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British victory[3][4]

Treaty of Vereeniging

Territorial changes British administration over The Orange Free State
Orange Free State
and the Transvaal in accordance with the Treaty of Vereeniging

Belligerents

 United Kingdom

Cape Colony Natal Colony Rhodesia[a]

 Canada India New Zealand

 Australia

New South Wales
New South Wales
(1899–1901) Western Australia
Australia
(1899–1901) Tasmania
Tasmania
(1899–1901) South Australia
Australia
(1899–1901) Victoria (1899–1901) Queensland
Queensland
(1899–1901)   Australia
Australia
(from 1901)

 British Ceylon

 Orange Free State  South African Republic Cape Boers

Foreign volunteers[b]

Commanders and leaders

Lord Salisbury Joseph Chamberlain Lord Milner Lord Roberts Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Sir Wilfrid Laurier Sir Edmund Barton Paul Kruger Louis Botha Schalk W. Burger Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Piet Cronjé
Piet Cronjé
(POW) Piet Joubert

Strength

British Regulars: 347,000 Colonial Forces: 103,000–153,000 Black South African Auxillaries: 100,000[5] Boer
Boer
Commandos: Transvaal Boers 25,000 Free State Boers 15,000 Cape Boers Black Boer
Boer
Auxillaries: 10,000[5] Foreign Volunteers: 5,400+[6]

Casualties and losses

Military casualties: 22,092 dead[c] 75,430 returned home sick or wounded [8] 934 missing[citation needed] 22,828 wounded.[citation needed]

Military casualties: 6,189 dead[d] 24,000 Boer
Boer
prisoners sent overseas; [6] 21,256 bitter-enders surrendered at the end of the war.[10] Civilian casualties: 46,370, of whom 26,370 were Boer
Boer
women and children who died in concentration camps, along with another 20, 000+ black Africans of the 115,000 interned in separate concentration camps.[citation needed]

v t e

Second Boer
Boer
War

Kraaipan Kimberley Talana Hill Elandslaagte 1st Ladysmith 2nd Ladysmith Belmont Modder River Stormberg Magersfontein Colenso Spion Kop Vaal Krantz Paardeberg

Bloody Sunday

Tugela Heights 3rd Ladysmith Poplar Grove Driefontein Sanna's Post Boshof Mafeking Diamond Hill Witpoort 1st Elands River Bergendal Bothaville Leliefontein Nooitgedacht Groenkloof Modderfontein Blood River Poort Bakenlaagte Groenkop Tweebosch Rooiwal

v t e

Scramble for Africa

Boer
Boer
War (1880) Tunisia (1881) Sudan (1881) Egypt (1882) Wassoulou (1883) Eritrea (1887) Dahomey (1890) Mashonaland (1890) Dahomey (1892) Matabeleland (1893) Wassoulou (1894) Ashanti (1895) Ethiopia (1895) Matabeleland (1896) Zanzibar (1896) Benin (1897) Wassoulou (1898) Chad (1898) (Kousséri) Fashoda (1898) South Africa
South Africa
(1899) Namibia
Namibia
(1904) Tanganyika (1905) Morocco (1905) South Africa
South Africa
(1906) Ouaddai (1909) Morocco (1911) Morocco (1911) Tripolitania (1911) South Africa
South Africa
(1914)

The Second Boer
Boer
War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire
British Empire
and two Boer
Boer
states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa. It is also known variously as the Boer
Boer
War, Anglo- Boer
Boer
War, South African War or Anglo- Boer
Boer
South African War. Initial Boer
Boer
attacks were successful, and although British reinforcements later reversed these, the war continued for years with Boer
Boer
guerrilla warfare, until harsh British counter-measures brought them to terms. The war started with the British overconfident and under-prepared.[11] The Boers
Boers
were very well armed and struck first, besieging Ladysmith, Kimberley, and Mafeking in early 1900, and winning important battles at Colenso, Magersfontein
Magersfontein
and Stormberg. Staggered, the British brought in large numbers of soldiers and fought back. General Redvers Buller was replaced by Lord Roberts and Lord Kitchener. They relieved the three besieged cities, and invaded the two Boer
Boer
republics in late 1900. The onward marches of the British Army
British Army
were so overwhelming that the Boers
Boers
did not fight staged battles in defence of their homeland. The British quickly seized control of all of the Orange Free State
Orange Free State
and Transvaal, as the civilian leadership went into hiding or exile. In conventional terms, the war was over. The British officially annexed the two countries in 1900, and called a "khaki election" to give the government another six years of power in London.[citation needed] British military efforts were aided by Cape Colony, the Colony of Natal and some native African allies, and further supported by volunteers from the British Empire, including Southern Africa, the Australian colonies, Canada, India and New Zealand. All other nations were neutral, but public opinion in them was largely hostile to the British.[citation needed] Inside the UK and its Empire
Empire
there also was significant opposition to the Second Boer
Boer
War. The Boers
Boers
refused to surrender. They reverted to guerrilla warfare under new generals Louis Botha, Jan Smuts, Christiaan de Wet
Christiaan de Wet
and Koos de la Rey. Two more years of surprise attacks and quick escapes followed. As guerrillas without uniforms, the Boer
Boer
fighters easily blended into the farmlands, which provided hiding places, supplies, and horses. The UK's solution was to set up complex nets of block houses, strong points, and barbed wire fences, partitioning off the entire conquered territory. The civilian farmers were relocated into concentration camps, where very large proportions died of disease,[citation needed] especially the children, who mostly lacked immunities. Then British mounted infantry units systematically tracked down the highly mobile Boer
Boer
guerrilla units. The battles at this stage were small operations with few combat casualties (most of the dead were victims of disease). The war ended in surrender and British terms with the Treaty of Vereeniging
Treaty of Vereeniging
in May 1902. The British successfully won over the Boer
Boer
leaders, who now gave full support to the new political system. Both former republics were incorporated into the Union of South Africa
South Africa
in 1910, as part of the British Empire.

Contents

1 Name 2 Origins 3 Phases 4 Background

4.1 Jameson Raid 4.2 Escalation and war

4.2.1 Arming the Boers 4.2.2 British case for war 4.2.3 Negotiations fail

5 First phase: The Boer
Boer
offensive (October–December 1899)

5.1 Boer
Boer
organisation and skills 5.2 Boers
Boers
besiege Ladysmith, Mafeking and Kimberley 5.3 First British relief attempts

6 Second phase: The British offensive of January to September 1900

6.1 POWs sent overseas 6.2 Oath of neutrality

7 Third phase: Guerrilla war
Guerrilla war
(September 1900 – May 1902)

7.1 British response 7.2 Peace committees 7.3 Joiners 7.4 Orange Free State 7.5 Western Transvaal 7.6 Eastern Transvaal 7.7 Cape Colony

8 Nonwhite roles 9 Concentration camps 10 The end of the war

10.1 Cost of the war

11 Aftermath and analysis

11.1 Union of South Africa 11.2 Effect of the war on domestic British politics 11.3 Horses

12 Imperial involvement

12.1 Australia 12.2 Canada 12.3 New Zealand 12.4 South Africa

13 Notable people involved in the Boer
Boer
War

13.1 Victoria Cross
Victoria Cross
recipients

14 Final overview

14.1 Did the British deliberate on the use of encampments?

15 Commemorations 16 See also 17 Notes 18 References 19 Further reading 20 External links

Name[edit] The conflict is commonly referred to as the Boer
Boer
War, since the First Boer
Boer
War (December 1880 to March 1881) is much less well known. "Boer" is the common term for Afrikaans-speaking white South Africans descended from the Dutch East India Company's original settlers at the Cape of Good Hope. It is also known as the (Second) Anglo- Boer
Boer
War among some South Africans. In Afrikaans it may be called the Anglo-Boereoorlog ("Anglo- Boer
Boer
War"), Tweede Boereoorlog ("Second Boer War"), Tweede Vryheidsoorlog ("Second Freedom War", i.e., a war of liberation) or Engelse oorlog ("English War").[12] In South Africa
South Africa
it is officially called the South African War.[13] Origins[edit] The complex origins of the war resulted from more than a century of conflict between the Boers
Boers
and Britain, but of particular immediate importance was the question as to who would control and benefit most from the very lucrative Witwatersrand
Witwatersrand
gold mines.[14] During the Napoleonic Wars, a British military expedition landed in the Cape Colony and defeated the defending Dutch forces at the Battle of Blaauwberg (1806).[15] After the war, Britain formally acquired the colony (1814), and encouraged immigration by British settlers who were largely at odds with the Dutch settlers. Many Boers
Boers
who were dissatisfied with aspects of British administration, in particular with Britain's abolition of slavery on 1 December 1834,[16] elected to migrate away from British rule in what became known as the Great Trek.[15] The Trekkers initially followed the eastern coast towards Natal and then, after Britain annexed Natal in 1843, journeyed northwards towards the interior. There they established two independent Boer republics: the South African Republic
South African Republic
(1852; also known as the Transvaal Republic) and the Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854). Britain recognised the two Boer
Boer
republics in 1852 and 1854, but attempted British annexation of the Transvaal in 1877 led to the First Boer
Boer
War in 1880–81. After Britain suffered defeats, particularly at the Battle of Majuba Hill
Battle of Majuba Hill
(1881), the independence of the two republics was restored subject to certain conditions; relations, however, remained uneasy. In 1866 diamonds were discovered at Kimberley, prompting a diamond rush and a massive influx of foreigners to the borders of the Orange Free State. Then in 1886, gold was discovered in the Witwatersrand area of the South African Republic. Gold made the Transvaal the richest nation in southern Africa; however, the country had neither the manpower nor the industrial base to develop the resource on its own. As a result, the Transvaal reluctantly acquiesced to the immigration of uitlanders (foreigners), mainly English speaking men from Britain, who came to the Boer
Boer
region in search of fortune and employment. This resulted in the number of uitlanders in the Transvaal potentially exceeding the number of Boers, and precipitated confrontations between the earlier-arrived Boer
Boer
settlers and the newer, non- Boer
Boer
arrivals. Britain's expansionist ideas (notably propagated by Cecil Rhodes) as well as disputes over uitlander political and economic rights resulted in the failed Jameson Raid
Jameson Raid
of 1895. Dr. Leander Starr Jameson, who led the raid, intended to encourage an uprising of the uitlanders in Johannesburg. However, the uitlanders did not take up arms in support, and Transvaal government forces surrounded the column and captured Jameson's men before they could reach Johannesburg.[17] As tensions escalated, political manoeuvrings and negotiations attempted to reach compromise on the issues of the rights of the uitlanders within the South African Republic, control of the gold mining industry, and Britain's desire to incorporate the Transvaal and the Orange Free State
Orange Free State
into a federation under British control. Given the British origins of the majority of uitlanders and the ongoing influx of new uitlanders into Johannesburg, the Boers
Boers
recognised that granting full voting rights to the uitlanders would eventually result in the loss of ethnic Boer
Boer
control in the South African Republic. The June 1899 negotiations in Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
failed, and in September 1899 British Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain
Joseph Chamberlain
demanded full voting rights and representation for the uitlanders residing in the Transvaal. Paul Kruger, the President of the South African Republic, issued an ultimatum on 9 October 1899, giving the British government 48 hours to withdraw all their troops from the borders of both the Transvaal and the Orange Free State, albeit Kruger had ordered Commandos to the Natal border in early September and Britain only had troops in garrison towns far from the border,[citation needed] failing which the Transvaal, allied to the Orange Free State, would declare war on the British government. The British government rejected the South African Republic's ultimatum, resulting in the South African Republic and Orange Free State
Orange Free State
declaring war on Britain.[citation needed] Phases[edit] The war had three phases. In the first phase, the Boers
Boers
mounted preemptive strikes into British-held territory in Natal and the Cape Colony, besieging the British garrisons of Ladysmith, Mafeking and Kimberley. The Boers
Boers
then won a series of tactical victories at Colenso, Magersfontein
Magersfontein
and Spionkop. In the second phase, after the introduction of greatly increased British troop numbers under the command of Lord Roberts, the British launched another offensive in 1900 to relieve the sieges, this time achieving success. After Natal and the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
were secure, Britain was able to invade the Transvaal, and the republic's capital, Pretoria, was ultimately captured in June 1900. In the third and final phase, beginning in March 1900, the Boers launched a protracted hard-fought guerrilla war against the British forces, lasting a further two years, during which the Boers
Boers
raided targets such as British troop columns, telegraph sites, railways and storage depots. In an effort to cut off supplies to the raiders, the British, now under the leadership of Lord Kitchener, responded with a scorched earth policy of destroying Boer
Boer
farms and moving civilians into concentration camps.[18] Some parts of the British press and British government expected the campaign to be over within months, and the protracted war gradually became less popular, especially after revelations about the conditions in the concentration camps (where as many as 26,000 Afrikaner women and children died of disease and malnutrition). The Boer
Boer
forces finally surrendered on Saturday, 31 May 1902, with 54 of the 60 delegates from the Transvaal and Orange Free State
Orange Free State
voting to accept the terms of the peace treaty.[19] This was known as the Treaty of Vereeniging, and under its provisions, the two republics were absorbed into the British Empire, with the promise of self-government in the future. This promise was fulfilled with the creation of the Union of South Africa
South Africa
in 1910. The war had a lasting effect on the region and on British domestic politics. For Britain, the Second Boer
Boer
War was the longest, the most expensive (£200 million, almost £22 billion at 2015 prices), and the bloodiest conflict between 1815 and 1914,[20] lasting three months longer and resulting in higher British casualties than the Crimean War (1853–56), although more soldiers died from disease in the Crimean War. Background[edit]

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Extent of the British Empire
British Empire
in 1898, prior to the outbreak of the Second Boer
Boer
War

The geography of the region;   South African Republic/Transvaal   Orange Free State   British Cape Colony   Natal

The southern part of the African continent was dominated in the 19th century by a set of struggles to create within it a single unified state. While the Berlin Conference
Berlin Conference
of 1884–5 sought to draw boundaries between the European powers' African possessions, it also set the stage for further scrambles. Britain attempted to annex first the South African Republic
South African Republic
in 1880, and then, in 1899, both the South African Republic and the Orange Free State. In 1868, Britain annexed Basutoland in the Drakensberg
Drakensberg
Mountains following an appeal from Moshesh, the leader of a mixed group of African refugees from the Zulu wars, who sought British protection against the Boers. In the 1880s, Bechuanaland
Bechuanaland
(modern Botswana, located north of the Orange River) became the object of a dispute between the Germans to the west, the Boers
Boers
to the east, and Britain's Cape Colony
Cape Colony
to the south. Although Bechuanaland
Bechuanaland
had no economic value, the "Missionaries Road" passed through it towards territory farther north. After the Germans annexed Damaraland
Damaraland
and Namaqualand (modern Namibia) in 1884, Britain annexed Bechuanaland
Bechuanaland
in 1885. In the First Boer War
First Boer War
of 1880–81 the Boers
Boers
of the Transvaal Republic had proved skilful fighters in resisting the Britain's attempt at annexation, causing a series of British defeats. The British government of William Ewart Gladstone
William Ewart Gladstone
had been unwilling to become mired in a distant war, requiring substantial troop reinforcement and expense, for what was at the time perceived to be a minimal return. An armistice followed, ending the war, and subsequently a peace treaty was signed with the Transvaal President Paul Kruger. In 1886, a big gold field was discovered at an outcrop on a large ridge some 69 km (43 mi) south of the Boer
Boer
capital at Pretoria, it reignited British imperial interests. The ridge, known locally as the "Witwatersrand" (white water ridge, a watershed) contained the world's largest deposit of gold-bearing ore. With the 1886 discovery of gold in the Transvaal, a gold rush brought thousands of British and other prospectors and settlers from across the globe and over the border from the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(under British control since 1806).

