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The Seine
Seine
(/seɪn/ SAYN; French: La Seine, pronounced [la sɛːn]) is a 777-kilometre-long (483 mi) river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin
Paris Basin
in the north of France. It rises at Source-Seine, 30 kilometres (19 mi) northwest of Dijon in northeastern France
France
in the Langres
Langres
plateau, flowing through Paris and into the English Channel
English Channel
at Le Havre
Le Havre
(and Honfleur
Honfleur
on the left bank).[1] It is navigable by ocean-going vessels as far as Rouen, 120 kilometres (75 mi) from the sea. Over 60 percent of its length, as far as Burgundy, is negotiable by commercial riverboats, and nearly its whole length is available for recreational boating; excursion boats offer sightseeing tours of the Rive Droite
Rive Droite
and Rive Gauche within the city of Paris. There are 37 bridges within Paris
Paris
and dozens more spanning the river outside the city. Examples in Paris
Paris
include the Pont Alexandre III
Pont Alexandre III
and Pont Neuf, the latter of which dates back to 1607. Outside the city, examples include the Pont de Normandie, one of the longest cable-stayed bridges in the world, which links Le Havre
Le Havre
to Honfleur.

Contents

1 Sources 2 Course 3 Navigation 4 Flooding

4.1 2018 Paris
Paris
flood

5 Watershed 6 Water quality 7 History

7.1 Name 7.2 Events

8 In fiction 9 In art 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

Sources[edit]

The source of the Seine

The Seine
Seine
rises in the commune of Source-Seine, about 30 kilometres (19 mi) northwest of Dijon. The source has been owned by the city of Paris
Paris
since 1864. A number of closely associated small ditches or depressions provide the source waters, with an artificial grotto laid out to highlight and contain a deemed main source. The grotto includes a statue of a nymph, a dog, and a dragon. On the same site are the buried remains of a [(:fr:FanumGallo-Roman temple)]. Small statues of the dea Sequana
Sequana
" Seine
Seine
goddess" and other ex voti found at the same place are now exhibited in the Dijon
Dijon
archaeological museum. Course[edit] The Seine
Seine
can artificially be divided into five parts:

the Petite Seine
Seine
"Small Seine" from the sources to Montereau-Fault-Yonne the Haute Seine
Seine
"Upper Seine" from Montereau-Fault-Yonne
Montereau-Fault-Yonne
to Paris the Traversée de Paris
Paris
"the Paris
Paris
waterway" the Basse Seine
Seine
"Lower Seine" from Paris
Paris
to Rouen the Seine
Seine
maritime "Maritime Seine" from Rouen
Rouen
to the English channel.

Navigation[edit]

The Pont de Normandie
Pont de Normandie
over the Seine, between Le Havre
Le Havre
and Honfleur, on the Normandy
Normandy
coast

