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SEMARANG (formerly Dutch : SAMARANG, Indonesian : KOTA SEMARANG), is a city on the north coast of the island of Java , Indonesia
Indonesia
. It is the capital and largest city of the province of Central Java
Central Java
.

It has an area of 373.78 square kilometres (144.32 sq mi) and a population of approximately 1.8 million people, making it Indonesia's fifth most populous city and the fifth largest Indonesian city after Jakarta
Jakarta
, Surabaya
Surabaya
, Bandung
Bandung
, and Medan
Medan
. The built-up (metro) area had 3,183,516 inhabitants at the 2010 census spread on 2 cities and 26 districts. Greater Semarang
Semarang
(a.k.a. Kedungsapur) has a population of close to 6 million (see Greater Semarang
Semarang
section), and is located at 6°58′S 110°25′E / 6.967°S 110.417°E / -6.967; 110.417 . A major port during the Dutch colonial era, and still an important regional center and port today, the city has a dominant Javanese population.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Classical Indische Town (1678–1870) * 1.2 The modern city (1870–1922) * 1.3 Japanese occupation and early independence

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Climate

* 3 Ethnicity

* 3.1 Semarang
Semarang
Chinese

* 4 Flood control

* 5 Transport

* 5.1 Air * 5.2 Road * 5.3 Rail * 5.4 Sea

* 6 Sights and landmarks

* 6.1 Tugu Muda * 6.2 Temples

* 7 Education

* 7.1 Universities

* 8 Sport centres * 9 Semarang
Semarang
River

* 10 Culture

* 10.1 Food * 10.2 Festivals

* 11 Adipura Award * 12 Greater Semarang
Semarang
* 13 Notable people born in Semarang
Semarang
* 14 Sister cities * 15 References * 16 External links

HISTORY

A Chinese house in Semarang
Semarang
at the turn of the 20th century Historical affiliations Demak Sultanate 1547-1554

Kingdom of Pajang 1568-1587 Mataram Sultanate
Mataram Sultanate
1587-1705 Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
1705-1799 Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
1800-1942 Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
1942-1945 Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
1945-1949 United States of Indonesia
Indonesia
1949-1950 Indonesia
Indonesia
1950-present

In 1678, Sunan Amangkurat II promised to give control of Semarang
Semarang
to the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
(VOC) as a part of a debt payment. In 1682, the Semarang
Semarang
state was founded by the Dutch colonial power. On 5 October 1705 after years of occupations, Semarang
Semarang
officially became a VOC city when Susuhunan Pakubuwono I made a deal to give extensive trade rights to the VOC in exchange of wiping out Mataram 's debt. The VOC, and later, the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
government, established tobacco plantations in the region and built roads and railroads, making Semarang
Semarang
an important colonial trading centre. NIS company head office (Gedung Lawang Sewu ), Semarang, Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
.

The historic presence of a large Indo (Eurasian) community in the area of Semarang
Semarang
is also reflected by the fact a creole mix language called Javindo existed there.

CLASSICAL INDISCHE TOWN (1678–1870)

The early VOC settlement of Semarang
Semarang
with its prominent pentagonal fortress.

Semarang
Semarang
was handed by the Sultan of Mataram to the Dutch East Indies in 1678. The city was pictured as a small settlement with a pious Muslim area called Kauman, a Chinese quarter, and a Dutch fortress. The fortress has a pentagonal form with only one gate in the south and five monitoring towers to protect the Dutch settlement from rebellion actions, segregating the spaces between Dutch settlement and other areas. In fact, the city of Semarang
Semarang
was only referred to the Dutch quarter while the other ethnic settlement were considered as villages outside the city boundary. The city, known as de Europeesche Buurt, was built in classical European style with church located in the centre, wide boulevards and streets skirted by beautiful villas. According to Purwanto (2005), the urban and architectural form of this settlement is very similar to the design principles applied in many Dutch cities, which begun to concern on the urban beautification.

