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Damascus: 1104 – Baqtash was dethroned by Toghtekin Great Seljuq: 1194 – Toghrul III was killed in battle with Tekish Rum: 1307 – Mesud II
Mesud II
died

The Seljuq dynasty or Seljuqs[1][2][3](/ˈsɛldʒʊk/ SEL-juuk; Persian: آل سلجوق[4]‎ Al-e Saljuq) was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society
Persianate society
and contributed to the Turko-Persian tradition[5][6] in the medieval West and Central Asia. The Seljuqs established both the Seljuk Empire
Seljuk Empire
and Sultanate of Rum, which at their heights stretched from Anatolia through Iran
Iran
and were targets of the First Crusade.

Contents

1 Early history 2 Later period 3 Seljuq leaders

3.1 Rulers of the Seljuq Dynasty 3.2 Seljuq sultans of Hamadan 3.3 Seljuq rulers of Kerman 3.4 Seljuq rulers in Syria 3.5 Seljuq sultans of Rum (Anatolia)

4 Gallery 5 Family tree 6 See also 7 Notes 8 Further reading

Early history[edit] The Seljuqs originated from the Qynyk branch of the Oghuz Turks,[7][8][9][10] who in the 9th century lived on the periphery of the Muslim world, north of the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
and Aral Sea
Aral Sea
in their Yabghu Khaganate of the Oghuz confederacy,[11] in the Kazakh Steppe
Kazakh Steppe
of Turkestan.[12] During the 10th century, due to various events, the Oghuz had come into close contact with Muslim cities.[13] When Seljuq, the leader of the Seljuq clan, had a falling out with Yabghu, the supreme chieftain of the Oghuz, he split his clan off from the bulk of the Tokuz-Oghuz and set up camp on the west bank of the lower Syr Darya. Around 985, Seljuq converted to Islam.[13] In the 11th century the Seljuqs migrated from their ancestral homelands into mainland Persia, in the province of Khurasan, where they encountered the Ghaznavid
Ghaznavid
empire. In 1025, 40,000 families of Oghuz Turks
Oghuz Turks
migrated to the area of Caucasian Albania.[14] The Seljuqs defeated the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
at the Battle of Nasa plains in 1035. Tughril, Chaghri, and Yabghu received the insignias of governor, grants of land, and were given the title of dehqan.[15] At the Battle of Dandanaqan
Battle of Dandanaqan
they defeated a Ghaznavid
Ghaznavid
army, and after a successful siege of Isfahan
Isfahan
by Tughril
Tughril
in 1050/51,[16] they established an empire later called the Great Seljuk Empire. The Seljuqs mixed with the local population and adopted the Persian culture and Persian language
Persian language
in the following decades.[17][18][19][20][21] Later period[edit] After arriving in Persia, the Seljuqs adopted the Persian culture and used the Persian language
Persian language
as the official language of the government,[17][18][22][23][24][25][26][27][28] and played an important role in the development of the Turko-Persian tradition
Turko-Persian tradition
which features " Persian culture patronized by Turkic rulers."[29] Today, they are remembered as great patrons of Persian culture, art, literature, and language.[17][18][19] They are regarded as the partial ancestors of the Western Turks – the present-day inhabitants of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Republic of Azerbaijan
(historically known as Shirvan
Shirvan
and Arran), Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan), Turkmenistan, and Turkey. Seljuq leaders[edit] Rulers of the Seljuq Dynasty[edit] The "Great Seljuqs" were heads of the family; in theory their authority extended over all the other Seljuq lines, although in practice this often was not the case. Turkish custom called for the senior member of the family to be the Great Seljuq, although usually the position was associated with the ruler of western Persia.

Titular name(s) Personal name Reign

Bey بیگ‬ Tughril طغرل‬ 1037–1063

Sultan سلطان‬ Alp Arslan الپ ارسلان‬ 1063–1072

Sultan سلطان‬ Jalāl al-Dawlah جلال الدولہ ‬ Malik Shah I ملک شاہ اول ‬ 1072–1092

Sultan سلطان‬ Nasir al-Duniya wa al-Din ناصر الدنیا والدین ‬ Mahmud bin Malik Shah محمود بن ملک شاہ ‬ 1092–1094

Sultan سلطان‬ Abul Muzaffar Rukn al-Duniya wa al-Din أبو المظفر رکن الدنیا والدین ‬ Barkiyaruq
Barkiyaruq
bin Malik Shah برکیاروق بن ملک شاه‬ 1094–1105

