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Sellafield
Sellafield
is a nuclear fuel reprocessing and nuclear decommissioning site, close to the village of Seascale
Seascale
on the coast of the Irish Sea in Cumbria, England. The site is served by Sellafield
Sellafield
railway station. Sellafield
Sellafield
incorporates the original nuclear reactor site at Windscale, which is currently undergoing decommissioning and dismantling, and Calder Hall, a neighbour of Windscale, which is also undergoing decommissioning and dismantling of its four nuclear power generating reactors. It is the site of the world's first commercial nuclear power station to generate electricity on an industrial scale.

Contents

1 Ownership and facilities 2 History 3 Finances 4 Major plants

4.1 Windscale Piles 4.2 First Generation Reprocessing Plant 4.3 Magnox
Magnox
Reprocessing Plant 4.4 First Generation Magnox
Magnox
Storage Pond (FGMSP) 4.5 Calder Hall nuclear power station

4.5.1 Cooling towers

4.6 Windscale Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (WAGR) 4.7 Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant

4.7.1 2005 Thorp plant leak

4.8 Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage 4.9 Waste Vitrification Plant 4.10 Sellafield
Sellafield
MOX Plant 4.11 Enhanced Actinide
Actinide
Removal Plant 4.12 Radioactive waste
Radioactive waste
stores 4.13 Fellside Power Station

5 Sellafield
Sellafield
and the local community 6 Central Laboratory – National Nuclear Laboratory headquarters 7 Sellafield
Sellafield
Centre – Business and Information Centre 8 Radiological releases

8.1 First Generation Magnox
Magnox
Storage Pond 8.2 Organ removal inquiry 8.3 Health studies on Cumbria
Cumbria
and Seascale 8.4 Irish objections 8.5 Manx objections 8.6 Norwegian objections

9 Other controversies

9.1 MOX fuel
MOX fuel
quality data falsification 9.2 Plutonium
Plutonium
records discrepancy

10 Decommissioning 11 Sellafield
Sellafield
in popular culture

11.1 Music 11.2 Other

12 See also 13 References 14 Sources 15 Further reading 16 External links

16.1 Official information 16.2 1957 fire 16.3 2005 leak 16.4 Other

Ownership and facilities[edit]

View west of the facility, with the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
in the background

Sellafield
Sellafield
was originally owned and operated by the Ministry of Supply (MoS), then from 1954 by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and then, following the division of UKAEA
UKAEA
in 1971, by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd (BNFL). Since 1 April 2005, it has been owned by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority
Nuclear Decommissioning Authority
(NDA) and is now operated by Sellafield
Sellafield
Ltd. In 2008, the NDA awarded Nuclear Management Partners (NMP) the position of Parent Body Organisation of Sellafield
Sellafield
Ltd. under their standard management model for NDA sites. This consortium, composed of US company URS, British company AMEC, and AREVA
AREVA
of France, was initially awarded a contract for five years, with extension options to 17 years.[1] On 13 January 2015, the NDA announced that NMP would lose the management contract for Sellafield
Sellafield
Ltd. as the "complexity and technical uncertainties presented significantly greater challenges than other NDA sites", and the site was therefore "less well suited" to the NDA's existing standard management model.[2] The new structure, which came into effect on 1 April 2016, saw Sellafield
Sellafield
Ltd. become a subsidiary of the NDA. Activities at the Sellafield
Sellafield
site primarily support decommissioning of historic plants, and reprocessing fuel from UK and international nuclear reactors. Decommissioning projects include the Windscale Piles,[3] Calder Hall, historic reprocessing facilities, waste stores, as well as other clean-up projects on the site. Reprocessing plants include the THORP nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, the Magnox
Magnox
nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, and the Waste Vitrification Plant. The site contains several nuclear waste stores, with the Low Level Waste Repository 6 km away at Drigg. The UK's National Nuclear Laboratory also has its Central Laboratory on the Sellafield
Sellafield
site. History[edit]

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Sellafield
Sellafield
was a small rural community situated on the west (Irish Sea) coast of North-West England in the current county of Cumbria
Cumbria
(and formerly in the pre-1974 county of Cumberland) in the parish of St Bridget Beckermet between the rivers Calder and Ehen. It consisted of High Sellafield
Sellafield
(to the north, and which still exists) and Low Sellafield, which became incorporated in the Sellafield
Sellafield
Royal Ordnance Factory during its construction in the Second World War. The coming of the railway to west Cumberland
Cumberland
in the mid-19th century, and the opening of Sellafield
Sellafield
station and Sellafield
Sellafield
junction (for the branch line to Beckermet and Egremont), provided important transport links for a remote part of England. ROF Sellafield
Sellafield
was constructed by John Laing & Son in 1942[4] at Low Sellafield
Sellafield
as a Second World War Royal Ordnance Factory.[5] The nearby sister factory, ROF Drigg
Drigg
which produced TNT (trinitrotoluene) had been constructed in 1940, 5 km to the south-east and adjacent to the village of Drigg.[6] ROF Drigg
Drigg
and ROF Sellafield
Sellafield
were built in these isolated and remote coastal sites because of the hazardous nature of the process and to minimise the risk of enemy air attack. They were both classed as Explosive ROF
Explosive ROF
specialising in high-explosive TNT (ROF Drigg) and propellant (ROF Sellafield), and production ceased at both factories immediately following the defeat of Japan. After the war, the Sellafield
Sellafield
site was briefly in the ownership of Courtaulds
Courtaulds
for development as a factory, but was reacquired by the Ministry of Supply to adapt the site for the production of materials for nuclear weapons, principally plutonium, and construction of the nuclear facilities commenced in September 1947. The site was renamed Windscale Works (after Windscale Nook, a bluff on the north bank of the River Calder) to avoid confusion with the Springfields
Springfields
uranium processing factory near Preston. The building of the nuclear plants at Windscale Works was a huge construction project, requiring a peak of 5000 workers. The two air-cooled and open-circuit, graphite-moderated Windscale reactors (the "Windscale Piles") constituted the first British weapons grade plutonium-239 production facility, built for the British nuclear weapons programme of the late 1940s and the 1950s. Windscale Pile
Windscale Pile
No. 1 was operational in October 1950 (just over three years from the start of construction at Sellafield), and Pile No. 2 in June 1951. Pile 1 was the site in 1957 of the Windscale fire, the worst nuclear accident in UK history, ranked in severity at level 5 out of a possible 7 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Windscale was later also the site of the prototype British advanced gas-cooled reactor.