Due to the long and costly Java War, there were not much of funding from the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
government, effecting the development of Semarang. The majority of land was used for rice fields and the only small improvement was the development of surrounding fortress. Although less developed, Semarang
Semarang
has a fairly arranged city system, in which urban activities were concentrated along the river and the settlement was linked to a market where different ethnic groups met to trade. The existence of the market, in the later years, become a primary element and a generator of urban economic growths.

An important influence on urban growth was the Great Mail Road project in the 1847, which connected all the cities in northern coast of Central and East Java
East Java
and made Semarang
Semarang
as the trade centre of agricultural production. The project was soon followed by the development of the Netherlands
Netherlands
Indies railway and the connecting roads into the inner city of Semarang
Semarang
at the end of 19th century. Colombijn (2002) marked the development as the shift of urban functions, from the former river orientation to all services facing the roads.

THE MODERN CITY (1870–1922)

Aerial picture of Old Semarang
Semarang
area in 1920s. Old locomotive next to the Lawang Sewu building

Improved communication, as the result of the Mail and Railway projects, had brought an economic booming for the city in the 1870s. There were hospital, churches, hotels, and large houses built along the new main roads; Bojongscheweg, Pontjolscheweg, and Mataram street, causing denser population in the ethnic settlements and creating the urban kampong.

Urban growth had made acutely dense the urban kampong, reaching the number of 1000 inhabitants per hectare and degrading the quality of living condition. In this early 20th century, mortality rate was very high due to the overcrowding and lack of hygiene that triggered the invasion of cholera and tuberculosis. Cobban (1993) noted the ethical movement of kampongverbetering led by Henry Tillema in 1913 and the concern of the Advisor for Decentralisation for kampong improvement through the betterment of public toilets, drainage, and the planning of public housing.

In 1917, a healthy housing project was implemented in the Southern part of Semarang
Semarang
called Candi Baru. Thomas Karsten, the advisor for city planning, transformed the concept of ethnic segregation that divided previous urban settlements into a new housing district plan based on economic classes. Although practically the three ethnic groups were also divided into three economic classes where the Dutch and rich Chinese occupied the largest lots in the housing district, Karsten had effectively emerged the developed district by integrating the road network, introducing newly improved public wash and bathing, squares and sporting facilities that can be utilised communally. Following the Candi Baru, there were three other housing plans between 1916–1919 to accommodate 55% population increase in Semarang; 45,000 Javanese, 8500 Chinese and 7000 Europeans. Karsten marked a new approach to town planning which emphasis on the aesthetic, practical and social requirements, articulated not in terms of racial terms but economic zones.

Driven by economic growth and spatial city planning, the city had doubled in size and expanded to the south by the 1920s, creating a nucleus of a metropolis where multi-ethnic groups lived and traded in the city. The villages in the suburbs such as Jomblang and Jatingaleh steadily became the satellite towns of Semarang, more populated with a bigger market area. Before the invasion of Japan
Japan
in 1942, Semarang
Semarang
had already become the capital of Central Java
Central Java
Province, as the result of trade and industrial success and spatial planning.

JAPANESE OCCUPATION AND EARLY INDEPENDENCE

The Japanese military occupied the city, along with the rest of Java, in 1942, during the Pacific War
Pacific War
of World War II
World War II
. During that time, Semarang
Semarang
was headed by a military governor called a Shiko , and two vice governors known as Fuku Shiko . One of the vice governors was appointed from Japan
Japan
, and the other was chosen from the local population.

After Indonesian independence in 1945, Semarang
Semarang
became the capital of Central Java
Central Java
province.

GEOGRAPHY

Semarang
Semarang
is located on the northern coast of Java.

