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Selim III
Selim III
(Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثالث Selīm-i sālis) (24 December 1761 – 28 July 1808) was the reform-minded Sultan
Sultan
of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from 1789 to 1807. The Janissaries
Janissaries
eventually deposed and imprisoned him, and placed his cousin Mustafa on the throne as Mustafa IV. Selim was subsequently killed by a group of assassins. Selim III
Selim III
was the son of Sultan
Sultan
Mustafa III
Mustafa III
and his wife Mihrişah Sultan. His mother Mihrişah Sultan
Mihrişah Sultan
originated in Georgia and when she became the Valide Sultan, she participated in reforming the government schools and establishing political corporations. His father Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Mustafa III
Mustafa III
was very well educated and believed in the necessity of reforms. Mustafa III
Mustafa III
attempted to create a powerful army during the peacetime with professional, well-educated soldiers. This was primarily motivated by his fear of a Russian invasion. During the Russo-Turkish War he fell ill and died of a heart attack in 1774. Sultan
Sultan
Mustafa was aware of the fact that a military reform was necessary. He declared new military regulations and opened maritime and artillery academies. Sultan
Sultan
Mustafa was very influenced by mysticism. Oracles predicted his son Selim would be a world-conqueror, so he organized a joyous feast lasting seven days. Selim was very well educated in the palace. Sultan Mustafa III
Mustafa III
bequeathed his son as his successor; however, Selim's uncle Abdulhamid I
Abdulhamid I
ascended the throne after Mustafa's death. Sultan Abdulhamid I
Abdulhamid I
took care of Selim and put great emphasis on his education. After Abdulhamid's death Selim succeeded him on 7 April 1789, not yet 27 years old. Sultan
Sultan
Selim III
Selim III
was very fond of literature and calligraphy; many of his works were put on the walls of mosques and convents. He wrote many poems, especially about Crimea's occupation by Russia. He spoke Arabic and Persian fluently. Selim III
Selim III
was very religious, and very patriotic. He was a poet, a musician and very fond of fine arts. Selim was a very modern man and a reformist ruler. He planned to modernize the Ottoman Empire. Prince Selim developed plans for modernizing the Ottoman Army. Selim came to the throne during the 1787–92 war with Austria and Russia
Russia
and had to postpone serious reform efforts until its completion. Selim’s early efforts to modernize the Janissary
Janissary
corps created such opposition that thereafter he concentrated on creating a new European-style army, using modern weapons and European tactics. Officers and military experts sent by the different European powers trained in Constantinople
Constantinople
and in a number of Anatolian provincial centers. This new force never numbered more than 10,000 active soldiers. In order to avoid disrupting the established Ottoman institutions, it was financed by an entirely new treasury whose revenues came from taxes imposed on previously untaxed sources and from the confiscation whose holders were not fulfilling their military and administrative duties to the state. Under the guidance of European technicians, factories were erected to manufacture modern weapons and ammunition and technical schools were opened to train Ottoman officers. Limited efforts were also made to rationalize the Ottoman administrative machinery, but largely along traditional lines. The older military corps, however, remained intact and hostile to the new force, and Selim was therefore compelled to limit its size and use.

Contents

1 Reign

1.1 Plans of reforms 1.2 Reforms in law 1.3 Foreign relations 1.4 Janissary
Janissary
revolt 1.5 Austro-Turkish War (1787–1791) 1.6 Russo-Turkish war 1.7 Relations with Tipu Sultan

2 Franco-Turkish relationships

2.1 French goals 2.2 Turkish Goals

3 The 1806 Edirne Incident 4 Downfall and assassination 5 Interest in poetry and arts 6 Family 7 See also 8 Notes 9 Bibliography 10 References 11 External links

Reign[edit] Plans of reforms[edit]

Selim III
Selim III
receiving dignitaries at an audience at the Gate of Felicity, Topkapı Palace.

