirror of what should be there in a language from a phonemic or even phonological point of view, rather, it is the data stock of what provides maximum efficiency with least effort from a semantic point of view.

ORIGINS

A specimen of Proto-Sinaitic
Proto-Sinaitic
script containing a phrase which may mean 'to Baalat '. The line running from the upper left to lower right reads mt l bclt. See also: History of the alphabet
History of the alphabet
§ Descendants of the Aramaic abjad

The first abjad to gain widespread usage was the Phoenician abjad . Unlike other contemporary scripts, such as cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphs , the Phoenician script consisted of only a few dozen symbols. This made the script easy to learn, and seafaring Phoenician merchants took the script wherever they went.

The Phoenician abjad was a radical simplification of phonetic writing, since hieroglyphics required the writer to pick a hieroglyph starting with the same sound that the writer wanted to write in order to write phonetically, much as man\'yougana ( Chinese characters
Chinese characters
, or kanji , used solely for phonetic use) was used to represent Japanese phonetically before the invention of kana .

Phoenician gave rise to a number of new writing systems, including the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
and Aramaic , a widely used abjad. The Greek alphabet evolved into the modern western alphabets, such as Latin and Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, while Aramaic became the ancestor of many modern abjads and abugidas of Asia.

IMPURE ABJADS

Al-ʻArabiyya, meaning "Arabic": an example of the Arabic script, which is an impure abjad.

Impure abjads have characters for some vowels, optional vowel diacritics, or both. The term pure abjad refers to scripts entirely lacking in vowel indicators. However, most modern abjads, such as Arabic
Arabic
, Hebrew
Hebrew
, Aramaic and Pahlavi , are "impure" abjads, that is, they also contain symbols for some of the vowel phonemes, although the said non-diacritic vowel letters are also used to write certain consonants, particularly approximants that sound similar to long vowels. An example of a "pure" abjad is (perhaps) very early forms of ancient Phoenician , though at some point (at least by the 9th century BC) it and most of the contemporary Semitic abjads had begun to overload a few of the consonant symbols with a secondary function as vowel markers, called matres lectionis . This practice was at first rare and limited in scope, but it became increasingly common and more developed in later times.

ADDITION OF VOWELS

Main article: Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet

In the 9th century BC, the Greeks adapted the Phoenician script for use in their own language. The phonetic structure of the Greek language created too many ambiguities when the vowels went unrepresented, so the script was modified. They did not need letters for the guttural sounds represented by aleph , he , heth or ayin , so these symbols were assigned vocalic values. The letters waw and yod were also adapted into vowel signs; along with he, these were already used as matres lectionis in Phoenician. The major innovation of Greek was to dedicate these symbols exclusively and unambiguously to vowel sounds that could be combined arbitrarily with consonants (as opposed to syllabaries such as Linear B
Linear B
which usually have vowel symbols but cannot combine them with consonants to form arbitrary syllables).

Abugidas developed along a slightly different route. The basic consonantal symbol was considered to have an inherent "a" vowel sound. Hooks or short lines attached to various parts of the basic letter modify the vowel. In this way, the South Arabian alphabet
South Arabian alphabet
evolved into the Ge\'ez alphabet between the 5th century BC and the 5th century AD. Similarly, around the 3rd century BC, the Brāhmī script
Brāhmī script
developed (from the Aramaic abjad , it has been hypothesized).

The other major family of abugidas, Canadian Aboriginal syllabics
Canadian Aboriginal syllabics
, was initially developed in the 1840s by missionary and linguist James Evans for the Cree and Ojibwe languages. Evans used features of Devanagari script
Devanagari script
and Pitman shorthand
Pitman shorthand
to create his initial abugida. Later in the 19th century, other missionaries adapted Evans' system to other Canadian aboriginal languages. Canadian syllabics differ from other abugidas in that the vowel is indicated by rotation of the consonantal symbol, with each vowel having a consistent orientation.

ABJADS AND THE STRUCTURE OF SEMITIC LANGUAGES

The abjad form of writing is well-adapted to the morphological structure of the Semitic languages it was developed to write. This is because words in Semitic languages are formed from a root consisting of (usually) three consonants , the vowels being used to indicate inflectional or derived forms. For instance, according to Classical Arabic
Arabic
and Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
, from the Arabic
Arabic
root ذ ب ح Dh-B-Ḥ (to slaughter) can be derived the forms ذَبَحَ dhabaḥa (he slaughtered), ذَبَحْتَ dhabaḥta (you (masculine singular) slaughtered), يُذَبِّحُ yudhabbiḥu (he slaughters), and مَذْبَح madhbaḥ (slaughterhouse). In most cases, the absence of full glyphs for vowels makes the common root clearer, allowing readers to guess the meaning of unfamiliar words from familiar roots (especially in conjunction with context clues) and improving word recognition while reading for practiced readers.

