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Franco-British victory

Treaty of Tientsin Convention of Peking

Territorial changes The Kowloon Peninsula
Kowloon Peninsula
and Stonecutters Island
Stonecutters Island
ceded to the United Kingdom as part of Hong Kong

Belligerents

 United Kingdom

 India

 France

 United States1 China (Qing dynasty)

Commanders and leaders

The Earl of Elgin Michael Seymour Charles Straubenzee James Grant Jean-Baptiste Gros Rigault de Genouilly Charles Montauban

Andrew Hull Foote James Armstrong Josiah Tattnall

Xianfeng Emperor Prince Gong Ye Mingchen Sengge Rinchen

Strength

British: 13,127[1] French: 7,000[2] 200,000 Manchu, Mongol, Han Bannermen, and Han Green Standard Army troops

1 The U.S. was officially neutral, but later aided the British in the Battle of the Barrier Forts
Battle of the Barrier Forts
(1856) and the Battle of Taku Forts (1859).[3]

v t e

Second Opium War

1st Canton French Folly Fort Bogue Barrier Forts Escape Creek Fatshan Creek 2nd Canton 1st Taku Forts 2nd Taku Forts 3rd Taku Forts Zhangjiawan Palikao

The Second Opium War, the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China,[4] was a war pitting the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the French Empire against the Qing dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860.

Contents

1 Names 2 Origins of the war

2.1 Outbreak 2.2 British delays 2.3 Intervention of France 2.4 Intervention by other states 2.5 Battle of Canton 2.6 British attacks

3 Interlude

3.1 Treaties of Tianjin 3.2 Treaty of Aigun

4 Second phase

4.1 Three battles of Taku Forts 4.2 Diplomatic incident 4.3 Burning of the Summer Palaces

5 Awards 6 Aftermath 7 See also 8 References

8.1 Citations 8.2 Sources

9 Further reading 10 External links

Names[edit] The terms "Second War" and "Arrow War" are both used in literature. "Second Opium War" refers to one of the British strategic objectives: legalizing the opium trade, expanding coolie trade, opening all of China to British merchants, and exempting foreign imports from internal transit duties.[citation needed] The "Arrow War" refers to the name of a vessel which became the starting point of the conflict. Origins of the war[edit] The war followed on from the First Opium War. In 1842, the Treaty of Nanking—the first of what the Chinese later called the unequal treaties—granted an indemnity and extraterritoriality to Britain, the opening of five treaty ports, and the cession of Hong Kong Island. The failure of the treaty to satisfy British goals of improved trade and diplomatic relations led to the Second Opium War
Second Opium War
(1856–60).[5] In China, the First Opium War
First Opium War
is considered to be the beginning of modern Chinese history. Between the two wars, repeated acts of aggression against British subjects led in 1847 to the Expedition to Canton
Expedition to Canton
which assaulted and took, by a coup de main, the forts of the Bocca Tigris
Bocca Tigris
resulting in the spiking of 879 guns.[6]:501 Outbreak[edit]

The Illustrated London
London
News print of the clipper steamship Ly-ee-moon, built for the opium trade, c. 1859

The 1850s saw the rapid growth of Western imperialism. Some of the shared goals of the western powers were the expansion of their overseas markets and the establishment of new ports of call. The French Treaty of Huangpu and the American Wangxia Treaty both contained clauses allowing renegotiation of the treaties after 12 years of being in effect. In an effort to expand their privileges in China, Britain demanded the Qing authorities renegotiate the Treaty of Nanking (signed in 1842), citing their most favoured nation status. The British demands included opening all of China to British merchant companies, legalising the opium trade, exempting foreign imports from internal transit duties, suppression of piracy, regulation of the coolie trade, permission for a British ambassador to reside in Beijing and for the English-language version of all treaties to take precedence over the Chinese language.[7] To give Chinese merchant vessels operating around treaty ports the same privileges accorded British ships by the Treaty of Nanking, British authorities granted these vessels British registration in Hong Kong. In October 1856, Chinese marines in Canton seized a cargo ship called the Arrow on suspicion of piracy, arresting twelve of its fourteen Chinese crew members. The Arrow had previously been used by pirates, captured by the Chinese government, and subsequently resold. It was then registered as a British ship and still flew the British flag at the time of its detainment, though its registration had expired. Its captain, Thomas Kennedy, who was aboard a nearby vessel at the time, reported seeing Chinese marines pull the British flag down from the ship.[8] The British consul in Canton, Harry Parkes, contacted Ye Mingchen, imperial commissioner and Viceroy of Liangguang, to demand the immediate release of the crew, and an apology for the alleged insult to the flag. Ye released nine of the crew members, but refused to release the last three.[citation needed] On 23 October the British destroyed four barrier forts.[9] On 25 October a demand was made for the British to be allowed to enter the city. Next day the British started to bombard the city, firing one shot every 10 minutes.[9] Ye Mingchen
Ye Mingchen
issued a bounty on every British head taken.[9] On 29 October a hole was blasted in the city walls and troops entered, with a flag of the United States
United States
of America being planted by James Keenan (U.S. Consul) on the walls and residence of Ye Mingchen.[9] Losses were 3 killed and 12 wounded. Negotiations failed and the city was bombarded. On 6 November 23 war junks attacked and were destroyed.[10] There were pauses for talks, with the British bombarding at intervals, fires were caused, then on 5 January 1857, the British returned to Hong Kong.[9] British delays[edit] The British government lost a Parliamentary vote regarding the Arrow incident and what had taken place at Canton to the end of the year on 3 March 1857. Then there was a general election in April 1857 which increased the government majority.[citation needed] In April, the government asked the United States
United States
of America and Russia if they were interested in alliances, the offers were rejected.[9] In May 1857, the Indian Mutiny
Indian Mutiny
became serious. Troops destined for China were diverted to India,[6] which was considered the priority issue.[citation needed] Intervention of France[edit]

The execution of the Paris Foreign Missions Society
Paris Foreign Missions Society
missionary Auguste Chapdelaine was the official cause of the French involvement in the Second Opium War.