The talents and energy with which Selim III
Selim III
was endowed had endeared him to the people, and great hopes were founded on his accession. He had associated much with foreigners, and was thoroughly persuaded of the necessity of reforming his state. However, Austria and Russia
Russia
gave him no time for anything but defense, and it was not until the Peace of Iaşi
Peace of Iaşi
(1792) that a breathing space was allowed him in Europe, while Napoleon's invasion of Egypt and Syria soon called for Turkey's strongest efforts. Selim III
Selim III
profited by the respite to abolish the military tenure of fiefs; he introduced salutary reforms into the administration, especially in the fiscal department, sought by well-considered plans to extend the spread of education, and engaged foreign officers as instructors, by whom a small corps of new troops called nizam-i-jedid were collected and drilled in 1797. This unit was composed of Turkish peasant youths from Anatolia
Anatolia
and supplied with modern weaponry.[1] These troops were able to hold their own against rebellious Janissaries
Janissaries
in the Balkan
Balkan
provinces such as the Sanjak of Smederevo against its appointed Vizier
Vizier
Hadži Mustafa Pasha, where disaffected governors made no scruple of attempting to make use of them against the reforming sultan. Emboldened by this success, Selim III
Selim III
issued an order that in future picked men should be taken annually from the Janissaries
Janissaries
to serve in the nizam-i-jedid.[citation needed] Selim III
Selim III
was unable to integrate the nizam-i jedid with the rest of the army which overall limited its role in the defense of the state.[1] Reforms in law[edit] Selim introduced domestic reforms to strengthen his government. He solicited suggestions throughout the governing institutions. As a basis for change: he created a new treasury, filled in large part from confiscatory punishment leveled at fief holders who had ceased to respect their military obligations, schools were opened, attention was given to printing and to the circulation of Western translations, and young Turks were sent to Europe
Europe
for further study. The most significant reforms, however, involved the military. The navy was strengthened, and a navigation school was opened. The army commissariat was changed, officer training was improved, the Bosphorus forts were strengthened, the artillery was revitalized, and the new engineering school was reorganized. The major innovation was the founding of a new body of regular troops known as the Nizam-i-Cedid (new regulation), a term also applied to the reforms as a whole. A former Turkish lieutenant in the Russian army formed the first of these new units, uniformed, well disciplined and drilled, in 1792. Other units followed, involving, in some instances, extensive barracks building with related town facilities, such as the mosques and baths of Scutari. Such buildings constitute Selim's major architectural legacy.[2] Before the reforms, education in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
had not been a state responsibility but had been provided by the education for Muslims. The first inroads into the system had been made with the creation of naval engineering, military engineering, medical and military science colleges. In this way specialized Western-type training was grafted onto the traditional system to produce specialists for the army. Similar institutions for diplomats and administrators were founded, including the translation bureau and the civil service school the latter was reorganized and eventually became the political science department of the University of Ankara
University of Ankara
and the major training center for higher civil servants. The first comprehensive plan for state education was put forward. It provided for a complete system of primary and secondary schools leading to the university level, all under the Ministry of Education. A still more ambitious educational plan, inaugurated in 1869, provided for free and compulsory primary education. Both schemes progressed slowly because of a lack of money, but they provided a framework within which development toward a systematic, secular educational program could take place. There were more than 36,000 Ottoman schools, although the great majority were small, traditional primary schools.[3] The development of the state system was aided by the example of progress among the non-Muslim millet schools, in which the education provided was more modern than in the Ottoman schools included more than 1,800 Greek schools with about 185,000 pupils and some 800 Armenian schools with more than 81,000 pupils. Non-Muslims also used schools provided by foreign missionary groups in the empire Foreign relations[edit]

