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A semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible to the legislature of a state. It differs from a parliamentary republic in that it has a popularly elected head of state, who is more than a purely ceremonial figurehead, and from the presidential system in that the cabinet, although named by the president, is responsible to the legislature, which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence.[1][2][3][4] While the Weimar Republic
Republic
(1919–1933) exemplified an early semi-presidential system, the term "semi-presidential" was introduced by a 1959 article by journalist Hubert Beuve-Méry[5] and popularized by a 1978 work by political scientist Maurice Duverger,[6] both of which intended to describe the French Fifth Republic
Republic
(established in 1958).[1][2][3][4]

Contents

1 Subtypes 2 Division of powers 3 Cohabitation 4 Advantages and disadvantages 5 Republics with a semi-presidential system of government

5.1 President-parliamentary system 5.2 Premier-presidential system

6 See also 7 Notes and references 8 External links

Subtypes[edit] There are two separate subtypes of semi-presidentialism: premier-presidentialism and president-parliamentarism. Under the premier-presidential system, the prime minister and cabinet are exclusively accountable to parliament. The president chooses the prime minister and cabinet, but only the parliament may remove them from office with a vote of no confidence. The president does not have the right to dismiss the prime minister or the cabinet. However, in some cases, the president can circumvent this limitation by exercising the discretionary power of dissolving the assembly, which forces the prime minister and cabinet to step down. This subtype is used in Armenia, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde,[7] East Timor,[7][8] France, Georgia (since 2013), Lithuania, Madagascar, Mali, Mongolia, Niger, Poland,[9] Portugal, Romania, São Tomé and Príncipe,[7] Sri Lanka and Ukraine
Ukraine
(since 2014; previously, between 2006 and 2010).[10][11] Under the president-parliamentary system, the prime minister and cabinet are dually accountable to the president and the assembly majority. The president chooses the prime minister and the cabinet but must have the support of the parliament majority for his choice. In order to remove a prime minister or the whole cabinet from power, the president can dismiss them or the assembly can remove them by a vote of no confidence. This form of semi-presidentialism is much closer to pure presidentialism. It is used in Guinea-Bissau,[7] Mozambique, Namibia, Peru, Russia, Senegal
Senegal
and Taiwan. It was also used in Ukraine, first between 1996 and 2005, and again from 2010 to 2014, Georgia between 2004 and 2013, and in Germany
Germany
during the Weimarer Republik (Weimar Republic), as the constitutional regime between 1919 and 1933 is called unofficially.[10][11] Division of powers[edit] The powers that are divided between president and prime minister can vary greatly between countries. In France, for example, in case of cohabitation, when the president and the prime minister come from opposing parties, the president oversees foreign policy and defence policy (these are generally called les prérogatives présidentielles (the presidential prerogatives) and the prime minister domestic policy and economic policy.[12] In this case, the division of responsibilities between the prime minister and the president is not explicitly stated in the constitution, but has evolved as a political convention based on the constitutional principle that the prime minister is appointed (with the subsequent approval of a parliament majority) and dismissed by the president.[13] On the other hand, whenever the president is from the same party as the prime minister who leads the conseil de gouvernement (cabinet), he often (if not usually) exercises de facto control over all fields of policy via the prime minister. It is up to the president to decide, how much "autonomy" leaves to "their" prime minister to act on their own. In Finland, by contrast, the assignment of responsibility for foreign policy was explicitly stated in the pre-2000 constitution: "foreign policy is led by the president in cooperation with the cabinet". Cohabitation[edit] Further information: Cohabitation (government) Semi-presidential systems may sometimes experience periods in which the president and the prime minister are from differing political parties. This is called "cohabitation", a term which originated in France
France
when the situation first arose in the 1980s. Cohabitation can create an effective system of checks and balances or a period of bitter and tense stonewalling, depending on the attitudes of the two leaders, the ideologies of their parties, or the demands of their constituencies.[14] In most cases, cohabitation results from a system in which the two executives are not elected at the same time or for the same term. For example, in 1981, France
France
elected both a Socialist president and legislature, which yielded a Socialist premier. But whereas the president's term of office was for seven years, the National Assembly only served for five. When, in the 1986 legislative election, the French people elected a right-of-centre assembly, Socialist President Mitterrand
Mitterrand
was forced into cohabitation with rightist premier Jacques Chirac.[14] However, in 2000, amendments to the French constitution
French constitution
reduced the length of the French president's term from seven to five years. This has significantly lowered the chances of cohabitation occurring, as parliamentary and presidential elections may now be conducted within a shorter span of each other. Advantages and disadvantages[edit] The incorporation of elements from both presidential and parliamentary republics brings some advantageous elements along with them but, however, it also faces disadvantages related to the confusion from mixed authority patterns.[15] Advantages