France
France
joined the British action against China, prompted by complaints from their envoy, Baron Jean-Baptiste Louis Gros, over the execution of a French missionary, Father Auguste Chapdelaine,[11] by Chinese local authorities in Guangxi
Guangxi
province, which at that time was not open to foreigners.[12] The British and the French joined forces under Admiral Sir Michael Seymour. The British army led by Lord Elgin, and the French army led by Gros, together they attacked and occupied Canton (Guangzhou) in late 1857. A joint committee of the Alliance was formed. The Allies left the city governor at his original post in order to maintain order on behalf of the victors. The British-French Alliance maintained control of Canton for nearly four years.[citation needed] The coalition then cruised north to briefly capture the Taku Forts near Tientsin (now known as Tianjin) in May 1858.[citation needed] Intervention by other states[edit] The United States
United States
and Russia sent envoys to Hong Kong to offer help to the British and French, though in the end Russia sent no military aid.[citation needed] The U.S. was involved in a minor concurrent conflict during the war, although they ignored the UK's offer of alliance and did not coordinate with the Anglo-French forces. In 1856, the Chinese garrison at Canton shelled a United States
United States
Navy steamer;[10] the U.S. Navy retaliated in the Battle of the Pearl River Forts. The ships bombarded then attacked the river forts near Canton, taking them. Diplomatic efforts were renewed afterward, and the American and Chinese governments signed an agreement for U.S. neutrality in the Second Opium War.[citation needed] Despite the U.S. government's promise of neutrality, the USS San Jacinto aided the Anglo-French alliance in the bombardment of the Taku Forts in 1859; see below for details.[13] Battle of Canton[edit] Main article: Battle of Canton (1857) Through 1857, British forces began to assemble in Hong Kong, they were joined by a French force. In December 1857 they had sufficient ships and men to raise the issue of the non fulfilment of the treaty obligations by which the right of entry into Canton had been accorded.[6]:502 Parkes delivered an ultimatum, supported by Hong Kong governor Sir John Bowring
John Bowring
and Admiral Sir Michael Seymour, threatening on 14 December to bombard Canton if the men were not released within 24 hours.[9] [14] The remaining crew of the Arrow were then released, with no apology from Viceroy Ye Mingchen
Ye Mingchen
who also refused to honour the treaty terms. Seymour, Major General van Straubenzee and Admiral de Genouilly agreed the plan to attack Canton as ordered.[6]:503 This event came to be known as the Arrow Incident and provided the alternative name of the ensuing conflict.[15]

The capture of Ye Mingchen
Ye Mingchen
after the fall of Canton

The capture of Canton, on 1 January 1858,[9] a city with a population of over 1,000,000[16] by less than 6,000 troops, resulted in the British and French forces suffering 15 killed and 113 wounded. 200–650 of the defenders and inhabitants became casualties.[citation needed] Ye Mingchen
Ye Mingchen
was exiled to Calcutta, India, where he starved himself to death.[17] Faced with fighting the Taiping Rebellion, the Qing government was in no position to resist the West militarily. British attacks[edit] Although the British were delayed by the Indian Rebellion of 1857, they followed up the Arrow Incident in 1856 and attacked Guangzhou from the Pearl River. Viceroy Ye Mingchen
Ye Mingchen
ordered all Chinese soldiers manning the forts not to resist the British incursion. After taking the fort near Guangzhou
Guangzhou
with little effort, the British Army attacked Guangzhou.[citation needed] Meanwhile, in Hong Kong, there was an attempt to poison John Bowring and his family in January. However, the baker who had been charged with lacing bread with arsenic bungled the attempt by putting an excess of the poison into the dough, such that his victims vomited sufficient quantities of the poison that they had only a non-lethal dose left in their system. Criers were sent out with an alert, preventing further injury.[18] When known in Britain, the Arrow incident (and the British military response) became the subject of controversy. The British House of Commons on 3 March passed a resolution by 263 to 249 against the Government saying:

That this House has heard with concern of the conflicts which have occurred between the British and Chinese authorities on the Canton River; and, without expressing an opinion as to the extent to which the Government of China may have afforded this country cause of complaint respecting the non-fulfilment of the Treaty of 1842, this House considers that the papers which have been laid on the table fail to establish satisfactory grounds for the violent measures resorted to at Canton in the late affair of the Arrow, and that a Select Committee be appointed to inquire into the state of our commercial relations with China.[19]

In response, Lord Palmerston attacked the patriotism of the Whigs who sponsored the resolution and Parliament was dissolved, causing the British general election of March 1857.[citation needed] The Chinese issue figured prominently in the election, and Palmerston won with an increased majority, silencing the voices within the Whig faction who supported China. The new parliament decided to seek redress from China based on the report about the Arrow Incident submitted by Harry Parkes. The French Empire, the United States, and the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
received requests from Britain to form an alliance.[citation needed] Interlude[edit] Treaties of Tianjin[edit]

British troops taking a fort in 1860

In June 1858, the first part of the war ended with the four Treaties of Tientsin, to which Britain, France, Russia, and the U.S. were parties. These treaties opened 11 more ports to Western trade. The Chinese initially refused to ratify the treaties. The major points of the treaty were:

Britain, France, Russia, and the U.S. would have the right to establish diplomatic legations (small embassies) in Peking
Peking
(a closed city at the time) Ten more Chinese ports would be opened for foreign trade, including Niuzhuang, Tamsui, Hankou, and Nanjing The right of all foreign vessels including commercial ships to navigate freely on the Yangtze River The right of foreigners to travel in the internal regions of China, which had been formerly banned China was to pay an indemnity of four million taels of silver to Britain and two million to France.[20]

Treaty of Aigun[edit] On 28 May 1858, the separate Treaty of Aigun
Treaty of Aigun
was signed with Russia to revise the Chinese and Russian border as determined by the Nerchinsk Treaty in 1689. Russia gained the left bank of the Amur River, pushing the border south from the Stanovoy mountains. A later treaty, the Convention of Peking
Convention of Peking
in 1860, gave Russia control over a non-freezing area on the Pacific coast, where Russia founded the city of Vladivostok
Vladivostok
in 1860. Second phase[edit]

Cousin-Montauban leading French forces during the 1860 campaign

Looting of the Old Summer Palace
Old Summer Palace
by Anglo-French forces in 1860

Ruins of the "Western style" complex in the Old Summer Palace, burnt down by Anglo-French forces

Wenchang Pavilion aka. Wenchang Tower (文昌阁) of the Summer Palace (Yiheyuan), before being burnt down, October 1860

Three battles of Taku Forts[edit] On 20 May the First Battle of Taku Forts
Taku Forts
was successful, but the peace treaty returned the forts to the Qing army. In June 1858, shortly after the Qing imperial court agreed to the disadvantageous treaties, hawkish ministers prevailed upon the Xianfeng Emperor
Xianfeng Emperor
to resist Western encroachment. On 2 June 1858, the Xianfeng Emperor
Xianfeng Emperor
ordered the Mongol general Sengge Rinchen
Sengge Rinchen
to guard the Taku Forts
Taku Forts
(also romanized as Ta-ku Forts and also called Daku Forts) near Tianjin. Sengge Rinchen
Sengge Rinchen
reinforced the forts with additional artillery pieces. He also brought 4,000 Mongol cavalry from Chahar and Suiyuan. The Second Battle of Taku Forts
Taku Forts
took place in June 1859. A British naval force with 2,200 troops and 21 ships, under the command of Admiral Sir James Hope, sailed north from Shanghai to Tianjin
Tianjin
with newly appointed Anglo-French envoys for the embassies in Beijing. They sailed to the mouth of the Hai River
Hai River
guarded by the Taku Forts
Taku Forts
near Tianjin
Tianjin
and demanded to continue inland to Beijing. Sengge Rinchen replied that the Anglo-French envoys might land up the coast at Beitang and proceed to Beijing but he refused to allow armed troops to accompany them to the Chinese capital. The Anglo-French forces insisted on landing at Taku instead of Beitang and escorting the diplomats to Beijing. On the night of 24 June 1859, a small batch of British forces blew up the iron obstacles that the Chinese had placed in the Baihe River. The next day, the British forces sought to forcibly sail into the river, and shelled the Taku Forts. Low tide and soft mud prevented their landing, however, and accurate fire from Sengge Rinchen's cannons sank four gunboats and severely damaged two others. American Commodore Josiah Tattnall, although under orders to maintain neutrality, declared "blood is thicker than water," and provided covering fire to protect the convoy's retreat. The failure to take the Taku Forts
Taku Forts
was a blow to British prestige, and anti-foreign resistance reached a crescendo within the Qing imperial court.[21] Once the Indian Mutiny
Indian Mutiny
was finally quelled, Sir Colin Campbell, commander-in-chief in India, was free to amass troops and supplies for another offensive in China. A 'soldiers' general', Campbell's experience of casualties from disease in the First Opium War
First Opium War
led him to provide the British forces with more than enough materiel and supplies, and casualties were light.[22] The Third Battle of Taku Forts
Taku Forts
took place in the summer of 1860. London
London
once more dispatched Lord Elgin with an Anglo-French force of 11,000 British troops under General James Hope Grant
James Hope Grant
and 6,700 French troops under General Cousin-Montauban. They pushed north with 173 ships from Hong Kong and captured the port cities of Yantai
Yantai
and Dalian to seal the Bohai Gulf. On 3 August they carried out a landing near Beitang (also romanized as "Pei-t'ang"), some 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) from the Taku Forts, which they captured after three weeks on 21 August. Southern Chinese laborers served with the French and British forces. One observer reported that the "Chinese coolies", as he called them, "renegades though they were," served the British faithfully and cheerfully". At the assault of the Peiho Forts in 1860 they carried the French ladders to the ditch, and, standing in the water up to their necks, supported them with their hands to enable the storming party to cross." It was not usual to take them into action, however, though they showed a "strong desire to close with their compatriots, and engage them in mortal combat with their bamboos."[23] Diplomatic incident[edit] After taking Tianjin
Tianjin
on 23 August, the Anglo-French forces marched inland toward Beijing. The Xianfeng Emperor
Xianfeng Emperor
then dispatched ministers for peace talks, but the British diplomatic envoy, Harry Parkes, insulted the imperial emissary and word arrived that the British had kidnapped the prefect of Tianjin. Parkes was arrested in retaliation on 18 September. Parkes and his entourage were imprisoned and interrogated. Half were reportedly executed by slow slicing, with the application of tourniquets to severed limbs to prolong the torture; this infuriated British leadership when they recovered the unrecognizable bodies. Burning of the Summer Palaces[edit] The Anglo-French forces clashed with Sengge Rinchen's Mongol cavalry on 18 September near Zhangjiawan before proceeding toward the outskirts of Beijing for a decisive battle in Tongzhou (also romanized as Tungchow).[24] On 21 September, at Baliqiao (Eight Mile Bridge), Sengge Rinchen's 10,000 troops, including the elite Mongol cavalry, were annihilated after doomed frontal charges against concentrated firepower of the Anglo-French forces, which entered Beijing on 6 October. With the Qing army devastated, the Xianfeng Emperor
Xianfeng Emperor
fled the capital and left behind his brother, Prince Gong, to take charge of peace negotiations. Xianfeng first fled to the Chengde Summer Palace
Summer Palace
and then to Rehe Province.[25] Anglo-French troops in Beijing began looting the Summer Palace
Summer Palace
(Yiheyuan) and Old Summer Palace (Yuanmingyuan) immediately (as they were full of valuable artwork). After Parkes and the surviving diplomatic prisoners were freed on 8 October, Lord Elgin ordered the Summer Palaces to be destroyed, starting on 18 October. Beijing was not occupied; the Anglo-French army remained outside the city. The destruction of the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
was discussed, as proposed by Lord Elgin to discourage the Qing Empire from using kidnapping as a bargaining tool, and to exact revenge on the mistreatment of their prisoners.[26] Elgin's decision was further motivated by the torture and murder of almost twenty Western prisoners, including two British envoys and a journalist for The Times.[27] The Russian envoy Count Ignatiev and the French diplomat Baron Gros settled on the burning of the Summer Palaces instead, since it was "least objectionable" and would not jeopardise the signing of the treaty.[26] Awards[edit]