Gold Production on the Witwatersrand 1898 to 1910[21]

Year No. of Mines Gold output (fine ounces) Value (GB£) Relative 2010 value (GB£)[22]

1898 77 4,295,608 £15,141,376 £6,910,000,000

1899 (Jan–Oct) 85 3,946,545 £14,046,686 £6,300,000,000

1899 (Nov- 1901 Apr) 12 574,043 £2,024,278 £908,000,000

1901 (May–Dec) 12 238,994 £1,014,687 £441,000,000

1902 45 1,690,100 £7,179,074 £3,090,000,000

1903 56 2,859,482 £12,146,307 £5,220,000,000

1904 62 3,658,241 £15,539,219 £6,640,000,000

1905 68 4,706,433 £19,991,658 £8,490,000,000

The city of Johannesburg
Johannesburg
sprang up as a shanty town nearly overnight as the uitlanders (foreigners, white outsiders) poured in and settled around the mines. The influx was such that the uitlanders quickly outnumbered the Boers
Boers
in Johannesburg
Johannesburg
and along the Rand, although they remained a minority in the Transvaal. The Boers, nervous and resentful of the uitlanders' growing presence, sought to contain their influence through requiring lengthy residential qualifying periods before voting rights could be obtained, by imposing taxes on the gold industry and by introducing controls through licensing, tariffs and administrative requirements. Among the issues giving rise to tension between the Transvaal government on the one hand and the uitlanders and British interests on the other, were

Established uitlanders, including the mining magnates, wanted political, social, and economic control over their lives. These rights included a stable constitution, a fair franchise law, an independent judiciary and a better educational system. The Boers, for their part, recognised that the more concessions they made to the uitlanders the greater the likelihood – with approximately 30,000 white male Boer voters and potentially 60,000 white male uitlanders – that their independent control of the Transvaal would be lost and the territory absorbed into the British Empire. The uitlanders resented the taxes levied by the Transvaal government, particularly when this money was not spent on Johannesburg
Johannesburg
or uitlander interests, but diverted to projects elsewhere in the Transvaal. For example, as the gold-bearing ore sloped away from the outcrop underground to the south, more and more blasting was necessary for extraction, and mines consumed vast quantities of explosives. A box of dynamite costing five pounds included five shillings tax. Not only was this tax perceived as exorbitant, but British interests were offended when President Paul Kruger
Paul Kruger
gave monopoly rights for the manufacture of the explosive to a non-British branch of the Nobel company, which infuriated Britain.[23] The so-called "dynamite monopoly" became a casus belli.

British imperial interests were alarmed when in 1894–95 Kruger proposed building a railway through Portuguese East Africa
Portuguese East Africa
to Delagoa Bay, bypassing British controlled ports in Natal and Cape Town
Cape Town
and avoiding British tariffs.[24] At the time the Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
was Cecil Rhodes, a man driven by a vision of a British controlled Africa extending from Cape to Cairo. Certain self-appointed uitlanders representatives and British mine owners became increasingly angered and frustrated by their dealings with the Transvaal government. A Reform Committee (Transvaal) was formed to represent the uitlanders. Jameson Raid[edit] Main article: Jameson Raid

A sketch showing the arrest of Jameson after the failed raid, in 1896

In 1895, a plan was hatched with the connivance of the Cape Prime Minister Cecil Rhodes
Cecil Rhodes
and Johannesburg
Johannesburg
gold magnate Alfred Beit
Alfred Beit
to take Johannesburg, ending the control of the Transvaal government. A column of 600 armed men (mainly made up of his Rhodesian and Bechuanaland
Bechuanaland
policemen) was led by Dr. Leander Starr Jameson
Leander Starr Jameson
(the Administrator in Rhodesia of the British South Africa
South Africa
Company (or Chartered Company) of which Cecil Rhodes
Cecil Rhodes
was the chairman) over the border from Bechuanaland
Bechuanaland
towards Johannesburg. The column was equipped with Maxim machine guns and some artillery pieces. The plan was to make a three-day dash to Johannesburg
Johannesburg
before the Boer commandos could mobilise and trigger an uprising by the primarily British expatriate workers (uitlanders) organised by the Reform Committee. The Transvaal authorities had advance warning of the Jameson Raid
Jameson Raid
and tracked it from the moment it crossed the border. Four days later, the weary and dispirited column was surrounded near Krugersdorp
Krugersdorp
within sight of Johannesburg. After a brief skirmish in which the column lost 65 killed and wounded—while the Boers
Boers
lost but one man—Jameson's men surrendered and were arrested by the Boers.[17] The botched raid resulted in repercussions throughout southern Africa and in Europe. In Rhodesia, the departure of so many policemen enabled the Matabele and Mashona
Mashona
peoples to rise up against the Chartered Company, and the rebellion, known as the Second Matabele War, was suppressed only at great cost. A few days after the raid, the German Kaiser sent the Kruger telegram congratulating President Kruger and the government of the South African Republic on their success. When the text of this telegram was disclosed in the British press, it generated a storm of anti-German feeling. In the baggage of the raiding column, to the great embarrassment of Britain, the Boers
Boers
found telegrams from Cecil Rhodes and the other plotters in Johannesburg. Joseph Chamberlain, the British Colonial Secretary, quickly moved to condemn the raid, despite having approved Rhodes' plans to send armed assistance in the case of a Johannesburg
Johannesburg
uprising. Rhodes was severely censured at the Cape inquiry and the London parliamentary inquiry and forced to resign as Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of the Cape and as Chairman of the Chartered Company, for having sponsored the failed coup d'état. The Boer
Boer
government handed their prisoners over to the British for trial. Jameson was tried in England for leading the raid where the British press and London society inflamed by anti- Boer
Boer
and anti-German feeling and in a frenzy of jingoism, lionised Jameson and treated him as a hero. Although sentenced to 15 months imprisonment (which he served in Holloway), Jameson was later rewarded by being named Prime Minister of the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1904–08) and ultimately anointed as one of the founders of the Union of South Africa. For conspiring with Jameson, the uitlander members of the Reform Committee (Transvaal) were tried in the Transvaal courts and found guilty of high treason. The four leaders were sentenced to death by hanging but this sentence was next day commuted to 15 years' imprisonment. In June 1896, the other members of the Committee were released on payment of £2,000 each in fines, all of which were paid by Cecil Rhodes. One Reform Committee member, Frederick Gray, had committed suicide while in Pretoria
Pretoria
gaol, on 16 May, and his death was a factor in softening the Transvaal government's attitude to the remaining prisoners. Jan C. Smuts wrote in 1906,

The Jameson Raid
Jameson Raid
was the real declaration of war ... And that is so in spite of the four years of truce that followed ... [the] aggressors consolidated their alliance ... the defenders on the other hand silently and grimly prepared for the inevitable".[25]

Escalation and war[edit]

Paul Kruger, leader of the South African Republic
South African Republic
(Transvaal)

The Jameson Raid
Jameson Raid
alienated many Cape Afrikaners from Britain and united the Transvaal Boers
Boers
behind President Kruger and his government. It also had the effect of drawing the Transvaal and the Orange Free State (led by President Martinus Theunis Steyn) together in opposition to perceived British imperialism. In 1897, a military pact was concluded between the two republics. Arming the Boers[edit] President Paul Kruger
Paul Kruger
re-equipped the Transvaal army, importing 37,000 of the latest Mauser Model 1895
Mauser Model 1895
rifles, and some 40 to 50 million rounds of ammunition.[26] The best modern European artillery was also purchased. By October 1899 the Transvaal State Artillery
Artillery
had 73 heavy guns, including four 155 mm Creusot fortress guns and 25 37 mm Maxim Nordenfeldt guns.[27] The Transvaal army had been transformed; approximately 25,000 men equipped with modern rifles and artillery could mobilise within two weeks. President Kruger's victory in the Jameson Raid
Jameson Raid
incident did nothing to resolve the fundamental problem of finding a formula to conciliate the uitlanders, without surrendering the independence of the Transvaal. British case for war[edit] The failure to gain improved rights for uitlanders became a pretext for war and a justification for a big military buildup in Cape Colony. The case for war was developed and espoused as far away as the Australian colonies.[28][full citation needed] The Cape Colony Governor, Sir Alfred Milner, Cape Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Cecil Rhodes, the Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain
Joseph Chamberlain
and mining syndicate owners (Randlords, nicknamed the gold bugs), such as Alfred Beit, Barney Barnato and Lionel Phillips
Lionel Phillips
favoured annexation of the Boer
Boer
republics. Confident that the Boers
Boers
would be quickly defeated, they planned and organised a short war, citing the uitlanders' grievances as the motivation for the conflict. The influence of the war party with the British government was limited. Lord Salisbury, the Prime Minister, despised jingoism and jingoists.[citation needed] He also distrusted the abilities of the British Army. Yet he led Britain into war because he believed the British government had an obligation to British South Africans, because he thought that the Transvaal, the Orange Free State
Orange Free State
and the Cape Boers
Boers
aspired to a Dutch South Africa
South Africa
and that the achievement of such a state would damage British imperial prestige and because of the Boers
Boers
treatment of black South Africans (Salisbury had referred to the London Convention of 1884, after the British defeat, as an agreement 'really in the interest of slavery').[29][30] Salisbury was not alone in this concern over the treatment of black South Africans; Roger Casement, already well on the way to becoming an Irish Nationalist, was nevertheless happy to gather intelligence for the British against the Boers
Boers
because of their cruelty to Africans.[31] Given this sense of caution among members of the British cabinet and of the army, it is even harder to understand why the British government went against the advice of its generals (such as Wolseley) to send substantial reinforcements to South Africa
South Africa
before war broke out. Lansdowne, Secretary of State for War, did not believe the Boers were preparing for war and also believed that if Britain were to send large numbers of troops, it would strike too aggressive a posture and so prevent a negotiated settlement being reached or even encourage a Boer
Boer
attack.[32] Negotiations fail[edit] President Steyn of the Orange Free State
Orange Free State
invited Milner and Kruger to attend a conference in Bloemfontein. The conference started on 30 May 1899 but negotiations quickly broke down, despite Kruger's offer of concessions. In September 1899, Chamberlain sent an ultimatum demanding full equality for British citizens resident in Transvaal. Kruger, seeing that war was inevitable, simultaneously issued his own ultimatum prior to receiving Chamberlain's. This gave Britain 48 hours to withdraw all their troops from the border of Transvaal or the Transvaal, allied with the Orange Free State, would declare war. News of the ultimatum reached London on the day it expired. Outrage and laughter were the main responses. The editor of the Times laughed out loud when he read it, saying 'an official document is seldom amusing and useful yet this was both'. The Times denounced the ultimatum as an 'extravagant farce' and The Globe denounced this 'trumpery little state'. Most editorials were similar to the Daily Telegraph, which declared: 'of course there can only be one answer to this grotesque challenge. Kruger has asked for war and war he must have!' Such views were far from those of the British government and from those in the army. To most sensible observers, army reform had been a matter of pressing concern from the 1870s, constantly put off because the British public did not want the expense of a larger, more professional army and because a large home army was not politically welcome. Lord Salisbury, the Prime Minister, then had to explain to a surprised Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
that 'We have no army capable of meeting even a second-class Continental Power'.[33] When war with the Boer
Boer
Republics was imminent in September 1899, a Field Force, referred to as the Army Corps (sometimes 1st Army Corps) was mobilised and sent to Cape Town. It was "about the equivalent of the I Army Corps of the existing mobilization scheme" and was placed under the command of Gen Sir Redvers Buller, GOC in C of Aldershot Command.[34] In South Africa
South Africa
the corps never operated as such and the 1st, 2nd and 3rd divisions were widely dispersed. First phase: The Boer
Boer
offensive (October–December 1899)[edit] Boer
Boer
organisation and skills[edit] War was declared on 11 October 1899 with a Boer
Boer
offensive into the British-held Natal and Cape Colony
Cape Colony
areas. The Boers
Boers
had about 33,000 soldiers, and decisively outnumbered the British, who could move only 13,000 troops to the front line.[35] The Boers
Boers
had no problems with mobilisation, since the fiercely independent Boers
Boers
had no regular army units, apart from the Staatsartillerie (Afrikaans for 'States Artillery') of both republics. As with the First Boer
Boer
War, since most of the Boers
Boers
were members of civilian militias, none had adopted uniforms or insignia. Only the members of the Staatsartillerie wore light green uniforms.