The Seine
Seine
is dredged and ocean-going vessels can dock at Rouen, 120 kilometres (75 mi) from the sea. Commercial craft (barges and push-tows) can use the river from Marcilly-sur-Seine, 516 kilometres (321 mi) to its mouth.[2] At Paris, there are 37 bridges. The river is only 24 metres (79 ft) above sea level 446 kilometres (277 mi) from its mouth, making it slow flowing and thus easily navigable. The Seine
Seine
Maritime, 105.7 kilometres (65.7 mi) from the English Channel at Le Havre
Le Havre
to Rouen, is the only portion of the Seine
Seine
used by ocean-going craft.[3] The tidal section of the Seine
Seine
Maritime is followed by a canalized section with four large multiple locks until the mouth of the Oise
Oise
at Conflans-Sainte-Honorine. Multiple locks at Bougival
Bougival
/ Chatou
Chatou
and at Suresnes
Suresnes
lift the vessels to the level of the river in Paris, where the mouth of the Marne is located. Upstream from Paris
Paris
seven locks ensure navigation to Saint Mammès, where the Loing mouth is situated. Through an eighth lock the river Yonne is reached at Montereau-Fault-Yonne. From the mouth of the Yonne, larger ships can continue upstream to Nogent-sur-Seine. From there on, the river is navigable only by small craft. All navigation ends abruptly at Marcilly-sur-Seine, where the ancient Canal de la Haute-Seine used to allow vessels to continue all the way to Troyes. This canal has been abandoned for many years.[4] The average depth of the Seine
Seine
today at Paris
Paris
is about 9.5 metres (31 ft). Until locks were installed to raise the level in the 1800s, the river was much shallower within the city most of the time, and consisted of a small channel of continuous flow bordered by sandy banks (depicted in many illustrations of the period). Today the depth is tightly controlled and the entire width of the river between the built-up banks on either side is normally filled with water. The average flow of the river is very low, only a few cubic metres per second, but much higher flows are possible during periods of heavy runoff. Special
Special
reservoirs upstream help to maintain a constant level for the river through the city, but during periods of extreme runoff significant increases in river level may occur. Flooding[edit] A very severe period of high water in January 1910 resulted in extensive flooding throughout the city. The Seine
Seine
again rose to threatening levels in 1924, 1955, 1982, 1999–2000, June 2016, and January 2018.[5][6] After a first-level flood alert in 2003, about 100,000 works of art were moved out of Paris, the largest relocation of art since World War II. Much of the art in Paris
Paris
is kept in underground storage rooms that would have been flooded.[7] A 2002 report by the French government stated the worst-case Seine
Seine
flood scenario would cost 10 billion euros and cut telephone service for a million Parisians, leaving 200,000 without electricity and 100,000 without gas.[8] 2018 Paris
Paris
flood[edit] In January 2018 the Seine
Seine
again flooded, reaching a flood level of 5.84 metres (19 ft 2 ins) on 29 January.[9] An official warning was issued on January 24 that heavy rainfall was likely to cause the river to flood.[10] By January 27, the river was rising.[11] The Deputy Mayor of Paris, Colombe Brossel, warned that the heavy rain was caused by climate change, and that "We have to understand that climatic change is not a word, it's a reality."[12] Watershed[edit] The basin area is 78,910 square kilometres (30,470 sq mi),[13] 2 percent of which is forest and 78 percent cultivated land. In addition to Paris, three other cities with a population over 100,000 are in the Seine
Seine
watershed: Le Havre at the estuary, Rouen
Rouen
in the Seine
Seine
valley and Reims
Reims
at the northern limit—with an annual urban growth rate of 0.2 percent.[13] The population density is 201 per square kilometer. Water quality[edit] Periodically the sewerage systems of Paris
Paris
experience a failure known as sanitary sewer overflow, often in periods of high rainfall. Under these conditions untreated sewage is discharged into the Seine.[14] The resulting oxygen deficit is principally caused by allochthonous bacteria larger than one micrometre in size. The specific activity of these sewage bacteria is typically three to four times greater than that of the autochthonous (background) bacterial population. Heavy metal concentrations in the Seine
Seine
are relatively high.[15] The pH level of the Seine
Seine
at Pont Neuf
Pont Neuf
has been measured to be 8.46. Despite this, the water quality has improved significantly over what several historians at various times in the past called an "open sewer".[16] In 2009, it was announced that Atlantic salmon
Atlantic salmon
had returned to the Seine.[17] History[edit]

The Seine
Seine
and Eiffel Tower

Name[edit] The name "Seine" comes from the Latin Sequana, the Gallo-Roman goddess of the river.[18] Events[edit] In March, 1314, King Philip IV of France
France
had Jacques de Molay, last Grand Master of the Knights Templar, burned on a scaffold on an island in the River Seine
Seine
in front of Notre Dame de Paris.[19] After the burning at the stake of Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
in 1431, her ashes were thrown into the Seine
Seine
from the medieval stone Mathilde Bridge at Rouen, though unserious counter-claims persist.[20] According to his will, Napoleon, who died in 1821, wished to be buried on the banks of the Seine. His request was not granted. At the 1900 Summer Olympics, the river hosted the rowing, swimming, and water polo events.[21] Twenty-four years later, it hosted the rowing events again at Bassin d'Argenteuil, along the Seine
Seine
north of Paris.[22] Until the 1930s, a towing system using a chain on the bed of the river existed to facilitate movement of barges upriver.[citation needed] World Canals by Charles Hadfield, David and Charles 1986 The Seine
Seine
was one of the original objectives of Operation Overlord
Operation Overlord
in 1944. The Allies' intention was to reach the Seine
Seine
by 90 days after D-Day. That objective was met. An anticipated assault crossing of the river never materialized as German resistance in France
France
crumbled by early September 1944. However, the First Canadian Army
First Canadian Army
did encounter resistance immediately west of the Seine
Seine
and fighting occurred in the Forêt de la Londe as Allied troops attempted to cut off the escape across the river of parts of the German 7th Army in the closing phases of the Battle of Normandy. Some of the Algerian victims of the Paris
Paris
massacre of 1961 drowned in the Seine
Seine
after being thrown by French policemen from the Pont Saint-Michel and other locations in Paris. Dredging
Dredging
in the 1960s mostly eliminated tidal bores on the lower river, known in French as "le mascaret." In 1991 UNESCO
UNESCO
added the banks of the Seine
Seine
in Paris—the Rive Gauche and Rive Droite—to its list of World Heritage Sites in Europe.[23] Since 2002 Paris-Plages
Paris-Plages
has been held every summer on the Paris
Paris
banks of the Seine: a transformation of the paved banks into a beach with sand and facilities for sunbathing and entertainment. The river is a popular site for both suicides and the disposal of bodies of murder victims.[24] In 2007, 55 bodies were retrieved from its waters; in February 2008, the body of supermodel-turned-activist Katoucha Niane
Katoucha Niane
was found there.[24] In fiction[edit] The Seine
Seine
was the river that Javert, the primary antagonist of Victor Hugo's 1862 novel Les Misérables
Les Misérables
drowned himself in. In art[edit] During the 19th and the 20th centuries in particular the Seine inspired many artists, including:

Frédéric Bazille Maurice Boitel Richard Parkes Bonington Eugène Boudin Camille Corot Charles-François Daubigny Guy Debord Raoul Dufy Othon Friesz Carl Fredrik Hill Eugène Isabey Johan Barthold Jongkind Raimond Lecourt Albert Marquet Henri Matisse Claude Monet Luis F. Pinzón Camille Pissarro Emilio Grau Sala Gaston Sébire Georges-Pierre Seurat Alfred Sisley Constant Troyon J. M. W. Turner Félix Vallotton Édouard Vuillard

A song 'La Seine' by Flavien Monod and Guy Lafarge was written in 1948. Josephine Baker
Josephine Baker
recorded a song 'La Seine' [25] A song 'La seine' by Vanessa Paradis
Vanessa Paradis
feat. Matthieu Chedid
Matthieu Chedid
was originally written as a soundtrack for the movie 'A Monster in Paris'

Georges Seurat's Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte (1884–1886) is set on an island in the Seine.

Carl Fredrik Hill, Seine-Landschaft bei Bois-Le-Roi ( Seine
Seine
Landscape in Bois-Le-Roi) (1877).

Alfred Sisley, The Terrace at Saint-Germain, Spring (1875) in the Walters Art Museum
Walters Art Museum
gives a panoramic view of the Seine
Seine
river valley.

"Washhouses on Seine" (1937) by Andrus Johani

See also[edit]

The department of Seine, abolished in 1968 Seine
Seine
River Steamers List of crossings of the Seine

References[edit]