CLIMATE

Semarang
Semarang
features a tropical rainforest climate that borders on a tropical monsoon climate . The city features distinctly wetter and drier months, with June through August being the driest months. However, in none of these months does average precipitation fall below 60 mm, hence the tropical rainforest categorization. Semarang
Semarang
on average sees approximately 2800 mm of rain annually. Average temperatures in the city are relatively consistent, hovering around 28 degrees Celsius.

CLIMATE DATA FOR SEMARANG

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 29 (85) 29 (85) 30 (86) 31 (88) 32 (89) 32 (89) 32 (89) 32 (89) 32 (90) 32 (90) 31 (88) 30 (86) 31 (88)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 25 (77) 25 (77) 25 (77) 26 (78) 26 (78) 25 (77) 24 (76) 24 (76) 25 (77) 26 (78) 26 (78) 25 (77) 25 (77)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 430 (16.93) 360 (14.17) 320 (12.6) 230 (9.06) 160 (6.3) 80 (3.15) 80 (3.15) 60 (2.36) 100 (3.94) 160 (6.3) 220 (8.66) 330 (12.99) 2,780 (109.45)

Source: Weatherbase

ETHNICITY

The dominant Semarang
Semarang
ethnic is Javanese , followed by minorities of Chinese, India, Arab, and others (including local ethnics such as Sundanese , Batak
Batak
, Madura , etc.).

SEMARANG CHINESE

There are only about 4-5 % of Chinese ethnic and around 139.878 in central java .Chinese Ethnicity in Semarang
Semarang
is centered on China town that are located in Gang Pinggir. China town warungs open every Friday, Saturday, and Sunday evening. Other similar warungs closed from Monday – Thursday. The Chinatown is called “Kampong Pecinan Semawis” and it offers a great variety of meals, Chinese accessories, and Chinese worship equipment.

FLOOD CONTROL

In August 2011, a 421 metres (1,381 ft) tunnel dodger at Kreo river has been finished and Jatibarang Dam construction can begin, with completion targeted for July 2013. The dam is planned to ease 230 cubic metres (8,100 cu ft) per second of flood water and will generate 1.5 Megawatts of electricity, provide a drinking water resource and a boost to tourism. Indonesian teak furniture in the city center

TRANSPORT

AIR

Semarang's Achmad Yani airport is served by a number of operators including Air Asia , Garuda
Garuda
and Lion Air .

ROAD

The primary means of public transportation is by minibus, called "bis." Semarang's largest bus terminals are Mangkang and Terboyo.

A bus rapid transit serves Semarang, called Trans Semarang
Semarang
.

Semarang
Semarang
has a toll road, the Semarang Toll Road . The Semarang–Solo Toll Road
Semarang–Solo Toll Road
is under construction.

Semarang
Semarang
is on Indonesian National Route 1 that connects it to Merak and Ketapang ( Banyuwangi
Banyuwangi
). Indonesian National Route 14 toward Bawen starts here.

RAIL

Semarang
Semarang
Old Town.

Semarang
Semarang
was connected to Surakarta
Surakarta
(Solo) by a rail line in 1870.

There are two large train stations in Semarang: Semarang
Semarang
Poncol and Semarang
Semarang
Tawang .

SEA

See also: Port of Tanjung Emas

The main seaport is the Tanjung Mas seaport. The Great Mosque
Mosque
of Central Java
Central Java
, the largest mosque in the city.

SIGHTS AND LANDMARKS

Further information: Dutch architecture in Semarang

TUGU MUDA

Tugu Muda (English “Young Monument”) is a monument built to commemorate the services of the heroes who have fallen in the Battle of Five Days in Semarang. The height of Tugu Muda is 53 meters. Tugu Muda is located in front of Lawang Sewu at Pemuda street. It depicts the Tugu Muda fighting spirit and patriotism of Semarang
Semarang
residents, especially the youth who are persistent, self-sacrificing in high spirits maintaining the independence of Indonesia. The laying of the first stone took place on October 28, 1945, by Mr. Wongsonegoro (Governor of Central Java
Central Java
) at the originally planned location is near the square.