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Selim III
Selim III
ascended the throne only to find that the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
of old had been considerably reduced due to conflicts outside the realm. From the north Russia
Russia
had taken the Black Sea through the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca in 1774. Selim realized the importance of diplomatic relations with other nations, and pushed for permanent embassies in the courts of all the great nations of Europe, a hard task because of religious prejudice towards Muslims. Even with the religious obstacles, resident embassies were established in Britain, France, Prussia and Austria. Selim, a cultured poet and musician, carried on an extended correspondence with Louis XVI. Although distressed by the establishment of the republic in France, Ottoman government was soothed by French representatives in Constantinople
Constantinople
who maintained the goodwill of various influential personages.[4] On 1 July 1798, however, French forces landed in Egypt, and Selim declared war on France. In alliance with Russia
Russia
and Britain, the Turks were in periodic conflict with the French on both land and sea until March 1801. Peace came in June 1802, The following year brought trouble in the Balkans. For decades a sultan's word had had no power in outlying provinces, prompting Selim's reforms of the military in order to reimpose central control. This desire was not fulfilled. One rebellious leader was Austrian-backed Osman Pazvantoğlu, whose invasion of Wallachia
Wallachia
in 1801 inspired Russian intervention, resulting in greater autonomy for the Dunubian provinces. Serbian conditions also deteriorated. They took a fateful turn with the return of the hated Janissaries, ousted 8 years before. These forces murdered Selim's enlightened governor, ending the best rule this province had had in the last 100 years.[5] Neither arms nor diplomacy could restore Ottoman authority. French influence with the Sublime Porte
Sublime Porte
(the European diplomatic designation of the Ottoman state) did not revive but it then led the Sultan
Sultan
into defying both St. Petersburg and London, and Turkey joined Napoleon's Continental System. War was declared on Russia
Russia
on 27 December and on Britain in March 1807. Janissary
Janissary
revolt[edit] The Sultan's most ambitious military project was the creation of an entirely new infantry corps fully trained and equipped according to the latest European standards. This unit, called the nizam-i jedid (the new order), was formed in 1797 and adopted a pattern of recruitment that was uncommon for the imperial forces; it was composed of Turkish peasant youths from Anatolia, a clear indication that the devshirme system was no longer functional. Officered and trained by Europeans, the nizam-i jedid was outfitted with modern weapons and French-style uniforms. By 1806 the new army numbered around 23,000 troops, including a modern artillery corps, and its units performed effectively in minor actions. But Selim III's inability to integrate the force with the regular army and his reluctance to deploy it against his domestic opponents limited its role in defending the state it was created to preserve. From the start of Selim's reign, the Janissaries
Janissaries
had viewed this entire program of military reform as a threat to their independence, and they refused to serve alongside the new army in the field. The powerful derebeys were alarmed by the way in which the sultan financed his new forces—he confiscated timars and directed the other revenue toward the nizam-i jedid. Further opposition came from the ulama and other members of the ruling elite who objected to the European models on which Selim based his military reforms. Led by the rebellious Janissaries, these forces came together in 1806, deposed Selim III, and selected a successor, Mustafa IV, who pledged not to interfere with their privileges. The decree of deposition accused Selim III
Selim III
of failing to respect the religion of Islam and the tradition of the Ottomans. Over the course of the next year, the embassies in Europe
Europe
were dismantled, the nizam-i jedid troops were dispersed, and the deposed sultan, whose cautious military reforms were intended to do no more than preserve the tradition of the Ottomans, was murdered.[6] Austro-Turkish War (1787–1791)[edit]

Ottoman troops desperately attempt to halt advancing Russians during the Siege of Ochakov (1788).

The Austro-Turkish War of 1787 was an inconclusive struggle between the Austrian and Ottoman Empires. It took place concomitantly with the Russo-Turkish War of 1787-1792 during the reign of the Ottoman Sultan Selim III. Russo-Turkish war[edit] The first major Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774)
Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774)
began after Turkey demanded that Russia’s ruler, Catherine II the Great, abstain from interfering in Poland’s internal affairs. The Russians went on to win impressive victories over the Turks. They captured Azov, the Crimea, and Bessarabia, and under Field Marshal Pyotr Rumyantsev
Pyotr Rumyantsev
they overran Moldavia
Moldavia
and also defeated the Turks in Bulgaria. The Turks were compelled to seek peace, which was concluded in the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca. This treaty made the Crimean khanate independent of the Turkish sultan advanced the Russian frontier. Russia
Russia
was now in a much stronger position to expand, and in 1783 Catherine annexed the Crimean Peninsula outright. War broke out in 1787, with Austria again on the side of Russia. Under General Alexander
Alexander
Suvorov, the Russians won several victories that gave them control of the lower Dniester and Danube rivers, and further Russian successes compelled the Turks to sign the Treaty of Jassy
Treaty of Jassy
on 9 Jan. 1792. By this treaty Turkey ceded the entire western Ukrainian Black Sea coast to Russia. When Turkey deposed the Russophile governors of Moldavia
Moldavia
and Walachia
Walachia
in 1806, war broke out again, though in a desultory fashion, since Russia
Russia
was reluctant to concentrate large forces against Turkey while its relations with Napoleonic France
France
were so uncertain. But in 1811, with the prospect of a war between France
France
and Russia
Russia
in sight, the latter sought a quick decision on its southern frontier. The Russian field marshal Mikhail Kutuzov’s victorious campaign of 1811–12 forced the Turks to sign the Treaty of Bucharest on 18 May 1812. Ending the war that had begun in 1806, this peace agreement established the Ottoman cession of Bessarabia to Russia.[7] The Russians also secured amnesty and a promise of autonomy for the Serbs, who had been rebelling against Turkish rule, but Turkish garrisons were given control of the Serbian fortresses. Implementation of the treaty was forestalled by a number of disputes, and Turkish troops invaded Serbia again the following year. Relations with Tipu Sultan[edit] Tipu Sultan
Sultan
was an independent ruler of the Sultanate of Mysore, with high regards of loyalty to the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Shah Alam II. He had urgently requested Ottoman assistance during the Third Anglo-Mysore War, in which he had suffered an irreversible defeat. Tipu Sultan
Sultan
then began to consolidate his relations with France. In an attempt to junction with Tipu Sultan, Napoleon
Napoleon
invaded Ottoman Egypt in the year 1798, causing a furor in Constantinople. The British then appealed to Selim III
Selim III
to send a letter to Tipu Sultan requesting the Sultanate of Mysore
Sultanate of Mysore
to halt its state of war against the British East India Company. Selim III
Selim III
then wrote a letter to Tipu Sultan
Sultan
criticizing the French, and also informed Tipu Sultan
Sultan
that the Ottomans would act as intermediary between the Sultanate of Mysore
Sultanate of Mysore
and the British. Tipu Sultan
Sultan
wrote twice to Selim III, rejecting the advice of the Ottomans, unfortunately before most of his letters could arrive in Constantinople, the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
broke out and Tipu Sultan
Sultan
was killed during the Siege of Seringapatam (1799).[8] Franco-Turkish relationships[edit]