The site in 1956

With the creation of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) in 1954, ownership of Windscale Works passed to the UKAEA. The first of four Magnox
Magnox
reactors became operational in 1956 at Calder Hall, adjacent to Windscale and across the River Calder, and the site became Windscale and Calder Works. Following the break-up of the UKAEA into a research division (UKAEA) and a production division, British Nuclear Fuels Ltd (BNFL) in 1971, the major part of the site was transferred to BNFL. In 1981 BNFL's Windscale and Calder Works was renamed Sellafield
Sellafield
as part of a major reorganisation of the site – up to that time there was a General Manager of Windscale Works and a General Manager of Calder Works, but afterwards there was one Head of the entire BNFL
BNFL
Sellafield
Sellafield
site – as well as to possibly attempt to disassociate the site from press reports about its safety. The remainder of the site remained in the hands of the UKAEA
UKAEA
and was still called Windscale.[7] Since its inception as a nuclear facility, Sellafield
Sellafield
has also been host to reprocessing operations, which separate the uranium, plutonium, and fission products from spent nuclear fuel.[8] The uranium can then be used in the manufacture of new nuclear fuel, or in applications where its density is an asset. The plutonium can be used in the manufacture of mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for thermal reactors, or as fuel for fast breeder reactors, such as the Prototype Fast Reactor at Dounreay. These processes, including the associated cooling ponds, require considerable amounts of water and the licence to extract water from Wast Water, formerly held by BNFL, is now held by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority. On 19 April 2005, leaked radioactive waste was discovered from ThORP (Thermal Oxide reprocessing plant) through a crack into a sump chamber which may have started as early as August 2004, and was categorised as a level 3 event on the International Nuclear Event Scale, resulting in fines. In February 2009, NuGeneration
NuGeneration
(NuGen), a consortium of GDF Suez, Iberdrola
Iberdrola
and Scottish and Southern Energy
Scottish and Southern Energy
(SSE), announced plans to build a new nuclear power station of up to 3.6GW capacity at Sellafield. In October 2009, NuGen purchased an option to acquire land around Sellafield
Sellafield
from the NDA for £70m.[9] On 2 June 2010, Sellafield's gates were closed as a precaution in the wake of a deadly shooting spree and subsequent police manhunt, and the afternoon shift was told not to come to work. This was the first lock-down in the history of the plant.[10] On 18 October 2010, the UK government
UK government
announced that Sellafield
Sellafield
was one of the eight possible sites it considered suitable for future nuclear power stations.[11] On 23 June 2011 the government confirmed the suitability of the site, and hoped an electricity generating company would choose to build a power station near Sellafield
Sellafield
at Moorside by 2025.[12] Finances[edit] See also: PRISM (reactor)

NDA increasing estimates of remaining cost of decommissioning and clean-up[13][14]

Year of estimate Sellafield Other NDA sites Total

(£ billions, discounted)

2009–10 25.2 19.9 45.1

2010–11 32.7 16.5 49.2

2011–12 37.2 15.6 52.9

2012–13 42.0 16.9 58.9

2013–14 47.9 17.0 64.9

2015-16 117.4 43.3 160.7

In 2003, it was announced that the Thorp reprocessing plant would be closed in 2010 (later extended to 2018 to allow completion of agreed contracts). Originally predicted to make profits for BNFL
BNFL
of £500m, by 2003 it had made losses of over £1bn.[15] Subsequently, Thorp was closed for almost two years from 2005, after a leak had been undetected for 9 months. Production eventually restarted at the plant in early 2008; but almost immediately had to be put on hold again, for an underwater lift that takes the fuel for reprocessing to be repaired.[16] In November 2008, Sellafield
Sellafield
was taken over by a new consortium (US company URS Corp., French firm Areva
Areva
and the UK company Amec) for decommissioning, as part of a 5-year £6.5bn contract. In October 2008 it was revealed that the British government had agreed to issue Sellafield
Sellafield
an unlimited indemnity against future accidents; according to The Guardian, "the indemnity even covers accidents and leaks that are the consortium's fault." The indemnity had been rushed through prior to the summer parliamentary recess without notifying parliament.[17] In 2009, Sellafield
Sellafield
decommissioning accounted for 40% of the annual budget of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority
Nuclear Decommissioning Authority
– over £1.1bn.[18] In 2013, a critical Public Accounts Committee report stated that the private consortium managing Sellafield
Sellafield
has failed to reduce costs and delays. Between 2005 and 2013 the annual costs of operating Sellafield increased from £900 million to about £1.6 billion. The estimated lifetime undiscounted cost of dealing with the Sellafield
Sellafield
site increased to £67.5 billion.[19][20][21] Bosses were forced to apologise after projected clean-up costs passed the £70 billion mark in late 2013.[22] In 2014, the undiscounted decommissioning cost estimate for Sellafield
Sellafield
was increased to £79.1 billion,[23] and by 2015 to £117.4 billion.[14] The annual operating cost will be £2 billion in 2016.[24] Major plants[edit] Windscale Piles[edit]

The Windscale Piles
Windscale Piles
(centre and right)

