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SECUNDERABAD ( listen (help ·info ), also spelled sometimes as SIKANDAR-A-BAD) is the twin city of Hyderabad
Hyderabad
located in the Indian state of Telangana
Telangana
. Named after Sikandar Jah , the third Nizam
Nizam
of the Asaf Jahi dynasty
Asaf Jahi dynasty
, Secunderabad
Secunderabad
was founded in 1806 as a British cantonment . Although Hyderabad
Hyderabad
and Secunderabad
Secunderabad
are together referred to as the twin cities, they have both different histories and cultures, with Secunderabad
Secunderabad
having developed directly under British rule until 1948 and Hyderabad
Hyderabad
as the capital of the Nizams ' princely state of Hyderabad
Hyderabad
.

Geographically divided from Hyderabad
Hyderabad
by the Hussain Sagar lake, Secunderabad
Secunderabad
is no longer a separate municipal unit and has become part of Hyderabad's GHMC municipality . Both cities are collectively known as Hyderabad
Hyderabad
and together form the sixth largest metropolis in India
India
. Being one of the largest cantonments in India, Secunderabad has a large presence of army and air force personnel.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Climate * 4 Demographics * 5 Culture * 6 Economy * 7 Administration * 8 Media * 9 Entertainment * 10 Sports * 11 Transport * 12 Education * 13 Notable individuals * 14 See also * 15 References * 16 External links

HISTORY

See also: History of Hyderabad
Hyderabad
Banner celebrating 200 years of Secunderabad
Secunderabad
James street circa 1880, an important shopping district in Secunderabad
Secunderabad

The present area around Secunderabad
Secunderabad
was ruled by the Chalukya dynasty from 624 CE to 1075 CE. Following the dissolution of the Chalukya empire into four parts in the 11th century, the areas around present day Hyderabad
Hyderabad
and Secunderabad
Secunderabad
came under the control of the Kakatiya dynasty
Kakatiya dynasty
(1158–1310), whose seat of power was at Warangal
Warangal
, 148 km (92 mi) northeast of modern Hyderabad. Area around Secunderbad changed hands between various rulers and by the 18th century, the area was part of Nizam's Hyderabad.

Modern Secunderabad
Secunderabad
was founded as a British cantonment after the Nizam
Nizam
Asaf Jah II was defeated at the hands of the British East India Company . He was then forced to sign the 1798 Treaty of Subsidiary Alliance in order to gain the support of the British troops camped in tents in the open areas of the maidan of the village Ulwul, north-east of Hussain Sagar , the lake that separates Secunderabad from its twin city Hyderabad. Later, in 1803, Nizam
Nizam
Sikandar Jah , the third Nizam
Nizam
of Hyderabad, renamed Ulwul as Secunderabad
Secunderabad
after himself. The city was formed in 1806, after the order was signed by the Nizam allotting the land north of Hussain Sagar to set up the British Cantonment. The twin cities are separated by the man-made Hussain Sagar lake, which was built during the reign of the Qutb Shahi dynasty in the 16th century. Unlike Hyderabad
Hyderabad
, the official language of Secunderabad
Secunderabad
was English. Secunderabad
Secunderabad
was exempted from customs duty on imported goods thus making trade very profitable. Various new markets such as Regimental Bazaar and General Bazaar were created. After the Sepoy Mutiny
Sepoy Mutiny
of 1857, the construction of a seven metre high wall was started at Trimulgherry
Trimulgherry
and completed in 1867. Secunderabad Railway Station one of the largest in India
India
which is also the zonal headquarters of South Central Railway
South Central Railway
was established in 1874. The King Edward Memorial Hospital, now known as Gandhi Hospital was established in 1851. A Civil Jail (now a heritage building known as Old Jail complex near Monda Market ) was also established. Originally constructed in 1860 as the country house of the British Resident
British Resident
at Hyderabad, the Residency House is now known as the Rashtrapati Nilayam , the official retreat of the President of India
India
. The first car showroom that was opened in Secunderabad
Secunderabad
in 1912 at James Street, c. 1950 Trimulgherry
Trimulgherry
Entrenchment where British troops were stationed

Sir Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during World War II, was posted in Secunderabad
Secunderabad
during the 1890s as a subaltern in the British Army. Sir Ronald Ross conducted his initial research on the cause of malaria in the city of Secunderabad. The original building is today called the Sir Ronald Ross Institute and is located on Minister Road.

