The Info List - Semarang

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(formerly Dutch: Samarang), is a city on the north coast of the island of Java, Indonesia. It is the capital and largest city of the province of Central Java. It has an area of 373.78 square kilometres (144.32 sq mi) and a population of approximately 1.8 million people, making it Indonesia's fifth most populous city[2] after Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung
and Medan. The built-up (metro) area had 3,183,516 inhabitants at the 2010 census spread on 2 cities and 26 districts.[3] Greater Semarang
(a.k.a. Kedungsapur) has a population of close to 6 million (see Greater Semarang
section), and is located at 6°58′S 110°25′E / 6.967°S 110.417°E / -6.967; 110.417. A major port during the Dutch colonial era, and still an important regional center and port today, the city has a dominant Javanese population.


1 History

1.1 Classical Indische Town (1678–1870) 1.2 The modern city (1870–1922) 1.3 Japanese occupation and early independence

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Ethnicity

3.1 Semarang

4 Flood control 5 Transport

5.1 Air 5.2 Road 5.3 Rail 5.4 Sea

6 Sights and landmarks

6.1 Tugu Muda 6.2 Temples

7 Education

7.1 Universities

8 Sport centres 9 Semarang
River 10 Culture

10.1 Food 10.2 Festivals

11 Adipura Award 12 Greater Semarang 13 Notable people born in Semarang 14 Sister cities 15 References 16 External links


Historical affiliations

Demak Sultanate
Demak Sultanate
1547-1554 Kingdom of Pajang 1568-1587   Mataram Sultanate
Mataram Sultanate
1587-1705   Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
1705-1799   Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
1800-1942   Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
1942-1945 Template:Country data Republic of Indonesia

In 1678, Sunan Amangkurat II
Amangkurat II
promised to give control of Semarang
to the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
(VOC) as a part of a debt payment. In 1682, the Semarang
state was founded by the Dutch colonial power. On 5 October 1705 after years of occupations, Semarang
officially became a VOC city when Susuhunan Pakubuwono I made a deal to give extensive trade rights to the VOC in exchange of wiping out Mataram's debt. The VOC, and later, the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
government, established tobacco plantations in the region and built roads and railroads, making Semarang
an important colonial trading centre.[citation needed] The historic presence of a large Indo (Eurasian) community in the area of Semarang
is also reflected by the fact a creole mix language called Javindo existed there.[4]

Classical Indische Town (1678–1870)[edit]

The early VOC settlement of Semarang
with its prominent pentagonal fortress.

was handed by the Sultan of Mataram to the Dutch East Indies in 1678. The city was pictured as a small settlement with a pious Muslim area called Kauman, a Chinese quarter, and a Dutch fortress. The fortress has a pentagonal form with only one gate in the south and five monitoring towers to protect the Dutch settlement from rebellion actions, segregating the spaces between Dutch settlement and other areas.[5] In fact, the city of Semarang
was only referred to the Dutch quarter while the other ethnic settlement were considered as villages outside the city boundary. The city, known as de Europeesche Buurt, was built in classical European style with church located in the centre, wide boulevards and streets skirted by beautiful villas.[6] According to Purwanto (2005),[7] the urban and architectural form of this settlement is very similar to the design principles applied in many Dutch cities, which begun to concern on the urban beautification. Due to the long and costly Java
War, there were not much of funding from the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
government, effecting the development of Semarang. The majority of land was used for rice fields and the only small improvement was the development of surrounding fortress. Although less developed, Semarang
has a fairly arranged city system, in which urban activities were concentrated along the river and the settlement was linked to a market where different ethnic groups met to trade. The existence of the market, in the later years, become a primary element and a generator of urban economic growths.[8] An important influence on urban growth was the Great Mail Road project in the 1847, which connected all the cities in northern coast of Central and East Java
and made Semarang
as the trade centre of agricultural production.[9] The project was soon followed by the development of the Netherlands
Indies railway and the connecting roads into the inner city of Semarang
at the end of 19th century.[8] Colombijn (2002)[9] marked the development as the shift of urban functions, from the former river orientation to all services facing the roads. The modern city (1870–1922)[edit]


