Sejong the Great (Korean pronunciation: [se(ː)dʑoŋ]; 7 May 1397 – 8 April 1450) was the fourth king of Joseon-dynasty Korea. He was the third son of King Taejong and Queen consort Min. He was designated as heir-apparent, Crown Prince, after his older brother Jae was stripped of his title. He ascended to the throne in 1418. During the first four years of his reign, Taejong governed as regent, after which his father-in-law, Sim On, and his close associates were executed. Sejong reinforced Confucian policies and executed major "legal amendments" (공법; 貢法). He also personally created and promulgated the Korean alphabet Hangul, encouraged advancements of scientific technology, and instituted many other efforts to stabilize and improve prosperity. He dispatched military campaigns to the north and instituted the Samin Policy (사민정책; 徙民政策) to attract new settlers to the region. To the south, he subjugated Japanese raiders and captured Tsushima Island (known as Daemado in the Korean language). During his reign from 1418 to 1450, he governed along with his father, the King Emeritus Taejong from 1418 to 1422, then governing as the sole monarch from 1422 to 1450. Since 1442, the king was increasingly ill so his son Crown Prince Munjong acted as regent for him. Although the appellation "the Great" / "(대왕;大王)" was given posthumously to almost every ruler of Goryeo and Joseon, this title is usually associated with Gwanggaeto and Sejong.
1.1 Early life 1.2 Achievements
1.2.1 Starting politics based on Confucianism
220.127.116.11 Decree against the Huihui community
1.2.2 Foreign policy 1.2.3 Strengthening of the Korean military 1.2.4 Science, technology, and agriculture
1.3 Literature 1.4 Hangul 1.5 Death and legacy
2 Family 3 Official posthumous titles 4 Depiction in arts and media
4.1 Depiction in video games
5 Portrait in Korean currency notes 6 Statue and museum exhibit 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links
Life Early life Sejong was born on 7 May 1397, the third son of King Taejong. When he was twelve, he became Grand Prince Chungnyeong (충녕대군). As a young prince, Sejong excelled in various studies and was favored by King Taejong over his two older brothers. As the third son of Taejong, Sejong's ascension to the throne was unique. Taejong's eldest son, Yangnyeong (양녕대군), was named heir apparent in 1404. However, Yangnyeong's free spirited nature as well as his preference for hunting and leisure activities resulted in his removal from the position of heir apparent in June 1418. Though it is said that Yangnyeong abdicated in favor of his younger brother, there are no definitive records regarding Yangnyeong's removal. Taejong's second son Grand Prince Hyoryeong became a monk upon the elevation of his younger brother Sejong. Following the removal of Yangnyeong as heir apparent, Taejong moved quickly to secure his youngest son's position as heir apparent. The government was purged of officials who disagreed with the removal of Yangnyeong. In August 1418, Taejong abdicated in favour of Sejong. However, even in retirement Taejong continued to influence government policy. Sejong's surprising political savvy and creativity did not become apparent until after Taejong's death in 1422. Achievements Starting politics based on Confucianism King Sejong revolutionized government by appointing people from different social classes as civil servants. Furthermore, he performed official government events according to Confucianism, and he encouraged people to behave according to Confucianism. As a result, Confucianism became the social norm. He also published some books about Confucianism. At first, he suppressed Buddhism by banning all Buddhist monks from Seoul, drastically reducing the power and wealth of the Buddhist hierarchy, but later he alleviated his action by building temples and accepting Buddhism by making a test to become a monk (Seung-gwa) Decree against the Huihui community In the year 1427 Sejong ordered a decree against the Huihui (Korean Muslim) community that had had special status and stipends since the Yuan dynasty. The Huihui were forced to abandon