Boers
Boers
in a trench at Mafeking, 1899

When danger loomed, all the burgers (citizens) in a district would form a military unit called a commando and would elect officers. A full-time official titled a Veldkornet maintained muster rolls, but had no disciplinary powers. Each man brought his own weapon, usually a hunting rifle, and his own horse. Those who could not afford a gun were given one by the authorities.[27] The Presidents of the Transvaal and Orange Free State
Orange Free State
simply signed decrees to concentrate within a week and the Commandos could muster between 30,000–40,000 men.[36] The average Boer
Boer
nevertheless was not thirsty for war. Many did not look forward to fighting against fellow Christians and, by and large, fellow Christian Protestants. Many may have had an overly optimistic sense of what the war would involve, imagining that victory could be won as easily as in the First South African War.[37] Many, including many generals, also had a sense that their cause was holy and just, and blessed by God.[38] It rapidly became clear that the Boer
Boer
forces presented the British forces with a severe tactical challenge. What the Boers
Boers
presented was a mobile and innovative approach to warfare, drawing on their experiences from the First Boer
Boer
War. The average Boers
Boers
who made up their Commandos were farmers who had spent almost all their working life in the saddle, both as farmers and hunters. They depended on the pot, horse and rifle; they were also skilled stalkers and marksmen. As hunters they had learned to fire from cover; from a prone position and to make the first shot count, knowing that if they missed, the game would either be long gone or could charge and potentially kill them. At community gatherings, target shooting was a major sport; they practised shooting at targets such as hens' eggs perched on posts 100 metres (110 yd) away. They made expert mounted infantry, using every scrap of cover, from which they could pour in a destructive fire using modern, smokeless, Mauser
Mauser
rifles. In preparation for hostilities, the Boers
Boers
had acquired around one hundred of the latest Krupp
Krupp
field guns, all horse-drawn and dispersed among the various Kommando groups and several Le Creusot
Le Creusot
"Long Tom" siege guns. The Boers' skill in adapting themselves to become first-rate artillerymen shows them to have been a versatile adversary.[39] The Transvaal also had an intelligence service that stretched across South Africa
South Africa
and of whose extent and efficiency the British were as yet unaware.[40] Boers
Boers
besiege Ladysmith, Mafeking and Kimberley[edit] The Boers
Boers
struck first on 12 October at the Battle of Kraaipan, an attack that heralded the invasion of the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
and Colony of Natal between October 1899 and January 1900. With speed and surprise, the Boer
Boer
drove quickly towards the British garrison at Ladysmith and the smaller ones at Mafeking and Kimberley. The quick Boer mobilisation resulted in early military successes against scattered British forces. Sir George Stuart White, commanding the British division at Ladysmith, had unwisely allowed Major-General Penn Symons to throw a brigade forward to the coal-mining town of Dundee (also reported as Glencoe), which was surrounded by hills. This became the site of the first engagement of the war, the Battle of Talana Hill. Boer
Boer
guns began shelling the British camp from the summit of Talana Hill at dawn on 20 October. Penn Symons
Penn Symons
immediately counter-attacked: his infantry drove the Boers
Boers
from the hill, for the loss of 446 British casualties, including Penn Symons. Another Boer
Boer
force occupied Elandslaagte, which lay between Ladysmith and Dundee. The British under Major General John French and Colonel Ian Hamilton attacked to clear the line of communications to Dundee. The resulting Battle of Elandslaagte
Battle of Elandslaagte
was a clear-cut British tactical victory, but Sir George White feared that more Boers
Boers
were about to attack his main position and so ordered a chaotic retreat from Elandslaagte, throwing away any advantage gained. The detachment from Dundee was compelled to make an exhausting cross-country retreat to rejoin White's main force. As Boers
Boers
surrounded Ladysmith and opened fire on the town with siege guns, White ordered a major sortie against their artillery positions. The result was a disaster, with 140 men killed and over 1,000 captured. The Siege of Ladysmith
Siege of Ladysmith
began, and was to last several months. Meanwhile, to the north-west at Mafeking, on the border with Transvaal, Colonel Robert Baden-Powell had raised two regiments of local forces amounting to about 1,200 men in order to attack and create diversions if things further south went amiss. Mafeking, being a railway junction, provided good supply facilities and was the obvious place for Baden-Powell to fortify in readiness for such attacks. However, instead of being the aggressor Baden-Powell and Mafeking were forced to defend when 6,000 Boer, commanded by Piet Cronjé, attempted a determined assault on the town. But this quickly subsided into a desultory affair with the Boers
Boers
prepared to starve the stronghold into submission, and so, on 13 October, began the 217-day Siege
Siege
of Mafeking. Lastly, over 360 kilometres (220 mi) to the south of Mafeking lay the diamond mining city of Kimberley, which was also subjected to a siege. Although not militarily significant, it nonetheless represented an enclave of British imperialism on the borders of the Orange Free State and was hence an important Boer
Boer
objective. From early November about 7,500 Boer
Boer
began their siege, again content to starve the town into submission. Despite Boer
Boer
shelling, the 40,000 inhabitants, of which only 5,000 were armed, were under little threat as the town was well-stocked with provisions. The garrison was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Robert Kekewich, although Cecil Rhodes
Cecil Rhodes
was also a prominent figure in the town's defences. Siege
Siege
life took its toll on both the defending soldiers and the civilians in the cities of Mafeking, Ladysmith, and Kimberley as food began to grow scarce after a few weeks. In Mafeking, Sol Plaatje wrote, "I saw horseflesh for the first time being treated as a human foodstuff." The cities under siege also dealt with constant artillery bombardment, making the streets a dangerous place. Near the end of the siege of Kimberley, it was expected that the Boers
Boers
would intensify their bombardment, so Rhodes displayed a notice encouraging people to go down into shafts of the Kimberley Mine for protection. The townspeople panicked, and people surged into the mine-shafts constantly for a 12-hour period. Although the bombardment never came, this did nothing to diminish the anxious civilians distress. The most well-heeled of the townspeople, such as Cecil Rhodes, sheltered in the Sanatorium, site of the present-day McGregor Museum; the poorer residents, notably the black population, did not have any shelter from the shelling. In retrospect, the Boer
Boer
decision to commit themselves to sieges (Sitzkrieg) was a mistake and one of the best illustrations of the Boers' lack of strategic vision. Historically, it had little in its favour. Of the seven sieges in the First Boer
Boer
War, the Boers
Boers
had won none. More importantly, it handed the initiative back to the British and allowed them time to recover, which they then did. Generally speaking, throughout the campaign, the Boers
Boers
were too defensive and passive, wasting the opportunities they had for victory. Yet that passiveness also testified to the fact that they had no desire to conquer British territory, but only to preserve their ability to rule in their own territory.[41] First British relief attempts[edit]

General Redvers Henry Buller
Redvers Henry Buller
launched an offensive against the Boers in the early phases of the war but after several defeats, culminating at the Battle of Colenso, he was replaced by Earl Roberts

It was at this point that General Sir Redvers Henry Buller, a much respected commander, arrived in South Africa
South Africa
with British reinforcements (including an army corps of three divisions). Buller originally intended an offensive straight up the railway line leading from Cape Town
Cape Town
through Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
to Pretoria. Finding on arrival that the British troops already in South Africa
South Africa
were under siege, he split his army corps into detachments to relieve the besieged garrisons. One division, led by Lieutenant General Lord Methuen, was to follow the Western Railway to the north and relieve Kimberley and Mafeking. A smaller force of about 3,000 led by Major General William Gatacre, was to push north toward the railway junction at Stormberg, to secure the Cape Midlands district from Boer
Boer
raids and local rebellions by Boer
Boer
inhabitants and Buller led the major part of the army corps to relieve Ladysmith to the east. The initial results of this offensive were mixed, with Methuen winning several bloody skirmishes in the Battle of Belmont on 23 November, the Battle of Graspan on 25 November, and at a larger engagement, the Battle of Modder River
Battle of Modder River
on 28 November resulting in British losses of 71 dead and over 400 wounded. British commanders had trained on the lessons of the Crimean War
Crimean War
and were adept at battalion and regimental set pieces with columns manoeuvring in jungles, deserts and mountainous regions. What British generals failed to comprehend was the impact of destructive fire from trench positions and the mobility of cavalry raids. The British troops went to war with what would prove to be antiquated tactics and in some cases antiquated weapons against the mobile Boer
Boer
forces with the destructive fire of their modern Mausers, the latest Krupp
Krupp
field guns and their novel tactics.[42] The middle of December was disastrous for the British Army. In a period known as Black Week (10–15 December 1899), the British suffered defeats on each of the three fronts. On 10 December, General Gatacre tried to recapture Stormberg railway junction about 80 kilometres (50 mi) south of the Orange River. Gatacre's attack was marked by administrative and tactical blunders and the Battle of Stormberg ended in a British defeat, with 135 killed and wounded and two guns and over 600 troops captured. At the Battle of Magersfontein
Battle of Magersfontein
on 11 December, Methuen's 14,000 British troops attempted to capture a Boer
Boer
position in a dawn attack to relieve Kimberley. This too turned into a disaster when the Highland Brigade became pinned down by accurate Boer
Boer
fire. After suffering from intense heat and thirst for nine hours, they eventually broke in ill-disciplined retreat. The Boer
Boer
commanders, Koos de la Rey and Piet Cronjé, had ordered trenches to be dug in an unconventional place to fool the British and to give their riflemen a greater firing range. The plan worked and this tactic helped write the doctrine of the supremacy of the defensive position, using modern small arms and trench fortifications.[43][citation needed] The British lost 120 killed and 690 wounded and were prevented from relieving Kimberley and Mafeking. A British soldier said of the defeat

Such was the day for our regiment Dread the revenge we will take. Dearly we paid for the blunder – A drawing-room General's mistake. Why weren't we told of the trenches? Why weren't we told of the wire? Why were we marched up in column, May Tommy Atkins
Tommy Atkins
enquire ... — Private Smith[44]

The nadir of Black Week was the Battle of Colenso
Battle of Colenso
on 15 December, where 21,000 British troops commanded by Buller attempted to cross the Tugela River
Tugela River
to relieve Ladysmith, where 8,000 Transvaal Boers
Boers
under the command of Louis Botha, were awaiting them. Through a combination of artillery and accurate rifle fire and a better use of the ground, the Boers
Boers
repelled all British attempts to cross the river. After his first attacks failed, Buller broke off the battle and ordered a retreat, abandoning many wounded men, several isolated units and ten field guns to be captured by Botha's men. Buller's forces lost 145 men killed and 1,200 missing or wounded and the Boers
Boers
suffered only 40 casualties, including 8 killed.[45] Second phase: The British offensive of January to September 1900[edit]

British casualties lie dead on the battlefield after the Battle of Spion Kop, 24 January 1900

The British government took these defeats badly and with the sieges still continuing was compelled to send two more divisions plus large numbers of colonial volunteers. By January 1900 this would become the largest force Britain had ever sent overseas, amounting to some 180,000 men with further reinforcements being sought. While watching for these reinforcements, Buller made another bid to relieve Ladysmith by crossing the Tugela west of Colenso. Buller's subordinate, Major General Charles Warren, successfully crossed the river, but was then faced with a fresh defensive position centred on a prominent hill known as Spion Kop. In the resulting Battle of Spion Kop, British troops captured the summit by surprise during the early hours of 24 January 1900, but as the early morning fog lifted they realised too late that they were overlooked by Boer
Boer
gun emplacements on the surrounding hills. The rest of the day resulted in a disaster caused by poor communication between Buller and his commanders. Between them they issued contradictory orders, on the one hand ordering men off the hill, while other officers ordered fresh reinforcements to defend it. The result was 350 men killed and nearly 1,000 wounded and a retreat across the Tugela River
Tugela River
into British territory. There were nearly 300 Boer
Boer
casualties. Buller attacked Louis Botha
Louis Botha
again on 5 February at Vaal Krantz and was again defeated. Buller withdrew early when it appeared that the British would be isolated in an exposed bridgehead across the Tugela, for which he was nicknamed "Sir Reverse" by some of his officers.

Boer
Boer
General Piet De Wet, 1900

By taking command in person in Natal, Buller had allowed the overall direction of the war to drift. Because of concerns about his performance and negative reports from the field, he was replaced as Commander in Chief by Field Marshal Lord Roberts. Roberts quickly assembled an entirely new team for headquarters staff and he chose military men from far and wide: Lord Kitchener (Chief of Staff) from the Sudan; Frederick Russell Burnham
Frederick Russell Burnham
(Chief of Scouts), the American scout, from the Klondike; David Henderson from the Staff College; Neville Bowles Chamberlain
Neville Bowles Chamberlain
from Afghanistan; and William Nicholson (Military Secretary) from Calcutta[46] Like Buller, Roberts first intended to attack directly along the Cape Town
Cape Town
Pretoria
Pretoria
railway but, again like Buller, was forced to relieve the beleaguered garrisons. Leaving Buller in command in Natal, Roberts massed his main force near the Orange River
Orange River
and along the Western Railway behind Methuen's force at the Modder River, and prepared to make a wide outflanking move to relieve Kimberley.

Siege
Siege
of Ladysmith

Except in Natal, the war had stagnated. Other than a single attempt to storm Ladysmith, the Boers
Boers
made no attempt to capture the besieged towns. In the Cape Midlands, the Boers
Boers
did not exploit the British defeat at Stormberg, and were prevented from capturing the railway junction at Colesberg. In the dry summer, the grazing on the veld became parched, weakening the Boers' horses and draught oxen, and many Boer
Boer
families joined their menfolk in the siege lines and laagers (encampments), fatally encumbering Cronjé's army. Roberts launched his main attack on 10 February 1900 and although hampered by a long supply route, managed to outflank the Boers defending Magersfontein. On 14 February, a cavalry division under Major General John French launched a major attack to relieve Kimberley. Although encountering severe fire, a massed cavalry charge split the Boer
Boer
defences on 15 February, opening the way for French to enter Kimberley that evening, ending its 124 days' siege. Meanwhile, Roberts pursued Piet Cronjé's 7,000-strong force, which had abandoned Magersfontein
Magersfontein
to head for Bloemfontein. General French's cavalry was ordered to assist in the pursuit by embarking on an epic 50 km (31 mi) drive towards Paardeberg where Cronjé was attempting to cross the Modder River. At the Battle of Paardeberg
Battle of Paardeberg
from 18 to 27 February, Roberts then surrounded General Piet Cronjé's retreating Boer
Boer
army. On 17 February, a pincer movement involving both French's cavalry and the main British force attempted to take the entrenched position, but the frontal attacks were uncoordinated and so were easily repulsed by the Boers. Finally, Roberts resorted to bombarding Cronjé into submission, but it took a further ten precious days and with the British troops using the polluted Modder River
Modder River
as water supply, resulted in a typhoid epidemic killing many troops. General Cronjé was forced to surrender at Surrender Hill with 4,000 men.