Chinese name

Traditional Chinese 三寶壟

Simplified Chinese 三宝垄


Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Sānbǎolǒng


Romanization Sâm pó lúng

Yue: Cantonese

Jyutping saam1 bou2 lung5

Southern Min

POJ Saⁿ-pó-long

Javanese name

Javanese ꦯꦼꦩꦫꦁ

Improved communication, as the result of the Mail and Railway projects, brought an economic boom to the city in the 1870s. There were hospitals, churches, hotels, and large houses built along new main roads; Bojongscheweg, Pontjolscheweg, and Mataram street, densified population in the ethnic settlements and created the urban kampong (village).[6] Urban growth densified the urban kampong, reaching 1,000 inhabitants per hectare and degrading the quality of living conditions.[10] In the early 20th century, mortality rate were high due to the overcrowding and lack of hygiene that triggered cholera and tuberculosis outbreaks.[11] Cobban (1993)[10] noted the ethical movement of kampongverbetering led by Henry Tillema in 1913 and the concern of the Advisor for Decentralisation for kampong improvement through the betterment of public toilets, drainage, and the planning of public housing. In 1917, a healthy housing project was implemented in the Southern part of Semarang
called Candi Baru. Thomas Karsten, the advisor for city planning, transformed the concept of ethnic segregation that divided previous urban settlements into a new housing district plan based on economic classes. Although practically the three ethnic groups were also divided into three economic classes where the Dutch and rich Chinese occupied the largest lots in the housing district,[6] Karsten had effectively emerged the developed district by integrating the road network, introducing newly improved public washing and bathing, squares and sporting facilities that could be used communally.[12] Following the Candi Baru, there were three other housing plans between 1916–1919 to accommodate a 55% population increase in Semarang; 45,000 Javanese, 8500 Chinese and 7000 Europeans. Karsten marked a new approach to town planning with emphasis on the aesthetic, practical and social requirements, articulated not in terms of race but economic zones.[12] Driven by economic growth and spatial city planning, the city had doubled in size and expanded to the south by the 1920s, creating a nucleus of a metropolis where multi-ethnic groups lived and traded in the city. The villages in the suburbs such as Jomblang and Jatingaleh steadily became the satellite towns of Semarang, more populated with a bigger market area. Before the invasion of Japan
in 1942, Semarang
had already become the capital of Central Java
Central Java
Province, as the result of trade and industrial success and spatial planning.[6]

NIS company head office (Gedung Lawang Sewu), Semarang, Dutch East Indies.

A Chinese house in Semarang
at the turn of the 20th century.

Aerial picture of Old Semarang
area in 1920s.

Old 0-6-0
locomotive next to the Lawang Sewu
Lawang Sewu

Japanese occupation and early independence[edit] The Japanese military occupied the city, along with the rest of Java, in 1942, during the Pacific War
Pacific War
of World War II. During that time, Semarang
was headed by a military governor called a Shiko, and two vice governors known as Fuku Shiko. One of the vice governors was appointed from Japan, and the other was chosen from the local population.[citation needed] After Indonesian independence
Indonesian independence
in 1945, Semarang
became the capital of Central Java
Central Java
province.[citation needed] Geography[edit] Semarang
is located on the northern coast of Java. Climate[edit] Semarang
features a tropical rainforest climate that borders on a tropical monsoon climate (Am). The city features distinctly wetter and drier months, with June through August being the driest months. However, in none of these months does average precipitation fall below 60 mm, hence the tropical rainforest categorization. Semarang
on average sees approximately 2800 mm of rain annually. Average temperatures in the city are relatively consistent, hovering around 28 degrees Celsius.

Climate data for Semarang

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 29 (85) 29 (85) 30 (86) 31 (88) 32 (89) 32 (89) 32 (89) 32 (89) 32 (90) 32 (90) 31 (88) 30 (86) 31 (88)

Average low °C (°F) 25 (77) 25 (77) 25 (77) 26 (78) 26 (78) 25 (77) 24 (76) 24 (76) 25 (77) 26 (78) 26 (78) 25 (77) 25 (77)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 430 (16.93) 360 (14.17) 320 (12.6) 230 (9.06) 160 (6.3) 80 (3.15) 80 (3.15) 60 (2.36) 100 (3.94) 160 (6.3) 220 (8.66) 330 (12.99) 2,780 (109.45)

Source: Weatherbase [13]