their headgear, to close down their "ceremonial hall" (Mosque in the city of Kaesong) and worship like everyone else. No further mention of Muslims exist during the era of the Joseon. Foreign policy In relationship with the Chinese Ming, he made some successful agreements that benefited Korea. In relationship with Jurchen people, he installed 10 military posts - 4 counties (郡) and 6 garrisons (鎭) - in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. He maintained good relations with Japan by opening three ports and allowing trade with them. But he also invaded Tsushima island with military forces in order to stop pirating in the South Sea (East China Sea) since Tsushima island was a base for pirates. Strengthening of the Korean military King Sejong was an effective military planner. He created various military regulations to strengthen the safety of his kingdom, supported the advancement of Korean military technology, including cannon development. Different kinds of mortars and fire arrows were tested as well as the use of gunpowder. In May 1419, King Sejong, under the advice and guidance of his father Taejong, embarked upon the Gihae Eastern Expedition, the ultimate goal of this military expedition to remove the nuisance of Japanese pirates who had been operating out of Tsushima Island. During the expedition, 245 Japanese were killed, and another 110 were captured in combat, while 180 Korean soldiers were killed. 146 Chinese and 8 Korean kidnapped were liberated by this expedition. In September 1419 a truce was made and the Korean army returned to Korea, but the Treaty of Gyehae was signed in 1443, in which the Daimyo of Tsushima promised to pay tribute to the King of Joseon; in return, the Joseon court rewarded the Sō clan with preferential rights regarding trade between Japan and Korea. In 1433, Sejong sent Kim Jongseo (hangul: 김종서, hanja: 金宗瑞), a prominent general, north to destroy the Jurchens (later known as the Manchus). Kim's military campaign captured several castles, pushed north, and expanded Korean territory, to the Songhua River. 4 counties and 6 garrisons (hangul: 사군육진 hanja: 四郡六鎭) were established to safeguard the people from the Jurchen. Science, technology, and agriculture
A modern reconstruction and scaled down model of Jang Yeong-sil's self-striking water clock.
Sejong is credited with great advances in science during his reign. He wanted to help farmers so he decided to create a farmer's handbook. The book—the Nongsa jikseol (hangul: 농사직설, hanja: 農事直說)—contained information about the different farming techniques that he told scientists to gather in different regions of Korea. These techniques were needed in order to maintain the newly adopted methods of intensive, continuous cultivation in Korean agriculture. During his rule, Jang Yeong-sil (hangul: 장영실, hanja: 蔣英實) became known as a prominent inventor. Jang was naturally a creative and smart thinker as a young person. However, Jang was at the bottom of the social class. Sejong noticed Jang's skill and immediately called him to his court in Seoul. Upon giving Jang a government position and funding for his inventions, officials protested, believing a person from the lower classes should not rise to power among nobles. Sejong instead believed Jang merited support because of his ability. Jang created new significant designs for water clocks, armillary spheres, and sundials. In 1442, Jang made the world's first rain gauge named Cheugugi; it was the idea of Munjong, Sejong's son and heir. This model has not survived, since the oldest existing East Asian rain gauge is one made in 1770, during the reign period of King Yeongjo. According to the Daily Records of the Royal Secretariat (hangul: 승정원일기, hanja:承政院日記) King Yeongjo wanted to revive the glorious times of King Sejong the Great, and so read chronicles of Sejong's era. When he came across mention of a rain gauge, King Yeongjo ordered a reproduction. Since there is a mark of the Qing Dynasty ruler Qianlong (r. 1735–1796) of China, dated 1770, this Korean-designed rain gauge is sometimes misunderstood as having been imported from China.