French medal of the China Campaign ("Médaille de la Campagne de Chine"), 1861, in the Musée de la Légion d'Honneur. The Chinese characters inscribed on the ribbons read 'Beijing'.

Both Britain (Second China War Medal) and France
France
(Commemorative medal of the 1860 China Expedition) issued campaign medals. The British medal had the following clasps : China 1842, Fatshan 1857, Canton 1857, Taku Forts
Taku Forts
1858, Taku Forts
Taku Forts
1860, Pekin 1860. 7 awards were made of the Victoria Cross, all for Gallantry shown on 21 August 1860 by soldiers of the 44th Regiment of Foot and the 67th Regiment of Foot at the Battle of Taku Forts (1860)
Battle of Taku Forts (1860)
(see List of Victoria Cross
Victoria Cross
recipients by campaign) Aftermath[edit]

Signing of the Treaty of Tientsin
Treaty of Tientsin
in 1859-06-06 after China lost the war

Qing flag seized by Anglo-French forces. The flag reads "親兵第五隊右營". Bodyguard, fifth squadron, right battalion (unit types are approximate). Les Invalides.

Main article: Convention of Peking After the Xianfeng Emperor
Xianfeng Emperor
and his entourage fled Beijing, the June 1858 Treaty of Tianjin
Tianjin
was ratified by the emperor's brother, Prince Gong, in the Convention of Beijing on 18 October 1860, bringing The Second Opium War
Second Opium War
to an end. The British, French and—thanks to the schemes of Ignatiev—the Russians were all granted a permanent diplomatic presence in Beijing (something the Qing Empire resisted to the very end as it suggested equality between China and the European powers). The Chinese had to pay 8 million taels to Britain and France. Britain acquired Kowloon
Kowloon
(next to Hong Kong). The opium trade was legalized and Christians were granted full civil rights, including the right to own property, and the right to evangelize. The content of the Convention of Beijing included:

China's signing of the Treaty of Tianjin Opening Tianjin
Tianjin
as a trade port Cede No.1 District of Kowloon
Kowloon
(south of present-day Boundary Street) to Britain Freedom of religion established in China British ships were allowed to carry indentured Chinese to the Americas Indemnity
Indemnity
to Britain and France
France
increasing to 8 million taels of silver apiece Legalization of the opium trade

Two weeks later, Ignatiev forced the Qing government to sign a "Supplementary Treaty of Peking" which ceded the Maritime Provinces east of the Ussuri River
Ussuri River
(forming part of Outer Manchuria) to the Russians who went on to found the port of Vladivostok
Vladivostok
between 1860–61. The Anglo-French victory was heralded in the British press as a triumph for British Prime Minister Lord Palmerston, which made his popularity rise to new heights. British merchants were delighted at the prospects of the expansion of trade in the Far East. Other foreign powers were pleased with the outcome too, since they hoped to take advantage of the opening-up of China. The defeat of the Qing army by a relatively small Anglo-French military force (outnumbered at least 10 to 1 by the Qing army) coupled with the flight (and subsequent death) of the Xianfeng Emperor
Xianfeng Emperor
and the burning of the Summer Palaces was a shocking blow to the once powerful Qing Empire. "Beyond a doubt, by 1860 the ancient civilization that was China had been thoroughly defeated and humiliated by the West."[28] After the war, a major modernization movement, known as the Self-Strengthening Movement, began in China in the 1860s and several institutional reforms were initiated. The opium trade incurred intense enmity from the later British Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone.[29] As a member of Parliament, Gladstone called it "most infamous and atrocious" referring to the opium trade between China and British India in particular.[30] Gladstone was fiercely against both of the Opium Wars
Opium Wars
Britain waged in China in the First Opium War
First Opium War
initiated in 1840 and the Second Opium War initiated in 1857, denounced British violence against Chinese, and was ardently opposed to the British trade in opium to China.[31] Gladstone lambasted it as "Palmerston's Opium War" and said that he felt "in dread of the judgments of God upon England for our national iniquity towards China" in May 1840.[32] A famous speech was made by Gladstone in Parliament against the First Opium War.[33][34] Gladstone criticized it as "a war more unjust in its origin, a war more calculated in its progress to cover this country with permanent disgrace,".[35] His hostility to opium stemmed from the effects of opium brought upon his sister Helen.[36] Due to the First Opium war brought on by Palmerston, there was initial reluctance to join the government of Peel on part of Gladstone before 1841.[37] See also[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: China and the Attack on Canton