See also: Windscale fire Following the decision taken by the British government in January 1947 to develop nuclear weapons, Sellafield
Sellafield
was chosen as the location of the plutonium production plant, consisting of the Windscale Piles
Windscale Piles
and accompanying reprocessing plant to separate plutonium from the spent nuclear fuel. Unlike the early US nuclear reactors at Hanford, which consisted of a graphite core cooled by water, the Windscale Piles consisted of a graphite core cooled by air. Each pile contained almost 2,000 tonnes (1,968 L/T) of graphite, and measured over 7.3 metres (24 ft) high by 15.2 metres (50 ft) in diameter. Fuel for the reactor consisted of rods of uranium metal, approximately 30 centimetres (12 in) long by 2.5 centimetres (1 in) in diameter, and clad in aluminium.[25] The initial fuel was loaded into the Windscale Piles
Windscale Piles
in July 1950.[26][27] By July 1952 the separation plant was being used to separate plutonium and uranium from spent fuel. On 10 October 1957, the Windscale Piles
Windscale Piles
were shut down following a fire in Pile 1 during a routine maintenance check, which destroyed the core and released an estimated 750 terabecquerels (20,000 curies) of radioactive material, including 22 TBq of Cs-137 and 740 TBq of I-131 into the shafts.[28] Thanks to innovative filters installed by Nobel laureate Sir John Cockcroft
John Cockcroft
95% of the material was captured.[29] As a precautionary measure, milk from surrounding farming areas was destroyed. Following the fire, Pile 1 was unserviceable, and Pile 2, although undamaged by the fire, was shut down as a precaution.[25] In the 1990s, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority
started to implement plans to decommission, disassemble and clean up both piles. In 2004 Pile 1 still contained about 15 tonnes (14.76 L/T) of uranium fuel, and final completion of the decommissioning is not expected until at least 2037.[25] In 2014, radioactive sludge in the Pile Fuel Storage Pond (PFSP), built between 1948 and 1952, started to be repackaged in drums to reduce the "sludge hazard" and to allow the pond to be decommissioned.[30][31] Decommissioning will require retrieval of sludge and solids, prior to dewatering and deconstruction, with retrievals planned for completion in 2016.[32] First Generation Reprocessing Plant[edit] The first generation reprocessing plant was built to extract the plutonium from spent fuel to provide fissile material for the UK's atomic weapons programme, and for exchange with the United States through the US-UK Mutual Defence Agreement. It operated from 1951 until 1964, with an annual capacity of 300 tonnes (295 L/T) of fuel, or 750 tonnes (738 L/T) of low burn-up fuel. It was first used to reprocess fuel from the Windscale Piles, and was later repurposed to process fuel from UK Magnox
Magnox
reactors, however following the commissioning of the dedicated Magnox
Magnox
Reprocessing Plant, it was itself recycled to become a pre-handling plant to allow oxide fuel to be reprocessed in the Magnox
Magnox
plant, and was closed in 1973.[33] Magnox
Magnox
Reprocessing Plant[edit] Main article: B205 In 1964 the Magnox
Magnox
reprocessing plant came on stream to reprocess spent nuclear fuel from the Magnox
Magnox
reactors.[34] The plant uses the "plutonium uranium extraction" Purex
Purex
method for reprocessing spent fuel, with tributyl phosphate as an extraction agent. The Purex process produces uranium, plutonium and fission products as output streams. Over the 30 years from 1971 to 2001 the Magnox
Magnox
Reprocessing Plant has reprocessed over 35,000 tonnes of Magnox
Magnox
fuel, with 15,000 tonnes of fuel being regenerated.[35] Magnox
Magnox
fuel is reprocessed since it corrodes if stored underwater, and routes for dry storage have not yet been proven.[36] First Generation Magnox
Magnox
Storage Pond (FGMSP)[edit] The First Generation Magnox
Magnox
Storage Pond (FGMSP) was built to support reprocessing of fuel from UK Magnox
Magnox
power stations through the First Generation Reprocessing Plant, and was used for operations between 1960 until 1986. The pond is 20m wide, 150m long and 6m deep. A confinement wall is scheduled to be built in the future to help it withstand earthquakes. As of 2014, the First Generation Magnox
Magnox
Storage Pond (FGMSP) remains as a priority decommissioning project. As well as nuclear waste, the pond holds about 1,200 cubic metres of radioactive sludge of unknown characteristics and 14,000 cubic metres of contaminated water.[37] Decommissioning initially requires retrieval of the radioactive sludge into a newly built Sludge Packaging Plant 1, as well as fuel and skip retrieval. Completion of this will allow the dewatering and dismantling of the remaining structure. Future work will immobilise the sludge for long-term storage, and process solids through the Fuel Handling Plant for treatment and storage.[38] Calder Hall nuclear power station[edit]

Calder Hall, United Kingdom - The world's first commercial nuclear power station.[39] First connected to the national power grid on 27 August 1956 and officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 17 October 1956

Calder Hall Reactor No.4

Calder Hall, first connected to the grid on 27 August 1956 and officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 17 October 1956,[40][41] was the world's first power station to generate electricity on an industrial scale (four 60 MWe reactors) from nuclear energy;[42] a 5 MWe experimental reactor at Obninsk in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
had been connected to the public supply in 1954,[43][44] and was the world's first nuclear power plant.[45] The Calder Hall design was codenamed PIPPA (Pressurised Pile Producing Power and Plutonium) by the UKAEA
UKAEA
to denote the plant's dual commercial and military role. Construction started in 1953.[46] Calder Hall had four Magnox
Magnox
reactors capable of generating 60 MWe (net) of power each, reduced to 50 MWe in 1973.[47][48] The reactors were supplied by UKAEA, the turbines by C. A. Parsons and Company,[48] and the civil engineering contractor was Taylor Woodrow Construction.[49] When the station closed on 31 March 2003, the first reactor had been in use for nearly 47 years.[50] In its early life Calder Hall primarily produced weapons-grade plutonium, with two fuel loads per year; electricity production was a secondary purpose.[51] From 1964 it was mainly used on commercial fuel cycles; in April 1995 the UK Government announced that all production of plutonium for weapons purposes had ceased. Cooling towers[edit] Calder Hall had four cooling towers, built in 1950–56 to cool the water from the station. The towers were 88 metres in height and used the natural draught hyperboloid design. The towers stood for 50 years, creating a landmark visible from the village of Seascale. Conflict arose over renovating Calder Hall and preserving the towers, but costs effectively defeated all attempts to do so.[citation needed]

Demolition

The four cooling towers were demolished by controlled implosions on Saturday 29 September 2007, by Controlled Demolition, Inc.
Controlled Demolition, Inc.
A period of 12 weeks was required to remove asbestos in the towers' rubble.[52] Windscale Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (WAGR)[edit] Main article: Advanced gas-cooled reactor The Windscale Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (WAGR)[53] was a prototype for the UK's second generation of reactors, the advanced gas-cooled reactor or AGR, which followed on from the Magnox
Magnox
stations. The WAGR golfball is, along with the pile chimneys, one of the iconic buildings on the Windscale site (Windscale being an independent site within the Sellafield
Sellafield
complex). Construction was carried out by Mitchell Construction and completed in 1962.[54] This reactor was shut down in 1981, and is now part of a pilot project to demonstrate techniques for safely decommissioning a nuclear reactor. Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant[edit] Main article: Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant Between 1977 and 1978 an inquiry was held into an application by BNFL for outline planning permission to build a new plant to reprocess irradiated oxide nuclear fuel from both UK and foreign reactors. The inquiry was used to answer three questions:

"1. Should oxide fuel from United Kingdom reactors be reprocessed in this country at all; whether at Windscale or elsewhere? 2. If yes, should such reprocessing be carried on at Windscale? 3. If yes, should the reprocessing plant be about double the estimated site required to handle United Kingdom oxide fuels and be used as to the spare capacity, for reprocessing foreign fuels?"[55]

The result of the inquiry was that the new plant, the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (Thorp) was given the go ahead in 1978, although it did not go into operation until 1994. 2005 Thorp plant leak[edit] On 19 April 2005 83,000 litres of radioactive waste was discovered to have leaked in the Thorp reprocessing plant from a cracked pipe into a huge stainless steel-lined concrete sump chamber built to contain leaks. A discrepancy between the amount of material entering and exiting the Thorp processing system had first been noted in August 2004. Operations staff did not discover the leak until safeguards staff reported the discrepancies. 19 tonnes of uranium and 160 kilograms of plutonium dissolved in nitric acid has been pumped from the sump vessel into a holding tank.[56] No radiation was released to the environment, and no one was injured by the incident, but because of the large escape of radioactivity to the secondary containment the incident was given an International Nuclear Event Scale level 3 categorisation. Sellafield
Sellafield
Limited was fined £500,000 for breaching health and safety law. In January 2007 Sellafield
Sellafield
was given consent to restart Thorp.[56] Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage[edit] Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) is a department at Sellafield. It conditions nuclear waste streams from the Magnox
Magnox
and Thorp reprocessing plants, prior to transfer to the Waste Vitrification Plant. Waste Vitrification Plant[edit]