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French goals[edit] At the same time the 30-year-old Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte, a general of the French Republic, returned from his ill-fated Egyptian Campaign. The French seizure of Egypt had produced results contrary to those which Napoleon
Napoleon
had intended. Instead of striking a blow at the colonial power of Britain, the invasion had alarmed the Ottoman Porte and driven it into an alliance with the British as well as the long-standing enemy of the Turks, Russia. Yet, by 1802, the Peace of Amiens would put an end to the war between France
France
and the Second Coalition. The Peace would give Napoleon, who was now the First Consul of France, a respite during which he could begin to mend French relations with the Ottoman Empire. The years 1802-1807 would witness a decidedly pro-Turkish policy on the part of Napoleon. For him, this slowly deteriorating empire would come to play, in these years, an integral role in his European diplomatic strategy. Friendship and alliance with the Ottoman Empire could serve him not only as a useful tool against the commercial power of his greatest enemy, Britain, but even more so (by 1805) as a means to bend Russia
Russia
and its Tsar to his will. In his goal to rebuild and strengthen Franco-Turkish relations, Napoleon
Napoleon
benefited from two things.[9] The first factor riding in his favor was the long history of diplomatic and economic relations that had existed between France and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
- since the 16th Century. While many European nations had, over the centuries, made agreements and sent ambassadors to the Turkish court, the French had been one of, if not the most highly favored nation. The French were the first to conclude a commercial treaty with the Turks. French businessmen invested heavily in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and by the late 18th Century, all Roman Catholics in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
were placed under French protection. A second factor which benefited Napoleon
Napoleon
was that the Ottoman sultan, Selim III, had, for most of his life, been somewhat disposed towards the French. As the nephew of the Sultan
Sultan
Abdul Hamid, Selim had ascended to the throne in the same year that revolution had exploded in France: 1789. Since the time that he had been a young prince, secluded in the palace, Selim had apparently developed a personal taste for things European. Though he had a fondness for Western European theater, music, art and poetry, his greatest interest was in European military institutions and practices. Even before he became sultan, he had secretly written to the French court of Louis XVI
Louis XVI
requesting advice on how to build up the Ottoman armed forces to the level of those in Europe. This early desire for military reform would come to fruition after he became sultan, when the wars between the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the ambitious Catherine the Great of Russia
Russia
had revealed the overall weakness, lack of discipline and lack of training among the Ottoman forces. Turkish Goals[edit] After the Peace of Jassy in 1792, which ended the war between the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Russia, Selim had hoped to stay out of the European conflicts that had arisen as a result of the French Revolution, though he personally sympathized with the French in their struggle. Selim's desire for neutrality stemmed from his wish to have time in which to implement his plans for military reform. One of the most important of these was to be the reform of the unruly janissary corps. Selim also had other grand designs such as the creation of an entirely new military force, the Nizam-i-Cedid (or "new order"), which was to be equipped, clothed, drilled and instructed in a totally European manner with rank to be based on ability. To aid him in these reforms, Selim at first utilized the skills of General Albert Dubayet, French ambassador to the Porte in 1796. Dubayet had brought with him several model artillery pieces as well as French artillery officers, drill sergeants and engineers to aid the sultan in bringing his army up to date. Selim wished to reform the janissaries along the same lines as the Nizam-i-Cedit, trained, equipped and clothed in the European manner. In the end Selim's efforts were not overly successful. The janissaries bitterly opposed the reforms and refused to be trained in the manner of Europeans. In addition they did all that they could to hamper the creation of the Nizam-i-Cedit. Except for some marked improvements in the artillery corps, by the end of his reign, Selim's forces remained at the same low level as they had been when he first became sultan. This period of reform was interrupted, however, as Selim found himself forced to take sides in the European conflict when General Bonaparte's forces invaded Egypt and Syria. As a result, Selim would declare war on France