Korean celestial globe first made by the scientist Jang Yeong-Sil during the Chosŏn Dynasty under the reign of King Sejong
Sejong also wanted to reform the Korean calendar system, which was at the time based upon the longitude of the Chinese capital. Sejong, for the first time in Korean history, had his astronomers create a calendar with the Joseon capital of Seoul as the primary meridian. This new system allowed Korean astronomers to accurately predict the timing of solar and lunar eclipses. In the realm of traditional Korean medicine, two important treatises were written during the reign of Sejong. These were the Hyangyak jipseongbang and the Euibang yuchwi, which historian Kim Yongsik says represents 'Koreans' efforts to develop their own system of medical knowledge, distinct from that of China.' Literature Sejong depended on the agricultural produce of Joseon's farmers, so he allowed them to pay more or less tax according to fluctuations of economic prosperity or hard times. Because of this, farmers could worry less about tax quotas and work instead at surviving and selling their crops. Once the palace had a significant surplus of food, King Sejong then distributed food to poor peasants or farmers who needed it. In 1429 Nongsa-jikseol (hangul: 농사직설, hanja: 農事直說, "Explanations of Agriculture") was compiled under the supervision of King Sejong. It was the first book about Korean farming, dealing with agricultural subjects such as planting, harvesting, and soil treatment. Although most government officials and aristocrats opposed usage of hangul, lower classes embraced it, became literate, and were able to communicate with one another in writing. Sejong's personal writings are also highly regarded. He composed the famous Yongbi Eocheon Ga ("Songs of Flying Dragons", 1445), Seokbo Sangjeol ("Episodes from the Life of Buddha", July 1447), Worin Cheon-gang Jigok ("Songs of the Moon Shining on a Thousand Rivers", July 1447), and the reference Dongguk Jeong-un ("Dictionary of Proper Sino-Korean Pronunciation", September 1447). In 1420 Sejong established the Hall of Worthies (집현전; 集賢殿; Jiphyeonjeon) at the Gyeongbokgung Palace. It consisted of scholars selected by the king. The Hall participated in various scholarly endeavors, of which the best known may be the compilation of the Hunmin Jeongeum. Hangul See also: Hunmin Jeongeum and Hangul
Hunmin Jeongeum Eonhae
King Sejong the Great profoundly affected Korean history with his personal creation and introduction of hangul, the native phonetic alphabet system for the Korean language. Before the creation of Hangul, people in Korea (known as Joseon at the time) primarily wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate Hangul by hundreds of years, including idu, hyangchal, gugyeol, and gakpil. However, due to the fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, and the large number of characters needed to be learned, there was much difficulty in learning how to write using Chinese characters for the lower classes, who often didn't have the privilege of education. To assuage this problem, King Sejong created the unique alphabet known as Hangul to promote literacy among the common people. His intention was to establish a cultural identity for Korea through its unique script. King Sejong presided over the introduction of the 28-letter Korean alphabet, with the explicit goal being that Koreans from all classes would read and write. Each hangul letter is based on a simplified diagram of the patterns made by the human speech organs (the mouth, tongue and teeth) when producing the sound related to the character. Morphemes are built by writing the characters in syllabic blocks. The blocks of letters are then strung together linearly. The Hangul alphabet was completed in 1443 and published in 1446 along with a 33-page manual titled Hunmin Jeong-um, explaining what the letters are as well as the philosophical theories and motives behind them. The Hunmin Jeong-um purported that anyone could learn Hangul in a matter of days. Persons previously unfamiliar with Hangul can typically pronounce Korean script accurately after only a few hours of study. Death and legacy
The tomb of Sejong the Great located in Yeoju, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea.