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In 1991 the Waste Vitrification Plant (WVP), which seals high-level radioactive waste in glass, was opened. In this plant, liquid wastes are mixed with glass and melted in a furnace, which when cooled forms a solid block of glass. The plant has three process lines and is based on the French AVM procedure. Principal item is an inductively heated melting furnace, in which the calcined waste is merged with glass frit (glass beads of 1 to 2 mm in diameter). The melt is placed into waste containers, which are welded shut, their outsides decontaminated and then brought into air-cooled storage facilities. This storage consists of 800 vertical storage tubes, each capable of storing ten containers. The total storage capacity is 8000 containers, and 5000 containers have been stored to 2010.[citation needed] Vitrification should[vague] ensure safe storage of waste in the UK for the middle to long term. Sellafield
Sellafield
MOX Plant[edit] Construction of the Sellafield
Sellafield
MOX Plant (SMP) was completed in 1997, though justification for the operation of the plant was not achieved until October 2001.[57] Mixed oxide, or MOX fuel, is a blend of plutonium and natural uranium or depleted uranium which behaves similarly (though not identically) to the enriched uranium feed for which most nuclear reactors were designed.[citation needed] MOX fuel is an alternative to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel used in the light water reactors which predominate in nuclear power generation.[citation needed] MOX also provides a means of using excess weapons-grade plutonium (from military sources) to produce electricity.[citation needed] Designed with a plant capacity of 120 tonnes/year, it achieved a total output of only 5 tonnes during its first five years of operation.[57] In 2008 orders for the plant had to be fulfilled at COGEMA in France,[58] and the plant was reported in the media as "failed"[59][60] with a total construction and operating cost of £1.2 billion.[61] On 12 May 2010 an agreement was reached with existing Japanese customers on future MOX supplies.[62] In July 2010 Areva
Areva
was contracted to design and supply a new rod line to improve reliability and production rate. On 3 August 2011 the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority
Nuclear Decommissioning Authority
announced that the MOX Plant would close, due to the loss of Japanese orders following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.[63] Japanese orders for MOX recommenced on 17 April 2013, being supplied by the Sellafield MOX plant's main competitor, the French MOX fuel
MOX fuel
vendor COGEMA owned by Areva.[64] Enhanced Actinide
Actinide
Removal Plant[edit]

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Since its early days, Sellafield
Sellafield
has discharged low-level radioactive waste into the sea,[citation needed] using a flocculation process to remove radioactivity from liquid effluent before discharge. Metals dissolved in acidic effluents produced a metal hydroxide flocculant precipitate following the addition of ammonium hydroxide. The suspension was then transferred to settling tanks where the precipitate would settle out, and the remaining clarified liquid, or supernate, would be discharged to the Irish Sea.[citation needed] In 1994 the Enhanced Actinide
Actinide
Removal Plant (EARP) was opened.[citation needed] In EARP the effectiveness of the process is enhanced by the addition of reagents to remove the remaining soluble radioactive species. EARP was enhanced in 2004 to further reduce the quantities of technetium-99 released to the environment.[65] Radioactive waste
Radioactive waste
stores[edit] Sellafield
Sellafield
has several radioactive waste stores, mostly on an interim basis while a national waste repository plan is developed and implemented. The stores include: [66]

Legacy Ponds and Silos – Storage of historic waste Sludge packaging plant – Treatment and interim storage of sludges from legacy ponds Sellafield
Sellafield
product and residue store – Site store for plutonium and plutonium residues – The plutonium stockpile now estimated (November 2013) at 100 tonnes.[67] Engineered drum stores – Site stores for plutonium contaminated material Encapsulated product stores – Site stores for grouted wastes Vitrified product store – Vitrified high level waste

The UK's main Low Level Waste Repository
Low Level Waste Repository
for nuclear waste is 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) south east of Sellafield
Sellafield
at Drigg. A paper published in 1989 said that 70% of the waste received at Drigg originated from Sellafield.[68] Fellside Power Station[edit] Fellside Power Station is a 168 MWe CHP gas-fired power station near the Sellafield
Sellafield
site, which it supplies with steam and heat. It is run as Fellside Heat and Power Ltd, is wholly owned by Sellafield Ltd
Sellafield Ltd
and is operated & managed by PX Ltd. It was built in 1993, being originally equally owned by BNFL
BNFL
and Scottish Hydro Electric (which became Scottish and Southern Energy
Scottish and Southern Energy
in December 1998). The station uses three General Electric
General Electric
Frame 6001B gas turbines, with power entering the National Grid via a 132kV transformer. The turbines in Fellside Power Station are natural gas fired and are also able to run on distillate (diesel) fuel. BNFL
BNFL
bought SSE's 50% share in January 2002.[69] Sellafield
Sellafield
and the local community[edit] Sellafield
Sellafield
directly employs around 10,000 people[70] and is one of the two largest non-governmental employers in West Cumbria
Cumbria
(along with BAE Systems at Barrow-in-Furness),[71] with approximately 90% of the employees coming from West Cumbria.[72] Because of the increase in local unemployment following any run down of Sellafield
Sellafield
operations, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority
Nuclear Decommissioning Authority
(and HMG) is concerned that this needs to be managed.[73] Central Laboratory – National Nuclear Laboratory headquarters[edit] The Central Laboratory at Sellafield
Sellafield
is the headquarters of the National Nuclear Laboratory and is the flagship nuclear Research and Development facility in the UK. It supports newly built reactors, operation of reactors, operations of fuel processing plants and decommissioning and clean-up. The NNL's Central Laboratory is available to run a wide range of radioactive and non-radioactive experimental programmes. In addition, it offers a wide range of analytical services, building on its location on the Sellafield
Sellafield
site and considerable expertise of its resident technologists. Customers range from Government and the NDA to site licence companies, utilities, nuclear specialists and universities. The facility has been designed with flexibility and collaboration firmly at its heart. Smaller experiments can be easily set, taking advantage of the modular nature of the laboratories. Larger experiments and rigs can be assembled off site, installed and pre-tested in non-radioactive areas prior to active testing. Sellafield
Sellafield
Centre – Business and Information Centre[edit]