Sultan سلطان‬ Muizz al-Din معز الدین ‬ Malik Shah II ملک شاہ الثانی ‬ 1105

Sultan سلطان‬ Ghiyath al-Duniya wa al-Din غیاث الدنیا والدین ‬ Muhammad Tapar محمد تپار ‬ 1105–1118

Sultan سلطان‬ Muizz al-Din معز الدین ‬ *Ahmad Sanjar احمد سنجر‬ 1118–1153

Khwarazmian dynasty
Khwarazmian dynasty
replaces the Seljuq dynasty. From 1157, the Oghuz took control of much of Khurasan, with the remainder in the hands of former Seljuq emirs.

Muhammad's son Mahmud II succeeded him in western Persia, but Ahmad Sanjar, who was the governor of Khurasan at the time being the senior member of the family, became the Great Seljuq Sultan.

Seljuq sultans of Hamadan[edit]

The Great Seljuq Empire in 1092, upon the death of Malik Shah I[30]

The rulers of western Persia, who maintained a very loose grip on the Abbasids
Abbasids
of Baghdad. Several Turkic emirs gained a strong level of influence in the region, such as the Eldiduzids.

Mahmud II 1118–1131 1131–1134 disputed between:

Dawud Mas'ud (in Jibal
Jibal
and Iranian Azerbaijan) 1131 Toghrul II 1132–1134

Mas'ud 1133–1152 Malik Shah III 1152–1153 Muhammad II Suleiman Shah 1160–1161 Arslan Shah 1161–1174 Toghrul III 1174–1194

In 1194, Tugrul III was killed in battle with the Khwarezm Shah, who annexed Hamadan. Seljuq rulers of Kerman[edit] Kerman was a province in southern Persia. Between 1053 and 1154, the territory also included Umman.

Qawurd 1041–1073 Kerman Shah 1073–1074 Sultan
Sultan
Shah 1074–1075 Hussain Omar 1075–1084 Turan Shah I 1084–1096 Iran
Iran
Shah 1096–1101 Arslan Shah I 1101–1142 Mehmed I (Muhammad) 1142–1156 Toğrül
Toğrül
Shah 1156–1169 Bahram Shah 1169–1174 Arslan Shah II 1174–1176 Turan Shah II 1176–1183 Muhammad Shah 1183–1187

Muhammad abandoned Kerman, which fell into the hands of the Oghuz chief Malik Dinar. Kerman was eventually annexed by the Khwarezmid Empire in 1196. Seljuq rulers in Syria[edit]

Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I 1085–1086 Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah I
Malik Shah I
of Great Seljuq 1086–1087 Qasim ad-Dawla Abu Said Aq Sunqur al-Hajib 1087–1094 Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I (second time) 1094–1095 Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan 1095–1113 Tadj ad-Dawla Alp Arslan
Alp Arslan
al-Akhras 1113–1114 Sultan
Sultan
Shah 1114–1123

To the Artuqids Sultans/Emirs of Damascus:

Aziz ibn Abaaq al-Khwarazmi 1076–1079 Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I 1079–1095 Abu Nasr Shams al-Muluk Duqaq 1095–1104 Tutush II 1104 Muhi ad-Din Baqtash 1104

Damascus
Damascus
seized by the Burid
Burid
Toghtekin Seljuq sultans of Rum (Anatolia)[edit]

History of the Turkic peoples Pre-14th century

Turkic Khaganate 552–744

  Western Turkic

  Eastern Turkic

Khazar Khaganate 618–1048

Xueyantuo
Xueyantuo
628–646

Great Bulgaria 632–668

  Danube Bulgaria

  Volga Bulgaria

Kangar union
Kangar union
659–750

Turk Shahi
Turk Shahi
665–850

Turgesh
Turgesh
Khaganate 699–766

Uyghur Khaganate 744–840

Karluk Yabgu State 756–940

Kara-Khanid Khanate
Kara-Khanid Khanate
840–1212

  Western Kara-Khanid

  Eastern Kara-Khanid

Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom
Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom
848–1036

Qocho
Qocho
856–1335

Pecheneg Khanates 860–1091 Kimek confederation 743–1035

Cumania 1067–1239 Oghuz Yabgu State 750–1055

Ghaznavid
Ghaznavid
Empire 963–1186

Seljuk Empire
Seljuk Empire
1037–1194

  Sultanate of Rum

Kerait khanate 11th century–13th century

Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231

Naiman Khanate –1204

Qarlughid Kingdom 1224–1266

Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
1206–1526

  Mamluk dynasty

  Khalji dynasty

  Tughlaq dynasty

Golden Horde
Golden Horde
[31][32][33] 1240s–1502

Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)
Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)
1250–1517