Anglo-Chinese relations Imperialism
Imperialism
in Asia Nian Rebellion Miao Rebellion (1854–73) Dungan revolt (1862–1877) Panthay Rebellion History of Beijing

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Frontier and Overseas Expeditions from India. Volume 6. Calcutta: Superintendent Government Printing. 1911. p. 446. ^ Wolseley, G. J. (1862). Narrative of the War with China in 1860. London: Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts. p. 1. ^ Magoc, Chris J.; Bernstein, David (2016). Imperialism
Imperialism
and Expansionism in American History. Volume 1. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 295. ISBN 9781610694308. ^ Michel Vié, Histoire du Japon des origines a Meiji, PUF, p. 99. ISBN 2-13-052893-7 ^ Tsang 2004, p. 29 ^ a b c d Porter, Maj Gen Whitworth (1889). History of the Corps of Royal Engineers Vol I. Chatham: The Institution of Royal Engineers.  ^ https://www.mtholyoke.edu/~goldf20s/politics116/secondwar.html ^ Hanes & Sanello 2004, pp. 176–77. ^ a b c d e f g h Wong, J. Y. Deadly Dreams: Opium and the Arrow War (1856–1860) in China. ISBN 9780521526197.  ^ a b "Bombardment at Canton". Morning Journal. 19 January 1857. p. 3.  ^ David, Saul (2007). Victoria's Wars: The Rise of Empire. London: Penguin Books. pp. 360–61. ISBN 978-0-14-100555-3.  ^ Hsü 2000, p. 206. ^ Hsü 2000, pp. 205–08. ^ Hevia 2003, pp. 32–33. ^ Tsai, Jung-fang. [1995] (1995). Hong Kong in Chinese History: community and social unrest in the British Colony, 1842–1913. ISBN 0-231-07933-8 ^ "The Anglo-French Occupation of Canton, 1858–1861" (PDF). Royal Asiatic Society Hong Kong Branch.  ^ Hsü 2000, p. 207. ^ John Thomson 1837–1921, Chap on Hong Kong, Illustrations of China and Its People (London, 1873–1874) ^ Speeches on Questions of Public Policy by Richard Cobden ^ Ye Shen, Shirley; Shaw, Eric H. "The Evil Trade that Opened China to the West" (PDF). p. 197. Retrieved 21 September 2014.  ^ Hsü 2000, p. 212–13. ^ Greenwood, ch. 12 ^ China: Being a Military Report on the North-eastern Portions of the Provinces of Chih-li and Shan-tung, Nanking and Its Approaches, Canton and Its Approaches: Together with an Account of the Chinese Civil, Naval and Military Administrations, and a Narrative of the Wars Between Great Britain and China. Government Central Branch Press. 1884. pp. 28–.  ^ Hsü 2000, pp. 214–15. ^ Hsü 2000, p. 215. ^ a b Endacott, G. B.; Carroll, John M. (2005) [1962]. A biographical sketch-book of early Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 978-962-209-742-1.  ^ Hsü 2000. ^ Hsü 2000, p. 219. ^ Kathleen L. Lodwick (5 February 2015). Crusaders Against Opium: Protestant Missionaries in China, 1874–1917. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 86–. ISBN 978-0-8131-4968-4.  ^ Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy (2009). Opium: Uncovering the Politics of the Poppy. Harvard University Press. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-0-674-05134-8.  ^ Dr Roland Quinault; Dr Ruth Clayton Windscheffel; Mr Roger Swift (28 July 2013). William Gladstone: New Studies and Perspectives. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 238–. ISBN 978-1-4094-8327-4.  ^ Ms Louise Foxcroft (28 June 2013). The Making of Addiction: The 'Use and Abuse' of Opium in Nineteenth-Century Britain. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 66–. ISBN 978-1-4094-7984-0.  ^ William Travis Hanes; Frank Sanello (2004). Opium Wars: The Addiction of One Empire and the Corruption of Another. Sourcebooks, Inc. pp. 78–. ISBN 978-1-4022-0149-3.  ^ W. Travis Hanes III; Frank Sanello (1 February 2004). The Opium Wars: The Addiction of One Empire and the Corruption of Another. Sourcebooks. pp. 88–. ISBN 978-1-4022-5205-1.  ^ Peter Ward Fay (9 November 2000). The Opium War, 1840-1842: Barbarians in the Celestial Empire in the Early Part of the Nineteenth Century and the War by which They Forced Her Gates Ajar. Univ of North Carolina Press. pp. 290–. ISBN 978-0-8078-6136-3.  ^ Anne Isba (24 August 2006). Gladstone and Women. A&C Black. pp. 224–. ISBN 978-1-85285-471-3.  ^ David William Bebbington (1993). William Ewart Gladstone: Faith and Politics in Victorian Britain. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 108–. ISBN 978-0-8028-0152-4. 

Sources[edit]

Hanes, William Travis; Sanello, Frank (2004). Opium Wars: The Addiction of One Empire and the Corruption of Another. Sourcebooks. ISBN 9781402201493.  Hevia, James Louis (2003). English lessons: the pedagogy of imperialism in nineteenth-century China. Durham: Duke University Press. ISBN 9780822331889.  Hsü, Immanuel C. Y. (2000). The Rise of Modern China. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-512504-7. 