Sellafield
Sellafield
Visitors' Centre

At its peak, the Sellafield
Sellafield
Visitors' Centre attracted an average of 1,000 people per day. In recent years, its popularity deteriorated, prompting the change from tourist attraction to conference facility. It is now the Business and Information Centre and is open Mon – Fri only. The centre is used for business events such as supplier forums and 'Meet the Buyer' events. The Visitors Centre is completely closed, and there are no areas for the public to visit. Radiological releases[edit] Between 1950 and 2000 there were 21 serious incidents or accidents involving off-site radiological releases that warranted a rating on the International Nuclear Event Scale, one at level 5, five at level 4 and fifteen at level 3. Additionally during the 1950s and 1960s there were protracted periods of known, deliberate discharges to the atmosphere of plutonium and irradiated uranium oxide particulates.[74] These frequent incidents, together with the large 2005 Thorp plant leak which was not detected for nine months, have led some to doubt the effectiveness of the managerial processes and safety culture on the site over the years. In the effort to build an independent British nuclear weapon in the 1940s and 1950s, the Sellafield
Sellafield
plant was constructed; diluted radioactive waste was discharged by pipeline into the Irish Sea.[75] Greenpeace
Greenpeace
claims that the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
remains one of the most heavily contaminated seas in the world because of these discharges.[76] Ocean scientist David Assinger has challenged this general suggestion, and cites the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
as the most radioactive sea in the world.[77] The Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention) reports an estimated 200 kilograms (441 lb) of plutonium has been deposited in the marine sediments of the Irish Sea.[78] Cattle and fish in the area have been contaminated with plutonium-239 and caesium-137 from these sediments and from other sources such as the radioactive rain that fell on the area after the Chernobyl
Chernobyl
disaster.[citation needed] Most of the area's long-lived radioactive technetium comes from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel at the Sellafield
Sellafield
facility.[79] Technetium-99 is a radioactive element which is produced by nuclear fuel reprocessing, and also as a by-product of medical facilities (for example Ireland is responsible for the discharge of approximately 11 grams or 6.78 gigabecquerels of technetium-99 each year despite not having a nuclear industry).[80] Because it is almost uniquely produced by nuclear fuel reprocessing, technetium-99 is an important element as part of the OSPAR Convention since it provides a good tracer for discharges into the sea.[citation needed] In itself, the technetium discharges do not represent a significant radiological hazard,[81] and recent studies have noted "...that in the most recently reported dose estimates for the most exposed Sellafield group of seafood consumers (FSA/SEPA 2000), the contributions from technetium-99 and actinide nuclides from Sellafield
Sellafield
(<100 µSv) was less than that from 210Po attributable to discharges from the Whitehaven
Whitehaven
phosphate fertilizer plant and probably less than the dose from naturally occurring background levels of 210Po."[82] Because of the need to comply with the OSPAR Convention, British Nuclear Group (the licensing company for Sellafield) has recently commissioned a new process in which technetium-99 is removed from the waste stream and vitrified in glass blocks.[83] Discharges into the sea of radioactive effluents – mainly caesium-137 – from Sellafield
Sellafield
amounted to 5200 TBq during the peak year, 1975.[84] There has been concern that the Sellafield
Sellafield
area will become a major dumping ground for unwanted nuclear material, since there are currently no long-term facilities for storing High-Level Waste (HLW), although the UK has current contracts to reprocess spent fuel from all over the world. Contracts agreed since 1976 between BNFL
BNFL
and overseas customers require that all HLW be returned to the country of origin. The UK retains low- and intermediate-level waste resulting from its reprocessing activity, and instead ships out a radiologically equivalent amount of its own HLW. This substitution policy is intended to be environmentally neutral and to speed return of overseas material by reducing the number of shipments required, since HLW is far less bulky.[85] 1983 was the year of the "Beach Discharge Incident" in which high radioactive discharges containing ruthenium and rhodium-106, both beta-emitting isotopes, resulted in the closure of beaches along a 10-mile (16 km) stretch of coast between St. Bees and Eskmeals, along with warnings against swimming in the sea.[86][87] BNFL
BNFL
received a fine of £10,000 for this discharge.[88] 1983 was also the year in which Yorkshire Television
Yorkshire Television
produced a documentary "Windscale: The Nuclear Laundry", which claimed that the low levels of radioactivity that are associated with waste streams from nuclear plants such as Sellafield
Sellafield
did pose a non-negligible risk.[89] First Generation Magnox
Magnox
Storage Pond[edit] Due to algae forming in the pool and a buildup of radioactive sludge, it is impossible to determine exactly how much radioactive waste is stored in the FGMSP. British authorities have not been able to provide the Euratom
Euratom
inspectors with precise data and the European Commission has thus sued Great Britain in the European Court of Justice.[90][91] According to Greenpeace
Greenpeace
there is an expected 1300 kg of plutonium, 400 kg of which is in mud sediments.[92] Radiation around the pool can get so high that a person is not allowed to stay more than 2 minutes, seriously affecting decommissioning.[93] The pool is not watertight; time and weather have created cracks in the concrete, letting contaminated water leak.[94] Organ removal inquiry[edit] In 2007 an inquiry was launched into the removal of tissue from a total of 65 dead nuclear workers, some of whom worked at Sellafield.[95] It has been alleged that the tissue was removed without seeking permission from the relatives of the late workers. Michael Redfern QC has been appointed to lead the investigation.[96] At the same time The Observer revealed that official documents showed that during the 1960s volunteer workers at Sellafield
Sellafield
had participated in secret Cold War
Cold War
experiments to assess the biological effect of exposure to radioactive substances, such as from ingesting caesium-134.[97] The inquiry final report was published in November 2010,[98] reporting that "...body parts had been removed between 1961 and 1992. The deaths of 76 workers – 64 from Sellafield
Sellafield
and 12 from other UK nuclear plants – were examined, although the scope of the inquiry was later significantly widened."[99] The person behind this scheme was Dr Geoffrey Schofield, who became BNFL's Company chief medical officer, and who died in 1985. Sellafield
Sellafield
staff did not breach any legal obligation, did not consider their actions untoward, and published the scientific information obtained in peer-reviewed scientific journals. It was the hospital pathologists, who were profoundly ignorant of the law, who breached the Human Tissue Act 1961 by giving Sellafield
Sellafield
human organs, without any consents, under an informal arrangement.[98] Health studies on Cumbria
Cumbria
and Seascale[edit] In 1983, the Medical Officer of West Cumbria, is said by Paul Foot
Paul Foot
to have announced that cancer fatality rates were lower around the nuclear plant than elsewhere in Great Britain.[100] In the early 1990s, concern was raised in the UK about apparent clusters of leukaemia near nuclear facilities.[citation needed] A 1997 Ministry of Health report stated that children living close to Sellafield
Sellafield
had twice as much[quantify] plutonium in their teeth as children living more than 100 miles (160 km) away. Health Minister Melanie Johnson
Melanie Johnson
said the quantities were minute and "presented no risk to public health". This claim, according to a book written by Stephanie Cooke, was challenged by Professor Eric Wright, an expert on blood disorders at the University of Dundee, who said that even microscopic amounts of the man-made[clarification needed] element might cause cancer.[101] Studies carried out by the Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) in 2003 reported no evidence of raised childhood cancer in general around nuclear power plants, but did report an excess of leukaemia (cancer of the blood or bone) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (blood cancer) near two other nuclear installations including Sellafield, the Atomic Weapons Establishment Burghfield
Burghfield
and UKAEA
UKAEA
Dounreay. COMARE's conclusion was that "the excesses around Sellafield
Sellafield
and Dounreay
Dounreay
are unlikely to be due to chance, although there is not at present a convincing explanation for them".[102] In earlier reports COMARE
COMARE
had suggested that "...no single factor could account for the excess of leukaemia and NHL but that a mechanism involving infection may be a significant factor affecting the risk of leukaemia and NHL in young people in Seascale."[103] In a study published in the British Journal of Cancer, which also did not find an increase in any other cancers other than Leukemia, the authors of which attempted to quantify the effect population mixing might have on the Seascale
Seascale
leukaemia cluster. In the analysis of childhood leukaemia/NHL in Cumbria, excluding Seascale, they noted that if both parents were born outside the Cumbrian area (incomers), there was a significantly higher rate of leukaemia/NHL in their children. 1181 children were born in the village of Seascale
Seascale
between 1950 and 1989, in children aged 1–14 during this period, the Seascale
Seascale
cluster of 6 observed cases of NHL were noted. Two similarly aged children, born between 1950 and 1989, outside Seascale
Seascale
were also diagnosed with ALL/NHL before the end of 1992. The origin of birth of 11 of the 16 parents of these eight children was known, and found to be; 3 had parents born outside Cumbria
Cumbria
and 3 had one parent born outside the UK. The studies authors strongly supported the hypothesis that the risk of ALL/NHL, in particular in the younger age group, increases with increased exposure to population mixing during gestation or early in life. Although they determined that the exact mechanism by which it causes these malignancies, apart from Kinlen's infection aetiology[104] that was mentioned, remained unknown, concluding that the possibility of additional risk factors in Seascale remains.[105] In an examination of all causes of stillbirth and infant mortality in Cumbria
Cumbria
taken as a whole, between 1950 and 1993, 4,325 stillbirths, 3,430 neonatal death and 1,569 lethal congenital anomalies, occurred among 287,993 births. Overall, results did not infer an increased risk of still birth or neonatal death in Cumbria, the rate of these negative outcomes were largely in line with the British baseline rate. However, there was a cautioned connection between a small excess of increased risk of death from lethal congenital anomalies and proximity to municipal waste incinerators and chemical waste crematoriums being noted. With two examples of the latter crematoriums operating in both Barrow-in-Furness
Barrow-in-Furness
and further afield at Carlisle, crematoriums which may have emitted various chemical dioxins during their operation.[106] Irish objections[edit]