Secunderabad
Secunderabad
Municipality was first formed in 1945. Later in 1950, along with Hyderabad
Hyderabad
Municipality, it was upgraded to Secunderabad Municipal Corporation under the Hyderabad
Hyderabad
Corporation Act, 1950. In 1960 by the Hyderabad
Hyderabad
Municipal Corporation Act 1955, Secunderabad Municipal Corporation was merged with Hyderabad
Hyderabad
Corporation to form a single Municipal Corporation. Today Secunderabad
Secunderabad
is part of the Hyderabad
Hyderabad
district . Secunderabad
Secunderabad
celebrated two hundred years of its formation in 2006.

Post-Independence, the Secunderabad
Secunderabad
Cantonment Board came under the jurisdiction of the Indian Armed forces. Consequently, large military units were established. The popular neighbourhoods in Secunderabad
Secunderabad
are Paradise Circle, Trimulgherry
Trimulgherry
, Jawaharnagar colony, Marredpally , Jeera, General Bazar, Sitaphalmandi , Kharkhana , Ranigunj , New Bhoiguda, etc. Begumpet Airport
Begumpet Airport
is close to Secunderabad
Secunderabad
and served the twin city until early 2008.

GEOGRAPHY

Road sign by MCH

Situated in the North of Hyderabad
Hyderabad
at 17°27′N 78°30′E / 17.45°N 78.5°E / 17.45; 78.5 ., Secunderabad
Secunderabad
is 1,566 kilometres (973 mi) south of Delhi
Delhi
, 699 kilometres (434 mi) southeast of Mumbai
Mumbai
, and 570 kilometres (350 mi) north of Bangalore
Bangalore
by road. It lies on the northern part of the Deccan Plateau. Secunderabad
Secunderabad
has an average elevation of 543 metres (1781 ft). As a constituent of Greater Hyderabad, Secunderabad
Secunderabad
is one of the largest metropolitan areas in India. Lot of residential areas are located nearby like West Marredpally, East Marredpally, Kharkhana, Bowenpally as it is calm and serene.

Most of the area has a rocky terrain and some areas are hilly . Secunderabad
Secunderabad
is connected to Hyderabad
Hyderabad
by Rastrapathi Road (formerly known as King's Way) and MG Road (formerly known as James' Street) via Tank Bund .

CLIMATE

Secunderabad
Secunderabad
has a Composite climate that borders on a semi-arid climate , with hot summers from late February to early June, the monsoon season from late June to early October and a pleasant winter from late October to early February. In the evenings and mornings, the climate is relatively cooler. Most of rains are concentrated in the monsoon months from June to September.

Winter lasts for only about  2 1⁄2 months, during which the lowest temperature occasionally dips to 10 °C (50 °F) in December and January. May is the hottest month, when daily temperatures range from 26 to 38.8 °C (102 °F) (7–102 °F); January, the coldest, has temperatures varying from 14.7 to 28.6 °C (83 °F) (58–83 °F).

CLIMATE DATA FOR SECUNDERABAD INDIA (1951–1980)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 28.6 (83.5) 31.8 (89.2) 35.2 (95.4) 37.6 (99.7) 38.8 (101.8) 34.4 (93.9) 30.5 (86.9) 29.6 (85.3) 30.1 (86.2) 30.4 (86.7) 28.8 (83.8) 27.8 (82) 32.0 (89.6)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 14.7 (58.5) 17.0 (62.6) 20.3 (68.5) 24.1 (75.4) 26.0 (78.8) 23.9 (75) 22.5 (72.5) 22.0 (71.6) 21.7 (71.1) 20.0 (68) 16.4 (61.5) 14.1 (57.4) 20.2 (68.4)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 3.2 (0.126) 5.2 (0.205) 12.0 (0.472) 21.0 (0.827) 37.3 (1.469) 96.1 (3.783) 163.9 (6.453) 171.1 (6.736) 185.5 (7.303) 90.9 (3.579) 16.2 (0.638) 6.1 (0.24) 812.5 (31.988)

Source:

DEMOGRAPHICS

Secunderabad
Secunderabad
has a population of 204,182. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Secunderabad
Secunderabad
has an average literacy rate of 73%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; male literacy is 78%, and female literacy is 68%. 11% of the population is under 6 years of age. The city has a sizable population of Anglo-Indians
Anglo-Indians
who mainly resided in the South Lallaguda area of Secunderabad
Secunderabad
which was popularly known as Little England. Many Anglo-Indians
Anglo-Indians
have emigrated to other countries in the English-speaking world
English-speaking world
over the last few decades. See also: List of cities in Telangana
Telangana

CULTURE

Due to the presence of communities such as Parsis
Parsis
, Anglo-Indians alongside British and native inhabitants, Secunderabad
Secunderabad
was historically a cosmopolitan city. Though the cities of Hyderabad
Hyderabad
and Secunderabad
Secunderabad
are twins, they are different in the layout of buildings, the style of life and the very atmosphere. Secunderabad
Secunderabad
used to be referred to by the locals as Lashkar meaning the army and the city's culture reflected the same. Secunderabad
Secunderabad
was a liberal city compared to Hyderabad
Hyderabad
due the presence of the British.

