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The Second International
Second International
(1889–1916), the original Socialist International, was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris
Paris
on July 14, 1889. At the Paris
Paris
meeting delegations from 20 countries participated.[1] It continued the work of the dissolved First International, though excluding the still-powerful anarcho-syndicalist movement and unions, and existed until 1916.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Latin America 1.2 The exclusion of anarchists

2 Congresses and Conferences of the Second International 3 Related international gatherings 4 See also 5 Footnotes 6 External links

History[edit] Among the Second International's famous actions were its 1889 declaration of May 1, May Day, as International Workers' Day
International Workers' Day
and its 1910 declaration of the International Women's Day, first celebrated on March 19 and then on March 8 after the main day of the women's marches in 1917 during the Russian Revolution. It initiated the international campaign for the 8-hour working day.[2] The International's permanent executive and information body was the International Socialist Bureau (ISB), based in Brussels
Brussels
and formed after the International's Paris
Paris
Congress of 1900. Emile Vandervelde and Camille Huysmans
Camille Huysmans
of the Belgian Labour Party
Belgian Labour Party
were its chair and secretary. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
was a member from 1905. The Second International
Second International
dissolved in 1916 during World War I, because the separate national parties that composed the international did not maintain a unified front against the war, instead generally supporting their respective nations' role. French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) leader Jean Jaurès's assassination, a few days before the beginning of the war, symbolized the failure of the antimilitarist doctrine of the Second International. In 1915, at the Zimmerwald
Zimmerwald
Conference, anti-war socialists attempted to maintain international unity against the social patriotism of the social democratic leaders. In 1920, the defunct Second International
Second International
was reorganized. However, some European socialist parties refused to join the reorganized international, and decided instead to form the International Working Union of Socialist Parties (IWUSP) ("Second and a half International" or "Two-and-a-half International"), heavily influenced by Austromarxism. In 1923, IWUSP and the Second International
Second International
merged to form the social democratic Labour and Socialist International. This international continued to exist until 1940. After World War II, a new Socialist International
Socialist International
was formed to continue the policies of the Labour and Socialist International, and it continues to this day. Another successor was the Third International
Third International
organized in 1919 under the soon-to-be Communist Party of the Soviet
Soviet
Union. It was officially called the Communist International
Communist International
(Comintern) and lasted until 1943 when it was dissolved by then Soviet
Soviet
leader Joseph Stalin. Latin America[edit] In Latin America, the International had two affiliates; the Socialist Party of Argentina and the Socialist Party
Socialist Party
of Uruguay.[3] The exclusion of anarchists[edit] Anarchists tended to be excluded from the Second International, nevertheless "anarchism had in fact dominated the London
London
Congress of the Second International".[4] This exclusion received the criticism from anti-authoritarian socialists present at the meetings.[5] It has been argued that at some point the Second International
Second International
turned "into a battleground over the issue of libertarian versus authoritarian socialism. Not only did they effectively present themselves as champions of minority rights; they also provoked the German Marxists into demonstrating a dictatorial intolerance which was a factor in preventing the British labor movement from following the Marxist direction indicated by such leaders as H. M. Hyndman".[6] Congresses and Conferences of the Second International[edit]

Source: Julius Braunthal, History of the International: Volume 3, 1943-1968. London: Victor Gollancz, 1980; pg. 562.

Event Location Date Notes

First Congress Paris 14–19 July 1889

Second Congress Brussels 3–7 August 1891

Third Congress Zurich 9–13 August 1893

Fourth Congress London 26–31 July 1896

Fifth Congress Paris 23–27 September 1900

Sixth Congress Amsterdam 14–20 August 1904 The 'Grand Old Man of India', Dadabhai Naoroji, attended the Congress and pleaded the cause of India's freedom

Seventh Congress Stuttgart 18–24 August 1907

Eighth Congress Copenhagen 28 Aug.-3 Sept. 1910

Extraordinary Ninth Congress Basel 24–25 November 1912

After the First World War there were three Socialist Conferences in Switzerland. These were as a bridge to the creation of the Labour and Socialist International

Event Location Date Notes

Berne Conference of 1919 Bern 3–8 February 1919

International Socialist Conference, Lucerne, 1919 Lucerne 1–9 August 1919

International Socialist Congress, Geneva, 1920 Geneva 31 July-4 Aug. 1920

Related international gatherings[edit]

Source: Julius Braunthal, History of the International: Volume 3, 1943-1968. London: Victor Gollancz, 1980; pp. 562-563.

Event Location Date Notes

Conference of Socialist Parties of Neutral Countries Copenhagen 17–18 January 1915

Conference of Central European Socialist Parties Vienna 12–13 April 1915

First Conference of the Zimmerwald
Zimmerwald
Movement Zimmerwald 5–8 September 1915

Second Conference of the Zimmerwald
Zimmerwald
Movement Kienthal 24–30 April 1916

Third Conference of the Zimmerwald
Zimmerwald
Movement Stockholm 5–12 September 1917

First Conference of Inter-Allied Socialist Parties London 14 February 1915

Second Conference of Inter-Allied Socialist Parties London 28–29 August 1917

Third Conference of Inter-Allied Socialist Parties London 20–24 February 1918

Fourth Conference of Inter-Allied Socialist Parties London 15 September 1918

See also[edit]

First International Socialist International International Working Union of Socialist Parties ("Second and a half international"/"Two-and-a-half International") Third International
Third International
(Comintern) Vienna
Vienna
Socialist Conference of 1915 Neutral Socialist Conferences during the First World War Inter-Allied Socialist Conferences of World War I Fourth International
Fourth International
and Trotskyist internationals Section Française de l'Internationale Ouvrière
Section Française de l'Internationale Ouvrière
(SFIO, the French section of the Second International) Fifth International International Anarchist
Anarchist
Congresses International Socialist Women's Conferences International Federation of Socialist Young People's Organizations

Footnotes[edit]

^ Rubio, José Luis. Las internacionales obreras en América. Madrid: 1971. p. 42. ^ Rubio, José Luis. Las internacionales obreras en América. Madrid: 1971. p. 43 ^ Rubio, José Luis. Las internacionales obreras en América. Madrid: 1971. p. 49 ^ George Woodcock. Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements (1962). pgs 263-264 ^ "As well as all the anarchist leaders, Keir Hardie and Tom Mann appeared on the platform to make speeches asserting the rights of minorities, and William Morris, now nearing his death, sent a message to say that only sickness prevented him from adding his own voice to the chorus of protest." George Woodcock. Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements (1962). pgs 263-264 ^ George Woodcock. Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements (1962). pgs 263-264

External links[edit]

The Second International, at Marxists.org History of the Second International
Second International
(in French and English) German social-democratic party and the Second International
Second International
by Fractal-vortex  Dutt, R. Palme (1922). "International, The". Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). 

v t e

Political internationals

Active

Centrist Democrat International Committee for a Workers' International E2D International Foro de São Paulo Fourth International
Fourth International
(post-reunification) Global Greens Humanist International International Alliance of Libertarian Parties International Committee of the Fourth International International Democrat Union International League of Peoples' Struggle International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties International Communist Seminar International of Anarchist
Anarchist
Federations International Workers' Association Liberal International Liberty International Muslim Brotherhood Pirate Parties International Progressive Alliance Socialist International

Historical

First International Anarchist
Anarchist
St. Imier International Black International Second International Vienna
Vienna
International Third International Communist Workers' International Fourth International Labour and Socialist International International Revolutionary Marxist Centre Fascist International Situationist International Revolutionary Internationalist Movement

Pan-European

.