The Relief of Ladysmith. Sir George Stuart White greets Major Hubert Gough on 28 February. Painting by John Henry Frederick Bacon (1868–1914)

In Natal, the Battle of the Tugela Heights, which started on 14 February was Buller's fourth attempt to relieve Ladysmith. The losses Buller's troops had sustained convinced Buller to adopt Boer
Boer
tactics "in the firing line – to advance in small rushes, covered by rifle fire from behind; to use the tactical support of artillery; and above all, to use the ground, making rock and earth work for them as it did for the enemy." Despite reinforcements his progress was painfully slow against stiff opposition. However, on 26 February, after much deliberation, Buller used all his forces in one all-out attack for the first time and at last succeeded in forcing a crossing of the Tugela to defeat Botha's outnumbered forces north of Colenso. After a siege lasting 118 days, the Relief of Ladysmith
Relief of Ladysmith
was effected, the day after Cronjé surrendered, but at a total cost of 7,000 British casualties. Buller's troops marched into Ladysmith on 28 February.[47] After a succession of defeats, the Boers
Boers
realised that against such overwhelming numbers of troops, they had little chance of defeating the British and so became demoralised. Roberts then advanced into the Orange Free State
Orange Free State
from the west, putting the Boers
Boers
to flight at the Battle of Poplar Grove
Battle of Poplar Grove
and capturing Bloemfontein, the capital, unopposed on 13 March with the Boer
Boer
defenders escaping and scattering. Meanwhile, he detached a small force to relieve Baden-Powell, and the Relief of Mafeking
Relief of Mafeking
on 18 May 1900 provoked riotous celebrations in Britain coining the Edwardian phrase mafficking. On 28 May, the Orange Free State was annexed and renamed the Orange River
Orange River
Colony. After being forced to delay for several weeks at Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
by a shortage of supplies, an outbreak of enteric (typhoid) fever caused by poor hygiene, drinking bad drinking water at Paardeburg and, appalling medical care, Roberts finally resumed his advance.[48] He was forced to halt again at Kroonstad
Kroonstad
for 10 days, due once again to the collapse of his medical and supply systems, but finally captured Johannesburg on 31 May and the capital of the Transvaal, Pretoria, on 5 June. The first into Pretoria
Pretoria
was Lt. William Watson of the New South Wales Mounted Rifles, who persuaded the Boers
Boers
to surrender the capital.[49][full citation needed] Before the war, the Boers
Boers
had constructed several forts south of Pretoria, but the artillery had been removed from the forts for use in the field, and in the event they abandoned Pretoria
Pretoria
without a fight. Having won the principal cities, Roberts declared the war over on 3 September 1900; and the South African Republic
South African Republic
was formally annexed. British observers believed the war to be all but over after the capture of the two capital cities. However, the Boers
Boers
had earlier met at the temporary new capital of the Orange Free State, Kroonstad, and planned a guerrilla campaign to hit the British supply and communication lines. The first engagement of this new form of warfare was at Sanna's Post
Sanna's Post
on 31 March where 1,500 Boers
Boers
under the command of Christiaan De Wet
Christiaan De Wet
attacked Bloemfontein's waterworks about 37 kilometres (23 mi) east of the city, and ambushed a heavily escorted convoy, which caused 155 British casualties and the capture of seven guns, 117 wagons, and 428 British troops.[50][full citation needed]

General Piet Cronjé
Piet Cronjé
as a prisoner of war in Saint Helena, 1900–02. He was captured, with 4000 men, after the loss of the Battle of Paardeberg.

After the fall of Pretoria, one of the last formal battles was at Diamond Hill on 11–12 June, where Roberts attempted to drive the remnants of the Boer
Boer
field army beyond striking distance of Pretoria. Although Roberts drove the Boers
Boers
from the hill, the Boer
Boer
commander, Louis Botha, did not regard it as a defeat, for he inflicted more casualties on the British (totalling 162 men) while suffering around 50 casualties. The set-piece period of the war now largely gave way to a mobile guerrilla war, but one final operation remained. President Kruger and what remained of the Transvaal government had retreated to eastern Transvaal. Roberts, joined by troops from Natal under Buller, advanced against them, and broke their last defensive position at Bergendal on 26 August. As Roberts and Buller followed up along the railway line to Komatipoort, Kruger sought asylum in Portuguese East Africa
Portuguese East Africa
(modern Mozambique). Some dispirited Boers
Boers
did likewise, and the British gathered up much war material. However, the core of the Boer
Boer
fighters under Botha easily broke back through the Drakensberg
Drakensberg
Mountains into the Transvaal highveld after riding north through the bushveld. Under the new conditions of the war, heavy equipment was no use to them, and therefore no great loss. As Roberts's army occupied Pretoria, the Boer
Boer
fighters in the Orange Free State had been driven into a fertile area known as the Brandwater Basin in the north east of the Republic. This offered only temporary sanctuary, as the mountain passes leading to it could be occupied by the British, trapping the Boers. A force under General Archibald Hunter set out from Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
to achieve this in July 1900. The hard core of the Free State Boers
Boers
under Christiaan De Wet, accompanied by President Steyn, left the basin early. Those remaining fell into confusion and most failed to break out before Hunter trapped them. 4,500 Boers
Boers
surrendered and much equipment was captured but as with Roberts's drive against Kruger at the same time, these losses were of relatively little consequence, as the hardcore of the Boer
Boer
armies and their most determined and active leaders remained at large. From the Basin, Christiaan De Wet
Christiaan De Wet
headed west. Although hounded by British columns, he succeeded in crossing the Vaal into western Transvaal, to allow Steyn to travel to meet their leaders. There was much sympathy for the Boers
Boers
on mainland Europe and in October, President Kruger and members of the Transvaal government left Portuguese East Africa
Portuguese East Africa
on the Dutch warship De Gelderland, sent by the Queen of the Netherlands Wilhelmina. Paul Kruger's wife, however, was too ill to travel and remained in South Africa
South Africa
where she died on 20 July 1901 without seeing her husband again. President Kruger first went to Marseille and then on to The Netherlands where he stayed for a while before moving finally to Clarens, Switzerland, where he died in exile on 14 July 1904. POWs sent overseas[edit] The first sizeable batch of Boer
Boer
prisoners of war taken by the British consisted of those captured at the Battle of Elandslaagte
Battle of Elandslaagte
on 21 October 1899. At first, many were put on ships, but as numbers grew, the British decided they did not want them kept locally. The capture of 400 POWs in February 1900 was a key event, which made the British realise they could not accommodate all POWs in South Africa.[51] The British feared they could be freed by sympathetic locals. Moreover, they already had trouble supplying their own troops in South Africa, and did not want the added burden of sending supplies for the POWs. Britain therefore chose to send many POWs overseas.

A Transit camp for Prisoners of War
Prisoners of War
near Cape Town
Cape Town
during the war. Prisoners were then transferred for internment in other parts of the British Empire.

The first overseas (off African mainland) camps were opened in Saint Helena, which ultimately received about 5,000 POWs.[52] About 5,000 POWs were sent to Ceylon.[53] Other POWs were sent to Bermuda
Bermuda
and India. No evidence exists of Boer
Boer
POWs being sent to the Dominions of the British Empire
British Empire
such as Australia, Canada
Canada
or New Zealand.[51] In all, about 26,000 POWs were sent overseas.[54] Oath of neutrality[edit] On 15 March 1900 Lord Roberts issued a proclamation in terms of which an amnesty would be granted to all burghers, except leaders, who took an oath of neutrality and returned quietly to their homes.[55] It is estimated that between 12,000 and 14,000 burghers took this oath between March and June 1900.[56] Third phase: Guerrilla war
Guerrilla war
(September 1900 – May 1902)[edit]

Kitchener succeeded Roberts in November 1900 and launched anti-guerrilla campaigns; 1898 photograph in 1910 magazine

By September 1900, the British were nominally in control of both Republics, with the exception of the northern part of Transvaal. However, they soon discovered that they only controlled the territory their columns physically occupied. Despite the loss of their two capital cities and half of their army, the Boer
Boer
commanders adopted guerrilla warfare tactics, primarily conducting raids against railways, resource and supply targets, all aimed at disrupting the operational capacity of the British Army. They avoided pitched battles and casualties were light. Each Boer
Boer
commando unit was sent to the district from which its members had been recruited, which meant that they could rely on local support and personal knowledge of the terrain and the towns within the district thereby enabling them to live off the land. Their orders were simply to act against the British whenever possible. Their tactics were to strike fast and hard causing as much damage to the enemy as possible, and then to withdraw and vanish before enemy reinforcements could arrive. The vast distances of the Republics allowed the Boer commandos considerable freedom to move about and made it nearly impossible for the 250,000 British troops to control the territory effectively using columns alone. As soon as a British column left a town or district, British control of that area faded away.

A surviving blockhouse in South Africa. Blockhouses
Blockhouses
were constructed by the British to secure supply routes from Boer
Boer
raids during the war.

The Boer
Boer
commandos were especially effective during the initial guerrilla phase of the war because Roberts had assumed that the war would end with the capture of the Boer
Boer
capitals and the dispersal of the main Boer
Boer
armies. Many British troops were therefore redeployed out of the area, and had been replaced by lower-quality contingents of Imperial Yeomanry
Imperial Yeomanry
and locally raised irregular corps. From late May 1900, the first successes of the Boer
Boer
guerrilla strategy were at Lindley (where 500 Yeomanry surrendered), and at Heilbron (where a large convoy and its escort were captured) and other skirmishes resulting in 1,500 British casualties in less than ten days. In December 1900, De la Rey and Christiaan Beyers
Christiaan Beyers
attacked and mauled a British brigade at Nooitgedacht. As a result of these and other Boer
Boer
successes, the British, led by Lord Kitchener, mounted three extensive searches for De Wet, but without success. However, the very nature of the Boer
Boer
guerrilla war was sporadic, poorly planned, and had little overall long-term objective, with the exception to simply harass the British. This led to a disorganised pattern of scattered engagements throughout the region. British response[edit] The British were forced to quickly revise their tactics. They concentrated on restricting the freedom of movement of the Boer commandos and depriving them of local support. The railway lines had provided vital lines of communication and supply, and as the British had advanced across South Africa, they had used armoured trains and had established fortified blockhouses at key points.[57] They now built additional blockhouses (each housing 6–8 soldiers) and fortified these to protect supply routes against Boer
Boer
raiders. Eventually some 8,000 such blockhouses were built across the two South African republics, radiating from the larger towns along principal routes. Each blockhouse cost between £800 to £1,000 and took about three months to build. However, they proved very effective. Not one bridge where one of these blockhouses was sited and manned was blown.[57] The blockhouse system required an enormous number of troops to garrison. Well over 50,000 British troops, or 50 battalions, were involved in blockhouse duty, greater than the approximately 30,000 Boers
Boers
in the field during the guerrilla phase. In addition, up to 16,000 Africans were used both as armed guards and to patrol the line at night.[57] The Army linked the blockhouses with barbed wire fences to parcel up the wide veld into smaller areas. "New Model" drives were mounted under which a continuous line of troops could sweep an area of veld bounded by blockhouse lines, unlike the earlier inefficient scouring of the countryside by scattered columns.

One British response to the guerrilla war was a 'scorched earth' policy to deny the guerrillas supplies and refuge. In this image Boer civilians watch their house as it is burned.

The British also implemented a "scorched earth" policy under which they targeted everything within the controlled areas that could give sustenance to the Boer
Boer
guerrillas with a view to making it harder for the Boers
Boers
to survive. As British troops swept the countryside, they systematically destroyed crops, burned homesteads and farms, poisoned wells, and interned Boer
Boer
and African women, children and workers in concentration camps. Finally, the British also established their own mounted raiding columns in support of the sweeper columns. These were used to rapidly follow and relentlessly harass the Boers
Boers
with a view to delaying them and cutting off escape, while the sweeper units caught up. Many of the 90 or so mobile columns formed by the British to participate in such drives were a mixture of British and colonial troops, but they also had a large minority of armed Africans. The total number of armed Africans serving with these columns has been estimated at approximately 20,000. The British Army
British Army
also made use of Boer
Boer
auxiliaries who had been persuaded to change sides and enlist as "National Scouts". Serving under the command of General Andries Cronjé, the National Scouts were despised as hensoppers (collaborators) but came to number a fifth of the fighting Afrikaners by the end of the War.[58] The British utilised armoured trains throughout the War to deliver rapid reaction forces much more quickly to incidents (such as Boer attacks on blockhouses and columns) or to drop them off ahead of retreating Boer
Boer
columns. Peace committees[edit] Among those burgers who had stopped fighting, it was decided to form peace committees to persuade those who were still fighting to desist. In December 1900 Lord Kitchener gave permission that a central Burgher Peace Committee be inaugurated in Pretoria. By the end of 1900 some thirty envoys were sent out to the various districts to form local peace committees to persuade burghers to give up the fight. Previous leaders of the Boers, like Generals Piet de Wet and Andries Cronjé were involved in the organisation. Meyer de Kock
Meyer de Kock
was the only emissary of a peace committee to be convicted of high treason and executed by firing squad.[59] Joiners[edit] Some burghers joined the British in their fight against the Boers. By the end of hostilities in May 1902, there were no fewer than 5,464 burghers working for the British.[60] Orange Free State[edit]

Christiaan De Wet
Christiaan De Wet
was the most formidable leader of the Boer guerrillas. He successfully evaded capture on numerous occasions and was later involved in the negotiations for a peace settlement.

After having conferred with the Transvaal leaders, De Wet returned to the Orange Free State, where he inspired a series of successful attacks and raids from the hitherto quiet western part of the country, though he suffered a rare defeat at Bothaville in November 1900. Many Boers
Boers
who had earlier returned to their farms, sometimes giving formal parole to the British, took up arms again. In late January 1901, De Wet led a renewed invasion of Cape Colony. This was less successful, because there was no general uprising among the Cape Boers, and De Wet's men were hampered by bad weather and relentlessly pursued by British forces. They narrowly escaped across the Orange River. From then until the final days of the war, De Wet remained comparatively quiet, partly because the Orange Free State
Orange Free State
was effectively left desolate by British sweeps. In late 1901, De Wet overran an isolated British detachment at Groenkop, inflicting heavy casualties. This prompted Kitchener to launch the first of the "New Model" drives against him. De Wet escaped the first such drive, but lost 300 of his fighters. This was a severe loss, and a portent of further attrition, although the subsequent attempts to round up De Wet were badly handled, and De Wet's forces avoided capture. Western Transvaal[edit] The Boer
Boer
commandos in the Western Transvaal were very active after September 1901. Several battles of importance were fought here between September 1901 and March 1902. At Moedwil on 30 September 1901 and again at Driefontein on 24 October, General Koos De La Rey's forces attacked the British, but were forced to withdraw after the British offered strong resistance. A time of relative quiet descended thereafter on the western Transvaal. February 1902 saw the next major battle in that region. On 25 February, Koos De La Rey
Koos De La Rey
attacked a British column under Lieutenant-Colonel S. B. von Donop at Ysterspruit near Wolmaransstad. De La Rey succeeded in capturing many men and a large amount of ammunition. The Boer
Boer
attacks prompted Lord Methuen, the British second-in-command after Lord Kitchener, to move his column from Vryburg to Klerksdorp to deal with De La Rey. On the morning of 7 March 1902, the Boers
Boers
attacked the rear guard of Methuen's moving column at Tweebosch. Confusion reigned in British ranks and Methuen was wounded and captured by the Boers. The Boer
Boer
victories in the west led to stronger action by the British. In the second half of March 1902, large British reinforcements were sent to the Western Transvaal under the direction of Ian Hamilton. The opportunity the British were waiting for arose on 11 April 1902 at Rooiwal, where a commando led by General Jan Kemp and Commandant Potgieter attacked a superior force under Kekewich. The British soldiers were well positioned on the hillside and inflicted severe casualties on the Boers
Boers
charging on horseback over a large distance, beating them back. This was the end of the war in the Western Transvaal and also the last major battle of the war. Eastern Transvaal[edit]