France
on 11 September 1799. In doing so, he not only allied himself to England, but also with his oldest and most important enemy - Russia. As it is well known with the death of Catherine the Great in 1796, her son Paul I became tsar. He made overtures for rapprochement with the Turks in order to secure, via the alliance signed with the Turks in 1799, the right for Russian warships to pass through the Straits. He also gained concessions on the issue of the principalities of Moldavia
Moldavia
and Wallachia
Wallachia
(which will be discussed later). Selim would be troubled by these alliances in the years to come. Yet, Russia withdrew from the anti-French coalition not long after signing the alliance with the Porte and by 1801, Britain had agreed to negotiate a peace with France. In June 1802, a formal peace treaty was signed between Britain and France
France
at Amiens. Among the many articles in this treaty, Article 8 stated that the possessions and integrity of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
were to be preserved as they were before the war. More importantly, the Turks decided to enter into a separate peace with France, in conjunction with Amiens - a peace for which they received little British or Russian support. Through this agreement, France regained her former privileges (such as capitulations and as the protectors over the sultan's Catholic subjects) and for the first time, the Porte gave French merchant vessels the right to trade freely on the Black Sea. With this treaty, Napoleon
Napoleon
restored many of the rights that had been enjoyed prior to the Revolution and set the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and France
France
on the road to rebuilding their diplomatic relations. In addition, Napoleon
Napoleon
had opened up new markets by which France
France
could trade with Russia, the Balkans
Balkans
and even into Persia. These new markets, he hoped, would rival and perhaps surpass British commercial interests in the East. For Napoleon, his signature on the Peace of Amiens did not mean that he had suddenly abandoned all his plans to destroy Britain's commercial and naval supremacy, nor did mean that he had forgotten his territorial ambitions for France
France
in the realm of the Ottoman Empire. Napoleon
Napoleon
especially desired to regain French control over the Ionian Islands (which he won in 1797, but lost to Russia
Russia
after 1799) and also had his sights set on controlling key areas on the Adriatic Coast in the Balkans. The key point in his future plans was Constantinople, now Istanbul. In reality, Amiens (for both France
France
and Britain) was regarded as more of truce than a definite termination to their conflicts.[9] Not only did Napoleon
Napoleon
continue to concern himself with plans for Britain, but he soon found his attentions turned more seriously towards Russia
Russia
as well. In 1801, a new tsar, the young Alexander
Alexander
I, had ascended to the Russian throne, after assassination of his father Paul I. Like his grandmother Catherine, Alexander
Alexander
held definite designs for the European provinces of the Ottoman Empire, which lay south of his realm. He especially desired to control the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, the Dardanelle and naturally set his sights at the historical goal of Russia
Russia
- the acquisition of Constantinople. But, Alexander's ambitions did not lead him to take rash actions. Instead, he decided it best, for the moment, to approach the Porte in a cautious and amicable manner. Only in this way could he maintain the privileges, which Russia
Russia
still enjoyed from the 1799 alliance (The Porte was at this time still permitting Russian ships to pass through the straits and to continue to hold a protectorate over the Ionian Islands) and keep his influence with the Porte strong enough to rival any ambitions of Napoleon. The 1806 Edirne Incident[edit] The 1806 Edirne Incident was an armed confrontation between the New Order Troops (Nizam-i Djedit) of Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Selim III
Selim III
and a coalition of Balkan
Balkan
magnates, ayans, and the region's Janissary garrisons that occurred in Thrace
Thrace
throughout the summer of 1806. The cause of the incident was Selim III's attempt to expand the New Order's permanent presence into Rumelia
Rumelia
through the establishment of New Order barracks in the region's cities. The ultimate outcome of the confrontation was the retreat of imperial forces back to Istanbul
Istanbul
and to Anatolia, constituting a deathblow to Selim III's ambitions of expanding his reformed army, as well as a major blow to his legitimacy. This deteriorated image would result in his deposition the following May.[10] Downfall and assassination[edit] Main article: Kabakçı Mustafa