TEMPLES

Blenduk Church , the oldest church in Central Java. Sam Poo Kong , the oldest Chinese temple in the city

The Sam Poo Kong temple is the oldest Chinese temple in the city.

EDUCATION

There are 593 elementary schools, 220 junior high schools, 106 senior high schools, and 88 vocational high schools, both public and private in Semarang.

UNIVERSITIES

There are 20 universities in Semarang, 12 of them private and 8 public. The most renowned universities of Semarang
Semarang
are Diponegoro University and Soegijapranata University.

Dipenegoro University (UNDIP) is one of national or state-owned universities in Semarang, founded in 1956. The university has 11 faculties: Faculty of Economics and Business, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Faculty of Law, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Fishery and Marine Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Faculty of Public Health, Faculty of Animal Agriculture, and Faculty of Psychology. The university also offers a postgraduate program.

Soegijapranata Catholic
Catholic
University (UNIKA) is on of private universities in Semarang, founded in 1982. There are 8 faculties in UNIKA: Faculty of Architecture and Design, Faculty of Law and Communication, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Language and Arts, Faculty of Economics and Business, Faculty of Agricultural and Technology, Faculty of Psychology, and Faculty of Computer Science.

SPORT CENTRES

There are several sport centres in Semarang. Jatidiri sport centre or Jatidiri Stadium is one of the biggest sport centres in Semarang, located in Karangrejo, Gajah Mungkur. The centre comprises a soccer field, in line skate track, tennis filed, climbing wall, swimming pool, and many others. The capacity of the centre is about 21.000 people.

Knight Stadium is a futsal and basketball centre in Semarang, located in Grand Marina complex. There is a café and fitness centre in Knight Stadium.

SEMARANG RIVER

As Singapore River, Semarang
Semarang
is constructing Semarang
Semarang
River at Banjir Kanal Barat (Garang River) near Karangayu Bridge. In medio July 2011, gardens in river banks and some traditional boats have available to use. The project will be finished in 2013 with river gardens, trotoars, gardens lighting, water activities, art sites, sport sites and balcony-and-stairs for sightseeing.

CULTURE

FOOD

Lumpia Semarang.

Semarang
Semarang
is widely known for its Bandeng presto (pressure-cooked milkfish), Lumpia , Wingko , Tahu Gimbal , and Ganjel Rel . Semarang has also been called 'The city of Jamu' because it is an important centre for the production of jamu which are a wide range of Indonesian herbal medicines that are very popular across Indonesia.

FESTIVALS

Dugderan (id) is an annual festival in Semarang
Semarang
desecrated to welcome the Ramadan month (a fasting month for Moslems). The word “dug” describes the sound of bedug (traditional Indonesian musical instrument). The word “der” describes the sound of fireworks.

The icon of the festival is a special puppet dragon-like animal called Warak Ngendog. The word “warak“ stands for “holy” and the word “ngendog“ expresses a reward for Moslems. Warak Ngendog’s feet are chained, representing people’s desire that should be postponed during this holy month. As Dugderan is a festival unique for Semarang, it represents an important attraction for both local and non-residential people.

ADIPURA AWARD

Semarang
Semarang
has got Adipura Award for 6 times in a row since 2012. Adipura Award is given for achievement in cleanliness and greenery at parks, streets, markets, shop buildings, premises, schools, even cleanliness of water ways and rivers.