Boer
Boer
commando

Two Boer
Boer
forces fought in this area, one under Botha in the south east and a second under Ben Viljoen in the north east around Lydenburg. Botha's forces were particularly active, raiding railways and British supply convoys, and even mounting a renewed invasion of Natal in September 1901. After defeating British mounted infantry in the Battle of Blood River Poort near Dundee, Botha was forced to withdraw by heavy rains that made movement difficult and crippled his horses. Back on the Transvaal territory around his home district of Vryheid, Botha attacked a British raiding column at Bakenlaagte, using an effective mounted charge. One of the most active British units was effectively destroyed in this engagement. This made Botha's forces the target of increasingly large and ruthless drives by British forces, in which the British made particular use of native scouts and informers. Eventually, Botha had to abandon the high veld and retreat to a narrow enclave bordering Swaziland. To the north, Ben Viljoen grew steadily less active. His forces mounted comparatively few attacks and as a result, the Boer
Boer
enclave around Lydenburg
Lydenburg
was largely unmolested. Viljoen was eventually captured. Cape Colony[edit] In parts of Cape Colony, particularly the Cape Midlands district where Boers
Boers
formed a majority of the white inhabitants, the British had always feared a general uprising against them. In fact, no such uprising took place, even in the early days of the war when Boer armies had advanced across the Orange. The cautious conduct of some of the elderly Orange Free State
Orange Free State
generals had been one factor that discouraged the Cape Boers
Boers
from siding with the Boer
Boer
republics. Nevertheless, there was widespread pro- Boer
Boer
sympathy. Some of the Cape Dutch volunteered to help the British, but a much larger number volunteered to help the other side. The political factor was more important than the military: the Cape Dutch controlled the provincial legislature. Milner said 90 percent favoured the rebels.[61] After he escaped across the Orange in March 1901, De Wet had left forces under Cape rebels Kritzinger and Scheepers to maintain a guerrilla campaign in the Cape Midlands. The campaign here was one of the least chivalrous of the war, with intimidation by both sides of each other's civilian sympathizers. In one of many skirmishes, Commandant Lotter's small commando was tracked down by a much-superior British column and wiped out at Groenkloof. Several captured rebels, including Lotter and Scheepers, who was captured when he fell ill with appendicitis, were executed by the British for treason or for capital crimes such as the murder of prisoners or of unarmed civilians. Some of the executions took place in public, to deter further disaffection. Since the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
was Imperial territory, its authorities forbade the British Army
British Army
to burn farms or to force Boers
Boers
into concentration camps. Fresh Boer
Boer
forces under Jan Christiaan Smuts, joined by the surviving rebels under Kritzinger, made another attack on the Cape in September 1901. They suffered severe hardships and were hard pressed by British columns, but eventually rescued themselves by routing some of their pursuers at the Battle of Elands River and capturing their equipment. From then until the end of the war, Smuts increased his forces from among Cape rebels until they numbered 3,000. However, no general uprising took place, and the situation in the Cape remained stalemated. In January 1902, Boer
Boer
leader Manie Maritz
Manie Maritz
was implicated in the Leliefontein massacre in the far Northern Cape. Nonwhite roles[edit] The policy on both sides was to minimise the role of nonwhites but the need for manpower continuously stretched those resolves. At the battle of Spion Kop in Ladysmith, MK Gandhi with 300 freeburger Indians and 800 Indentured Indian labourers started the Ambulance Corps. These Indian stretcher bearers saved British lives. But for the opposition side the war raged across their farms and their homes were destroyed, many Africans became refugees and they, like the Boers, moved to the towns where the British hastily created internment camps. Subsequently, the "Scorched Earth" policy was ruthlessly applied to both Boers
Boers
and Africans. Although most black Africans were not considered by the British to be hostile, many tens of thousands were also forcibly removed from Boer
Boer
areas and also placed in concentration camps. Africans were held separately from Boer
Boer
internees. Eventually there were a total of 64 tented camps for Africans. Conditions were as bad as in the camps for the Boers, but even though, after the Fawcett Commission report, conditions improved in the Boer
Boer
camps, "improvements were much slower in coming to the black camps." 20,000 died there.[62] About 10,000 black men were attached to Boer
Boer
units where they performed camp duties; a handful unofficially fought in combat. The British Army
British Army
employed over 14,000 Africans as wagon drivers. Even more had combatant roles as spies, guides, and eventually as soldiers. By 1902 there were about 30,000 armed Africans in the British Army.[63] Concentration camps[edit] Main article: British concentration camps

Tents in the Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
concentration camp

The term "concentration camp" was used to describe camps operated by the British in South Africa
South Africa
during this conflict in the years 1900–1902, and the term grew in prominence during this period. The camps had originally been set up by the British Army
British Army
as "refugee camps" to provide refuge for civilian families who had been forced to abandon their homes for whatever reason related to the war. However, when Kitchener took over in late 1900, he introduced new tactics in an attempt to break the guerrilla campaign and the influx of civilians grew dramatically as a result. Disease and starvation killed thousands.[64][additional citation(s) needed] Kitchener initiated plans to

flush out guerrillas in a series of systematic drives, organised like a sporting shoot, with success defined in a weekly 'bag' of killed, captured and wounded, and to sweep the country bare of everything that could give sustenance to the guerrillas, including women and children ... It was the clearance of civilians—uprooting a whole nation—that would come to dominate the last phase of the war.[65]

Lizzie van Zyl
Lizzie van Zyl
a Boer
Boer
child, visited by Emily Hobhouse
Emily Hobhouse
in a British concentration camp

As Boer
Boer
farms were destroyed by the British under their "Scorched Earth" policy—including the systematic destruction of crops and slaughtering of livestock, the burning down of homesteads and farms, and the poisoning of wells and salting of fields—to prevent the Boers
Boers
from resupplying from a home base many tens of thousands of women and children were forcibly moved into the concentration camps. This was not the first appearance of internment camps, as the Spanish had used internment in Cuba in the Ten Years' War, but the Boer
Boer
War concentration camp system was the first time that a whole nation had been systematically targeted, and the first in which some whole regions had been depopulated. Eventually, there were a total of 45 tented camps built for Boer internees and 64 for black Africans. Of the 28,000 Boer
Boer
men captured as prisoners of war, 25,630 were sent overseas. The vast majority of Boers
Boers
remaining in the local camps were women and children. Over 26,000 women and children were to perish in these concentration camps.[66] The camps were poorly administered from the outset and became increasingly overcrowded when Kitchener's troops implemented the internment strategy on a vast scale. Conditions were terrible for the health of the internees, mainly due to neglect, poor hygiene and bad sanitation. The supply of all items was unreliable, partly because of the constant disruption of communication lines by the Boers. The food rations were meager and there was a two-tier allocation policy, whereby families of men who were still fighting were routinely given smaller rations than others[67] The inadequate shelter, poor diet, bad hygiene and overcrowding led to malnutrition and endemic contagious diseases such as measles, typhoid and dysentery to which the children were particularly vulnerable. [68] Coupled with a shortage of modern medical facilities, many of the internees died. The end of the war[edit]

The end result of the Boer
Boer
War was the annexation of the Boer Republics to the British Empire
British Empire
in 1902

Peace conference at Vereeniging

C Company returns from Boer
Boer
War, King Street in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Towards the end of the war, British tactics of containment, denial, and harassment began to yield results against the guerrillas. The sourcing and co-ordination of intelligence became increasingly efficient with regular reporting from observers in the blockhouses, from units patrolling the fences and conducting "sweeper" operations, and from native Africans in rural areas who increasingly supplied intelligence, as the Scorched Earth
Scorched Earth
policy took effect and they found themselves competing with the Boers
Boers
for food supplies. Kitchener's forces at last began to seriously affect the Boers' fighting strength and freedom of manoeuvre, and made it harder for the Boers
Boers
and their families to survive. Despite this success, almost half the Boer fighting strength, 15000 men were still in the field fighting. Kitchener's tactics were very costly: Britain was running out of time and money and needed to change tack.[69] The Boers
Boers
and the British both feared the consequences of arming Africans. The memories of the Zulu and other tribal conflicts were still fresh, and they recognised that whoever won would have to deal with the consequences of a mass militarisation of the tribes. There was therefore an unwritten agreement that this war would be a "white man's war." At the outset, British officials instructed all white magistrates in the Natal Colony
Natal Colony
to appeal to Zulu amakhosi (chiefs) to remain neutral, and President Kruger sent emissaries asking them to stay out of it. However, in some cases there were old scores to be settled, and some Africans, such as the Swazis, were eager to enter the war with the specific aim of reclaiming land confiscated by the Boers. As the war went on there was greater involvement of Africans, and in particular large numbers became embroiled in the conflict on the British side, either voluntarily or involuntarily. By the end of the war, many blacks had been armed and had shown conspicuous gallantry in roles such as scouts, messengers, watchmen in blockhouses, and auxiliaries. And there were more flash-points outside of the war. On 6 May 1902 at Holkrantz in the southeastern Transvaal, a Zulu faction had their cattle stolen and their people mistreated by the Boers
Boers
as a punishment for helping the British. The local Boer
Boer
officer then sent an insulting message to the tribe, challenging them to take back their cattle. The Zulus attacked at night, and in a mutual bloodbath, the Boers
Boers
lost 56 killed and 3 wounded, while the Africans suffered 52 killed and 48 wounded.[70] The British offered terms of peace on various occasions, notably in March 1901, but were rejected by Botha and the "Bitter-einders" among the commandos. They pledged to fight until the bitter end and rejected the demand for compromise made by the "Hands-uppers." Their reasons included hatred of the British, loyalty to their dead comrades, solidarity with fellow commandos, an intense desire for independence, religious arguments, and fear of captivity or punishment. On the other hand, their women and children were dying every day and independence seemed impossible.[71] The last of the Boers
Boers
surrendered in May 1902 and the war ended with the Treaty of Vereeniging
Treaty of Vereeniging
signed on 31 May 1902. The British had won and offered generous terms to regain the support of the Boers.The Boers
Boers
were given £3,000,000 for reconstruction and were promised eventual limited self-government, which was granted in 1906 and 1907. The treaty ended the existence of the South African Republic
South African Republic
and the Orange Free State
Orange Free State
as independent Boer
Boer
republics and placed them within the British Empire. The Union of South Africa
South Africa
was established as a dominion of the British Empire
British Empire
in 1910. Cost of the war[edit] It is estimated that the total cost of the war to the British government was £211,156,000[72] (equivalent to £202,000,000,000 in 2014).[73]

Cost of War over its entire course

Year Cost at the time[73] Relative value in 2014[72]

1899–1900 £23,000,000 £21,940,000,000

1900–1901 £63,737,000 £60,110,000,000

1901–1902 £67,670,000 £63,860,000,000

1902–1903 £47,500,000 £45,430,000,000

Sub-total £201,907,000 £193,100,000,000

Interest £9,249,000 £8,846,000,000

Grand total £211,156,000 £202,000,000,000

Aftermath and analysis[edit]

Memorial to soldiers from Quebec
Quebec
who fell in the Second Boer
Boer
War, Quebec
Quebec
City

The Second Boer
Boer
War cast long shadows over the history of the South African region. The predominantly agrarian society of the former Boer republics was profoundly and fundamentally affected by the scorched earth policy of Roberts and Kitchener. The devastation of both Boer and black African populations in the concentration camps and through war and exile were to have a lasting effect on the demography and quality of life in the region. Many exiles and prisoners were unable to return to their farms at all; others attempted to do so but were forced to abandon the farms as unworkable given the damage caused by farm burning and salting of the fields in the course of the scorched earth policy. Destitute Boers
Boers
and black Africans swelled the ranks of the unskilled urban poor competing with the "uitlanders" in the mines.[74] The postwar reconstruction administration was presided over by Lord Milner and his largely Oxford trained Milner's Kindergarten. This small group of civil servants had a profound effect on the region, eventually leading to the Union of South Africa.

In the aftermath of the war, an imperial administration freed from accountability to a domestic electorate set about reconstructing an economy that was by then predicated unambiguously on gold. At the same time, British civil servants, municipal officials, and their cultural adjuncts were hard at work in the heartland of the former Boer Republics helping to forge new identities – first as 'British South Africans' and then, later still, as 'white South Africans'."

Some scholars, for good reasons, identify these new identities as partly underpinning the act of union that followed in 1910. Although challenged by a Boer
Boer
rebellion only four years later, they did much to shape South African politics between the two world wars and right up to the present day".[75]

Alfred, Lord Milner
Lord Milner
was the British High Commissioner
High Commissioner
of Southern Africa. He was involved from the start of the war and had a role in the peace process and the creation of the Union of South Africa.

The counterinsurgency techniques and lessons (the restriction of movement, the containment of space, the ruthless targeting of anything, everything and anyone that could give sustenance to guerrillas, the relentless harassment through sweeper groups coupled with rapid reaction forces, the sourcing and co-ordination of intelligence, and the nurturing of native allies) learned during the Boer
Boer
War were used by the British (and other forces) in future guerrilla campaigns including to counter Malayan communist rebels during the Malayan Emergency. In World War II
World War II
the British also adopted some of the concepts of raiding from the Boer
Boer
commandos when, after the fall of France, they set up their special raiding forces, and in acknowledgement of their erstwhile enemies, chose the name British Commandos. Many of the Boers
Boers
referred to the war as the second of the Freedom Wars. The most resistant of Boers
Boers
wanted to continue the fight and were known as "Bittereinders" (or irreconcilables) and at the end of the war a number of Boer
Boer
fighters such as Deneys Reitz
Deneys Reitz
chose exile rather than sign an oath, such as the following, to pledge allegiance to Britain:[76]

The bearer, <prisoner name> has been released from prison of war camp <Camp name> on signing that he acknowledge terms of surrender and becomes a British subject.

Over the following decade, many returned to South Africa
South Africa
and never signed the pledge. Some, like Reitz, eventually reconciled themselves to the new status quo, but others could not. Union of South Africa[edit] Main article: Union of South Africa One of the most important events in the decade after the end of the war was the creation of the Union of South Africa
South Africa
(later the Republic of South Africa). It proved a key ally to Britain as a Dominion
Dominion
of the British Empire
British Empire
during the World Wars. At the start of the First World War a crisis ensued when the South African government led by Louis Botha and other former Boer
Boer
fighters, such as Jan Smuts, declared support for Britain and agreed to send troops to take over the German colony of German South-West Africa
German South-West Africa
(Namibia). Many Boers
Boers
were opposed to fighting for Britain, especially against Germany, which had been sympathetic to their struggle. A number of bittereinders and their allies took part in a revolt known as the Maritz Rebellion. This was quickly suppressed and in 1916, the leading Boer
Boer
rebels in the Maritz Rebellion got off lightly (especially compared with the fate of leading Irish rebels of the Easter Rising), with terms of imprisonment of six and seven years and heavy fines. Two years later, they were released from prison, as Louis Botha
Louis Botha
recognised the value of reconciliation. Thereafter the bittereinders concentrated on political organisation within the constitutional system and built up what later became the National Party, which took power in 1948 and dominated the politics of South Africa
South Africa
from the late 1940s until the early 1990s, under the apartheid system. Effect of the war on domestic British politics[edit] Further information: Opposition to the Second Boer
Boer
War

Memorial window from St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin
St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin
by An Túr Gloine. Much of the Irish public sympathised with the Boer
Boer
side, rather than the British side on which fought the Royal Irish Regiment.