Sejong was blinded years later by diabetes complications that eventually took his life in 1450. He was buried at the Yeong Mausoleum (영릉; 英陵). His successor was his first son, Munjong. Sejong judged that his sickly son, Munjong, was unlikely to live long and on his deathbed asked the Hall of Worthies scholars to look after his young grandson, Danjong. As predicted, Munjong died two years after his accession, and political stability enjoyed under Sejong disintegrated when Danjong became the sixth king of Joseon at the age of twelve. Eventually, Sejong's second son, Sejo, usurped the throne from Danjong in 1455. When the six martyred ministers were implicated in a plot to restore Danjong to throne, Sejo abolished the Hall of Worthies, and executed Danjong and several ministers who served during Sejong's reign. The street Sejongno and the Sejong Centre for the Performing Arts, both located in central Seoul, are named after King Sejong. King Sejong is on the Korean 10,000 won bill, along with the various scientific products made under his reign. In early 2007, the Republic of Korea government decided to create a special administrative district from part of the present Chungcheongnam-do Province, near what is presently Daejeon. The district will be named Sejong Special Autonomous City. The life of Sejong was depicted in the KBS Korean historical drama King Sejong the Great in 2008. Sejong is also depicted in the 2011 SBS drama Deep Rooted Tree. Family
Joseon dynasty monarchs
Sejong the Great 1418–1450
v t e
Father: King Taejong of Joseon (13 June 1367 – 30 May 1422) (조선 태종)
Grandfather: King Taejo of Joseon (27 October 1335 – 18 June 1408) (조선 태조) Grandmother: Queen Shinui of the Anbyeon Han clan (September 1337 – 21 October 1391) (신의왕후 한씨)
Mother: Queen Wongyeong of the Yeoheung Min clan (11 July 1365 – 10 July 1420) (원경왕후 민씨)
Grandfather: Min Je (1339 – 1408) (민제) Grandmother: Lady Song of the Yeosan Song clan (1342 – 1424) (여산 송씨)
Consorts and their Respective Issue(s):
Queen Soheon of the Cheongsong Shim clan (12 October 1395 – 19 April 1446) (소헌왕후 심씨)
Yi Hyang, Crown Prince Hyang (15 November 1414 – 1 June 1452) (왕세자 향) Yi Yu, Grand Prince Suyang (2 November 1417 – 23 September 1468) (이유 수양대군) Yi Yong, Grand Prince Anpyeong (18 October 1418 – 18 November 1453) (이용 안평대군) Yi Gu, Grand Prince Imyeong (6 January 1420 – 21 January 1469) (이구 임영대군) Yi Yeo, Grand Prince Gwangpyeong (2 May 1425 – 7 December 1444) (이여 광평대군) Yi Yu, Grand Prince Geumseong (5 May 1426 – 7 November 1457) (이유 금성대군) Yi Im, Grand Prince Pyeongwon (18 November 1427 – 16 January 1445) (이임 평원대군) Yi Yeom, Grand Prince Yeongeung (23 May 1434 – 2 February 1467) (이염 영응대군) Princess Jeongso (1412 – 25 February 1424) (정소공주) Princess Jeongui (1415 – 11 February 1477) (정의공주)
Royal Noble Consort Yeong of the Jinju Kang clan (영빈 강씨)
Yi Yeong, Prince Hwaui (1425 – 1460) (이영 화의군)
Royal Noble Consort Shin of the Cheongju Kim clan (1406 – 4 September 1464) (신빈 김씨) 
Yi Jeung, Prince Gyeyang (1427 – 16 August 1464) (이증 계양군) Yi Gong, Prince Uichang (1428 – 1460) (이공 의창군) Yi Chim, Prince Milseong (1430 – 1479) (이침 밀성군) Yi Yeon, Prince Ikhyeon (1431 – 1463) (이연 익현군) Yi Dang, Prince Yeonghae (1435 – 1477) (이당 영해군) Yi Geo, Prince Damyang (1439 – August 1450) (이거 담양군) 2 Unnamed daughters who died at childbirth
Royal Noble Consort Hye of the Cheongju Yang clan (? – 9 November 1455) (혜빈 양씨) 
Yi Eo, Prince Hannam (5 October 1429 – 29 June 1459) (이어 한남군) Yi Hyeon, Prince Suchun (1431 – 1455) (이현 수춘군) Yi Jeon, Prince Yeongpung (17 September 1434 – 22 July 1456) (이전 영풍군)
Royal Consort Gwi-in of the Miryang Park clan (귀인 박씨) Royal Consort Gwi-in of the Choi clan (귀인 최씨)## No issue Royal Consort Suk-ui of the Jo clan (숙의 조씨) Royal Consort So-yong of the Hong clan (? – 4 February 1452) (소용 홍씨) Royal Consort Suk-won of the Lee clan (숙원 이씨)
Princess Jeongan (1438 – 16 October 1461) (정안옹주)
Consort Sang-chim of the Song clan (상침 송씨)
Princess Jeonghyeon (1425 – November 1480) (정현옹주) 
Consort Sa-gi of the Cha clan (? – 10 July 1444) (사기 차씨)
An unnamed daughter (1430 – 1431)
Lady Sangsik of the Hwang clan (상식 황씨) Lady Jeonchan of the Park clan (전찬 박씨)
Official posthumous titles
King Sejong the Great, as depicted on the Bank of Korea's 10,000 won banknote (Series VI).
Statue of King Sejong on Gwanghwamun Plaza.
Hanja: 世宗莊憲英文睿武仁聖明孝大王 Hangul: 세종장헌영문예무인성명효대왕 English: King Sejong Jangheon Yeongmun Yemu Inseong Myeonghyo the Great
Depiction in arts and media
Portrayed by Kim Sang-kyung in the 2008 KBS2 TV series King Sejong the Great and in the 2016 KBS1 TV series Jang Yeong-sil. Portrayed by Lee Hyun-woo in the 2008 KBS2 TV series King Sejong the Great. Portrayed by Ahn Sung-ki in the 2008 film The Divine Weapon. Portrayed by Jeon Moo-song in the 2011 JTBC TV series Insu, The Queen Mother. Portrayed by Han Suk-kyu, Song Joong-ki and Kang San in the 2011 SBS TV series Deep Rooted Tree. Portrayed by Ju Ji-hoon in the 2012 film I Am the King. Portrayed by Yoon Doo-joon in the 2015 MBC TV series Splash Splash Love.