  Bahri dynasty

  Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
1299–1923

Other Turkic dynasties 

in Anatolia Artuqid dynasty Saltuqid dynasty in Azerbaijan Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynasty in Egypt Tulunid dynasty Ikhshidid dynasty in Fars Salghurid dynasty in The Levant Burid
Burid
dynasty Zengid dynasty

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Main article: Sultanate of Rûm

The Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm
Sultanate of Rûm
in 1190, before the Third Crusade

The Seljuq line, already having been deprived of any significant power, effectively ended in the early 14th century.

Kutalmish 1060–1077 Suleyman I (Suleiman) 1077–1086 Dawud Kilij Arslan I
Kilij Arslan I
1092–1107 Malik Shah 1107–1116 Rukn ad-Din Mesud I
Mesud I
1116–1156 Izz ad-Din Kilij Arslan II
Kilij Arslan II
1156–1192 Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw I
Kaykhusraw I
1192–1196 Suleyman II (Suleiman) 1196–1204 Kilij Arslan III 1204–1205 Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw I
Kaykhusraw I
(second time) 1205–1211 Izz ad-Din Kaykaus I
Kaykaus I
1211–1220 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad I
Kayqubad I
1220–1237 Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw II
Kaykhusraw II
1237–1246 Izz ad-Din Kaykaus II 1246–1260 Rukn ad-Din Kilij Arslan IV 1248–1265 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad II 1249–1257 Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw III 1265–1282 Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II
Mesud II
1282–1284 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III 1284 Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II
Mesud II
(second time) 1284–1293 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III (second time) 1293–1294 Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II
Mesud II
(third time) 1294–1301 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III (third time) 1301–1303 Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II
Mesud II
(fourth time) 1303–1307

Gallery[edit]

Toghrol Tower, a 12th-century monument south of Tehran
Tehran
commemorating Toğrül.

Seljuq-era art: Ewer
Ewer
from Herat, Afghanistan, dated 1180–1210. Brass worked in repousse and inlaid with silver and bitumen. British Museum.

Head of Seljuq male royal figure, 12–13th century, from Iran. Carved and drilled stone with Iranian craftsmanship. Kept at the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Shatranj
Shatranj
chess set, glazed fritware, 12th-century Iran. New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.

The Kharāghān twin towers, built in Iran
Iran
in 1053 to house the remains of Seljuq princes

Family tree[edit]

v t e

Great Seljuq sultans family tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Duqaq Temür Yalığ (b. ? – d. ?) Commander-in-chief of Oghuz army

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Seljuq-Beg (b. ? – d. ?) Commander-in-chief of Oghuz army

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yunus

 

Arslan Yabgu (b. ? – d. 1032) Chief of Seljuq Dynasty

 

Mikail (b. ? -d. ?)

 

Musa Yabgu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.Toghrul I (r. 1037–1063) Sultan
Sultan
of Great Seljuq

 

Chaghri-Beg (r. 1040–1060) Governor of Khorasan

 

Ibrahim Inal

 

Er-Dash

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Qawurd-Beg (r. 1048–1073) Governor of Kirman

 

Suleiman Prince

 

Bahram-Shah Prince

 

Alp Sungur Prince Governor of Azerbaijan

 

2.Alp Arslan (r. 1063–1072) Sultan
Sultan
of Great Seljuq

 

Ilyas Prince

 

Khadija Princess married Abbasid caliph Al-Qa'im.

 

Uthman Prince

 

Jawhar Khatun Princess

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tutush (r. 1078–1095) Governor of Damascus

 

Toghrul Prince

 

Böri-Bars Prince

 

Arslan-Shah (r. 1066–1083) Governor of Khorasan

 

3.Malik-Shah I (r. 1072–1092) Sultan
Sultan
of Great Seljuq

 

Toghan-Shah (r. 1083–1092) Governor of Khorasan

 

Aisha Princess married Kara-Khanid khan Nasr Shams al-Mulk.