Further reading[edit]

Bickers, Robert A. (2011). The scramble for China: foreign devils in the Qing empire, 1800–1914. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 9780713997491.  Beeching, Jack. The Chinese Opium Wars
Opium Wars
(1975), ISBN 0-15-617094-9 Greenwood, Adrian (2015). Victoria's Scottish Lion: The Life of Colin Campbell, Lord Clyde. UK: History Press. p. 496. ISBN 0-75095-685-2.  Henry Loch, Personal narrative of occurrences during Lord Elgin's second embassy to China 1860, 1869. Lovell, Julia (2011). Opium War. London: Picador. ISBN 9780330537858.  Ringmar, Erik (2013). Liberal Barbarism: The European Destruction of the Palace of the Emperor of China
Emperor of China
(PDF). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. [permanent dead link] Spence, Jonathan D. (2013). The search for modern China. New York: Norton. ISBN 9780393934519.  Wong, J. Y. (1998). Deadly dreams: opium, imperialism, and the Arrow War (1856–1860) in China. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521552559.  Wong, J. Y. "Harry Parkes and the 'Arrow War' in China," Modern Asian Studies (1975) 9#3 pp. 303–320.

External links[edit]

Media related to Second Opium War
Second Opium War
at Wikimedia Commons

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Somnath temple

Transfiguration Cathedral Sogwang and Singye Temple

Hungarian Revolution

Stalin Monument, Budapest

Afghanistan Nalanda Ram Janmabhoomi Revolutions of 1989

Berlin Wall Dzerzynski

Vijayanagara Euromaidan

Vladimir Lenin monument, Kiev Decommunization in Ukraine

Iraq War

archaeological looting Firdos Square statue destruction

Croatian War Kosovo War

Albanian and Serbian

Syrian Civil War ISIL

World War II

Art theft and looting Libraries Planned destruction of Warsaw Nazi plunder

Natural

2004 Indian Ocean earthquake

Art destruction List of destroyed libraries Lost artworks Vandalism of art Unite4Heritage

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Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
topics

History

Seven Grievances First Manchu invasion of Korea Second Manchu invasion of Korea Qing conquest of the Ming

Battle of Shanhai Pass

Great Clearance Revolt of the Three Feudatories High Qing era Sino-Russian border conflicts Dzungar–Qing War Chinese expedition to Tibet (1720) Chinese Rites controversy Ten Great Campaigns Miao Rebellion (1735–36) Lhasa riot of 1750 Sino-Burmese War (1765–69) Battle of Ngọc Hồi-Đống Đa Sino-Nepalese War Miao Rebellion (1795–1806) White Lotus Rebellion First Opium War Sino-Sikh War Taiping Rebellion Nian Rebellion Red Turban Rebellion (1854–1856) Miao Rebellion (1854–73) Nepalese–Tibetan War Panthay Rebellion Second Opium War Amur Acquisition Self-Strengthening Movement Tongzhi Restoration Dungan Revolt (1862–77) Mudan Incident (1871) Tianjin
Tianjin
Massacre Margary Affair Northern Chinese Famine Qing reconquest of Xinjiang Sino-French War Sikkim Expedition Jindandao Incident First Sino-Japanese War Gongche Shangshu movement Dungan Revolt (1895–96) Hundred Days' Reform Boxer Rebellion

Red Lanterns

Eight-Nation Alliance New Policies British expedition to Tibet 1905 Tibetan Rebellion 1909 Provincial Assembly elections Chinese expedition to Tibet (1910) Railway Protection Movement Xinhai Revolution

Wuchang Uprising Xinhai Lhasa turmoil Mongolian Revolution of 1911 Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
in Xinjiang

Manchu Restoration

Government

Emperor

List Family tree

Amban Cup of Solid Gold Deliberative Council Flag of the Qing dynasty Grand Council Great Qing Legal Code Imperial Clan Court Imperial Commissioner Imperial Household Department Lifan Yuan Ministry of Posts and Communications Nine Gates Infantry Commander Provincial governor Provincial military commander Qinding Xianfa Dagang Royal and noble ranks of the Qing dynasty Viceroys

Zhili Shaan-Gan Liangjiang Huguang Sichuan Min-Zhe Liangguang Yun-Gui Three Northeast Provinces

Zongli Yamen

Military

Military of the Qing dynasty Beiyang Army Chu Army Eight Banners Ever Victorious Army Green Standard Army Huai Army Hushenying Imperial Guards Brigade New Army Peking
Peking
Field Force Shuishiying Wuwei Corps Xiang Army

Special
Special
regions

Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in Inner Asia Manchuria under Qing rule Mongolia under Qing rule

Administrative divisions

Tibet under Qing rule

Golden Urn List of imperial residents

Xinjiang under Qing rule

General of Ili

Taiwan under Qing rule

Provincial Administration Hall

Palaces & mausoleums

Chengde Mountain Resort Forbidden City Mukden Palace Old Summer Palace Summer Palace Eastern Qing tombs Fuling Mausoleum Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties Western Qing tombs

Society & culture

Booi Aha Changzhou School of Thought Dibao Four Wangs Gujin Tushu Jicheng History of Ming Islam during the Qing dynasty Kangxi Dictionary Kaozheng Literary Inquisition Manchu Han Imperial Feast Peiwen Yunfu Pentaglot Dictionary Qing official headwear Qing poetry Quan Tangshi Queue Researches on Manchu Origins Sacred Edict of the Kangxi Emperor Shamanism in the Qing dynasty Siku Quanshu