Many Irish nationalists sympathised with the Boers, viewing them to be a people oppressed by British imperialism, much like themselves. Irish miners already in the Transvaal at the start of the war formed the nucleus of two Irish commandos. The Second Irish Brigade was headed up by an Australian of Irish parents, Colonel Arthur Lynch. In addition, small groups of Irish volunteers went to South Africa
South Africa
to fight with the Boers
Boers
– this despite the fact that there were many Irish troops fighting in the British army, including the Royal Dublin Fusiliers.[e] In Britain, the "Pro-Boer" campaign expanded,[f] with writers often idealising the Boer
Boer
society. The war also highlighted the dangers of Britain's policy of non-alignment and deepened her isolation. The 1900 UK general election, also known as the "Khaki election", was called by the Prime Minister, Lord Salisbury, on the back of recent British victories. There was much enthusiasm for the war at this point, resulting in a victory for the Conservative government. However public support quickly waned as it became apparent that the war would not be easy and it dragged on, partially contributing to the Conservatives' spectacular defeat in 1906. There was public outrage at the use of scorched earth tactics – the forced clearance of women and children, the destruction of the countryside, burning of Boer homesteads and poisoning of wells, for example – and the conditions in the concentration camps. It also became apparent that there were serious problems with public health in Britain: up to 40% of recruits in Britain were unfit for military service, suffering from medical problems such as rickets and other poverty-related illnesses. This came at a time of increasing concern for the state of the poor in Britain. Having taken the country into a prolonged war, the Conservative government was rejected by the electorate at the first general election after the war was over. Balfour, succeeding his uncle Lord Salisbury in 1903 immediately after the war, took over a Conservative party that had won two successive landslide majorities but led it to a landslide defeat in 1906. Horses[edit]

A horse destined to serve in the war, being off-loaded in Port Elizabeth

The number of horses killed in the war was at the time unprecedented in modern warfare. For example, in the Relief of Kimberley, French's cavalry rode 500 horses to their deaths in a single day. The wastage was particularly heavy among British forces for several reasons: overloading of horses with unnecessary equipment and saddlery, failure to rest and acclimatise horses after long sea voyages and, later in the war, poor management by inexperienced mounted troops and distant control by unsympathetic staffs.[77] The average life expectancy of a British horse, from the time of its arrival in Port Elizabeth, was around six weeks.[78] Horses were slaughtered for their meat when needed. During the Siege of Kimberley and Siege
Siege
of Ladysmith, horses were consumed as food once the regular sources of meat were depleted.[79] The besieged British forces in Ladysmith also produced chevril, a Bovril-like paste, by boiling down the horse meat to a jelly paste and serving it like beef tea.[80][81] The Horse Memorial
Horse Memorial
in Port Elizabeth
Port Elizabeth
is a tribute to the 300,000 horses that died during the conflict.[82] Imperial involvement[edit] See also: History of the British Army
British Army
§ South Africa

Stretcher-bearers of the Indian Ambulance Corps during the war, including the future leader Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
(Middle row, 5th from left).

The vast majority of troops fighting for the British army came from Great Britain. Yet a significant number came from other parts of the British Empire. These countries had their own internal disputes over whether they should remain tied to London, or have full independence, which carried over into the debate around the sending of forces to assist the war. Though not fully independent on foreign affairs, these countries did have local say over how much support to provide, and the manner it was provided. Ultimately, Australia, Canada, New Zealand
New Zealand
and British South African Company administered Rhodesia all sent volunteers to aid the United Kingdom. Canada
Canada
provided the largest number of troops followed by Australia. Troops were also raised to fight with the British from the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
and the Colony of Natal. Some Boer
Boer
fighters, such as Jan Smuts
Jan Smuts
and Louis Botha, were technically British subjects as they came from the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
and Colony of Natal, respectively.[citation needed] There were also many volunteers from the Empire
Empire
who were not selected for the official contingents from their countries and travelled privately to South Africa
South Africa
to form private units, such as the Canadian Scouts and Doyle's Australian Scouts. There were also some European volunteer units from British India and British Ceylon, though the British Government refused offers of non-white troops from the Empire. Some Cape Coloureds
Cape Coloureds
also volunteered early in the war, but later some of them were effectively conscripted and kept in segregated units. As a community, they received comparatively little reward for their services. In many ways, the war set the pattern for the Empire's later involvement in the two World Wars. Specially raised units, consisting mainly of volunteers, were dispatched overseas to serve with forces from elsewhere in the British Empire. The United States stayed neutral in the conflict, but some American citizens were eager to participate. Early in the war Lord Roberts cabled the American Frederick Russell Burnham, a veteran of both Matabele wars but at that very moment prospecting in the Klondike, to serve on his personal staff as Chief of Scouts. Burnham went on to receive the highest awards of any American who served in the war, but American mercenaries participated on both sides.[83] Australia[edit] See also: History of the Australian Army §  Boer
Boer
War 1899–1902 Main article: Military history of Australia
Australia
during the Second Boer
Boer
War

British and Australian officers in South Africa, c. 1900

From 1899 to 1901 the six separate self-governing colonies in Australia
Australia
sent their own contingents to serve in the Boer
Boer
War. That much of the population of the colonies had originated from Great Britain explains a desire to support Britain during the conflict appealing to many. After the colonies formed the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
of Australia
Australia
in 1901, the new Government of Australia
Australia
sent "Commonwealth" contingents to the war.[84] The Boer
Boer
War was thus the first war in which the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
of Australia
Australia
fought. A few Australians fought on the Boer
Boer
side.[85] The most famous and colourful character was Colonel Arthur Alfred Lynch, formerly of Ballarat, Victoria, who raised the Second Irish Brigade.

A memorial in Queanbeyan
Queanbeyan
New South Wales
New South Wales
unveiled in 1903, dedicated to Australians who served in the conflict (over 20,000).

The Australian climate and geography were far closer to that of South Africa than most other parts of the empire, so Australians adapted quickly to the environment, with troops serving mostly among the army's "mounted rifles." Enlistment in all official Australian contingents totalled 16,463.[86] Another five to seven thousand Australians served in "irregular" regiments raised in South Africa. Perhaps five hundred Australian irregulars were killed. In total 20,000 or more Australians served and about 1,000 were killed. A total of 267 died from disease, 251 were killed in action or died from wounds sustained in battle. A further 43 men were reported missing.[87] When the war began some Australians, like some Britons, opposed it. As the war dragged on some Australians became disenchanted, in part because of the sufferings of Boer
Boer
civilians reported in the press. In an interesting twist (for Australians), when the British missed capturing President Paul Kruger, as he escaped Pretoria
Pretoria
during its fall in June 1900, a Melbourne Punch, 21 June 1900, cartoon depicted how the War could be won, using the Kelly Gang.[88] The convictions and executions of two Australian lieutenants, Harry Harbord Morant, colloquially known as 'The Breaker' for his skill with horses, and Peter Handcock
Peter Handcock
in 1902, and the imprisonment of a third, George Witton, had little impact on the Australian public at the time despite later legend. The controversial court-martial saw the three convicted of executing Boer
Boer
prisoners under their authority. After the war, though, Australians joined an empire-wide campaign that saw Witton released from jail. Much later, some Australians came to see the execution of Morant and Handcock as instances of wrongfully executed Australians, as illustrated in the 1980 Australian film Breaker Morant. One of the officers in the photo at left is LTCOL Percy Ricardo. CO of the 1st Queensland
Queensland
Mounted Infantry contingent to South Africa. Canada[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Canadian Appeal for the Widows and Orphans of the South African War

See also: Military history of Canada
Canada
§  Boer
Boer
War

The unveiling of the South African War Memorial in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, in 1908

Over 7,000 Canadian soldiers and support personnel were involved in the second Boer
Boer
war from October 1899 to May 1902.[89] With approximately 7,368[90] soldiers in a combat situation, the conflict became the largest military engagement involving Canadian soldiers from the time of Confederation until the Great War.[89] Eventually, 270 soldiers died in the course of the Boer
Boer
War.[89] The Canadian public was initially divided on the decision to go to war as some citizens did not want Canada
Canada
to become Britain's 'tool' for engaging in armed conflicts. Many Anglophone citizens were pro-Empire, and wanted the Prime Minister, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, to support the British in their conflict. On the other hand, many Francophone
Francophone
citizens felt threatened by the continuation of British Imperialism
Imperialism
to their national sovereignty.[91] In the end, in order to appease the citizens who wanted war and avoid angering those who didn't, Laurier sent 1,000 volunteers under the command of Lieutenant Colonel William Otter to aid the confederation in its war to 'liberate' the peoples of the Boer
Boer
controlled states in South Africa. The volunteers were provided to the British with the stipulation that the British pay costs of the battalion after it arrived in South Africa.[92] The supporters of the war claimed that it "pitted British Freedom, justice and civilization against Boer
Boer
backwardness".[93] The French Canadians' opposition to the Canadian involvement in a British 'colonial venture' eventually led to a three-day riot in various areas of Quebec.[90]

Harold Lothrop Borden
Harold Lothrop Borden
– son of the National Minister of Defence and the most famous Canadian casualty of the war

Commonwealth
Commonwealth
involvement in the Boer
Boer
War can be summarised into three parts. The first part (October 1899 – December 1899) was characterised by questionable decisions and blunders from the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
leadership which affected its soldiers greatly. The soldiers of the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
were shocked at the number of Afrikaner soldiers who were willing to oppose the British. The Afrikaner troops were very willing to fight for their country, and were armed with modern weaponry and were highly mobile soldiers.[91] This was one of the best examples of Guerrilla
Guerrilla
style warfare, which would be employed throughout the twentieth century after set piece fighting was seen as a hindrance by certain groups.[89] The Boer
Boer
soldiers would evade capture and secure provisions from their enemies therefore they were able to exist as a fighting entity for an indeterminate period of time.[94] The end of the First part was the period in mid-December which is referred to as the "Black Week". During the week of 10–17 December 1899, the British suffered three major defeats at the hands of the Boers
Boers
at the battlefields of Stormberg, Magersfontein
Magersfontein
and Colenso. Afterwards, the British called upon more volunteers to take part in the war from the Commonwealth.[95] The second part of the war (February–April 1900) was the opposite of the first. After the British reorganised and reinforced under new leadership, they began to experience success against the Boer soldiers. Commonwealth
Commonwealth
soldiers resorted to using blockhouses, farm burning and concentration camps to 'persuade' the resisting Boers
Boers
into submission.[96] The final phase of the war was the guerrilla phase where many Boer soldiers turned to Guerrilla
Guerrilla
tactics such as raiding infrastructure or communications lines. Many Canadian soldiers did not actually see combat after getting shipped over to South Africa
South Africa
as many arrived around the time of the signing of the Treaty of Vereeniging
Treaty of Vereeniging
on 31 May 1902.[97]

Notable Canadian Engagements

Battle Description

Paardeberg A British led attack trapped a Boer
Boer
Army in Central South Africa
South Africa
on the banks of the Modder River
Modder River
from 18–27 February 1900. Over 800 Canadian Soldiers from Otter's 2nd Special
Special
Service Battalion were attached to the British attack force. This was the first major attack involving the Canadians in the Boer
Boer
War as well as the first major victory for Commonwealth
Commonwealth
soldiers. The Canadian soldiers perched on a hill above the Boer
Boer
camp and were credited with being the main reason that the Boers
Boers
under General Cronjé surrendered.[92]

Zand River On 6 May 1900, the Commonwealth's northwards advance to the capital of Pretoria
Pretoria
was well on its way. However, the British soldiers encountered a position of Boer
Boer
soldiers on the Zand River. The British commander felt that the best course of action was to use cavalry to envelop the Boers
Boers
on their left flank and infantry would therefore march on the Boer
Boer
right flank to secure a crossing. The Canadian 2nd Battalion was the lead unit advancing on the right flank. However, due to disease and casualties from earlier encounters, the 2nd battalion was reduced to approximately half of its initial strength. The Canadian battalion came under fire from the Boers
Boers
who were occupying protected positions. The battle continued for several hours until the British cavalry was able to flank the Boers
Boers
and force a retreat. Canadian casualties were two killed and two wounded. The skirmishes around the Zand River would continue and more soldiers from various Commonwealth
Commonwealth
countries would become involved.[98]

Doornkop On the days of 28–29 May 1900, both the Canadian 2nd battalion and the 1st Mounted Infantry Brigade fought together on the same battlefield for the first, and only, time. The Mounted Brigade, which encompassed units such as the Canadian Mounted Rifles and the Royal Canadian Dragoons were given the task to establish a beachhead across a river which the Boers
Boers
had fortified in an attempt to halt the advancing Commonwealth
Commonwealth
before they could reach the city of Johannesburg.[99] Since the Boers
Boers
were mounting a heavy resistance to the advancing mounted units, the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
infantry units were tasked with holding the Boer
Boer
units while the mounted units found another route across the river with less resistance.[99] Even after the cavalry made it across to the other side of the river further down the line, the infantry had to advance onto the town of Doornkop
Doornkop
as they were the ones who were tasked with its capture. The Canadians suffered very minimal casualties and achieved their objective after the Boer soldiers retreated from their positions.[99] Although the Canadians suffered minimal casualties, the lead British unit in the infantry advance, the Gordon Highlanders, did sustain heavy casualties in their march from the riflemen of the Boer
Boer
force.[100]

Leliefontein On 7 November 1900, a British-Canadian force was searching for a unit of Boer
Boer
commandos which were known to be operating around the town of Belfast, South Africa. After the British Commander reached the farm of Leliefontein, he began to fear that his line had expanded too far and ordered a withdrawal of the front line troops. The rear guard, consisting of the Royal Canadian Dragoons
Royal Canadian Dragoons
and two 12 pound guns from D section of the Canadian artillery, were tasked with covering the retreat.[101] The Boers
Boers
mounted a heavy assault against the Canadians with the intention of capturing the two 12 pound artillery pieces. During this battle, the Afrikaners outnumbered the Canadians almost three to one.[102] A small group of the Dragoons interposed themselves between the Boers
Boers
and the artillery in order to allow the guns and their crews time to escape. The Dragoons won three Victoria Crosses[101] for their actions during the battle of Leliefontein, the most in any battle with the exception of the Battle of Vimy Ridge in World War I.[102]

New Zealand[edit] See also: Military history of New Zealand
New Zealand
§ Second Boer
Boer
War 1899–1902

New Zealand
New Zealand
troops marching down Wellesley Street, Auckland, to embark for South Africa

The top of the Dunedin Boer
Boer
War Memorial. The memorial reaffirms New Zealand's dedication to the Empire. As McLean and Phillips said, the New Zealand
New Zealand
Boer
Boer
War Memorials are "tributes to the Empire
Empire
and outpourings of pride about New Zealand’s place” in the Empire.