^ A hand book up the Seine. G.F. Cruchley, 81, Fleet Street, 1840. Retrieved 10 June 2010.  ^ Edwards-May, David (2010). Inland Waterways of France. St Ives, Cambs., UK: Imray. pp. 90–94. ISBN 978-1-846230-14-1.  ^ Vois Navigables France
France
Itinéraires Fluviaux. Editions De L'Ecluse. 2009. ISBN 978-2-916919-21-8.  ^ "NoorderSoft Waterways Database".  ^ Seine
Seine
river Basin, United Nations Environment Programme
United Nations Environment Programme
Department of Early Warning and Assessment (accessed 5 June 2007). ^ Willsher, Kim (24 January 2018). " Paris
Paris
on flooding alert as rising Seine
Seine
causes travel disruption". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-01-24.  ^ Riding, Alan (19 February 2003). "Fearing a Big Flood, Paris
Paris
Moves Art". The New York Times.  ^ Mulholland,, Rory (25 January 2002). " Paris
Paris
flood warning". BBC News.  ^ Garriga, Nicolas; Schaeffer, Jeffrey (29 January 2018). " France
France
sees worst rains in 50 years, floods peak in Paris". Deseret News. Associated Press.  ^ Willsher, Kim (24 January 2018). " Paris
Paris
on flooding alert as rising Seine
Seine
causes travel disruption". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-01-24.  ^ Held, Amy (27 January 2018). "Déjà Vu Flooding In Paris
Paris
As Officials Say Seine
Seine
Will Crest Soon". The Two-Way. National Public Radio.  ^ Vandoorne, Saskya; Said-Moorhouse, Lauren (26 January 2018). "Paris is still on flood alert even though the rain has stopped". CNN.  ^ a b "World Resources Institute". Earthtrends.wri.org. 22 February 1999. Retrieved 18 May 2011.  ^ Martin Seidl, The fate of organic matter in river Seine
Seine
after a combined sewer overflow, ENPC – University Paris
Paris
Val de Marne Paris XII (France), 1997, 181 pp. ^ J.F.Chiffoleau. 2007. Metal contamination. the Seine-Aval scientific programme. Quae. 40 pages ^ Hogan, C. Michael (2006). Water quality of fresh water bodies in France. Aberdeen: Luminna Press.  ^ "Radio France
France
Internationale – Atlantic salmon
Atlantic salmon
return to river Seine". Rfi.fr. Retrieved 18 May 2011.  ^ wikt:Sequana ^ A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages Vol. III by Henry Charles Lea, NY: Hamper & Bros, Franklin Sq. 1888, p. 325. Not in copyright. ^ In February 2006 a team of forensic scientists announced the beginning of a six-month study to assess relics from a museum at Chinon
Chinon
reputed to be the remains of Jeanne d'Arc. In 2007, the investigators reported their conclusion that the relics from Chinon came from an Egyptian mummy and a cat, see Butler, Declan (2007). "Joan of Arc's relics exposed as forgery". Nature. 446 (7136): 593. doi:10.1038/446593a. PMID 17410145.  ^ 1900 Summer Olympics
1900 Summer Olympics
official report. pp. 17–18. (in French) ^ 1924 Olympics official report. pp. 165–6. ^ Paris, Banks of the Seine, the World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
entry from the UNESCO
UNESCO
website ^ a b Supermodel Katoucha Niane
Katoucha Niane
found dead from The Daily Telegraph ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mjlf18fq2do

External links[edit]

Website on the Great Flood of 1910 Lower Seine
Seine
( Seine
Seine
aval) with maps and information on places, ports and moorings on the river from Honfleur
Honfleur
to Paris, by the author of Inland Waterways of France, Imray Upper Seine
Seine
(Haute Seine
Seine
and Petite Seine) with maps and information on places, ports and moorings on the river from Paris
Paris
to Marcilly-sur-Seine, by the author of Inland Waterways of France, Imray Navigation details for 80 French rivers and canals (French waterways website section)

v t e

Venues of the 1900 Summer Olympics

7th arrondissement of Paris Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Boulogne-Billancourt Compiègne Croix-Catelan Stadium Le Havre Meulan-en-Yvelines Neuilly-sur-Seine Puteaux Satory Seine Tuileries Garden Vélodrome de Vincennes

v t e

Venues of the 1924 Summer Olympics

Bagatelle Bassin d'Argentuil Camp de Châlons Fontainebleau Hippodrome d'Auteuil Issy-les-Moulineaux Le Havre Le Stade Olympique Reims Le Stand de Tir de Versailles Meulan-en-Yvelines Piscine des Tourelles Saint-Cloud Stade Bergeyre Stade de Colombes Stade de Paris Stade Pershing Vélodrome d'hiver Vélodrome de Vincennes

v t e

Venues of the 2024 Summer Olympics

Grand Paris
Paris
Zone

Stade de France Seine-Saint-Denis Water Polo Arena
Water Polo Arena
(Piscine de Marville) Le Bourget Stade Olympique Yves-du-Manoir, Colombes U Arena, Nanterre Le Zénith

Paris
Paris
Centre Zone

Champ de Mars Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
and river Seine Champs Elysees Grand Palais Les Invalides Jardins des Tuileries Paris
Paris
expo Porte de Versailles Halle Georges Carpentier Stade Charlety Stade Jean-Bouin Stade Roland Garros

Court Philippe Chatrier Court Suzanne Lenglen Court des Serres

Parc des Princes Stade Pierre de Coubertin (Paris) Palais des sports Marcel-Cerdan Bercy Arena

Versailles Zone

Le Golf National Vélodrome de Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines Château de Versailles Élancourt
Élancourt
Hill