Zongmu Tiyao

Treaties

Treaty of Kyakhta (1727) Treaty of Nerchinsk Unequal treaty

Boxer Protocol Burlingame Treaty Chefoo Convention Convention Between Great Britain and China Respecting Tibet Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory Convention of Peking Convention of Tientsin Li–Lobanov Treaty Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking Treaty of Aigun Treaty of the Bogue Treaty of Canton Treaty of Kulja Treaty of Nanking Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1881) Treaty of Shimonoseki Treaty of Tarbagatai Treaty of Tientsin Treaty of Wanghia Treaty of Whampoa

Other topics

Aisin Gioro Anti-Qing sentiment Canton System Chuang Guandong Draft History of Qing Imperial hunt of the Qing dynasty Manchu people Names of the Qing dynasty New Qing History Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
coinage Qing conquest theory Timeline of late anti-Qing rebellions Treaty ports Willow Palisade

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Armed conflicts involving the United States
United States
Armed Forces

listed chronologically

Domestic

Shays' Rebellion Whiskey Rebellion Fries's Rebellion Mormon War Dorr Rebellion Bleeding Kansas Utah War Civil War Indian Wars Brooks–Baxter War Range War Lincoln County War Johnson County War Coal Creek War Homestead strike Battle of Blair Mountain Bonus Army Battle of Athens

Foreign

Revolutionary War Quasi-War First Barbary War War of 1812 Second Barbary War First Sumatran expedition Second Sumatran expedition Ivory Coast Expedition Mexican–American War First Fiji Expedition Second Opium War Second Fiji Expedition Formosa Expedition Korean Expedition Spanish–American War Philippine–American War Boxer Rebellion Banana Wars Border War World War I Russian Civil War World War II Korean War Vietnam War U.S. invasion of the Dominican Republic Invasion of Grenada Lebanese Civil War Invasion of Panama Gulf War Somali Civil War Bosnian War Kosovo War Afghanistan War Iraq War War in North-West Pakistan Libyan Civil War Intervention against ISIL

Iraq Syria Cameroon Libya

Related articles

List of conflicts in the U.S. List of wars involving the U.S. Timeline of U.S. military operations Length of U.S. participation in major wars Overseas expansion Military history Covert regime-change actions Casualties of war Peace movement List of anti-war organizations Conscientious objector War on Terror

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Colonial conflicts involving the English/British Empire

17th century

Virginia (1609–46) Swally (1612) Ormuz (1622) Saint Kitts (1626) Quebec (1628) Pequot War
Pequot War
(1634–38) Acadia (1654–67) Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60) Jamaica (1655–1739) King Philip's War
King Philip's War
(1675–78) King William's War
King William's War
(1688–97) Ghana (1694–1700)

18th century

Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
(1702–13) Tuscarora War (1711–15) Yamasee War
Yamasee War
(1715–17) Father Rale's War/ Dummer's War
Dummer's War
(1722–25) War of Jenkins' Ear
War of Jenkins' Ear
(1740–42) King George's War
King George's War
(1744–48) Carnatic Wars
Carnatic Wars
(1746–63) Nova Scotia (1749–55) French and Indian War
French and Indian War
(1754–63) Seven Years' War (1756–63) Anglo–Cherokee War (1758–61) Jamaica (1762) Anglo-Spanish War (1762–63) Pontiac's War
Pontiac's War
(1763–66) Lord Dunmore's War
Lord Dunmore's War
(1774) American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
(1775–83) First Anglo–Maratha War (1775–82) Second Anglo–Mysore War (1779–84) Gold Coast (1781–82) Sumatra (1782–84) Australian Frontier Wars (1788–1934) Nootka Sound (1789) Third Anglo–Mysore War (1789–92) Cotiote (Wayanad) War (1793–1806) Cape Colony (1795) Jamaica (1795–96) Ceylon (1795) Kandyan Wars
Kandyan Wars
(1796–1818) Malta (1798–1800) Fourth Anglo–Mysore War (1798–99) Dwyer's Guerrilla Campaign (1799–1803)

19th century

Newfoundland (1800) Castle Hill convict rebellion Second Anglo–Maratha War (1803–05) Suriname (1804) Guiana (1804) Cape Colony (1806) Río de la Plata (1806–07) Egypt (1807) Froberg mutiny
Froberg mutiny
(1807) Reunion (1809) Seychelles (1809) Mauritius (1810) Java (1810–11) Xhosa Wars
Xhosa Wars
(1811–79) Martinique (1809) Guadeloupe (1810) USA (1812–15) Nepal (1814–16) Guadeloupe (1815) Cape Colony (1815) Third Anglo-Maratha War
Third Anglo-Maratha War
(1817–18) Guiana (1823) Anglo-Ashanti wars
Anglo-Ashanti wars
(1824–1901) First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–26) Black War
Black War
(Van Diemen's Land) 1828–32) Jamaica (1831–32) Malacca (1831–33) Lower Canada (1837–38) Upper Canada (1837–38) Egyptian–Ottoman War (1839–41) First Anglo-Afghan War
First Anglo-Afghan War
(1839–42) First Opium War
First Opium War
(1839–42) New Zealand Wars
New Zealand Wars
(1845–72) First Anglo–Sikh War (1845–46) Río de la Plata (1845–50) Ceylon (1848) Second Anglo–Sikh War (1848–49) Second Anglo–Burmese War (1852) Eureka Rebellion
Eureka Rebellion
(1852) Anglo–Persian War (1856–57) Second Opium War
Second Opium War
(1856–60) Indian Rebellion (1857–59) Ambela Campaign (1863–64) Bhutan War
Bhutan War
(1864–65) Fenian Rebellion in Canada (1866–71) Abyssinia (1868) Manitoba (1870) Perak (1875–76) Anglo–Zulu War (1879) Second Anglo-Afghan War
Second Anglo-Afghan War
(1879–80) Basutoland (1880–81) First Boer War
First Boer War
(1880–81) Mahdist War
Mahdist War
(1881–99) Anglo-Egyptian War
Anglo-Egyptian War
(1882) Saskatchewan (1885) Central Africa (1886–89) Third Anglo-Burmese War
Third Anglo-Burmese War
(1885) Mashonaland (1890) Hunza-Nagar Campaign (1891) Anglo-Manipur War
Anglo-Manipur War
(1891) Matabeleland (1893–94) North Borneo (1894–1905) Chitral Expedition
Chitral Expedition
(1895) Jameson Raid
Jameson Raid
South Africa (1896) Anglo–Zanzibar War (1896) Matabeleland (1896–97) Benin Expedition (1897) Siege of Malakand
Siege of Malakand
(1897) First Mohmand Campaign (1897–98) Tirah Campaign
Tirah Campaign
(1897–98) Six-Day War (1899) Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
(1898–1901) Second Boer War
Second Boer War
(1899–1902)