Ethnicity[edit] The dominant Semarang
ethnic is Javanese, followed by minorities of Chinese, India, Arab, and others (including local ethnics such as Sundanese, Batak, Madura, etc.). Semarang
Chinese[edit] About 4-5 % of the city's population is ethnic Chinese, many residing in a Chinatown
in the vicinity of Gang Pinggir. The Chinatown is called “Kampong Pecinan Semawis” and expresses many aspects of traditional Chinese culture including foods, rituals, and houses of worship. Flood control[edit] In August 2011, a 421 metres (1,381 ft) tunnel dodger at Kreo river has been finished and Jatibarang Dam construction can begin, with completion targeted for July 2013. The dam is planned to ease 230 cubic metres (8,100 cu ft) per second of flood water and will generate 1.5 Megawatts of electricity, provide a drinking water resource and a boost to tourism.[14] Transport[edit] Air[edit] Semarang's Achmad Yani airport is served by a number of operators including Air Asia, Garuda Indonesia, Sriwijaya Air
Sriwijaya Air
and Lion Air.[15] Road[edit] The primary means of public transportation is by minibus, called "bis." Semarang's largest bus terminals are Mangkang and Terboyo.[16] A bus rapid transit serves Semarang, called Trans Semarang.[17] Semarang
has a toll road, the Semarang
Toll Road.[18] The Semarang–Solo Toll Road
Semarang–Solo Toll Road
is under construction.[19] Semarang
is on Indonesian National Route 1
Indonesian National Route 1
that connects it to Merak and Ketapang (Banyuwangi). Indonesian National Route 14
Indonesian National Route 14
toward Bawen starts here. Rail[edit]

Old Town.

was connected to Surakarta
(Solo) by a rail line in 1870.[20] There are two large train stations in Semarang: Semarang
Poncol and Semarang
Tawang. Sea[edit] See also: Port of Tanjung Emas The main seaport is the Tanjung Mas seaport.

The Great Mosque
of Central Java, the largest mosque in the city.

Sights and landmarks[edit] Further information: Dutch architecture in Semarang Tugu Muda[edit] Tugu Muda
Tugu Muda
(English “Young Monument”) is a monument built to commemorate the services of the heroes who have fallen in the Battle of Five Days in Semarang. The height of Tugu Muda
Tugu Muda
is 53 meters. Tugu Muda is located in front of Lawang Sewu
Lawang Sewu
at Pemuda street. It depicts the Tugu Muda
Tugu Muda
fighting spirit and patriotism of Semarang
residents, especially the youth who are persistent, self-sacrificing in high spirits maintaining the independence of Indonesia. The laying of the first stone took place on October 28, 1945, by Mr. Wongsonegoro (Governor of Central Java) at the originally planned location is near the square. [21] Temples[edit]

Blenduk Church, the oldest church in Central Java.

Sam Poo Kong, the oldest Chinese temple in the city

The Sam Poo Kong
Sam Poo Kong
temple is the oldest Chinese temple in the city.[22] Education[edit] There are 593 elementary schools, 220 junior high schools, 106 senior high schools, and 88 vocational high schools, both public and private in Semarang.[23] Universities[edit] There are 20 universities in Semarang, 12 of them private and 8 public. The most renowned universities of Semarang
are Diponegoro University and Soegijapranata University. Dipenegoro University (UNDIP) is one of national or state-owned universities in Semarang, founded in 1956. The university has 11 faculties: Faculty of Economics and Business, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Faculty of Law, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Fishery and Marine Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Faculty of Public Health, Faculty of Animal Agriculture, and Faculty of Psychology. The university also offers a postgraduate program. Soegijapranata Catholic University (UNIKA) is one of the private universities in Semarang, founded in 1982. There are 8 faculties in UNIKA: Faculty of Architecture and Design, Faculty of Law and Communication, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Language and Arts, Faculty of Economics and Business, Faculty of Agricultural and Technology, Faculty of Psychology, and Faculty of Computer Science. Sport centres[edit] There are several sport centres in Semarang. Jatidiri sport centre or Jatidiri Stadium is one of the biggest sport centres in Semarang, located in Karangrejo, Gajah Mungkur. The centre comprises a soccer field, in line skate track, tennis filed, climbing wall, swimming pool, and many others. The capacity of the centre is about 21.000 people.[24] Knight Stadium is a futsal and basketball centre in Semarang, located in Grand Marina complex. There is a café and fitness centre in Knight Stadium.[25] Semarang
River[edit] Like Singapore River, Semarang
is constructing Semarang
River at Banjir Kanal Barat (Garang River) near Karangayu Bridge. In the middle of July 2011, gardens in river banks and some traditional boats are available to use. The project will be finished in 2013 with river gardens, trotoars, garden lighting, water activities, art sites, sport sites and balconies and stairs for sightseeing.[26] Culture[edit] Food[edit]