Football stadia

Stade Vélodrome Parc des Princes Parc Olympique Lyonnais Stade Pierre-Mauroy Nouveau Stade de Bordeaux Stade de la Beaujoire, Nantes
Nantes
(renovated)

v t e

Olympic venues in rowing

1900: Seine 1904: Creve Coeur Lake 1908: Henley Royal Regatta 1912: Djurgårdsbrunnsviken 1920: Brussels–Scheldt Maritime Canal 1924: Bassin d'Argentuil 1928: Sloten 1932: Long Beach Marine Stadium 1936: Berlin-Grünau Regatta Course 1948: Henley Royal Regatta 1952: Meilahti 1956: Lake Wendouree 1960: Lake Albano 1964: Toda Rowing Course 1968: Virgilio Uribe Rowing and Canoeing Course 1972: Oberschleißheim Regatta Course 1976: Notre Dame Island 1980: Krylatskoye Rowing Canal 1984: Lake Casitas 1988: Han River Regatta Course/Canoeing Site 1992: Lake of Banyoles 1996: Lake Lanier 2000: Sydney International Regatta Centre 2004: Schinias Olympic Rowing and Canoeing Centre 2008: Shunyi Olympic Rowing-Canoeing Park 2012: Dorney Lake 2016: Lagoa Stadium 2020: Sea Forest Waterway 2024: Vaires-sur-Marne 2028: Lake Perris

v t e

Olympic venues in swimming

1896: Bay of Zea 1900: Seine 1904: Forest Park 1908: White City Stadium 1912: Djurgårdsbrunnsviken 1920: Stade Nautique d'Antwerp 1924: Piscine des Tourelles 1928: Olympic Sports Park Swim Stadium 1932: Swimming Stadium 1936: Olympic Swimming Stadium 1948: Empire Pool 1952: Swimming Stadium 1956: Swimming/Diving Stadium 1960: Stadio Olimpico del Nuoto 1964: National Gymnasium 1968: Francisco Márquez Olympic Pool 1972: Schwimmhalle, Dantebad 1976: Olympic Pool 1980: Swimming Pool - Olimpisky 1984: Olympic Swim Stadium 1988: Jamsil Indoor Swimming Pool 1992: Piscines Bernat Picornell 1996: Georgia Tech Aquatic Center 2000: Sydney International Aquatic Centre 2004: Athens Olympic Aquatic Centre 2008: Beijing National Aquatic Center, Shunyi Olympic Rowing-Canoeing Park 2012: Aquatics Centre, Hyde Park 2016: Olympic Aquatics Stadium, Fort Copacabana 2020: Odaiba Marine Park, Olympic Aquatics Centre 2024: Seine-Saint-Denis 2028: Dedeaux Field, Downtown Long Beach

v t e

Olympic venues in water polo

1900: Seine 1904: Forest Park 1908: White City Stadium 1912: Djurgårdsbrunnsviken 1920: Stade Nautique d'Antwerp 1924: Piscine des Tourelles 1928: Olympic Sports Park Swim Stadium 1932: Swimming Stadium 1936: Olympic Swimming Stadium 1948: Empire Pool (final), Finchley Lido 1952: Swimming Stadium 1956: Swimming/Diving Stadium 1960: Piscina delle Rose, Stadio Olimpico del Nuoto (final) 1964: Tokyo Metropolitan Indoor Swimming Pool 1968: Francisco Márquez Olympic Pool (final), University City Swimming Pool 1972: Dantebad, Schwimmhalle (final) 1976: Complexe sportif Claude-Robillard, Olympic Pool (final) 1980: Swimming Pool - Moscow, Swimming Pool - Olimpiysky (final) 1984: Raleigh Runnels Memorial Pool 1988: Jamsil Indoor Swimming Pool 1992: Piscina Municipal de Montjuïc, Piscines Bernat Picornell (final) 1996: Georgia Tech Aquatic Center 2000: Ryde Aquatic Leisure Centre (women's final), Sydney International Aquatic Centre (men's final) 2004: Athens Olympic Aquatic Centre 2008: Ying Tung Natatorium 2012: Water Polo Arena 2016: Maria Lenk Aquatics Center, Olympic Aquatics Stadium 2020: Tokyo Tatsumi International Swimming Center 2024: Water Polo Arena
Water Polo Arena
(Piscine de Marville) 2028: Downtown Long Beach

v t e

Olympic venues in triathlon

2000: Sydney Opera House 2004: Vouliagmeni Olympic Centre 2008: Triathlon Venue 2012: Hyde Park 2016: Fort Copacabana 2020: Odaiba Marine Park 2024: Seine 2028: Downtown Long Beach

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 151241234 LCCN: sh85119617 ISNI: 0000 0001 2296 479X GND: 4054330-4 SUDOC: 135656168 BNF: cb119582905 (d

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