COMPARATIVE CHART OF ABJADS, EXTINCT AND EXTANT

NAME IN USE CURSIVE DIRECTION # OF LETTERS AREA OF ORIGIN USED BY LANGUAGES TIME PERIOD (AGE) INFLUENCED BY WRITING SYSTEMS INFLUENCED

Syriac yes yes right-left 22 consonants Middle-East Church of the East
Church of the East
, Syrian Church Aramaic, Syriac, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic ~ 100 BC Aramaic Nabatean, Palmyran, Mandaic, Parthian, Pahlavi, Sogdian, Avestan and Manichean

Hebrew
Hebrew
yes only in modern Hebrew right-left 22 consonants + 5 final letters Middle-East Israelis
Israelis
, Some Jewish diaspora
Jewish diaspora
communities, Ancient Hebrew
Hebrew
Tribes Hebrew, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Aramaic > 1100 BC Proto-Hebrew, Early Aramaic

Arabic
Arabic
yes yes right-left 28 Middle-East and North Africa Over 400 million people Arabic, Bosnian, Kashmiri , Malay, Persian, Pashto, Balochi, Turkish, Urdu, others ~ AD 500 Nabataean Aramaic

Aramaic (Imperial) no no right-left 22 Middle-East Archaemenid, Persian, Babylonian, and Assyrian empires Imperial Aramaic, Hebrew ~ 500 BC Phoenician Late Hebrew, Nabataean, Syriac

Aramaic (Early) no no right-left 22 Middle-East Various Semitic Peoples

~ 1000-900 BC Phoenician Hebrew, Imperial Aramaic.

Ancient Berber no no top-bottom, right-left 22 (right-left) 25 (up-down) North Africa Women in Tuareg Society Tifinagh
Tifinagh
600 BC Punic, South Arabian Tifinagh
Tifinagh

Nabataean no no right-left 22 Middle-East Nabataean Kingdom Nabataean 200 BC Aramaic Arabic

Middle Persian, (Pahlavi) no no right-left 22 Middle-East Sassanian Empire
Sassanian Empire
Pahlavi, Middle Persian

Aramaic Psalter, Avestan

Mandaic no yes right-left 24 Iraq, Iran Ahvāz, Iran Mandaic ~ AD 200 Aramaic Neo-Mandaic

Psalter Pahlavi
Psalter Pahlavi
no yes right-left 21 Northwestern China Persian Script for Paper Writing

~ AD 400 Syriac

Phoenician no no right-left, Boustrophedon
Boustrophedon
22 Byblos Canaanites Phoenician, Punic ~ 1000-1500 BC Proto-Canaanite Alphabet
Alphabet
Punic(variant), Greek, Etruscan, Latin, Arabic, and Hebrew

Parthian no no right-left 22 Parthia (modern-day equivalent of Northeastern Iran) Parthian & Sassanian periods of Persian Empire Parthian ~ 200 BC Aramaic

Sabaean no no system right-left, boustrophedon 29 Southern Arabia (Sheba) Southern Arabians Sabaean ~ 500 BC Byblos Ethiopic (Eritrea ">

Proto-Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite no no left-right 30 Egypt, Sinai, Canaan Canaanites Canaanite ~ 1900-1700 BC In conjunction with Egyptian Hieroglyphs Phoenician, Hebrew

Ugaritic no yes left-right 30 Ugarit (modern-day Northern Syria) Ugarites Ugaritic, Hurrian ~ 1400 BC Proto-Sinaitic

South Arabian no yes (Zabūr - cursive form of the South Arabian script) Boustrophedon
Boustrophedon
29 South-Arabia (Yemen) D'mt Kingdom Amharic, Tigrinya, Tigre, Semitic, Chushitic, Nilo-Saharan 900 BC Proto-Sinaitic Ge'ez ((Ethiopia)(Eritrea))

Sogdian no no (yes in later versions) right-left, left-right(vertical) 20 parts of China (Xinjiang), Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan Buddhists, Manichaens Sogdian ~ AD 400 Syriac Old Uyghur alphabet
Old Uyghur alphabet
, Yaqnabi (Tajikistan dialect)