is widely known for its Bandeng presto (pressure-cooked milkfish), Lumpia, Wingko, Tahu Gimbal, and Ganjel Rel. Semarang
has also been called 'The city of Jamu' because it is an important centre for the production of jamu which are a wide range of Indonesian herbal medicines that are very popular across Indonesia.[27] Festivals[edit] Dugderan (id) is an annual festival in Semarang
desecrated to welcome the Ramadan month (a fasting month for Moslems). The word “dug” describes the sound of bedug (traditional Indonesian musical instrument). The word “der” describes the sound of fireworks. The icon of the festival is a special puppet dragon-like animal called Warak Ngendog. The word “warak“ stands for “holy” and the word “ngendog“ expresses a reward for Moslems. Warak Ngendog’s feet are chained, representing people’s desire that should be postponed during this holy month. As Dugderan is a festival unique for Semarang, it represents an important attraction for both local and non-residential people.[28] Adipura Award[edit] Semarang
has got Adipura Award for 6 times in a row since 2012. Adipura Award is given for achievement in cleanliness and greenery at parks, streets, markets, shop buildings, premises, schools, even cleanliness of water ways and rivers.[29] Greater Semarang[edit] Greater Semarang
was initially defined by the government as Semarang, Semarang
Regency, the newly carved Salatiga
city, Kendal Regency, and Demak Regency.[30] Despite the definition, this includes a lot of rural areas and the urban cores remain distinct; they have not amalgamated into a characterless metro area as in Greater Jakarta.

Administrative division Area (km²) Population '000s (2000 Census) Population '000s (2010 Census) Population '000s (2015 Census) Population density (/km²)

Municipality 373.67 1,339 1,556 1,699 4,547

Regency 946.86 843 931 1,000 1,056.1

Municipality 52.96 151 170 181 3,417.7

Kendal Regency 1,002.27 850 900 942 939

Demak Regency 897.43 974 1056 1117 1244.7

Grobogan Regency 1,975.865 1,268 1,309 1,351 683.7

Greater Semarang 5,287.96 5,425,000 5,922,000 6,290,000 1,189.7

Sources: BPS Jateng[31] Notable people born in Semarang[edit]

Agung Laksono, politician and former Chairman of the House of Representatives. Anindya Kusuma Putri, Puteri Indonesia
2015 and Top 15 of Miss Universe 2015. Anne Avantie, fashion designer. Conrad Emil Lambert Helfrich, Dutch admiral. Daniel Sahuleka, Dutch musician. Fuad Hassan, politician, former Minister of Education and Culture. Hubertus van Mook, Dutch politician. Liem Bwan Tjie, architect. Oei Tiong Ham, Chinese Indonesian
Chinese Indonesian
tycoon. P. F. Dahler, politician, member of Investigating Committee for Preparatory Work for Independence (BPUPK). Purnomo Yusgiantoro, politician and current Minister of Defence. Raden Saleh, painter. Rob Nieuwenhuys, literary historian and author. Sutiyoso, chief of Indonesian Intelligence Bureau (BIN). Tukul Arwana, comedian and television personality. Willem Einthoven, medical doctor, invented electrocardiography (ECG), Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
winner. Stella Cornelia, singer and actress, ex-member of JKT48

Sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Indonesia Semarang
is twinned with:

Brisbane, Australia[32] Da Nang, Vietnam[33][34] Palu, Indonesia


^ "Peringatan". sp2010.bps.go.id.  ^ "Jumlah Penduduk Kota Semarang" [Population of Semarang] (in Indonesian). Dinas Kependudukan dan Pencatatan Sipil Kota Semarang. October 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2016.  ^ "Indonesia: Java
(Regencies, Cities and Districts) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map". www.citypopulation.de.  ^ De Gruiter, Miel. "Javindo, a contact language in pre-war Semarang". (Peter Bakker & Maarten Mous. Mixed Languages: 15 Case Studies in Language Intertwining. Amsterdam: IFOTT. 1994.) pp. 151–159. ^ Purwanto, L. M. F. (2005). Kota Kolonial Lama Semarang. Dimensi Teknik Arsitektur, 33(1), 27-33 ^ a b c d Pratiwo. (2005). The City Planning of Semarang
1900–1970. In F. Colombijn, M. Barwegen, P. Basundoro & J. A. Khusyairi (Eds.), Old City, New City: The History of the Indonesian City Before and After Independence. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Ombak. ^ Purwanto, L. M. F. (2005). Kota Kolonial Lama Semarang. Dimensi Teknik Arsitektur, 33(1), 27-33. ^ a b Nas, P. J. M., & Pratiwo. (2002). Java
and De Groote Postweg, La Grande Route, the Great Mail Road, Jalan Raya Pos’. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-en Volkenkunde, 158(4), 707–725. ^ a b Colombijn, F. (2002). Introduction; On the road. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-en Volkenkunde, 158(4), 595-617. ^ a b Cobban, J. L. (1993). Public Housing in Colonial Indonesia 1900–1940. Modern Asian Studies, 27(04), 871-896. ^ Silver, C. (2008). Planning the megacity: Jakarta
in the twentieth century: Psychology Press. ^ a b Cote, J. (2004). Colonial designs: Thomas Karsten and the planning of urban Indonesia. Imprint, 2004, 01-01. ^ "Weatherbase: Weather for Semarang, Indonesia". Weatherbase. 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2011.  ^ Wijaya, Royce (13 August 2011). "Bendungan Utama Waduk Jatibarang Dikerjakan". Suara Merdeka. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013.  ^ "Flights". Semarang. Lonely Planet. Retrieved 3 December 2015.  ^ "Terminal Terboyo Rusak Parah, Terminal Mangkang Sepi". Jawa Pos (in Indonesian). 13 June 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2016.  ^ Purbaya, Angling Adhitya (8 December 2016). "Pengguna Angkutan Umum Meningkat, Kota Semarang
Diganjar Penghargaan". detikNews (in Indonesian). Retrieved 28 December 2016.  ^ "Semarang". Jasa Marga. Retrieved 28 December 2016.  ^ Munir, Syahrul (6 December 2016). Alexander, Hilda B, ed. "Tol Bawen- Salatiga
Dijadwalkan Beroperasi Maret 2017". Kompas. Retrieved 28 December 2016.  ^ Cohen, Matthew Isaac (2006). The Komedie Stamboel: Popular Theater in Colonial Indonesia, 1891-1903. Ohio University Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-89680-246-9.  ^ "13 must-visit places in Semarang". The Jakarta
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Globe. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013.  ^ "Tradisi Dugderan di Kota Semarang". Mata Sejarah. Retrieved 18 March 2017.  ^ Niken Widya Yunita (August 3, 2017). "Pemkot Semarang
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Semarang.