An official Ottoman, Firman
Firman
by Sultan
Sultan
Selim III
Selim III
appointing François Pouqueville as the representative of France
France
in the court of Ali Pasha of Janina.

Selim III
Selim III
was, however, thoroughly under the influence of French ambassador to the Porte Horace Sébastiani, and the fleet was compelled to retire without effecting its purpose. But the anarchy, manifest or latent, existing throughout the provinces proved too great for Selim III
Selim III
to cope with. The Janissaries
Janissaries
rose once more in revolt, induced the Sheikh ul-Islam to grant a fetva against the reforms, dethroned and imprisoned Selim III, and placed his cousin Mustafa on the throne, as Mustafa IV
Mustafa IV
(1807–08), on May 29, 1807 The ayan of Rustchuk, Alemdar Mustafa, a strong partisan of the reforms, collected an army of 40,000 men and marched on Constantinople with the purpose of reinstating Selim III, but he came too late. The ill-fated reforming Sultan
Sultan
had been stabbed in the seraglio by the Chief Black Eunuch
Chief Black Eunuch
and his men.[11][unreliable source] Upon his arrival in the capital, Bairakdar's only resource was to wreak his vengeance on Mustafa IV
Mustafa IV
and to place on the throne Mahmud II (1808–1839), the sole surviving member of the house of Osman. Another version about his murder states that at the time of his deposition, Selim was staying at the Harem. The night of Thursday, 28 July 1808, he was with his favourite wife, Empress Re’fet Kadın, and a lady-in-waiting Pakize Hanım in attendance. Alemdar Mustafa Pasha, a loyalist of Selim, was approaching the city with his army to reinstate Selim. Therefore, Mustafa IV
Mustafa IV
gave orders to murder him and his brother Prince Mahmud. The assassins were apparently a group of men, including the Master of the Wardrobe called Fettah the Georgian, the Treasury steward Ebe Selim, and black eunuch named Nezir Ağa. Selim apparently knew his end was coming when he saw their swords drawn. Pakize Hanım threw herself between them and her lord, she was cut in her hand. Re’fet Kadın started screaming in terror, another slave girl who rushed in fainted when she saw what was about to happen. A struggle ensued and the former sultan was cut down and murdered, his last words apparently being "Allahu Akbar" ("God is great"). Re’fet Kadın threw herself on the body but was dragged away. The body was quickly wrapped in a quilt. The assassins moved on to find Prince Mahmud and attempt to murder him too, he was more fortunate though and later ordered the assassins to be executed. Selim III
Selim III
would be the only Ottoman sultan to be killed by the sword.[12] He was buried in Laleli Mosque
Laleli Mosque
near his father's tomb. Interest in poetry and arts[edit]

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Selim III's tughra, or official seal.

A great lover of music, Sultan
Sultan
Selim III
Selim III
was a composer and performer of significant talent. He created fourteen makam-s (melodic types), three of which are in current use today. Sixty-four compositions by Selim III
Selim III
are known today, some of which are part of the regular repertory of Turkish classical music
Turkish classical music
performerance. Aside from composing music, Selim III
Selim III
also performed on the ney (reed flute) and tanbur (long-necked, fretted lute).[13][page needed] Selim III's interest in music started in his days as a prince (shahzade) when he studied under Kırımlı Ahmet Kamil Efendi and Tanburi İzak Efendi. He was especially respectful of Tanburi İzak Efendi, and it is recounted that the Sultan
Sultan
rose in respect when Tanburi İzak Efendi entered the court. As a patron of the arts, Selim III
Selim III
encouraged musicians of his day, including Dede Efendi
Dede Efendi
and Baba Hamparsum. The Hamparsum notation system that Selim commissioned became the dominant notation for Turkish and Armenian music. His name is associated with a school in Classical Turkish Music due to the revival and rebirth of music at his court. Selim III
Selim III
was also interested in western music and in 1797 invited an opera troupe for the first opera performance in the Ottoman Empire. Writing under the nom de plume ″İlhami″, Selim's poetry is collected in a divan. Among regular attendees of his court were Şeyh Galib, considered one of the four greatest Ottoman poets. Galib is now considered to have been not only an intimate friend of the Sultan, as they were both quite close in age, but through Galib's poetry you find an overwhelming support for his new military reforms[14][page needed] Selim III
Selim III
was a member of the Mevlevi Order
Mevlevi Order
of Sufi Whirling Dervishes, and entered into the order at the Galata Mevlevihanesi under the name ″Selim Dede". He was a renowned composer, creating many musical compositions, including a Mevlevi ayin, a long and complex liturgical form performed during the semâ (religious ceremonies) of the Mevlana
Mevlana
(Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi-Rumi) Tariqah of Sufi Whirling
Sufi Whirling
Mystics, in makam Suzidilara. He extended his patronage to Antoine Ignace Melling, whom he appointed as the court architect in 1795. Melling constructed a number of palaces and other buildings for the Sultan
Sultan
and created engravings of contemporary Constantinople. Family[edit]