GREATER SEMARANG

Greater Semarang
Semarang
was initially defined by the government as Semarang, Semarang Regency , the newly carved Salatiga
Salatiga
city, Kendal Regency , and Demak Regency . Despite the definition, this includes a lot of rural areas and the urban cores remain distinct; they have not amalgamated into a characterless metro area as in Greater Jakarta.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION AREA (KM²) POPULATION \'000S (2000 CENSUS) POPULATION \'000S (2010 CENSUS) POPULATION \'000S (2015 CENSUS) POPULATION DENSITY (/KM²)

Semarang
Semarang
Municipality 373.67 1,339 1,556 1,699 4,547

Semarang
Semarang
Regency 946.86 843 931 1,000 1,056.1

Salatiga
Salatiga
Municipality 52.96 151 170 181 3,417.7

Kendal Regency 1,002.27 850 900 942 939

Demak Regency 897.43 974 1056 1117 1244.7

Grobogan Regency 1,975.865 1,268 1,309 1,351 683.7

GREATER SEMARANG 5,287.96 5,425,000 5,922,000 6,290,000 1,189.7

Sources: BPS Jateng

NOTABLE PEOPLE BORN IN SEMARANG

* Agung Laksono , politician and former Chairman of the House of Representatives. * Anindya Kusuma Putri , Puteri Indonesia
Indonesia
2015 and Top 15 of Miss Universe 2015 . * Anne Avantie , fashion designer. * Conrad Emil Lambert Helfrich , Dutch admiral. * Daniel Sahuleka , Dutch musician. * Fuad Hassan , politician, former Minister of Education and Culture. * Hubertus van Mook , Dutch politician. * Liem Bwan Tjie , architect. * Oei Tiong Ham , Chinese Indonesian tycoon. * P. F. Dahler , politician, member of Committee for Preparatory Work for Indonesian Independence (BPUPKI). * Purnomo Yusgiantoro , politician and current Minister of Defence. * Raden Saleh
Raden Saleh
, painter. * Rob Nieuwenhuys , literary historian and author. * Sutiyoso
Sutiyoso
, chief of Indonesian Intelligence Bureau (BIN). * Tukul Arwana , comedian and television personality. * Willem Einthoven
Willem Einthoven
, medical doctor, invented electrocardiography (ECG), Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
winner.

SISTER CITIES

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Indonesia
Indonesia

Semarang
Semarang
is twinned with:

* Brisbane
Brisbane
, Australia
Australia
* Da Nang
Da Nang
, Vietnam
Vietnam
* Palu
Palu
, Indonesia