Official website (in Indonesian) Semarang
travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website (in Indonesian)

v t e

Regencies and cities of Central Java

Capital: Semarang


Banjarnegara Banyumas Batang Blora Boyolali Brebes Cilacap Demak Grobogan Jepara Karanganyar Kebumen Kendal Klaten Kudus Magelang Pati Pekalongan Pemalang Purbalingga Purworejo Rembang Semarang Sragen Sukoharjo Tegal Temanggung Wonogiri Wonosobo


Magelang Pekalongan Salatiga Semarang Surakarta Tegal

See also: List of regencies and cities of Indonesia

v t e

Indonesian cities with a 200,000+ population

2,000,000 and more

Jakarta Surabaya Bekasi Bandung Medan


Semarang Palembang Makassar Tangerang Batam Depok South Tangerang Pekanbaru Bogor Bandar Lampung Padang


Malang Denpasar Samarinda Tasikmalaya Banjarmasin Serang Balikpapan Pontianak Cimahi Jambi Surakarta Manado Mataram


Yogyakarta Cilegon Palu Kupang Ambon Bengkulu Sukabumi Cirebon Kendari Pekalongan Kediri Jayapura Dumai Binjai Tegal Pematang Siantar Purwokerto Banda Aceh Palangka Raya Probolinggo Lubuklinggau Singkawang

v t e

Dutch Empire

Colonies and trading posts of the Dutch East India Company (1602–1798)

Governorate General



Ambon Banda Islands Cape Colony Celebes Ceylon Coromandel Formosa Malacca Moluccas Northeast coast of Java


Bengal Persia Suratte


Bantam Malabar West coast of Sumatra


Bantam Banjarmasin Batavia Cheribon Palembang Preanger Pontianak

Opperhoofd settlements

Myanmar Canton Dejima Mauritius Siam Timor Tonkin

Colonies and trading posts of the Dutch West India Company (1621–1792)

Colonies in the Americas

Berbice 1 Brazil Cayenne Curaçao
and Dependencies Demerara Essequibo New Netherland Pomeroon Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
and Dependencies Surinam 2 Tobago Virgin Islands

Trading posts in Africa

Arguin Gold Coast Loango-Angola Senegambia Slave Coast

1 Governed by the Society of Berbice 2 Governed by the Society of Suriname

Settlements of the Noordsche Compagnie
Noordsche Compagnie


Jan Mayen Smeerenburg

Colonies of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Until 1825

Bengal Coromandel Malacca Suratte

Until 1853


Until 1872

Gold Coast

Until 1945

Dutch East Indies

Until 1954

and Dependencies 3 Surinam 3

Until 1962

New Guinea

3 Became constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; Suriname
gained full independence in 1975, Curaçao
and Dependencies was renamed to the Netherlands
Antilles, which was eventually dissolved in 2010.

Kingdom of the Netherlands

Constituent countries

Aruba Curaçao Netherlands Sint Maarten

Public bodies of the Netherlands

Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 134863