Providing cover for the president — it can shield the president from criticism and the unpopular policies can be blamed on the prime minister; Ability to remove an unpopular prime minister and maintain stability from the president's fixed term — the parliament has power to remove an unpopular prime minister; Additional checks and balances — while the president can dismiss the prime minister in most semi-presidential systems, in most of the semi-presidential systems important segments of bureaucracy are taken away from the president.

Disadvantages

Confusion about accountability — parliamentary systems give voters a relatively clear sense of who is responsible for policy successes and failures; presidential systems make this more difficult, particularly when there is divided government. Semi-presidential systems add another layer of complexity for voters; Confusion and inefficiency in legislative process — the capacity of votes of confidence makes the prime minister responsible to the parliament.

Republics with a semi-presidential system of government[edit] Main article: List of countries by system of government § Semi-presidential systems Italics indicate states with limited recognition. President-parliamentary system[edit]

 Abkhazia  Artsakh  Azerbaijan  Congo, Republic
Republic
of the  Guinea-Bissau  Mauritania  Mozambique  Namibia  Palestine  Peru  Russia  Senegal  South Ossetia  Syria   Taiwan
Taiwan
( Republic
Republic
of China)  Transnistria

Premier-presidential system[edit]

 Algeria  Burkina Faso  Cape Verde  Democratic Republic
Republic
of Congo  East Timor  Egypt  France  Georgia  Haiti  Lithuania  Madagascar  Mali  Mongolia  Niger  Northern Cyprus  Poland  Portugal  Romania  São Tomé and Príncipe  Sri Lanka  Tunisia  Ukraine

See also[edit]

List of countries by system of government Parliamentary system Presidential system Semi-parliamentary system

Notes and references[edit]