Samaritan yes (700 people) no right-left 22 Mesopatamia or Levant (Disputed) Samaritans (Nablus and Holon) Samaritan Aramaic, Samaritan Hebrew ~ 100-0 BC Paleo- Hebrew
Hebrew
Alphabet

SEE ALSO

* Abjad numerals * Abugida
Abugida
* Gematria
Gematria
( Hebrew
Hebrew
system of mystical numerology) * Numerology
Numerology
* Shorthand
Shorthand
(constructed writing systems that are structurally abjads)

REFERENCES

* ^ http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/abjad * ^ "abjad". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press . September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) * ^ Daniels -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;">

* Ager, Simon (2015). "Abjads / Consonant
Consonant
alphabets".

* Daniels, Peter T. (2013). "The Arabic
Arabic
Writing system". In Owens, Jonathan. The Oxford Handbook of Arabic
Arabic
Linguistics. Oxford University Press. p. 415. * Daniels, Peter T. & Bright, William, eds. (1996). The World's Writing Systems. OUP. p. 4. ISBN 978-0195079937 .

* Lehmann, Reinhard G. (2011). "CH 2 27-30-22-26. How Many Letters Needs an Alphabet? The Case of Semitic". In de Voogt, Alex & Quack, Joachim Friedrich. The idea of writing: Writing across borders. Leiden: Brill. pp. 11–52. ISBN 978-9004215450 .

* Lipiński, Edward (1994). Studies in Aramaic Inscriptions and Onomastics II. Leuven, Belgium: Peeters Publishers. pp. 29–30. ISBN 9068316109 . * Lo, Lawrence (2012). "Berber".

* Wright, W. (1967). A Grammar of the Arabic
Arabic
Language . 1 (3rd ed.). CUP. p. 28. ISBN 978-0521094559 .

* v * t * e

Writing systems

OVERVIEW

* History of writing
History of writing
* History of the alphabet
History of the alphabet
* Graphemes * Scripts in Unicode

LISTS

* Writing systems * Languages by writing system / by first written account * Undeciphered writing systems * Inventors of writing systems

TYPES

* Featural * Alphabets * Abjads * Alphasyllabaries / Abugidas * Syllabaries * Semi-syllabaries * Ideogrammic * Pictographic * Logographic * Numeral

* v * t * e

Types of writing systems

OVERVIEW

* History of writing
History of writing
* Grapheme
Grapheme

LISTS

* Writing systems

* undeciphered * inventors * constructed

* Languages by writing system / by first written accounts

TYPES

ABJADS

* Numerals

* Aramaic

* Hatran

* Arabic
Arabic
* Pitman shorthand
Pitman shorthand

* Hebrew
Hebrew

* Ashuri * Cursive * Rashi * Solitreo

* Tifinagh
Tifinagh
* Manichaean * Nabataean * Old North Arabian * Pahlavi * Pegon

* Phoenician

* Paleo- Hebrew
Hebrew

* Proto-Sinaitic
Proto-Sinaitic
* Psalter * Punic * Samaritan

* South Arabian

* Zabur * Musnad

* Sogdian

* Syriac

* ʾEsṭrangēlā * Serṭā * Maḏnḥāyā

* Teeline Shorthand
Shorthand
* Ugaritic

ABUGIDAS

BRAHMIC

NORTHERN

* Asamiya (Ôxômiya) * Bānglā * Bhaikshuki * Bhujinmol * Brāhmī * Devanāgarī * Dogri * Gujarati * Gupta * Gurmukhī * Kaithi
Kaithi
* Kalinga * Khojki * Khotanese * Khudawadi * Laṇḍā * Lepcha * Limbu * Mahajani
Mahajani
* Meitei Mayek * Modi * Multani * Nāgarī * Nandinagari
Nandinagari
* Odia * \'Phags-pa * Newar * Ranjana * Sharada * Saurashtra * Siddhaṃ * Soyombo * Sylheti Nagari
Sylheti Nagari
* Takri

* Tibetan

* Uchen * Umê

* Tirhuta
Tirhuta
* Tocharian * Zanabazar Square

* Zhang-Zhung

* Drusha * Marchen * Marchung * Pungs-chen * Pungs-chung

SOUTHERN

* Ahom * Balinese * Batak * Baybayin
Baybayin
* Bhattiprolu * Buhid * Burmese * Chakma * Cham * Grantha * Goykanadi * Hanunó\'o * Javanese * Kadamba * Kannada * Kawi * Khmer * Kulitan * Lanna * Lao * Leke * Lontara * Malayalam