An unopened box of potassium iodate tablets, distributed to every household in Ireland in the wake of 9/11
9/11
in case of a terror attack on reprocessing plants and nuclear power stations in Britain. Upon later expert Irish examination in 2007, this was found not to have been justified.[107][108] The Irish Department of Health advises that the tablets may now be disposed of with municipal waste.[108]

Sellafield
Sellafield
has been a matter of consternation in Ireland, with the Irish Government
Irish Government
and some of the population concerned at the risk that such a facility may pose to the country. The Irish government has made formal complaints about the facility, and in 2006 came to an agreement with the British Government
British Government
about the matter, as part of which the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland and An Garda Síochána (the Irish police force) are now allowed access to the site.[109] Manx objections[edit] The Government of the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
has also registered protests due to the risk posed by radioactive contamination, due to the proximity of the Isle of Man. The Manx government has called for the site to be shut down.[110] The Irish and Manx governments have collaborated on this issue, and brought it to the attention of the British-Irish Council.[111] Norwegian objections[edit] Similar objections to those held by the Irish government have been voiced by the Norwegian government
Norwegian government
since 1997. Monitoring undertaken by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority
Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority
has shown that the prevailing sea currents transport radioactive materials leaked into the sea at Sellafield
Sellafield
along the entire coast of Norway and water samples have shown up to ten-fold increases in such materials as technetium-99.[112] The Norwegian government
Norwegian government
is also seeking closure of the facility.[113] Other controversies[edit] MOX fuel
MOX fuel
quality data falsification[edit] The MOX Demonstration Facility was a small-scale plant to produce commercial quality MOX fuel
MOX fuel
for light water reactors. The plant was commissioned between 1992 and 1994, and until 1999 produced fuel for use in Switzerland, Germany and Japan. In 1999 it was discovered that the plant's staff had been falsifying quality assurance data since 1996.[114] A Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) investigation concluded four of the five work-shifts were involved in the falsification, though only one worker admitted to falsifying data, and that "the level of control and supervision ... had been virtually non-existent.". The NII stated that the safety performance of the fuel was not affected as there was also a primary automated check on the fuel. Nevertheless, "in a plant with the proper safety culture, the events described in this report could not have happened" and there were systematic failures in management.[115] BNFL
BNFL
had to pay compensation to the Japanese customer, Kansai Electric, and take back a flawed shipment of MOX fuel
MOX fuel
from Japan.[116] BNFL's Chief Executive John Taylor resigned,[117] after initially resisting resignation when the NII's damning report was published.[118][119] Plutonium
Plutonium
records discrepancy[edit] On 17 February 2005, the UK Atomic Energy Authority reported that 29.6 kilograms (65 lb) of plutonium was unaccounted for in auditing records at the Sellafield
Sellafield
nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The operating company, the British Nuclear Group, described this as a discrepancy in paper records and not as indicating any physical loss of material. They pointed out that the error amounted to about 0.5%, whereas International Atomic Energy Agency
International Atomic Energy Agency
regulations permit a discrepancy up to 1% as the amount of plutonium recovered from the reprocessing process never precisely matches the pre-process estimates. The inventories in question were accepted as satisfactory by Euratom, the relevant regulatory agency.[120][121] Decommissioning[edit] Main article: Sellafield
Sellafield
Ltd Sellafield's biggest decommissioning challenges relate to the leftovers of the early nuclear research and nuclear weapons programmes.[122] Sellafield
Sellafield
houses "the most hazardous industrial building in western Europe" (building B30) and the second-most (building B38), which hold a variety of leftovers from the first Magnox
Magnox
plants in ageing ponds.[122] Some of the problems with B38 date back to the 1972 miners' strike: the reactors were pushed so hard that waste processing could not keep up, and "cladding and fuel were simply thrown into B38's cooling ponds and left to disintegrate."[122] Some of the problems date back to the original nuclear weapons programme at Sellafield, when Piles 1 and 2 were constructed at breakneck speed, and safe disposal was not a priority. Building B41 still houses the aluminium cladding for the uranium fuel rods of Piles 1 and 2, and is modelled on a grain silo, with waste tipped in at the top and argon gas added to prevent fires.[122] Sellafield
Sellafield
in popular culture[edit] Music[edit] In 2010 Post-Punk group Spear of Destiny wrote the song "Windscale" on their album Omega Point which referenced the fire in 1957. In 1992, rock bands U2, Public Enemy, Big Audio Dynamite II, and Kraftwerk
Kraftwerk
held a "Stop Sellafield" concert for Greenpeace
Greenpeace
to protest against the nuclear factory. Stop Sellafield: The Concert was later released that year on VHS in the UK, and all proceeds went directly to Greenpeace. On their 2005 live album Kraftwerk
Kraftwerk
preface a live performance of Radioactivity with a vocoder voice announcing: Sellafield
Sellafield
2 will produce 7.5 tons of plutonium every year. 1.5 kilogram of plutonium make a nuclear bomb. Sellafield
Sellafield
2 will release the same amount of radioactivity into the environment as Chernobyl
Chernobyl
every 4.5 years. One of these radioactive substances, Krypton 85, will cause death and skin cancer.[123] Déanta, a traditional Irish band from Northern Ireland, refers Sellafield
Sellafield
and its nuclear dangers in their song "Cold Grey Fairyland". Runrig
Runrig
A Scottish folk-rock group, mention Sellafield
Sellafield
in their 1993 song 'Move a Mountain'. Other[edit] Fallout, a 2006 drama shown on the Irish national TV station RTÉ, the drama was based on the false premise[124] that parts of Ireland would need to be evacuated following a serious accident at Sellafield,[125] following the accident there are evacuation riots, societal collapse and widespread health impacts.[126] Sellafield
Sellafield
was the subject of Marilynne Robinson's 1989 book, Mother Country, a critique of British nuclear policy. Sellafield
Sellafield
is the central theme of Les Barker's comic poem 'Jason and the Arguments,' and is also mentioned in other Barker works. The Irish attitude to Sellafield
Sellafield
forms a key plot strand in Body Breaker, a crime thriller by Mike Craven Norman Nicholson's poem Windscale, which refers to the 1957 accident, is a commentary on the poison that Nicholson believed nuclear power had introduced to an area of natural beauty. See also[edit]