20th century

Somaliland (1900–20) West Africa (1901–02) Tibet expedition (1903–04) Bambatha Rebellion
Bambatha Rebellion
(1906) Nyasaland (1915) Nigeria (1915) Nigeria (1918) Third Anglo-Afghan War
Third Anglo-Afghan War
(1919) Waziristan campaign (1919–1920) Iraq (1920) Malabar Rebellion (1921) Kurdistan (1922–24) Transjordan (1923) Pink's War
Pink's War
(1925) Ikhwan Revolt
Ikhwan Revolt
(1927–30) Barzani revolt (1931–32) Second Mohmand Campaign (1935) Palestine (1936–39) Waziristan campaign (1936–1939) Ethiopia (1943) Indochina (1945–46) Indonesia (1945) Sarawak (1946–50) Malayan Emergency
Malayan Emergency
(1948–60) Mau Mau Uprising
Mau Mau Uprising
Kenya (1952–60) Oman (1954–59) Cyprus Emergency
Cyprus Emergency
(1955–59) Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
(1956) Oman (1962–76) Brunei (1962) Sarawak (1962–90) Malaysia (1962–66) Aden (1963–67) Falklands (1982)

v t e

French colonial conflicts

16th–17th centuries

Brazil (1557–60) Florida (1562–65) Brazil (1612–15) Morocco (1629) Beaver Wars
Beaver Wars
(1641–1701) French colonization of Texas
French colonization of Texas
(1685–89) Siam (1688) King William's War
King William's War
(1689–97)

18th century

Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
(1702–13) Chickasaw Wars
Chickasaw Wars
(1721–52) Dummer's War
Dummer's War
(1721–25) Burma– France
France
relations (1729–56) King George's War
King George's War
(1744–48) First Carnatic War
First Carnatic War
(1746–48) Second Carnatic War (1749–54) Nova Scotia (1749–55) French and Indian War
French and Indian War
(1754–60) East Indies (1757–63) Larache expedition
Larache expedition
1765 Vietnam (1777–1820) North America (1778–83) Caribbean and East Indies (1778–83) Haitian Revolution
Haitian Revolution
(1791–1804) Siege of Pondicherry (1793) French acquisition of Santo Domingo (1795–1809) French campaign in Egypt and Syria
French campaign in Egypt and Syria
(1798–1801)

19th century

West Indies (1804–10) Indian Ocean (1809–11) Java (1811) Algeria (1830–47) Algeria (1835–1903) Río de la Plata (1838–40) Mexico (1838–39) Argentina–Uruguay (1845–50) Morocco (1844) Philippines (1844–45) Bombardment of Tourane
Bombardment of Tourane
Vietnam (1847) Franco-Tahitian War
Franco-Tahitian War
(1844–47) French conquest of Senegal
French conquest of Senegal
(1854) Cochinchina Campaign
Cochinchina Campaign
(1858–62) Second Opium War
Second Opium War
(1860) Intervention in Mexico (1861–67) Japan (1863–64) Korea (1866) North Vietnam (1873–74) Tunisia (1881) Madagascar (1883) Ivory Coast (1883–98) Tonkin Campaign
Tonkin Campaign
(1883–86) Sino-French War
Sino-French War
(1884–85) North Vietnam (1886–96) Leewards War
Leewards War
(1888–97) First Franco-Dahomean War (1890) Second Franco-Dahomean War
Second Franco-Dahomean War
(1892–94) Franco-Siamese War
Franco-Siamese War
(1893) Second Madagascar expedition (1895) Voulet–Chanoine Mission
Voulet–Chanoine Mission
(1898)

20th century

Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
(1901) Holy Man's Rebellion (1901-36) Ouaddai War (1909–11) Morocco (1911) Zaian War
Zaian War
(1914-1921) Volta-Bani War
Volta-Bani War
(1915-1916) Kaocen Revolt
Kaocen Revolt
(1916-1917) Syria (1919–21) Cilicia (1920–21) Rif War
Rif War
(1920–26) Kongo-Wara rebellion (1928–31) Franco-Thai War
Franco-Thai War
(1940–41) Indochina (1945) South Vietnam (1945–46) First Indochina War
First Indochina War
(1946–54) Malagasy Uprising
Malagasy Uprising
(1947–48) Tunisian independence
Tunisian independence
(1952–56) Algerian War
Algerian War
(1954–62) Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
(1956) Ifni War
Ifni War
(1957–58) Cameroonian Independence War (1955-1960) Bizerte crisis
Bizerte crisis
(1961) Ouvéa cave hostage taking (1988)

Authority control

N

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