Consorts

Selim had seven wives:

Safizar Kadın (died at Topkapı Palace, 30 May 1792, buried in Mustafa III
Mustafa III
Mausoleum, Laleli Mosque, Istanbul), the principal consort; Aynısafa Kadın, the principal consort; Zibifer Kadın (died at Beylerbeyi Palace, 1 January 1817, buried in Selimiye Mosque, Üsküdar, Istanbul), the second consort;[15] Tabısafa Kadın (died at Fındıklı Palace, 15 March 1855, buried in Mustafa III
Mustafa III
Mausoleum, Laleli Mosque, Istanbul), the third consort; Refet Kadın (died at Beșiktaș Palace, 22 October 1867, buried in Mihrişah Sultan
Mihrişah Sultan
Mausoleum, Eyüp Cemetery, Istanbul), the fourth consort;[15] Nuruşems Kadın (died at Kuruçeșme Palace, May 1826, buried in Mustafa III
Mustafa III
Mausoleum, Laleli Mosque, Istanbul), the fifth consort;[16] Hüsnümah Kadın (died 1814, buried in Mustafa III
Mustafa III
Mausoleum, Laleli Mosque, Istanbul), the sixth consort.

See also[edit]

Ottoman military reform efforts Nizam-i Jedid Kabakçı Mustafa

Notes[edit]

^ a b Cleveland, William L.; Bunton, Martin (2013). A history of the modern Middle East (Fifth ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press. p. 57. ISBN 9780813348339.  ^ " Selim III
Selim III
facts, information, pictures - Encyclopedia.com articles about Selim III". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2017-06-05.  ^ "Ottoman Empire". Universalium.academic.ru. Retrieved 2017-06-05.  ^ Stanford, Shaw. "The Origins of Ottoman Military Reform: The Nizam-I Cedid Army of Sultan
Sultan
Selim III". The Journal of Modern History. 37: 291. doi:10.1086/600691. JSTOR 1875404.  ^ "Selim, III Biography". Bookrags.com. Retrieved 2017-06-05.  ^ Cleveland, William (2013). A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. pp. 57–58. ISBN 0813340489.  ^ "Russo-Turkish Wars". Universalium.academic.ru. Retrieved 2017-06-05.  ^ Pan-Islamism: Indian Muslims, the Ottomans and Britain, 1877-1924 - Azmi Özcan. Google Books. Retrieved 29 November 2012.  ^ a b "Franco-Turkish Relationship during First Empire". Napoleon-series.org. Retrieved 2017-06-05.  ^ Hanioğlu, M. Şükrü (2008). A Brief History of The Late Ottoman Empire. Princeton University. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-691-13452-9.  ^ Goodwin, Jason: "Lords of the Horizons", Chapter 24: The Auspicious Event, 1998 ^ Davis, Claire (1970). The Palace of Topkapi in Istanbul. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 213–217. ASIN B000NP64Z2.  ^ Signell, Karl. "The Modernization Process in Two Oriental Music Cultures: Turkish and Japanese". Asian Music. 7. doi:10.2307/833790.  ^ Holbrook, Victoria. "THE INTELLECTUAL AND THE STATE: POETRY IN ISTANBUL IN THE 1790'S". Oriente Moderno. 18.  ^ a b Haskan, Mehmet Nermi (2001). Yüzyıllar boyunca Üsküdar - Volume 1. Üsküdar Belediyesi. pp. 307, 329. ISBN 978-9-759-76060-1.  ^ Haskan, Mehmet Nermi (2001). Yüzyıllar boyunca Üsküdar - Volume 3. Üsküdar Belediyesi. p. 1332. ISBN 978-9-759-76063-2. 