Depiction in video games
Leader of the Korean civilization in Sid Meier's Civilization V Leader of the Korean civilization in Civilization Revolution 2 King Sejong Station LE, a major tournament map in the game StarCraft II: Heart of the Swarm
Portrait in Korean currency notes Sejong the Great is one of the six linguistic scholars, with Samuel Johnson, Jacob Grimm, Wilhelm Grimm, Elias Lönnrot, and Vuk Stefanović Karadžić depicted as a portrait in a national currency. Statue and museum exhibit Main article: Statue of King Sejong (Gwanghwamun) A 9.5 meter high bronze statue of King Sejong was placed in 2009 on a concrete pedestal on the boulevard of Gwanghwamun Square and directly in front of the Sejong Center for the Performing Arts in Seoul. The sculptor was Kim Young-won. The pedestal contains one of several entrances to the 3,200 square meter, underground museum exhibit entitled "The Story of King Sejong". It was dedicated on Hangul Day in celebration of the 563rd anniversary of the invention of the Korean alphabet by King Sejong. See also
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sejong the Great.
List of Korea-related topics History of Korea Rulers of Korea Sejongno Sejong the Great class destroyer Sejong Center King Sejong Station UNESCO King Sejong Literacy Prize Sejong City
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Retrieved 22 February 2016. ^ "한국역대인물 종합정보 시스템 - 한국학중앙연구원". People.aks.ac.kr. 2005-11-30. Retrieved 2016-02-22. ^ <<책한권으로 읽는 세종대왕실록>>(Learning Sejong Silok in one book) ISBN 890107754X ^ Haralambous, Yannis; Horne, P. Scott. Fonts & Encodings. "O'Reilly Media, Inc.". p. 155. ISBN 9780596102425. Retrieved 8 October 2016. ^ a b Selin, Helaine. Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Westen Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 505–506. ISBN 9789401714167. Retrieved 27 July 2016. ^ a b c d e f Kim (1998), 57. ^ "장영실". Bueb125.com.ne.kr. Archived from the original on 2001-07-18. Retrieved 2016-02-22. ^ Kim (1998), 51. ^ http://www.reportnet.co.kr/knowledge/pop_preview.html?dn=2075262. Retrieved October 25, 2008. Missing or empty title= (help)[dead link] ^ "우리말 배움터". Urimal.cs.pusan.ac.kr. Retrieved 2016-02-22. ^ Kim Jeong Su(1990), <<한글의 역사와 미래>>(History and Future of Hangul) ISBN 8930107230 ^ Hannas, Wm C. Asia's Orthographic Dilemma. University of Hawaii Press. p. 57. ISBN 9780824818920. Retrieved 20 September 2016. ^ Chen, Jiangping. Multilingual Access and Services for Digital Collections. ABC-CLIO. p. 66. ISBN 9781440839559. Retrieved 20 September 2016. ^ "Invest Korea Journal". 23. Korea Trade-Investment Promotion Agency. 1 January 2005. Retrieved 20 September 2016. They later devised three different systems for writing Korean with Chinese characters: Hyangchal, Gukyeol and Idu. These systems were similar to those developed later in Japan and were probably used as models by the Japanese. ^ "Korea Now". 29. Korea Herald. 1 July 2000. Retrieved 20 September 2016. ^ Hunmin Jeongeum Haerye, postface of Jeong Inji, p. 27a, translation from Gari K. Ledyard, The Korean Language Reform of 1446, p. 258 ^ Koerner, E. F. K.; Asher, R. E. Concise History of the Language Sciences: From the Sumerians to the Cognitivists. Elsevier. p. 54. ISBN 9781483297545. Retrieved 13 October 2016. ^ Korean Spirit and Culture Promotion Project. Fifty Wonders of Korea Volume I: Culture and Art. 2nd ed. Seoul: Samjung Munhwasa, 2009. 