^ a b Duverger, Maurice (June 1980). "A New Political System Model: Semi-Presidential Government" (PDF). European Journal of Political Research (quarterly). University of Paris I, Paris: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company. 8 (2): 165–187. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6765.1980.tb00569.x . Retrieved 21 August 2017 – via Wiley Online Library. The concept of a semi-presidential form of government, as used here, is defined only by the content of the constitution. A political regime is considered as semi-presidential if the constitution which established it, combines three elements: (1) the president of the republic is elected by universal suffrage, (2) he possesses quite considerable powers; (3) he has opposite him, however, a prime minister and ministers who possess executive and governmental power and can stay in office only if the parliament does not show its opposition to them.  ^ a b Veser, Ernst (1997). "Semi-Presidentialism-Duverger's concept: A New Political System Model" (PDF). Journal for Humanities and Social Sciences. Taiwan: Research Center for Humanities and Social Sciences. 11 (1): 39–60. Retrieved 21 August 2017.  ^ a b Duverger, Maurice (September 1996). "Les monarchies républicaines" [The Republican Monarchies] (PDF). Pouvoirs, revue française d’études constitutionnelles et politiques (in French). No. 78. Paris: Éditions du Seuil. pp. 107–120. ISBN 2-02-030123-7. ISSN 0152-0768. OCLC 909782158. Retrieved 10 September 2016.  ^ a b Bahro, Horst; Bayerlein, Bernhard H.; Veser, Ernst (October 1998). "Duverger's concept: Semi-presidential government revisited" (PDF). European Journal of Political Research (quarterly). University of Cologne, Germany: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 34 (2): 201–224. doi:10.1111/1475-6765.00405. Retrieved 22 August 2017 – via Wiley Online Library. The conventional analysis of government in democratic countries by political science and constitutional law starts from the traditional types of presidentialism and parliamentarism. There is, however, a general consensus that governments in the various countries work quite differently. This is why some authors have inserted distinctive features into their analytical approaches, at the same time maintaining the general dichotomy. Maurice Duverger, trying to explain the French Fifth Republic, found that this dichotomy was not adequate for this purpose. He therefore resorted to the concept of 'semi-presidential government': The characteristics of the concept are (Duverger 1974: 122, 1978: 28, 1980: 166): 1. the President
President
of the Republic
Republic
is elected by universal suffrage, 2. he possesses quite considerable powers and 3. he has opposite him a prime minister who possesses executive and governmental powers and can stay in office only if parliament does not express its opposition to him.  ^ Le Monde, 8 January 1959. ^ Duverger, Maurice (1978). Échec au roi. Paris: A. Michel. ISBN 9782226005809.  ^ a b c d Neto, Octávio Amorim; Lobo, Marina Costa (2010). "Between Constitutional Diffusion and Local Politics: Semi-Presidentialism in Portuguese-Speaking Countries" (PDF). APSA 2010 Annual Meeting Paper. Social Science Research Network. SSRN 1644026 . Retrieved 18 August 2017.  ^ Beuman, Lydia M. (2016). Political Institutions in East Timor: Semi-Presidentialism and Democratisation. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. ISBN 1317362128. LCCN 2015036590. OCLC 983148216. Retrieved 18 August 2017 – via Google Books.  ^ McMenamin, Iain. "Semi-Presidentialism and Democratisation in Poland" (PDF). School of Law and Government, Dublin City University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2017.  ^ a b Shugart, Matthew Søberg (September 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive and Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies. United States: University of California, San Diego. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2017.  ^ a b Shugart, Matthew Søberg (December 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies, University of California, San Diego. French Politics. London: Palgrave Macmillan
Palgrave Macmillan
UK. 3 (3): 323–351. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087 . ISSN 1476-3427. OCLC 6895745903. Retrieved 12 October 2017.  ^ See article 5, title II, of the French Constitution of 1958. Jean Massot, Quelle place la Constitution de 1958 accorde-t-elle au Président de la République?, Constitutional Council of France website (in French). ^ Le Petit Larousse 2013 p. 880 ^ a b Poulard JV (Summer 1990). "The French Double Executive and the Experience of Cohabitation" (PDF). Political Science Quarterly (quarterly). Indiana University Nortwest: The Academy of Political Science. 105 (2): 243–267. doi:10.2307/2151025 . ISSN 0032-3195. JSTOR 2151025 . OCLC 4951242513. Retrieved 7 October 2017.  ^ Barrington, Lowell; Bosia, Michael J.; Bruhn, Kathleen; Giaimo, Susan; McHenry, Jr., Dean E. (2012) [2009]. Comparative Politics: Structures and Choices (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cenage Learning. pp. 169–170. ISBN 9781111341930. LCCN 2011942386. Retrieved 9 September 2017 – via Google Books. 