Bibliography[edit]

Basaran, Betul, Selim III, Social Control and Policing in Istanbul
Istanbul
at the End of the Eighteenth Century: Between Crisis and Order, Leiden: Brill, 2014 Malecka, Anna. "The mystery of the Nur al-Ayn diamond", in: Gems and Jewellery, August/September 2014, pp. 20–22. Stanford, Shaw. "The Origins of Ottoman Military Reform: The Nizam-I Cedid Army of Sultan
Sultan
Selim III". The Journal of Modern History. 37: 291. doi:10.1086/600691. JSTOR 1875404.  Shaw, Stanford Jay. Between old and new: the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
under Sultan
Sultan
Selim III, 1789-1807 (Harvard University Press, 1971) Tuncay Zorlu, Sultan
Sultan
Selim III
Selim III
and the Modernisation of the Ottoman Navy (London, I.B. Tauris, 2011).

References[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Selim". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

External links[edit] Media related to Selim III
Selim III
at Wikimedia Commons

Selim III House of Osman Born: 24 December 1761 Died: 28 July 1808

Regnal titles

Preceded by Abdul Hamid I Sultan
Sultan
of the Ottoman Empire 7 April 1789 – 29 May 1807 Succeeded by Mustafa IV

Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
titles

Preceded by Abdul Hamid I Caliph
Caliph
of Islam 7 April 1789 – 29 May 1807 Succeeded by Mustafa IV

v t e

Ottoman Sultans / Caliphs

Dynasty Family tree (detailed) Family tree (simplified) Line of succession

Osman I Orhan Murad I Bayezid I Interregnum Mehmed I Murad II Mehmed II Murad II Mehmed II Bayezid II Selim I Suleiman I Selim II Murad III Mehmed III Ahmed I Mustafa I Osman II Mustafa I Murad IV Ibrahim Mehmed IV Suleiman II Ahmed II Mustafa II Ahmed III Mahmud I Osman III Mustafa III Abdul Hamid I Selim III Mustafa IV Mahmud II Abdulmejid I Abdülaziz Murad V Abdul Hamid II Mehmed V Mehmed VI Abdulmejid II
Abdulmejid II
( Caliph
Caliph
only)

§ First Ottoman caliph

Book Category

Related templates: Claimants Valide Sultans

v t e

Ottoman princes

1st generation

Alaeddin Pasha Orhan

2nd generation

Süleyman Pasha Murad I Şehzade Halil

3rd generation

Savcı Bey Bayezid I

4th generation

Süleyman Çelebi İsa Çelebi Mehmed I Musa Çelebi Mustafa Çelebi

5th generation

Murad II Küçük Mustafa

6th generation

Mehmed the Conqueror

7th generation

Bayezid II Sultan
Sultan
Cem

8th generation

Şehzade Ahmet Şehzade Korkut Selim I

9th generation

Suleiman the Magnificent

10th generation

Şehzade Mustafa Şehzade Mehmed Şehzade Abdullah Selim II Şehzade Bayezid Şehzade Cihangir

11th generation

Murad III

12th generation

Mehmed III Sultan
Sultan
Yahya

13th generation

Şehzade Mahmud Ahmed I Mustafa I

14th generation

Osman II Murad IV Ibrahim

15th generation

Şehzade Ömer Mehmed IV Suleiman II Ahmed II

16th generation

Mustafa II Ahmed III

17th generation

Mahmud I Osman III Mustafa III Abdul Hamid I

18th generation

Selim III Mustafa IV Mahmud II

19th generation

Abdulmejid I Abdulaziz

20th generation

Abdul Hamid II Murad V Mehmed V Şehzade Ahmed Kemaleddin Mehmed VI Şehzade Yusuf Izzeddin Abdulmejid II

21st generation

Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Selaheddin Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Selim Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Abdülkadir Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Abid Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Ziyaeddin Şehzade Ömer
Şehzade Ömer
Hilmi

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 39533215 LCCN: n86034869 ISNI: 0000 0000 8118 6580 GND: 118750917 SELIBR: 347379 SUDOC: 050162748 BNF: cb135056965 (data) MusicBrainz: 1ab5a8c5-4693-43e4-809d-353990423

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