28-35. ^ "Tour Guide". Tourguide.vo.kr. Retrieved 2016-02-22. ^ "▒▒ KBS대하드라마 대왕세종 ▒▒". Kbs.co.kr. Retrieved 2016-02-22. ^ Daughter of Sim On (심온, 1375 – December 25, 1418), Lord Anhyo (안효공), Internal Prince Cheongcheon (청천부원군); and Lady Sunheung, Princess Consort to the Internal Prince, of the Ahn clan (순흥부부인 안씨). Granddaughter of Sim Deok-bu (심덕부, 1328–1401) ^ Her uncle Sim Jong (Sim On's brother) is Taejo's son-in-law (created Prince Consort Cheongwon) thru his marriage to Princess Gyeongseon ^ Eldest offspring ^ Later married Ahn Maeng-dam (안맹담, ?–1469), son of Ahn Mang-ji (안망지); created Military Officer Yeonchang (연창위) ^ Daughter of Gang Seok-deok (강석덕) and Sim On's 2nd daughter (심씨; Queen Soheon's younger sister), making her Queen Soheon's niece ^ Daughter of Kim Won (김원) ^ Originally a slave of Naeja Temple (내자사 內資寺), and became a palace girl in 1418, under Queen Wong-yeong, and later under Queen So-heon ^ Later married Han Hwak (한확)'s 2nd daughter (Lady Jeongseon, Princess Consort (정선군 부인)), elder sister to the future Queen So-hye ^ Daughter of Yang Gyeong (양경) and Lady Lee (이씨). Granddaughter of Yang Cheom-sik (양첨식) and great-granddaughter of Yang Ji-su (양지수) ^ Given the temple name "Lady Minjeong" (민정) in 1791 ^ Also known by her lesser title "Lady Jang-ui" (장의궁주), granted in 1424. Gwi-in status was granted in 1428 ^ Also known by her lesser title "Lady Myeong-ui" (명의궁주), granted in 1424. Gwi-in status was granted in 1428 ^ Later married Sim An-ui (심안의), created Military Officer Cheongseong (청성위) ^ Later married Yun Sa-ro (윤사로, 1423–1463), son of Yun Eun (윤은); created Internal Prince Yeongcheon (영천부원군) ^ "The King Sejong Station - Liquipedia - The StarCraft II Encyclopedia". Wiki.teamliquid.net. Retrieved 2016-02-22. ^ "Language Log » More linguistic numismatics". Languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2016-02-22. ^ "King Sejong Statue (세종대왕 동상) Official Korea Tourism Organization". English.visitkorea.or.kr. Retrieved 2016-02-22. ^ "King Sejong and General Lee Sun-shin to receive modeling fee :: Korea.net : The official website of the Republic of Korea". Korea.net. 2011-12-09. Retrieved 2016-02-22. ^ "King Sejong Story (세종이야기) Official Korea Tourism Organization". English.visitkorea.or.kr. Retrieved 2016-02-22. ^ "Remembering Hangul". 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Kim, Yung Sik. (1998). "Problems and Possibilities in the Study of the History of Korean Science," Osiris (2nd series, Volume 13, 1998): 48–79. King Sejong the Great: the Light of Fifteenth Century Korea, Young-Key Kim-Renaud, International Circle of Korean Linguistics, 1992, softcover, 119 pages, ISBN 1-882177-00-2 Kim-Renaud, Young-Key. 2000. Sejong's theory of literacy and writing. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 30.1:13–46. Gale, James Scarth. History of the Korean People Annotated and introduction by Richard Rutt. Seoul: Royal Asiatic Society, 1972..
King Sejong's Confucian Humanism in the Early Choson Period Location of the four forts and the six posts King Sejong featured on the 10000 Korean Won banknote. King Sejong the Great: The Everlasting Light of Korea.
Sejong the Great House of Yi Born: 6 May 1397 Died: 18 May 1450
Preceded by Taejong King of Joseon 1418–1450 with Taejong (1418–1422) Munjong (1442–1450) Succeeded by Munjong
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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 87107157 LCCN: n80056912 ISNI: 0000 0001 2030 048X GND: 12119423X SELIBR: 318242 SUDOC: 066911184 BNF: cb13621406f (data) BIBSYS: 6035386 ULAN: 500356739 NDL: 00624