When the Second Boer
Boer
War seemed imminent, New Zealand
New Zealand
offered its support. On 28 September 1899, Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Richard Seddon
Richard Seddon
asked Parliament to approve the offer to the imperial government of a contingent of mounted rifles, thus becoming the first British Colony to send troops to the Boer
Boer
War. The British position in the dispute with the Transvaal was "moderate and righteous," he maintained. He stressed the "crimson tie" of Empire
Empire
that bound New Zealand
New Zealand
to the mother-country and the importance of a strong British Empire
British Empire
for the colony's security.[103] By the time peace was concluded two and a half years later, 10 contingents of volunteers, totalling nearly 6,500 men from New Zealand, with 8,000 horses had fought in the conflict, along with doctors, nurses, veterinary surgeons and a small number of school teachers.[104] Some 70 New Zealanders died from enemy action, with another 158 killed accidentally or by disease.[105] The first New Zealander to be killed was Farrier G.R. Bradford at Jasfontein Farm on 18 December 1899.[106] The Boer
Boer
War was greeted with extraordinary enthusiasm when the war was over, and peace was greeted with patriotism and national pride.[107] This is best shown by the fact that the Third, Fourth and Fifth contingents from New Zealand
New Zealand
were funded by public conscription.[106] South Africa[edit] During the war, the British army also included substantial contingents from South Africa
South Africa
itself. There were large communities of English-speaking immigrants and settlers in Natal and Cape Colony (especially around Cape Town
Cape Town
and Grahamstown), which formed volunteer units that took the field, or local "town guards." At one stage of the war, a "Colonial Division," consisting of five light horse and infantry units under Brigadier General Edward Brabant, took part in the invasion of the Orange Free State. Part of it withstood a siege by Christiaan De Wet
Christiaan De Wet
at Wepener
Wepener
on the borders of Basutoland. Another large source of volunteers was the uitlander community, many of whom hastily left Johannesburg
Johannesburg
in the days immediately preceding the war.

Rhodesian volunteers leaving Salisbury for service in the Second Boer War, 1899

Later during the war, Lord Kitchener attempted to form a Boer
Boer
Police Force, as part of his efforts to pacify the occupied areas and effect a reconciliation with the Boer
Boer
community. The members of this force were despised as traitors by the Boers
Boers
still in the field. Those Boers who attempted to remain neutral after giving their parole to British forces were derided as "hensoppers" (hands-uppers) and were often coerced into giving support to the Boer
Boer
guerrillas. (This was one of the reasons for the British ruthlessly scouring the countryside of people, livestock and anything else the Boer
Boer
commandos might find useful.) Like the Canadian and particularly the Australian and New Zealand contingents, many of the volunteer units formed by South Africans were "light horse" or mounted infantry, well suited to the countryside and manner of warfare. Some regular British officers scorned their comparative lack of formal discipline, but the light horse units were hardier and more suited to the demands of campaigning than the overloaded British cavalry, who were still obsessed with the charge by lance or sabre.[g] At their peak, 24,000 South Africans (including volunteers from the Empire) served in the field in various "colonial" units. Notable units (in addition to the Imperial Light Horse) were the South African Light Horse, Rimington's Guides, Kitchener's Horse and the Imperial Light Infantry. Notable people involved in the Boer
Boer
War[edit] Harold Lothrop Borden
Harold Lothrop Borden
was the only son of Canada's Canadian Minister of Defence and Militia, Frederick William Borden. Serving in the Royal Canadian Dragoons, he became the most famous Canadian casualty of the Second Boer
Boer
War.[108] Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
asked F. W. Borden for a photograph of his son, Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Wilfrid Laurier
Wilfrid Laurier
praised his services, tributes arrived from across Canada, and in his home town Canning, Nova Scotia, there is a monument (by Hamilton MacCarthy) erected to his memory.[108]

Memorial at Plymouth, by Emil Fuchs

Sam Hughes
Sam Hughes
– Senior Militia officer and later a Federally elected cabinet minister. As a very patriotic individual, Hughes became involved in the Boer
Boer
war as a member of Brigadier-General Herbert Settle's expedition after Hughes unsuccessfully tried to raise his own brigade of soldiers.[96] Hughes was noted by his colleagues for having a dislike of professional soldiers and he was noted for being an exceptional leader of irregular soldiers, whom he preferred to lead in combat.[109] However, Hughes was dismissed and was sent home in the summer of 1900 for; sending letters back home which were published outlining British command incompetence, his impatience and boastfulness and his providing surrendering enemies favourable conditions. When he arrived back in Canada, Hughes became very active politically, and he would eventually start his political career with the Conservatives. When he became a member of parliament, Hughes would be in the position to become the Canadian Minister of Defence and Militia in 1911, just prior the outbreak of World War I. This was a position that Hughes would be dismissed from in 1916, due once again to his impatience, among other reasons.[109] John McCrae
John McCrae
– Best known as the author of the World War I
World War I
poem In Flanders Fields, McCrae started his active military service in the Boer
Boer
War as an artillery officer. After completing several major campaigns, McCrae's artillery unit was sent home to Canada
Canada
in 1901 with what would be referred to today as an 'honourable discharge'. McCrae ended up becoming a special professor in the University of Vermont for pathology and he would later serve in World War I
World War I
as a Medical officer until his death from pneumonia while on active duty in 1918.[110] Harry "Breaker" Morant – Australian poet who participated in the summary execution of several Boer
Boer
prisoners and the killing of a German missionary who had been a witness to the shootings. Morant was court-martialed and executed for murder.[111] Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
– Best known as the prime minister of Britain during the main part of the Second World War, Churchill worked as a war correspondent for The Morning Post. At the age of twenty-six,[112] he was captured and held prisoner in a camp in Pretoria
Pretoria
from which he escaped and rejoined the British army. He received a commission in the South African Light Horse (still working as a correspondent) and witnessed the capture of Ladysmith and Pretoria.[113] Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
– Best known as the leader of the independence movement in India, he lived in South Africa
South Africa
1893–1915 where he worked on behalf of Indians. He volunteered in 1900 to help the British by forming teams of ambulance drivers and raising 1100 Indian volunteer medics. At Spieon Kop Gandhi and his bearers had to carry wounded soldiers for miles to a field hospital because the terrain was too rough for the ambulances. General Redvers Buller
Redvers Buller
mentioned the courage of the Indians in his dispatch. Gandhi and thirty-seven other Indians received the War Medal.[114] Victoria Cross
Victoria Cross
recipients[edit] Four Canadian soldiers in the Second Boer
Boer
War received a Victoria Cross, which is the highest military medal available to soldiers of the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
and former British Territories. It is awarded based on exemplary bravery and valour in the presence of danger.[115] Sergeant Arthur Herbert Lindsay Richardson
Arthur Herbert Lindsay Richardson
– Soldier of Lord Strathcona's Horse, Richardson rode a wounded horse, while wounded himself, back into enemy fire to retrieve a wounded comrade whose horse had been killed at Wolve Spruit on 5 July 1900.[115] Lieutenant Hampden Zane Churchill Cockburn
Hampden Zane Churchill Cockburn
– Soldier of the Royal Canadian Dragoons, Cockburn received his Victoria Cross
Victoria Cross
on 7 November 1900 when his unit was the rear guard at Leliefontein. Cockburn, along with fellow Victoria Cross
Victoria Cross
recipient Lieutenant R.E.W. Turner, held off an advancing group of Boer
Boer
soldiers in order to allow two Canadian Field guns to escape along with their crews. Cockburn was wounded and captured by the Boer
Boer
soldiers.[102] Lieutenant Richard Ernest William Turner
Richard Ernest William Turner
– Soldier of the Royal Canadian Dragoons, Turner received his Victoria Cross
Victoria Cross
during the same portion of the conflict as Cockburn.[102] Turner was wounded in the conflict, however unlike Cockburn, Turner escaped. Turner would later become a high-ranking officer in the Canadian army in World War I. Sergeant Edward James Gibson Holland
Edward James Gibson Holland
– Soldier of the Royal Canadian Dragoons. Holland received his Victoria Cross
Victoria Cross
from the same rear guard conflict at Leliefontein on 7 November 1900 as Cockburn and Turner. However, Holland received his medal for a different reason than the two aforementioned Lieutenants. During the Boer
Boer
advance, Holland kept the Boer
Boer
soldiers at bay with his carriage mounted Colt machine gun despite the position becoming increasingly dangerous due to the proximity of the enemy. With his gun jammed and in danger of falling into enemy hands, Holland removed the Colt from its carriage and rode away on his horse with the gun in hand.[102] Final overview[edit] The Second Boer
Boer
War was the harbinger for a new type of combat which would persevere throughout the twentieth century, guerrilla warfare.[89] After the war was over, the entire British army underwent a period of reform which was focused on lessening the emphasis placed on mounted units in combat.[116] It was determined that the traditional role of cavalry was antiquated and improperly used on the battlefield in the modern warfare of the Boer
Boer
War, and that the First World War was the final proof that mounted attacks had no place in twentieth century combat.[116] Cavalry
Cavalry
was put to better use after the reforms in the theatres of the Middle East and World War I, and that the idea of mounted infantry was useful in the times where the war was more mobile.[116] An example of this was in the First World War during the battle of Mons where the British cavalry held the Belgian town against an initial German assault. Or the use of mounted infantry at the Battle of Megiddo (1918)
Battle of Megiddo (1918)
when Allenby's force routed the enemy owing to speed and dexterity of arms.[117] The Canadian units of the Royal Canadian Dragoons
Royal Canadian Dragoons
and the Royal Canadian Mounted Rifles fought in the First World War in the same role as the Boer
Boer
war. However, during, and after, the Second World War
Second World War
the regiments swapped their horses for mechanised vehicles.[118] The second Boer
Boer
War was also the beginning of types of conflict involving machine guns, shrapnel and observation balloons which were all used extensively in the First World War.[89] To the Canadians however, attrition was the leading cause of death in the second Boer
Boer
war, with disease being the cause of approximately half of the Canadian deaths.[119] Canadians ended the war with four Victoria Crosses
Victoria Crosses
to its soldiers and two more Victoria Crosses
Victoria Crosses
were given to Canadian doctors attached to British Medical Corps units, Lieutenant H.E.M. Douglas (1899, Magersfontein) and Lieutenant W.H.S. Nickerson (1900, Wakkerstroom).[96] Not all soldiers saw action since many landed in South Africa
South Africa
after the hostilities ended while others (including the 3rd Special
Special
Service Battalion, The Royal Canadian Regiment) performed garrison duty in Halifax, Nova Scotia so that their British counterparts could join at the front lines. Later on, contingents of Canadians served with the paramilitary South Africa
South Africa
Constabulary. Both sides used a scorched Earth policy to deprive the marching enemy of food. And both had to corrall civilians into makeshift huts by 'concentrating them camps.[91] For example, at Buffelspoort
Buffelspoort
British soldiers were held in captivity in Boer
Boer
encampments after surrendering their arms, and civilians were often mixed in with service personnel because the Boer
Boer
did not have the resources to do otherwise. A total of 116,000 women, children and Boer
Boer
soldiers were confined to the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
concentration camps, of which at least 28,000, mainly women and children, would die.[102] The lack of food, water, and sanitary provisions was a feature of 20th century warfare for both civilians and armed services personnel, yet one consequence of the Boer
Boer
War and investigative commissions was the implementation of The Hague Convention (1899) and Geneva Convention (1904); of which there were many further agreements thereafter. Did the British deliberate on the use of encampments?[edit] The British saw their tactics of Scorched Earth
Scorched Earth
and concentration camps as ways of controlling the Boers
Boers
by "eliminating the decay and deterioration of the national character" and as a way of reinforcing the values, through subjugation of citizens and the destruction of the means for the Boer
Boer
soldiers to continue fighting, of British society that the Boers
Boers
were rejecting by engaging in a war against the Commonwealth.[120] The Boers
Boers
saw it as a British ploy designed to coerce the Boer
Boer
soldiers into a surrender. With approximately 10%[121] of their population confined, many of whom were women and children, the Boers
Boers
suggested that the British were forcing the Afrikaners to return to their homes and protect their families who were in danger of internment.[122] Commemorations[edit] The Australian National Boer
Boer
War Memorial Committee organises events to mark the war on 31 May each year. In Canberra, a commemorative service is usually held at the Saint John the Baptist Anglican Church in Reid. Floral tributes are laid for the dead.[123] See also[edit]

Category:People of the Second Boer
Boer
War The Great Boer
Boer
War Boer
Boer
foreign volunteers Bombardment in the Second Boer
Boer
War British Logistics in the Boer
Boer
War History of South Africa List of Second Boer
Boer
War Victoria Cross
Victoria Cross
recipients London to Ladysmith via Pretoria
Pretoria
account of the war by Winston Churchill as a newspaper correspondent accompanying the troops Military history of South Africa Opposition to the Second Boer
Boer
War Premiership of Salisbury, The British prime minister The Absent-Minded Beggar Volkstaat Donkin Heritage Trail

Notes[edit]

^ The Rhodesia Regiment, drawing most of its personnel from the Southern Rhodesia Volunteers, served in the war, contributing around 1,000 men.[1] ^ Larger numbers of volunteers came from the Netherlands, Germany and Sweden-Norway. Smaller forces came from Ireland, Australia, Italy, Congress Poland, France, Belgium, the Russian Empire, the United States, Denmark and Austria-Hungary. ^ 5,774 died in combat; 2,108 died of wounds; 14,210 died of disease [7] ^ 3,990 killed in battle; 157 died in accidents; 924 of wounds and disease; 1,118 while prisoners of war.[9] ^ "Although some 30,000 Irishmen served in the British Army
British Army
under Irish General Lord Frederick Roberts, who had been Commander of Chief of British Forces in Ireland prior to his transfer to South Africa, some historians argue that the sympathies of many of their compatriots lay with the Boers. Nationalist-controlled local authorities passed pro- Boer
Boer
resolutions and there were proposals to confer civic honours on Boer
Boer
leader, Paul Kruger." (Irish Ambassador Daniel Mulhall written for History Ireland, 2004.) ^ Lloyd George and Keir Hardie
Keir Hardie
were members of the Stop the War Committee (See the founder's biography: William T. Stead's.) Many British authors gave their "Pro-Boer" opinions in British press, such as G. K. Chesterton's writing to 1905 – (see Rice University Chesterton's poetry analysis ^ British cavalry travelled light compared with earlier campaigns, but were still expected to carry all kit with them on campaign owing to distances covered on the Veldt.