REFERENCES

* ^ Data Sensus Penduduk 2010 - Badan Pusat Statistik Republik Indonesia
Indonesia
* ^ "Jumlah Penduduk Kota Semarang" (in Indonesian). Dinas Kependudukan dan Pencatatan Sipil Kota Semarang. October 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2016. * ^ http://www.citypopulation.de/php/indonesia-jawa-admin.php * ^ De Gruiter, Miel. "Javindo, a contact language in pre-war Semarang". (Peter Bakker & Maarten Mous. Mixed Languages: 15 Case Studies in Language Intertwining. Amsterdam: IFOTT. 1994.) pp. 151–159. * ^ Purwanto, L. M. F. (2005). Kota Kolonial Lama Semarang. Dimensi Teknik Arsitektur, 33(1), 27-33 * ^ A B C D Pratiwo. (2005). The City Planning of Semarang 1900–1970. In F. Colombijn, M. Barwegen, P. Basundoro & J. A. Khusyairi (Eds.), Old City, New City: The History of the Indonesian City Before and After Independence. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Ombak. * ^ Purwanto, L. M. F. (2005). Kota Kolonial Lama Semarang. Dimensi Teknik Arsitektur, 33(1), 27-33. * ^ A B Nas, P. J. M., On the road. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-en Volkenkunde, 158(4), 595-617. * ^ A B Cobban, J. L. (1993). Public Housing in Colonial Indonesia 1900–1940. Modern Asian Studies, 27(04), 871-896. * ^ Silver, C. (2008). Planning the megacity: Jakarta
Jakarta
in the twentieth century: Psychology Press. * ^ A B Cote, J. (2004). Colonial designs: Thomas Karsten and the planning of urban Indonesia. Imprint, 2004, 01-01. * ^ "Weatherbase: Weather for Semarang, Indonesia". Weatherbase. 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2011. * ^ Wijaya, Royce (13 August 2011). "Bendungan Utama Waduk Jatibarang Dikerjakan". Suara Merdeka . Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. * ^ "Flights". Semarang. Lonely Planet. Retrieved 3 December 2015. * ^ "Terminal Terboyo Rusak Parah, Terminal Mangkang Sepi". Jawa Pos (in Indonesian). 13 June 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2016. * ^ Purbaya, Angling Adhitya (8 December 2016). "Pengguna Angkutan Umum Meningkat, Kota Semarang
Semarang
Diganjar Penghargaan". detikNews (in Indonesian). Retrieved 28 December 2016. * ^ "Semarang". Jasa Marga . Retrieved 28 December 2016. * ^ Munir, Syahrul (6 December 2016). Alexander, Hilda B, ed. "Tol Bawen- Salatiga
Salatiga
Dijadwalkan Beroperasi Maret 2017". Kompas
Kompas
. Retrieved 28 December 2016. * ^ Cohen, Matthew Isaac (2006). The Komedie Stamboel: Popular Theater in Colonial Indonesia, 1891-1903. Ohio University Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-89680-246-9 . * ^ Suherdjoko (8 February 2016). "It\'s Chinese New Year for all in Semarang". The Jakarta
Jakarta
Post . Retrieved 8 February 2016. * ^ "Data Referensi Pendidikan" (in Indonesian). Ministry of Education. Retrieved 18 March 2017. * ^ "GOR Jatidiri". Seputar Semarang. Retrieved 18 March 2017. * ^ "Knight Stadium Futsal". Seputar Semarang. Retrieved 18 March 2017. * ^ Isti, Bambang (16 July 2011). "Eloknya Singapore River di Banjirkanal Barat". Suara Merdeka (in Indonesian). Retrieved 28 December 2016. * ^ Kamah, Wahyuni (26 March 2012). "Semarang: Indonesia\'s City of Jamu". The Jakarta
Jakarta
Globe . Archived from the original on 21 June 2013.

* ^ "Tradisi Dugderan di Kota Semarang". Mata Sejarah. Retrieved 18 March 2017. * ^ Niken Widya Yunita (August 3, 2017). "Pemkot Semarang
Semarang
Raih Adipura 6 Kali Berturut-turut". * ^ Soetomo, Sugiono (2004). "Urban Development as the interface of Regional Development from Below in central Java - Indonesia: the Case of Semarang
Semarang
Metropolitan" (PDF). 40th ISoCaRP Congress. International Society of City and Regional Planners . Retrieved 28 December 2016. * ^ https://jateng.bps.go.id/website/pdf_publikasi/Profil-Penduduk--Jawa-Tengah-Hasil-Supas-2015.pdf * ^ " Semarang
Semarang
- Indonesia". Brisbane
Brisbane
City Council. Archived from the original on 15 March 2011. * ^ Mardiani, Dewi (6 September 2012). "Kerja Sama Sister City Semarang- Da Nang
Da Nang
Akan Ditingkatkan". Republika . Retrieved 28 December 2016. * ^ "Marzuki: Hubungan Indonesia- Vietnam
Vietnam
Harus Ditingkatkan" (in Indonesian). Antara . 5 September 2012. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014 – via Yahoo News .

* Graaf, H. J. de (Hermanus Johannes), 1899-(?), "Chinese Muslims in Java in the 15th and 16th centuries : the Malay Annals of Semarang
Semarang
and Cerbon / translated and provided with comments by H.J. de Graaf and Th.G.Th. Pigeaud; edited by M.C. Ricklefs. Publisher: : Monash University, 1984. Description: xiii, 221 p. : folded map ; 21 cm. ISBN 0-86746-419-4 : Series: Monash papers on Southeast Asia ; no. 12

EXTERNAL LINKS

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