Bahro, Horst; Bayerlein, Bernhard H.; Veser, Ernst (October 1998). "Duverger's concept: Semi–presidential government revisited" (PDF). European Journal of Political Research (quarterly). Wiley. 34 (2): 201–224. doi:10.1111/1475-6765.00405.  Beuman, Lydia M. (2016). Political Institutions in East Timor: Semi-Presidentialism and Democratisation. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. ISBN 1317362128. LCCN 2015036590 – via Google Books.  Canas, Vitalino (2004). "The Semi-Presidential System" (PDF). Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht. Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht. 64 (1): 95–124.  Duverger, Maurice (1978). Échec au roi. Paris: A. Michel. ISBN 9782226005809.  Duverger, Maurice (June 1980). "A New Political System Model: Semi-Presidential Government". European Journal of Political Research (quarterly). Wiley-Blackwell. 8 (2): 165–187. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6765.1980.tb00569.x.  Elgie, Robert (2011). Semi-Presidentialism: Sub-Types And Democratic Performance. Comparative Politics. (Oxford Scholarship Online Politics) OUP Oxford ISBN 9780199585984 Frye, Timothy (October 1997). "A Politics
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of Institutional Choice: Post-Communist Presidencies" (PDF). Comparative Political Studies. Sage. 30 (5): 523–552. doi:10.1177/0010414097030005001.  Goetz, Klaus H. (2006). Heywood, Paul; Jones, Erik; Rhodes, Martin; Sedelmeier, eds. Developments in European politics (PDF). Power at the Centre: The Organization of Democratic Systems. Basingstoke England New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 368. ISBN 9780230000414.  Lijphart, Arend (1992). Parliamentary versus presidential government. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198780441.  Nousiainen, Jaakko (June 2001). "From Semi-presidentialism to Parliamentary Government: Political and Constitutional Developments in Finland". Scandinavian Political Studies (quarterly). Nordic Political Science Association. 24 (2): 95–109. doi:10.1111/1467-9477.00048. ISSN 0080-6757. OCLC 715091099 – via Wiley Online Library.  Passarelli, Gianluca (December 2010). "The government in two semi-presidential systems: France
France
and Portugal
Portugal
in a comparative perspective" (PDF). French Politics. Dipartimento di Scienza Politica, University of Bologna: Palgrave Macmillan
Palgrave Macmillan
UK. 8 (4): 402–428. doi:10.1057/fp.2010.21. ISSN 1476-3427. OCLC 300271555.  Rhodes, R. A. W. (1995). "From Prime Ministerial power to core executive". In Rhodes, R. A. W.; Dunleavy, Patrick. Prime minister, cabinet, and core executive. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 11–37. ISBN 9780333555286.  Roper, Steven D. (April 2002). "Are All Semipresidential Regimes the Same? A Comparison of Premier-Presidential Regimes". Comparative Politics. City University of New York. 34 (3): 253–272. doi:10.2307/4146953. JSTOR 4146953.  Sartori, Giovanni (1997). Comparative constitutional engineering: an inquiry into structures, incentives, and outcomes (2nd ed.). Washington Square, New York: New York University Press. ISBN 9780333675090.  Shoesmith, Dennis (March–April 2003). "Timor-Leste: Divided Leadership
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Palgrave Macmillan
UK. 3 (3): 323–351. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087 . ISSN 1476-3427. OCLC 6895745903.  Shugart, Matthew Søberg; Carey, John M. (1992). Presidents and assemblies: constitutional design and electoral dynamics. Cambridge England New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521429900.  Veser, Ernst (1997). "Semi-Presidentialism-Duverger's concept: A New Political System Model" (PDF). Journal for Humanities and Social Sciences. Research Center for Humanities and Social Sciences, Taiwan. 11 (1): 39–60. 

External links[edit]

Governing Systems and Executive-Legislative Relations. (Presidential, Parliamentary and Hybrid Systems), United Nations Development Programme (n.d.). Archived 10 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine. J. Kristiadi (April 22, 2008). "Indonesia Outlook 2007: Toward strong, democratic governance". The Jakarta Post. PT Bina Media Tenggara. Archived from the original on 21 April 2008.  The Semi-Presidential One, blog of Robert Elgie Presidential Power blog with posts written by several political scientists, including Robert Elgie.

Authority control

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