 

Arslan-Argun (r. 1092–1097) Governor of Khorasan

 

Mah-i Mulk Princess married Abbasid caliph Al-Muqtadi.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.Barkiyaruq (r. 1094–1105) Sultan
Sultan
of Great Seljuq

 

Dawud Prince

 

Ahmad Prince

 

4.Mahmud I (r. 1092–1094) Sultan
Sultan
of Great Seljuq

 

7.Tapar (r. 1105–1118) Sultan
Sultan
of Great Seljuq

 

9.Sanjar (r. 1118–1153) Sultan
Sultan
of Great Seljuq

 

Gawhar Khatun Princess married Ghaznavid
Ghaznavid
sultan Mas'ud III.

 

Sitara Princess married Kakuyid atabeg Garshasp II.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.Malik-Shah II (r. 1105) Sultan
Sultan
of Great Seljuq

 

 

 

 

 

8.Mahmud II (r. 1118–1131) Sultan
Sultan
of Great Seljuq

 

15.Suleiman-Shah (r. 1159–1160) Sultan
Sultan
of Great Seljuq

 

12.Masud (r. 1135–1152) Sultan
Sultan
of Great Seljuq

 

11.Toghrul II (r. 1132–1135) Sultan
Sultan
of Great Seljuq

 

Mu'mine Khatun wife of Toghrul II until 1135 wife of Ildeniz from 1136

 

Ildeniz (r. 1160–1175) de facto ruler Atabeg of Arslan-Shah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14.Muhammad II (r. 1153–1159) Sultan
Sultan
of Great Seljuq

 

10.Dawud (r. 1131–1132) Sultan
Sultan
of Great Seljuq

 

13.Malik-Shah III (r. 1152–1153) Sultan
Sultan
of Great Seljuq

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16.Arslan-Shah (r. 1160–1176) Sultan
Sultan
of Great Seljuq

 

Muhammad (r. 1175–1186) de facto ruler Atabeg of Toghrul III

 

18.Qizil Arslan (r. 1191) Sultan
Sultan
of Great Seljuq

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17.Toghrul III (r. 1176–1191, 1192–1194) Sultan
Sultan
of Great Seljuq

 

Notes:

"Family tree of Seljuqs" (PDF). 

See also[edit]

Seljuk Empire Sultanate of Rûm Ottoman dynasty List of Sunni Muslim dynasties

Notes[edit]