Cumbria
Cumbria
portal Energy portal Nuclear technology portal

Nuclear power Nuclear reprocessing Nuclear fuel cycle COGEMA La Hague site
COGEMA La Hague site
(a similar site in France) List of nuclear accidents List of nuclear reactors Nuclear power
Nuclear power
in the United Kingdom Energy policy of the United Kingdom Energy use and conservation in the United Kingdom Cumbrians Opposed to a Radioactive Environment Tom Tuohy Hanford Site Energiewende

References[edit]

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cluster. British Journal of Cancer (1999) 81(1), 144–151; p. 146, 149 ^ Adverse pregnancy outcomes around incinerators and crematoriums in Cumbria, north west England, 1956–93 J Epidemiol Community Health 2003;57:456–461 doi:10.1136/jech.57.6.456 ^ Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland Media Press releases Radioactivity released from Wylfa nuclear power plant is extremely low and of no health significance Archived 17 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b "Decision to Discontinue the Future Distribution of Iodine Tablets - Department of Health".  ^ "Irish Sellafield
Sellafield
appeal ruled illegal". The Guardian. 30 May 2006. Retrieved 27 October 2013.  ^ "Celtic League join call to close down Sellafield". Isle of Man Today. 23 November 2009.  ^ "MANNON/ISLE OF MAN: SELLAFIELD – OPPOSITION RESTATED BY MANX GOVERNMENT". agencebretagnepresse.com. 18 April 2009.  ^ Brown, Paul (20 December 1997). "Norway fury at UK nuclear waste flood". The Guardian. UK: Guardian Newspapers: 11.  ^ "Norway concerned over reopening of THORP facility at Sellafield". norway.org.uk. Retrieved 8 January 2009.  ^ Watts, Jonathan; Paul Brown (15 September 1999). "Japan launches inquiry into BNFL". Guardian Newspapers. p. 9.  ^ Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (18 February 2000). "An Investigation into the Falsification of Pellet Diameter Data in the MOX Demonstration Facility at the BNFL
BNFL
Sellafield
Sellafield
Site and the Effect of this on the Safety of MOX Fuel in Use". Archived from the original on 24 September 2006. Retrieved 18 November 2006.  ^ " BNFL
BNFL
ends Japan nuclear row". BBC. 11 July 2000. Retrieved 18 November 2006.  ^ "Safety overhaul at Sellafield". BBC. 17 April 2000. Retrieved 18 November 2006.  ^ " BNFL
BNFL
chief determined to stay despite damning safety report". Daily Telegraph. 19 February 2000. Archived from the original on 20 November 2002. Retrieved 18 November 2006.  ^ Nolan Fell (1 April 2000). " BNFL
BNFL
in crisis". Nuclear Engineering International. Retrieved 17 January 2014.  ^ "Missing plutonium 'just on paper'". BBC
BBC
News. 17 February 2005. Retrieved 22 August 2006.  ^ Taylor, Andrew (18 February 2005). "Auditors clear BNFL
BNFL
over missing plutonium". Financial Times. Retrieved 27 February 2017.  ^ a b c d The Observer, 19 April 2009, Sellafield: the most hazardous place in Europe ^ "Radioactivity video". Minimum-Maximum. Daily Motion. Retrieved 22 May 2013.  ^ "RTE's docudrama scenario could not happen according to RPII". Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.  The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) has said that the scenario as depicted in tonight's RTÉ drama, Fallout, could not happen. The RPII, who viewed the drama...has analysed the scenario as depicted and has concluded that it is not possible for such an accident to occur in Sellafield. ^ http://www.edie.net/news/1/Irish-battle-fallout-from-nuclear-TV-show/11367/ Dr Ann McGarry, chief executive of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, said: "The scenario envisaged in the programme is not realistic and grossly exaggerates the amount of radioactivity that could reach Ireland. The RPII cannot envisage any realistic scenario that would cause the radiation levels in Ireland to reach the concentrations as what was depicted in the drama" ^ "Irish battle fallout from nuclear TV show". 

Sources[edit]

Ritchie, Berry (1997). The Good Builder: The John Laing Story. James & James. 