* Maldivian

* Dhives Akuru
Dhives Akuru
* Eveyla Akuru * Thaana
Thaana

* Mon * Old Makassarese * Old Sundanese * Pallava * Pyu * Rejang * Rencong * Sinhala * Sundanese * Tagbanwa * Tai Le * Tai Tham * Tai Viet * Tamil * Telugu * Thai * Tigalari

* Vatteluttu

* Kolezhuthu * Malayanma

* Visayan

OTHERS

* Boyd\'s syllabic shorthand

* Canadian syllabics

* Blackfoot * Déné syllabics
Déné syllabics

* Fox I * Ge\'ez * Gunjala Gondi * Japanese Braille
Japanese Braille
* Jenticha * Kayah Li * Kharosthi
Kharosthi
* Mandombe * Masaram Gondi * Meroitic * Miao * Mwangwego * Sorang Sompeng * Pahawh Hmong
Pahawh Hmong
* Thomas Natural Shorthand
Shorthand

ALPHABETS

LINEAR

* Abkhaz * Adlam * Armenian * Avestan * Avoiuli
Avoiuli
* Bassa Vah * Borama * Carian * Caucasian Albanian * Coorgi–Cox alphabet
Coorgi–Cox alphabet
* Coptic * Cyrillic
Cyrillic
* Deseret

* Duployan shorthand
Duployan shorthand

* Chinook writing

* Early Cyrillic
Cyrillic
* Eclectic shorthand
Eclectic shorthand
* Elbasan * Etruscan * Evenki * Fox II * Fraser * Gabelsberger shorthand
Gabelsberger shorthand
* Garay

* Georgian

* Asomtavruli
Asomtavruli
* Nuskhuri
Nuskhuri
* Mkhedruli
Mkhedruli

* Glagolitic * Gothic * Gregg shorthand
Gregg shorthand
* Greek * Greco-Iberian alphabet
Greco-Iberian alphabet
* Hangul
Hangul
* Hanifi * IPA * Kaddare

* Latin

* Beneventan * Blackletter
Blackletter
* Carolingian minuscule
Carolingian minuscule
* Fraktur
Fraktur
* Gaelic * Insular * Kurrent
Kurrent
* Merovingian * Sigla * Sütterlin
Sütterlin
* Tironian notes
Tironian notes
* Visigothic

* Luo * Lycian * Lydian * Manchu * Mandaic * Medefaidrin * Molodtsov * Mongolian * Mru * Neo- Tifinagh
Tifinagh
* New Tai Lue * N\'Ko * Ogham
Ogham
* Oirat * Ol Chiki * Old Hungarian * Old Italic * Old Permic * Orkhon * Old Uyghur * Osage * Osmanya * Pau Cin Hau

* Runic

* Anglo-Saxon * Cipher * Dalecarlian * Elder Futhark
Elder Futhark
* Younger Futhark
Younger Futhark
* Gothic * Marcomannic * Medieval * Staveless

* Sidetic * Shavian * Somali * Tifinagh
Tifinagh
* Vagindra * Visible Speech
Visible Speech
* Vithkuqi * Wancho * Zaghawa

NON-LINEAR

* Braille
Braille
* Maritime flags * Morse code
Morse code
* New York Point
New York Point
* Semaphore line
Semaphore line
* Flag semaphore
Flag semaphore
* Moon type
Moon type

IDEOGRAMS /PICTOGRAMS

* Adinkra * Aztec * Blissymbol * Dongba * Ersu Shaba * Emoji
Emoji
* IConji
IConji
* Isotype * Kaidā * Míkmaq * Mixtec * New Epoch Notation Painting
New Epoch Notation Painting
* Nsibidi
Nsibidi
* Ojibwe Hieroglyphs * Siglas poveiras
Siglas poveiras
* Testerian
Testerian
* Yerkish * Zapotec

LOGOGRAMS

CHINESE FAMILY OF SCRIPTS

CHINESE CHARACTERS

* Simplified * Traditional * Oracle bone script
Oracle bone script
* Bronze Script

* Seal Script

* large * small * bird-worm

* Hanja
Hanja
* Idu * Kanji
Kanji
* Chữ nôm * Zhuang

CHINESE-INFLUENCED

* Jurchen * Khitan large script
Khitan large script
* Sui * Tangut

CUNEIFORM

* Akkadian * Assyrian * Elamite * Hittite * Luwian * Sumerian

OTHER LOGO-SYLLABIC

* Anatolian * Bagam * Cretan * Isthmian * Maya * Proto-Elamite * Yi (Classical)