^ Neiberg, Michael S (2002). Warfare in World History. Routledge. pp. 19–20. ISBN 9781134583423.  ^ " Seljuk Turks". New World Encyclopedia. Retrieved 29 November 2016.  ^ Harris, Jonathan (2014). Byzantium and the Crusades. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 39–45. ISBN 9781780937366.  ^ Rāvandī, Muḥammad (1385). Rāḥat al-ṣudūr va āyat al-surūr dar tārīkh-i āl-i saljūq. Tihrān: Intishārāt-i Asāṭīr. ISBN 9643313662.  ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 161,164; "renewed the Seljuk attempt to found a great Turko-Persian empire in eastern Iran..", "It is to be noted that the Seljuks, those Turkomans who became sultans of Persia, did not Turkify Persia-no doubt because they did not wish to do so. On the contrary, it was they who voluntarily became Persians and who, in the manner of the great old Sassanid kings, strove to protect the Iranian populations from the plundering of Ghuzz bands and save Iranian culture from the Turkoman menace." ^ Nishapuri, Zahir al-Din Nishapuri (2001), "The History of the Seljuq Turks from the Jami’ al-Tawarikh: An Ilkhanid Adaptation of the Saljuq-nama of Zahir al-Din Nishapuri," Partial tr. K.A. Luther, ed. C.E. Bosworth, Richmond, UK. K.A. Luther, p. 9: "[T]he Turks were illiterate and uncultivated when they arrived in Khurasan and had to depend on Iranian scribes, poets, jurists and theologians to man the institution of the Empire") ^ Concise Britannica Online Seljuq Dynasty
Dynasty
article ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Definition of Seljuk ^ The History of the Seljuq Turks: From the Jami Al-Tawarikh (LINK) ^ Shaw, Stanford. History of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Modern Turkey (LINK) ^ Wink, Andre, Al Hind: the Making of the Indo-Islamic World Brill Academic Publishers, Jan 1, 1996, ISBN 90-04-09249-8 pg.9 ^ Islam: An Illustrated History, p. 51 ^ a b Michael Adas, Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History, (Temple University Press, 2001), 99. ^ "The Caucasus & Globalization." Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies. Institute of Strategic Studies of the Caucasus. Volume 5, Issue 1-2. 2011, p.116. CA&CC Press. Sweden. ^ Bosworth, C.E. The Ghaznavids: 994-1040, Edinburgh University Press, 1963, 242. ^ Tony Jaques, Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O, (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007), 476. ^ a b c O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK) ^ a b c Encyclopædia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, (LINK): "... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..." ^ a b M. Ravandi, "The Seljuq court at Konya and the Persianisation of Anatolian Cities", in Mesogeios (Mediterranean Studies), vol. 25–6 (2005), pp. 157–69 ^ M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... here one might bear in mind that Turco-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Seljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language
Persian language
and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia
Persia
rather than to Turkish heroes or Muslim saints ..." ^ F. Daftary, "Sectarian and National Movements in Iran, Khorasan, and Trasoxania during Umayyad and Early Abbasid Times", in History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol 4, pt. 1; edited by M.S. Asimov and C.E. Bosworth; UNESCO
UNESCO
Publishing, Institute of Ismaili Studies: "... Not only did the inhabitants of Khurasan not succumb to the language of the nomadic invaders, but they imposed their own tongue on them. The region could even assimilate the Turkic Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
and Seljuks (eleventh and twelfth centuries), the Timurids (fourteenth–fifteenth centuries), and the Qajars (nineteenth–twentieth centuries) ..." ^ Bosworth, C.E.; Hillenbrand, R.; Rogers, J.M.; Blois, F.C. de; Bosworth, C.E.; Darley-Doran, R.E., Saldjukids, Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2009. Brill Online: "Culturally, the constituting of the Seljuq Empire marked a further step in the dethronement of Arabic from being the sole lingua franca of educated and polite society in the Middle East. Coming as they did through a Transoxania which was still substantially Iranian and into Persia proper, the Seljuqs with no high-level Turkish cultural or literary heritage of their own – took over that of Persia, so that the Persian language
Persian language
became the administration and culture in their land of Persia
Persia
and Anatolia. The Persian culture of the Rum Seljuqs was particularly splendid, and it was only gradually that Turkish emerged there as a parallel language in the field of government and adab; the Persian imprint in Ottoman civilization was to remain strong until the 19th century. ^ John Perry, THE HISTORICAL ROLE OF TURKISH IN RELATION TO PERSIAN OF IRAN in Iran
Iran
& the Caucasus, Vol. 5, (2001), pp. 193-200. excerpt: " First, since the Turkish-speaking rulers of most Iranian polities from the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
and Seljuks onward were already iranized and patronized Persian literature
Persian literature
in their domains, the expansion of Turk-ruled empires served to expand the territorial domain of written Persian into the conquered areas, notably Anatolia
Anatolia
and Central and South Asia." ^ Ram Rahul. "March of Central Asia", Indus Publishing, pg 124: "The Seljuk conquest of Persia
Persia
marked the triumph of the Sunni over Shii but without a decline in Persian culture. The Seljuks eventually adopted the Persian culture. ^ Ehsan Yarshater, "Iran" in Encyclopedia Iranica: "The ascent of the Saljuqids also put an end to a period which Minorsky has called "the Persian intermezzo" (see Minorsky, 1932, p. 21), when Iranian dynasties, consisting mainly of the Saffarids, the Samanids, the Ziyarids, the Buyids, the Kakuyids, and the Bavandids of Tabarestan and Gilan, ruled most of Iran. By all accounts, weary of the miseries and devastations of never-ending conflicts and wars, Persians seemed to have sighed with relief and to have welcomed the stability of the Saljuqid rule, all the more so since the Saljuqids mitigated the effect of their foreignness, quickly adopting the Persian culture and court customs and procedures and leaving the civil administration in the hand of Persian personnel, headed by such capable and learned viziers as ‘Amid-al-Molk Kondori and Nezam-al-Molk." ^ C.E. Bosworth, "Turkish expansion towards the west", in UNESCO History of Humanity, Volume IV: From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century, UNESCO
