Semantic publishing on the Web, or semantic web publishing, refers to publishing information on the web as documents accompanied by semantic markup. Semantic publication provides a way for computers to understand the structure and even the meaning of the published information, making information search and data integration more efficient.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]

Although semantic publishing is not specific to the Web, it has been driven by the rising of the semantic web. In the semantic web, published information is accompanied by metadata describing the information, providing a "semantic" context.[8][9][10]

Although semantic publishing has the potential to change the face of web publishing, acceptance depends on the emergence of compelling applications. Web sites can already be built with all contents in both HTML format and semantic format.[11] RSS1.0, uses RDF (a semantic web standard) format, although it has become less popular than RSS2.0 and Atom.[12]

Semantic publishing has the potential to revolutionize scientific publishing. Tim Berners-Lee predicted in 2001 that the semantic web "will likely profoundly change the very nature of how scientific knowledge is produced and shared, in ways that we can now barely imagine".[13] Revisiting the semantic web in 2006, he and his colleagues believed the semantic web "could bring about a revolution in how, for example, scientific content is managed throughout its life cycle".[14] Researchers could directly self-publish their experiment data in "semantic" format on the web. Semantic search engines could then make these data widely available. The W3C interest group in healthcare and life sciences is exploring this idea.[15]

Two approaches

  • Publish information as data objects using semantic web languages like RDF and OWL. Ontology is usually developed for a specific information domain, which can formally represent the data in its domain. Semantic publishing of more general information like product information, news, and job openings uses so-called shallow ontology.[12] The SWEO Linking Open Data Project[16] maintains a list of data sources[17] that follow this approach as well as a list of Semantic Publishing Tools.[18]
  • Express structured data in markup languages with RDFa, embed or publish information using JSON-LD, Turtle, TriG syntaxes.


Examples of ontologies and vocabularies for publishing               Examples "semantic content" containers for publishing

Examples of free or open source tools and services

See also


  1. ^ Attwood, T. K.; Kell, D. B.; McDermott, P.; Marsh, J.; Pettifer, S. R.; Thorne, D. (2009). "Calling International Rescue: Knowledge lost in literature and data landslide!". Biochemical Journal. 424 (3): 317–333. doi:10.1042/BJ20091474. PMC 2805925Freely accessible. PMID 19929850. 
  2. ^ Batchelor, C.R., and Corbett, P.T. (2007) Semantic enrichment of journal articles using chemical named entity recognition. Proceedings of the ACL 2007 Demo and Poster Sessions, pages 45–48, Prague, June 2007.
  3. ^ Pettifer, S.; McDermott, P.; Marsh, J.; Thorne, D.; Villeger, A.; Attwood, T. K. (2011). "Ceci n'est pas un hamburger: Modelling and representing the scholarly article". Learned Publishing. 24 (3): 207. doi:10.1087/20110309. 
  4. ^ Shotton, D. (2009). "Semantic publishing: The coming revolution in scientific journal publishing". Learned Publishing. 22 (2): 85–94. doi:10.1087/2009202. 
  5. ^ Shotton, D.; Portwin, K.; Klyne, G.; Miles, A. (2009). Bourne, Philip E, ed. "Adventures in Semantic Publishing: Exemplar Semantic Enhancements of a Research Article". PLoS Computational Biology. 5 (4): e1000361. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000361. PMC 2663789Freely accessible. PMID 19381256. 
  6. ^ Shadbolt, Nigel; Berners-Lee, Tim; Hall, Wendy (2006). "The Semantic Web Revisited" (PDF). IEEE Intelligent Systems. 21 (3): 96–101. doi:10.1109/MIS.2006.62. 
  7. ^ Berners-Lee, T.; Hendler, J. (2001). "Publishing on the semantic web". Nature. 410 (6832): 1023–1024. doi:10.1038/35074206. PMID 11323639. 
  8. ^ Shadbolt, Nigel; Berners-Lee, Tim; Hall, Wendy (May–June 2006). "The Semantic Web Revisited" (PDF). IEEE Intelligent Systems. 21 (3). pp. 96–101. 
  9. ^ Stefan Gradmann: From Catalogs to Graphs: Changing Terms for a Changing Profession
  10. ^ Hull, D.; Pettifer, S.; Kell, D. (Oct 2008). McEntyre, Johanna, ed. "Defrosting the digital library: bibliographic tools for the next generation web". PLOS Computational Biology. 4 (10): e1000204. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000204. ISSN 1553-734X. PMC 2568856Freely accessible. PMID 18974831.  open access publication – free to read
  11. ^ Examples are mindswap, UMBC ebiquity, and web2express.org open lab
  12. ^ a b Web2express.org applies RDF to various data feeds. Anyone can use their service free online service (ufeed) to create and provide RDF data resources and datafeeds for products, news, events, jobs and studies.
  13. ^ Berners-Lee & Hendler 2001
  14. ^ Shadbolt, Berners-Lee & Hall 2006
  15. ^ self-publishing of experiment A demo is available.
  16. ^ W3C SWEO Linking Open Data Project
  17. ^ list of data sources
  18. ^ Semantic Publishing Tools
  19. ^ Attwood, T. K.; Kell, D. B.; McDermott, P.; Marsh, J.; Pettifer, S. R.; Thorne, D. (2010). "Utopia documents: Linking scholarly literature with research data". Bioinformatics. 26 (18): i568–i574. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btq383. PMC 2935404Freely accessible. PMID 20823323. 

Further reading