Plaza cinema was the only theatre in India
India
where viewers could sip beer while watching a movie. Sangeet was a popular cinema theatre that screened only western movies.

The popular Secunderabad Club
Secunderabad Club
was established in 1878 at a country house gifted by Salar Jung I . Secunderabad
Secunderabad
has a more laid-back atmosphere due to the fact that it is mainly a residential area with fewer government offices and corporate establishments. Secunderabad Club
Secunderabad Club
c. 1902 Garden Restaurant established 1952, opposite to the Clock Tower

Many outdoor events such as Republic Day
Republic Day
parade and fairs are held in the Gymkhana or Parade grounds. Christmas is celebrated by the Christian residents. An annual festival known as the Bonalu Jatara is celebrated by the Hindus of the Telangana
Telangana
state. It is usually held during the Ashada jathara which is at the start of the monsoon season. Ramadan
Ramadan
, the Islamic holy month of fasting, is observed by the local Muslims. There are age old temples like Sri Laxminarayana swami temple, Mahankali Temple. Famous local churches include Wesely church, St. Mary's church adding to typical cosmopolitan culture of the city.The culture of Secunderabad
Secunderabad
is distinctly different from that of Hyderabad
Hyderabad
's Nawabi culture.

ECONOMY

ITC , Infosys
Infosys
, Intergraph
Intergraph
and Coromandel International
Coromandel International
are some of the major private companies which have their offices in Secunderabad. Being the headquarters of South Central Railway
South Central Railway
, Secunderabad
Secunderabad
is a major centre for railway activity. Industrial areas such as Bolarum , Moula-Ali
Moula-Ali
, Nacharam , Ghatkesar , Uppal Bhongir
Bhongir
etc. are in Secunderabad. Secunderabad
Secunderabad
Cantonment Board houses a large number of defence units. Units of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) such as Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD), Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), ECIL etc. are close to Secunderabad.

ADMINISTRATION

Regional passport office in Secunderabad
Secunderabad

The Greater Hyderabad
Hyderabad
Municipal Corporation (GHMC), established in 2007, is responsible for the administration and infrastructure of Secunderabad. Secunderabad
Secunderabad
Municipality was first formed in 1945. Later in 1950, along with Hyderabad
Hyderabad
Municipality, it was upgraded to Secunderabad
Secunderabad
Municipal Corporation under the Hyderabad
Hyderabad
Corporation Act, 1950. In 1960 by the Hyderabad
Hyderabad
Municipal Corporation Act 1955, Secunderabad
Secunderabad
Municipal Corporation was merged with Hyderabad Corporation to form a single Municipal Corporation. During Nizam\'s period Secunderabad
Secunderabad
Cantonment was given under the control of the British Raj
British Raj
—today those areas and most parts of Secunderabad, where defence installations are located is under the purview of Secunderabad Cantonment Board .

Secunderabad
Secunderabad
Municipality office which was located on Sardar Patel Road is to be demolished for metro rail project. The new office is located at West Marredpally .

Secunderabad
Secunderabad
forms a part of Secunderabad
Secunderabad
Lok Sabha constituency and comprises seven legislative assembly seats. The present Member of Parliament is Bandaru Dattatreya
Bandaru Dattatreya
who is also a Minister of State in the Union Cabinet and the incumbent Member of Legislative Assembly is a candidate from Telangana
Telangana
Rasthra Samiti (TRS) who is also a Minister with the Telangana
Telangana
government

MEDIA

The major English dailies Deccan Chronicle
Deccan Chronicle
, Financial Chronicle and Telugu daily Andhra Bhoomi are published from Secunderabad. FM radio Radio Mirchi is located at SP Road, Secunderabad.

ENTERTAINMENT

Secunderabad
Secunderabad
has several restaurants and shopping centres. Secunderabad
Secunderabad
has presently three multiplexes (Tivoli cinema), Cinepolis (Malkajgiri), Cineplanet (Kompally). A few more multiplexes near Patny, Sangeet circle are being built.