UNESCO
Publishing / Routledge, 2000. p. 391: "While the Arabic language retained its primacy in such spheres as law, theology and science, the culture of the Seljuk court and secular literature within the sultanate became largely Persianized; this is seen in the early adoption of Persian epic names by the Seljuk rulers (Qubād, Kay Khusraw and so on) and in the use of Persian as a literary language (Turkish must have been essentially a vehicle for everyday speech at this time). The process of Persianization accelerated in the thirteenth century with the presence in Konya of two of the most distinguished refugees fleeing before the Mongols, Bahā' al-Dīn Walad and his son Mawlānā Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī, whose Mathnawī, composed in Konya, constitutes one of the crowning glories of classical Persian literature." ^ Stephen P. Blake, Shahjahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India, 1639-1739. Cambridge University Press, 1991. pg 123: "For the Seljuks and Il-Khanids in Iran, it was the rulers rather than the conquered who were 'Persianized and Islamicized'". ^ Mehmed Fuad Koprulu, Early Mystics in Turkish Literature, Translated by Gary Leiser and Robert Dankoff, Routledge, 2006, pg 149: "If we wish to sketch, in broad outline, the civilization created by the Seljuks of Anatolia, we must recognize that the local, i.e. non-Muslim, element was fairly insignificant compared to the Turkish and Arab-Persian elements, and that the Persian element was paramount/The Seljuk rulers, to be sure, who were in contact with not only Muslim Persian civilization, but also with the Arab civilizations in al-jazīra and Syria – indeed, with all Muslim peoples as far as India – also had connections with various Byzantine courts. Some of these rulers, like the great 'Ala' al-Dīn Kai-Qubād I himself, who married Byzantine princesses and thus strengthened relations with their neighbors to the west, lived for many years in Byzantium and became very familiar with the customs and ceremonial at the Byzantine court. Still, this close contact with the ancient Greco-Roman and Christian traditions only resulted in their adoption of a policy of tolerance toward art, aesthetic life, painting, music, independent thought – in short, toward those things that were frowned upon by the narrow and piously ascetic views of their subjects . The contact of the common people with the Greeks and Armenians had basically the same result. Before coming to Anatolia
Anatolia
, the Turks had been in contact with many nations and had long shown their ability to synthesize the artistic elements that they had adopted from these nations. When they settled in Anatolia, they encountered peoples with whom they had not yet been in contact and immediately established relations with them as well. 'Ala' al-Dīn Kai-Qubād I established ties with the Genoese and, especially, the Venetians at the ports of Sinop and Antalya, which belonged to him, and granted them commercial and legal concessions. Meanwhile, the Mongol invasion, which caused a great number of scholars and artisans to flee from Turkistan, Iran, Afghanistan, and Khwārazm and settle within the Empire of the Seljuks of Anatolia, resulted in a reinforcing of Persian influence on the Anatolian Turks. Indeed, despite all claims to the contrary, there is no question that Persian influence was paramount among the Seljuks of Anatolia. This is clearly revealed by the fact that the sultans who ascended the throne after Ghiyāth al-Dīn Kai-Khusraw I assumed titles taken from ancient Persian mythology, like Kai-Khusraw, Kai-Kā'ūs, and Kai-Qubād; and that 'Ala' al-Dīn Kai-Qubād I had some passages from the Shāhnāme inscribed on the walls of Konya and Sivas. When we take into consideration domestic life in the Konya courts and the sincerity of the favor and attachment of the rulers to Persian poets and Persian literature, then this fact i.e. the importance of Persian influence is undeniable. With regard to the private lives of the rulers, their amusements, and palace ceremonial, the most definite influence was also that of Iran, mixed with the early Turkish traditions, and not that of Byzantium." ^ Daniel Pipes: "The Event of Our Era: Former Soviet Muslim Republics Change the Middle East" in Michael Mandelbaum," Central Asia
Central Asia
and the World: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkemenistan and the World", Council on Foreign Relations, pg 79. Exact statement: "In Short, the Turko-Persian tradition
Turko-Persian tradition
featured Persian culture patronized by Turcophone rulers." ^ Black, Jeremy (2005). The Atlas of World History. American Edition, New York: Covent Garden Books. pp. 65, 228. ISBN 9780756618612.  This map varies from other maps which are slightly different in scope, especially along the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2006). Peoples of Western Asia. p. 364.  ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. p. 280.  ^ Borrero, Mauricio (2009). Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. p. 162. 

Further reading[edit]

Grousset, Rene (1988). The Empire of the Steppes: a History of Central Asia. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. p. 147. ISBN 0813506271.  Peacock, A.C.S., Early Seljuq History: A New Interpretation; New York, NY; Routledge; 2010 Previté-Orton, C. W. (1971). The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

v t e

House of Seljuq

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Seljuk Mikail Arslan Isra'il Musa Yabghu

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Toghrul-Beg Alp Arslan Malik-Shah I Mahmud I Barkiyaruq Malik-Shah II Muhammad I Mahmud II and Ahmad Sanjar Dawud Toghrul II Masud Malik-Shah III Muhammad II Suleiman-Shah Arslan-Shah Toghrul III

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