Further reading[edit]

Sellafield, Erik Martiniussen, Bellona Foundation, December 2003, ISBN 82-92318-08-9 Technetium-99 Behaviour in the Terrestrial Environment – Field Observations and Radiotracer Experiments, Keiko Tagami, Journal of Nuclear and Radiochemical Sciences, Vol. 4, No.1, pp. A1-A8, 2003 The excess of childhood leukaemia near Sellafield: a commentary on the fourth COMARE
COMARE
report, L J Kinlen et al. 1997 J. Radiol. Prot. 17 63–71

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sellafield.

Official information[edit]

Nuclear Decommissioning Authority Sellafield
Sellafield
Ltd British Nuclear Fuels Ltd National Nuclear Laboratory

1957 fire[edit]

An article on the Windscale fire, by the Lake District Tourist Board Nuclear Tourist BBC
BBC
retrospective on the accident report

2005 leak[edit]

Board of Inquiry Report

Other[edit]

"Britain's Pioneer Atomic Power Plants." Popular Mechanics, June 1954, pp. 74–75, cutaway drawing of facilities. Sellafield
Sellafield
awaits nuclear power's rebirth, by Jorn Madslien, BBC
BBC
News The sale of Britain's nuclear giant, by Jorn Madslien, BBC
BBC
News "Blast from the past" Guardian article Annotated references on Sellafield
Sellafield
from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues Calder Hall, Nuclear Engineering International wall chart, October 1956 Sellafield
Sellafield
Stories at Cumbria
Cumbria
County Council oral history project

v t e

Nuclear power
Nuclear power
in the United Kingdom

Energy in the United Kingdom Nuclear power

Companies

Current

EDF Energy Magnox
Magnox
Ltd Rolls-Royce Sellafield
Sellafield
Ltd Sheffield Forgemasters Urenco

New build operators

Horizon Nuclear Power NNB Generation Company NuGeneration

Defunct

British Energy British Nuclear Fuels British Nuclear Group Magnox
Magnox
Electric Nuclear Electric Scottish Nuclear

Organisations

Civil Nuclear Constabulary National Nuclear Laboratory Nuclear Decommissioning Authority Nuclear Industry Association Nuclear Institute Nuclear Liabilities Fund Office for Nuclear Regulation United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority

Reactors

AGR

Dungeness B Hartlepool Heysham 1 Heysham 2 Hinkley Point B Hunterston B Torness

FBR (closed)

Dounreay

Magnox
Magnox
(closed)

Berkeley Bradwell Calder Hall Chapelcross Dungeness A Hinkley Point A Hunterston A Oldbury Sizewell A Trawsfynydd Wylfa

PWR

Active

Sizewell B

Planned

Hinkley Point C Moorside

Non-reactor sites

Capenhurst

uranium enrichment

Sellafield

Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant Windscale fire

Springfields
Springfields
(fuel manufacture) Winfrith
Winfrith
(research and development)

Anti-nuclear

Cumbrians Opposed to a Radioactive Environment Energy Fair Stop Hinkley

Other

Franco-British Nuclear Forum Nuclear or Not? Nuclear Power and the Environment Nuclear power
Nuclear power
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Category

v t e

Electricity generation
Electricity generation
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Power stations

Biomass

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Fiddlers Ferry (co-fires)

Coal

Active

Fiddlers Ferry

Closed

Agecroft Back o' th' Bank Barton Blackburn Bloom Street Bold Bolton Carlisle Carrington Chadderton Chamber Hall Dickinson Street Fleetwood Greenhill Hartshead Huncoat Ince A Kearsley Lancaster Lister Drive Merseyside Padiham Radcliffe Ribble Roosecote Salford Slacks Valley Southport Spa Road Stockport Stuart Street Trafford Warrington Westwood Whitebirk

Gas

Active

Bridgewater Carrington Fellside Rocksavage Weston Point Winnington

Proposed/Future

Incinerators/Waste

Active

Bolton Red Moss Landfill

Proposed/Future

Ince Weston Point

Nuclear

Active

Heysham

Closed

Calder Hall

Oil

Closed

Ince A + B

Wind

Active

Askam and Ireleth Barrow Offshore Burbo Bank Coal
Coal
Clough Ormonde Scout Moor Walney Winscales Moor

Proposed/Future

West Duddon

Organisations

BNFL The Lancashire Electric Power Company MANWEB NORWEB Pre-nationalisation electric power companies

v t e

Energy in the United Kingdom

Companies

Coal

Anglo American Asia Energy BHP ENRC Glencore Rio Tinto UK Coal

Oil and gas

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Exploration and production

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Supply

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Support

Abbot Group AMEC Ensco Expro Hunting Petrofac Qserv Score Group Weir Group WesternGeco1 Wood Group

Utilities

Generation and supply

Integrated

Centrica EDF Energy1 E.ON UK1 RWE npower1 Scottish Power1 SSE

Generation

Drax Group Falck Renewables Horizon Nuclear Power1 International Power Vattenfall United Kingdom1 Vedanta Resources

Supply

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Distribution

Electricity

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Gas

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Transmission

Electricity

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Gas

National Grid

Other

Aggreko APX Group Aquamarine Power Ecogen EnServe Geothermal Engineering Hi-Gen Power Mark Group Wavegen

Companies with headquarters and/or registered office in the UK but no applicable energy operations within the country shown in italics 1Ultimate parent company is not UK-based 2Integrated in the United States, no generation or supply activities in the UK

Energy sources

Coal

Coal
Coal
Authority Coal-fired power stations Coal
Coal
mines Coal
Coal
mining regions Confederation of UK Coal
Coal
Producers Greenhouse gas emissions History

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Coal
Board

Open-pit coal mining

Electricity

Association of Electricity Producers BritNed East–West Interconnector Energy switching services Economy 7 Economy 10 Electricity billing Green electricity Grid Trade Master Agreement HVDC Cross-Channel HVDC Moyle HVDC Norway–UK Isle of Man
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to England Interconnector National Grid

Control Reserve Service

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revenue tax

Renewables

Biofuels

Biodiesel Biofuel power stations National Non-Food Crops Centre Renewable Fuels Agency Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation

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Non-governmental organisations

Charities and pressure groups

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Industry bodies

Combined Heat and Power Association Energy Institute Energy Networks Association Energy Retail Association Green Power Forum RenewableUK Utilities Intermediaries Association

Research

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Energy conservation

Association for the Conservation of Energy British Energy
British Energy
Efficiency Federation Close the Door campaign Code for Sustainable Homes Double Glazing & Conservatory Ombudsman Scheme EcoHomes Energy efficiency in British housing Energy Saving Trust

Energy Saving Trust Recommended

Greenhouse gas emissions HTB National Home Energy Rati

.