LOGO-CONSONANTAL

* Demotic * Hieratic
Hieratic
* Hieroglyphs

NUMERALS

* Hindu- Arabic
Arabic
* Abjad
Abjad
* Attic (Greek) * Muisca * Roman

SEMI-SYLLABARIES

FULL

* Celtiberian * Northeastern Iberian * Southeastern Iberian * Khom

REDUNDANT

* Espanca * Pahawh Hmong
Pahawh Hmong
* Khitan small script
Khitan small script
* Southwest Paleohispanic * Zhuyin fuhao

SOMACHEIROGRAMS

* ASLwrite
ASLwrite
* SignWriting
SignWriting
* si5s * Stokoe Notation

SYLLABARIES

* Afaka * Bamum * Bété * Byblos * Cherokee * Cypriot * Cypro-Minoan * Ditema tsa Dinoko * Eskayan * Geba * Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics * Iban

* Japanese

* Hiragana
Hiragana
* Katakana
Katakana
* Man\'yōgana * Hentaigana
Hentaigana
* Sogana
Sogana
* Jindai moji
Jindai moji

* Kikakui * Kpelle * Linear B
Linear B
* Linear Elamite
Linear Elamite
* Lisu * Loma * Nüshu * Nwagu Aneke script * Old Persian Cuneiform
Cuneiform
* Vai * Woleai * Yi (Modern) * Yugtun

* v * t * e

Braille
Braille
⠃⠗⠁⠊⠇⠇⠑

BRAILLE CELL

* 1829 braille
1829 braille
* International uniformity * ASCII braille * Unicode braille patterns

BRAILLE SCRIPTS

French-ordered scripts (see for more)

* Albanian * Amharic * Arabic
Arabic
* Armenian * Azerbaijani * Belarusian

* Bharati

* Devanagari
Devanagari
(Hindi / Marathi / Nepali) * Bengali * Punjabi * Sinhalese * Tamil * Urdu * etc.

* Bulgarian * Burmese * Cambodian * Cantonese * Catalan * Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) * Czech * Dutch * Dzongkha (Bhutanese) * English (Unified English ) * Esperanto * Estonian * Faroese * French * Georgian * German * Ghanaian * Greek * Guarani * Hawaiian * Hebrew
Hebrew
* Hungarian * Icelandic * Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) * Iñupiaq * IPA * Irish * Italian * Kazakh * Kyrgyz * Latvian * Lithuanian * Maltese * Mongolian * Māori * Nigerian * Northern Sami * Persian * Philippine * Polish * Portuguese * Romanian * Russian * Samoan * Scandinavian * Slovak * South African * Spanish * Tatar * Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) * Thai border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Algerian Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

FREQUENCY-BASED SCRIPTS

* American Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

INDEPENDENT SCRIPTS

* Japanese * Korean * Two-Cell Chinese

EIGHT-DOT SCRIPTS

* Luxembourgish * Kanji
Kanji
* Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

SYMBOLS IN BRAILLE

* Braille
Braille
music * Canadian currency marks * Computer Braille
Braille
Code * Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) * International Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) * Nemeth braille code

BRAILLE TECHNOLOGY

* Braille
Braille
e-book * Braille
Braille
embosser * Braille
Braille
translator * Braille
Braille
watch * Mountbatten Brailler
Mountbatten Brailler
* Optical braille recognition
Optical braille recognition
* Perforation
Perforation
* Perkins Brailler
Perkins Brailler
* Refreshable braille display
Refreshable braille display
* Slate and stylus
Slate and stylus
* Braigo
Braigo

PERSONS

* Louis Braille
Braille
* Charles Barbier * Valentin Haüy
Valentin Haüy
* Thakur Vishva Narain Singh * Sabriye Tenberken
Sabriye Tenberken
* William Bell Wait
William Bell Wait

ORGANISATIONS

* Braille
Braille
Institute of America * Braille
Braille
Without Borders * Japan Braille
Braille
Library * National Braille
Braille
Association * Blindness organizations * Schools for the blind * American Printing House for the Blind

OTHER TACTILE ALPHABETS

* Decapoint
Decapoint
* Moon type
Moon type
* New York Point
New York Point
* Night writing
Night writing
* Vibratese

RELATED TOPICS

* Accessible publishing * Braille
Braille
literacy * Robo Braille
Braille

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