SPORTS

The most popular sports played in Secunderabad
Secunderabad
is cricket . During pre-independence era Secunderabad
Secunderabad
had various sports facilities built for serving Englishmen. Presently, however no major stadiums are located in Secunderabad. However some open grounds belonging to Railways and Defence are used for various sporting activities. These are Gymkhana Ground , Parade Ground, Polo Ground, Bollarum Golf Course and Railway Golf Course. The erstwhile IPL cricket franchise, Deccan Chargers was based in Secunderabad.

International test cricketer M. L. Jaisimha was born and brought up in Secunderabad. Olympic finalist Milkha Singh
Milkha Singh
was first introduced to athletics when he was posted at army 's electrical mechanical engineering branch in Secunderabad.

Various state sports associations such as Amateur Boxing Association, Basketball Association, Women’s Cricket
Cricket
Association, Sculling "> Secunderabad Railway Station
Secunderabad Railway Station
, the busiest rail and bus junction in the city Tank Bund road , an important road which connects the cities of Secunderabad
Secunderabad
and Hyderabad
Hyderabad

The most commonly used forms of medium distance transport in Secunderabad
Secunderabad
include government owned services such as light railways and TSRTC buses, as well as privately operated auto rickshaws .

The city is the headquarters of the South Central Railway
South Central Railway
Zone of the Indian Railways
Indian Railways
. It is served by one of the oldest and largest railway station in the twin cities - the Secunderabad
Secunderabad
Railway Station . Secunderabad
Secunderabad
is also a major railway junction in the Wadi-Vijayawada railway route.

Secunderabad
Secunderabad
is also the major hub for the city bus transport run by the Telangana
Telangana
State Road Transport Corporation ( TSRTC ) and is well connected to all corners of both Hyderabad
Hyderabad
and Secunderabad. Major bus stations are the Jubilee Bus Station and the Rathifile Bus station.

Tankbund road is a historical and an important road which connects the two cities. Abutting the Hussain sagar lake, the Tankbund road is an arterial road and the main thoroughfare connecting Secunderabad with Hyderabad. Maximum speed limits within the city are 50 km/h (31 mph) for two-wheelers and cars, 35 km/h (22 mph) for auto rickshaws and 40 km/h (25 mph) for light commercial vehicles and buses.

The nearest airport is Rajiv Gandhi International Airport
Rajiv Gandhi International Airport
, Hyderabad. Till March 2008, Begumpet Airport
Begumpet Airport
was the nearest airport.

EDUCATION

See also: List of educational institutions in Secunderabad

Schools in Secunderabad
Secunderabad
similar to other schools in Hyderabad
Hyderabad
and other parts of Telangana
Telangana
follow a "10+2+3" plan . Schools are a mix of publicly and privately run institutions. Privately run schools account for two-thirds of pupils,. Languages of instruction include English, Hindi, Urdu
Urdu
and Telugu. Depending on the institution students are studying in, they are required to sit the Secondary School Certificate or the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education . After completing secondary education, students enroll in schools or junior colleges with a higher secondary facility.

Due to the prolonged presence of the British, Secunderabad
Secunderabad
has convent schools established by Christian missionaries.

Research institutes such as National Institute of Nutrition , Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology , Indian Institute of Chemical Technology , The English and Foreign Languages University , Osmania University , National Geophysical Research Institute .etc. are in Tarnaka close to Secunderabad.

NOTABLE INDIVIDUALS

* Shyam Benegal
Shyam Benegal
, film director and screenwriter * M. L. Jaisimha , test cricketer and TV commentator * Diana Hayden , 1997 Femina Miss India
India
and 1997 Miss World 1997 winner * Padmapriya Janakiraman , film actress and model * Tanikella Bharani , actor, writer and film director

SEE ALSO

* Telangana
Telangana
portal * Hyderabad
Hyderabad
portal

REFERENCES

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Telangana
Transport Department. Retrieved 4 September 2014. * ^ Hyderabad- Secunderabad
Secunderabad
India
India
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Hyderabad
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* ^ Sardar, Marika (2007). Golconda through time: a mirror of the evolving Deccan. ProQuest. pp. 19–41. ISBN 0-549-10119-5 .

* Jaisi, Sidq (2004). The nocturnal court: life of a prince of Hyderabad. Oxford University Press. pp. 29–30. ISBN 978-0-19-566605-2 . * Sastri, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta (1976). A history of south India
India
from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. Oxford University Press . p. 192. ISBN 0-19-560686-8 .

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