^ Keppel-Jones 1983, pp. 590–59. ^ Jones 1999. ^ Grattan 2009, pp. 147–58. ^ Haydon 1964, p. [page needed]. ^ a b sahoboss (31 March 2011). "Role of Black people in the South African War".  ^ a b EB 1911. ^ (Eveleigh Nash 1914, p. 309) ^ (Wessels 2011, p. 79) ^ Wessels 2011, p. 79 ^ Wessels 2011, p. 79. ^ Millard, Candice (2016). Hero of the Empire: The Boer
Boer
War, a daring escape, and the making of Winston Churchill. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 9780385535731. Retrieved 14 April 2017.  ^ Gronum 1977. ^ South African History Online 2011. ^ Pakenham 1979, p. xxi. ^ a b Morris & Linnegar 2004, pp. 58–95. ^ Meintjes 1974, p. 7. ^ a b Pakenham 1979, pp. 1–5. ^ Pakenham 1979, pp. 493–95. ^ Wessels 2000, p. 97 ^ Pakenham 1979, p. xv ^ Yap & Leong Man 1996, p. 134. ^ Measuringworth 2015, Relative Value of a UK Pound Amount – average earnings, retrieved on 27 January 2011 ^ Cartwright 1964, p. [page needed]. ^ Nathan 1941, p. [page needed]. ^ Pakenham 1979, Part 1, 'Milner's War'[page needed]. ^ Bester 1994, p. [page needed]; Wessels 2000, p. 80. ^ a b Wessels 2000, p. 80 ^ Connolly, C.N. Manufacturing Spontaneity.  ^ Steele 2000, p. 7 ^ Steele 2000, p. 6 ^ Jeffery 2000, p. 145 cites Inglis 1974, pp. 53–55 ^ Surridge 2000, p. 24. ^ Steele 2000, p. 4 ^ Dunlop, Colonel John K., The Development of the British Army 1899–1914, London, Methuen (1938) p 72. ^ Searle 2004, p. 276. ^ Pakenham 1979, p. 56 ^ Wessels 2000, p. 74. ^ Pretorius 2000, p. 179. ^ Pakenham 1979, p. 30 ^ Wessels 2000, p. 81 ^ Wessels 2000, pp. 82–85 ^ Field Marshal Lord Carver, The Boer
Boer
War, pp. 259–62 ^ 'Historical Overview' in Antony O'Brien, Bye-Bye Dolly Gray ^ From the "Battle of Magersfontein," verse by Private Smith of the Black Watch December 1899.(Quoted in Pakenham 1979, p. 115) ^ Steele 2000, p. 12 ^ Daily Mail 1914. ^ Pakenham 1991a, p. 573. ^ A. B. "Banjo" Patterson,From the Front (see Australian references).[full citation needed] ^ Craig Wilcox, Australia's Boer
Boer
War, pp. 84–85. ^ N. G. Speed, Born to Fight ^ a b "Anglo- Boer
Boer
War Philatelic Society: Collecting Interests". Archived from the original on 10 December 2005.  ^ Limited, Burgh House Software for Moonbeams. " Saint Helena
Saint Helena
Island Info: All about St Helena, in the South Atlantic Ocean • Boer Prisoners (1900–1902)".  ^ "Anglo- Boer
Boer
War Museum".  ^ "Anglo- Boer
Boer
War Museum".  ^ Cameron 1986, p. 207. ^ Blake 2010, p. 46. ^ a b c Jones 1996 ^ Pakenham 1991, p. 571. ^ Blake 2010, p. 140. ^ Ploeger1985, pp. 15–22. ^ Marsh 1994, pp. 483–85. ^ Warwick 1983, p. [page needed]. ^ Pretorius 2011, p. [page needed]. ^ Hasian Marouf, Western journal of communication, 2003. ^ Pakenham 1979, p. 493. ^ Wessels 2010, p. 32. ^ Pakenham 1979, p. 505. ^ Judd & Surridge 2013, p. 195. ^ O'Brien 1988, p. [page needed]. ^ Pakenham 1979, p. 601. ^ Grundlingh 1980, pp. 258–78. ^ a b Cost of the war,[unreliable source?] ^ a b Measuringworth 2015. ^ Onselen 1982, p. [page needed]. ^ Onselen 2003, pp. 483–526. ^ Swardt 1998, p. 97. ^ McElwee 1974, pp. 223–29. ^ Hayes 1902, pp. 213–14. ^ Davis 1900, p. 34. ^ Watt 1982. ^ Jacson 1908, p. 88. ^ Pocock 1917, p. viii fn. 11. ^ Farwell 1976. ^ See Craig Wilcox, Australia's Boer
Boer
War[full citation needed] ^ " Boer
Boer
War".  ^ Australian War Memorial
Australian War Memorial
(2008). "Australian Military Statistics". Australian War Memorial.  ^ Australian War Memorial
Australian War Memorial
(2008). " Australia
Australia
and the Boer
Boer
War, 1899–1902". Australian War Memorial.  ^ Wilcox, p. 103. ^ a b c d e f Webb 2010, pp. 75–90. ^ a b Marshall, Robert. " Boer
Boer
War Remembered". Maclean's.  ^ a b c Miller, Carman. "South African War". Canadian Encyclopedia.  ^ a b Granatstein 2010, p. [page needed]. ^ Berger 1970, pp. 233–234. ^ "The Guerrilla
Guerrilla
War". Anglo- Boer
Boer
War Museum.  ^ Rickard, J. "The Black Week". History of War.  ^ a b c " Canada
Canada
& The South African War, 1899–1902". Canadian War Museum.  ^ Cavendish, Richard. "The Peace of Vereeniging". History Today.  ^ O'Leary 1999. ^ a b c Wessels 2009. ^ Stirling 2009. ^ a b Chase 2012. ^ a b c d e f Pulsifer 2017. ^ New Zealand
New Zealand
History Online (2008). "Brief history – New Zealand
New Zealand
in the South African ('Boer') War". New Zealand
New Zealand
History. Retrieved 10 May 2008.  ^ New Zealand
New Zealand
History Online (2008). " New Zealand
New Zealand
in the South African ('Boer') War". New Zealand
New Zealand
History. Retrieved 10 May 2008.  ^ D.O.W. Hall, (War History Branch, Wellington, 1949). ^ a b Pugsley, Christopher (2016). The ANZAC Experience: New Zealand, Australia
Australia
and Empire
Empire
in the First World War. Auckland, New Zealand: Oratia. pp. 42–43.  ^ Phillips, Jock (1990). The Sorrow and the Pride: New Zealand
New Zealand
War Memorials. Wellington, New Zealand: GP Books. p. 48.  ^ a b "Biography – Borden, Harold Lothrop – Volume XII (1891–1900) – Dictionary of Canadian Biography".  ^ a b Duffy 2009. ^ Peddie 2009. ^ Witton 2003, p. [page needed]. ^ Pakenham 1991a, p. 568. ^ Powell 2015, p. [page needed]. ^ Desai & Vahed 2015, p. [page needed]. ^ a b "Victoria Cross" (PDF). Government of Canada.  ^ a b c Jones, Spencer (2011). "Scouting for Soldiers:Reconnaissance and the British Cavalry
Cavalry
1899–1914". War in History. doi:10.1177/0968344511417348.  ^ Baker, Chris. "Battle of Mons".  ^ "History of Royal Canadian Dragoons".  ^ "Canadian casualties in the Boer
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War". Goldi Productions Ltd.  ^ Berger 1970, pp. 233–34. ^ Grundlingh, Albert. "The Bitter Legacy of the Boer
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War: A History (2nd ed.). London: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1780765914. excerpt and text search; a standard scholarly history Keppel-Jones, Arthur (1983). Rhodes and Rhodesia: The White Conquest of Zimbabwe, 1884–1902. Montreal, Quebec
Quebec
and Kingston, Ontario: McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 590–99. ISBN 978-0-7735-0534-6.  McElwee, William (1974). The Art of War: Waterloo to Mons. London: Purnell. pp. 223–29. ISBN 0-253-31075-X.  "Relative Value of UK£: using Economic Power in 2014 (using the share of GDP)". Five Ways to Compute the Relative Value of a UK Pound Amount, 1270 to Present. Measuringworth.com. 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2015.  Marsh, Peter T. (1994). Joseph Chamberlain: Entrepreneur in Politics. Yale University Press. pp. 482–522.  Meintjes, Johannes (1974). President Paul Kruger: A Biography (First ed.). London: Cassell. ISBN 978-0-304-29423-7.  Morris, Michael; Linnegar, John (2004). Every Step of the Way: The Journey to Freedom in South Africa. Ministry of Education. pp. 58–95. ISBN 0-7969-2061-3.  Nathan, M. (1941). Paul Kruger: His Life And Times. Durban: Knox.  O'Brien, P. (1988). The Costs and Benefits of British Imperialism 1846–1914. Past & Present.  O'Leary, Michael (29 December 1999). "Regimental Rouge – Battles of the Boer
Boer
War". Regimental Rouge.  Pakenham, Thomas (1979). The Boer
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John McCrae
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Boer
War Affect His Leadership Style And Career?. Pickle Partners Publishing.  Onselen, Charles van (1982). "Chapter 1:New Babylon". Studies in the Social and Economic History of the Witwatersrand, 1886–1914. London: Longman. ISBN 9780582643840.  Onselen, Charles van (October 2003). "'The Modernization of the Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek: F. E. T. Krause, J. C. Smuts, and the Struggle for the Johannesburg
Johannesburg
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Further reading[edit]

Gooch, John (ed.). The Boer
Boer
War: Direction, Experience and Image. London: Cass. p. 179.  – an anthology frequently citied in this article. Ockerbloom, John Mark, ed. (2017). "South African War, 1899–1902". The Online Books Page.  – a Boer
Boer
War bibliography of on-line books. British War Office; Maurice, Sir John Frederick; Grant, Maurice Harold (1906–1910). History of the war in South Africa, 1899–1902 (1st in four volumes ed.).  – detailed official British history

volume 1, maps volume 1 (1906) volume 2, maps volume 2 (1907) volume 3, maps volume 3 (1908) volume 4, maps volume 4 (1910)

Reitz, Deneys (1929). Commando: A Boer
Boer
Journal of the Boer
Boer
War. OCLC 801364049. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Second Boer
Boer
War.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Second Boer
Boer
War

Americanhistoryprojects.com: links to books & articles on Second Boer
Boer
War Scrapbook of Boer
Boer
War, MSS P 456 at L. Tom Perry Special
Special
Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University Media related to Memorials of the Boer
Boer
wars at Wikimedia Commons

v t e

Political history of South Africa

Defunct polities

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(c. 1075–c. 1220) Dutch Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1652–1806) Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(c. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
Kingdom (c. 1780–1819) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1910) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1816–97) Natalia Republic
Natalia Republic
(1839–43) Natal Colony
Natal Colony
(1843–1910) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) South African Republic
South African Republic
(1856–1902) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–73) Goshen (1882–83) Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(1884–88) Upingtonia
Upingtonia
(1885–87) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91) Orange River
Orange River
Colony (1902–10) Transvaal Colony
Transvaal Colony
(1902–10) Union of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–61) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94)

Events

1652–1815

Dutch settlement French Huguenot settlement Khoikhoi–Dutch Wars Xhosa Wars Battle of Muizenberg Battle of Blaauwberg Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814

1815–1910

Mfecane 1820 Settlers Great Trek Boer
Boer
Republics Transvaal Civil War Mineral Revolution Witwatersrand
Witwatersrand
Gold Rush South African Wars South Africa
South Africa
Act 1909

1910–1948

Maritz Rebellion Rand Rebellion Great Depression 1946 African Mine Workers' Union strike Bantustans

Apartheid
Apartheid
era

1948 general election Apartheid
Apartheid
legislation

Pass laws

Internal resistance Coloured-vote constitutional crisis Defiance Campaign Congress of the People

Freedom Charter

Women's March 1956 1957 Alexandra bus boycott Sharpeville massacre 1960 republic referendum International isolation

Academic boycott Disinvestment Sporting boycott

Olympics Rugby union

Rivonia Trial Tar Baby Option Durban Moment Border War Israeli alliance

Israel– South Africa
South Africa
Agreement

Soweto Uprising Weapons of mass destruction Project Coast Constructive engagement Church Street bombing 1983 constitutional reform referendum Langa massacre Rubicon speech Dakar Conference Third Force CODESA 1992 apartheid referendum Saint James Church massacre Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
crisis Shell House massacre

Post-apartheid

1994 general election Government of National Unity Reconstruction and Development Programme Truth and Reconciliation Commission Arms Deal Floor crossing Soweto bombings African Renaissance Xenophobia Marikana massacre 2012 Western Cape farm workers' strike Nkandlagate 2014 platinum strike #RhodesMustFall protests # FeesMustFall
FeesMustFall
student protests Tshwane riots

Political culture

African nationalism Afrikaner Calvinism Afrikaner nationalism Azania Baasskap Boerehaat Black Consciousness Movement Day of the Vow Greater South Africa Honorary whites Rooi gevaar Slavery Swart gevaar Uitlander Volkstaat

Defunct organisations

Civic and political organisations

Afrikaner Bond Afrikaner Broederbond Afrikaner Party AITUP APO AVF BPC Black Sash CDA CTEG COD Congress Alliance COSG CP Dominion
Dominion
Party DP (1973–1977) DP (1989–2000) DPP ECC FA FD Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners GNP Het Volk HNP IDASA ID IP ISL Jeugkrag Johannesburg
Johannesburg
Reform Committee Labour Party (1910–1958) Labour Party (1969–1994) Liberal Party (1953–1968) NA NCP Natal Indian Congress NLP NNP NP NPP NRP NUSAS PFP Progressive Party (Cape Colony) Progressive Party PRP Radio Freedom Reform Party SABP SADECO SAIC SASO SAYCO SAYRCO South African Party (Cape Colony) South African Party (1911–1934) South African Party (1977–1980) TNIP Torch Commando UFP United Party Unionist Party Volksparty Workers Party WOSA

Trade unions and social movements

APF BCM BLATU CNETU CTSWU FCWU FNETU FOSATU ICU IWW MUSA NEUM NURHS PAWE SAAPAWU SACTU SAIF SARHU SATUC Die Spoorbund UDF Umkosi Wezintaba

Paramilitary and terrorist organisations

APLA ARM BBB Boeremag Greyshirts MK Ossewabrandwag Orde van die Dood SANF

Histories of political parties

African National Congress Democratic Alliance Pan Africanist Congress of Azania

Category

v t e

Colonial conflicts involving the English/British Empire

17th century

Virginia (1609–46) Swally (1612) Ormuz (1622) Saint Kitts (1626) Quebec
Quebec
(1628) Pequot War
Pequot War
(1634–38) Acadia (1654–67) Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60) Jamaica (1655–1739) King Philip's War
King Philip's War
(1675–78) King William's War
King William's War
(1688–97) Ghana (1694–1700)

18th century

Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
(1702–13) Tuscarora War (1711–15) Yamasee War
Yamasee War
(1715–17) Father Rale's War/ Dummer's War
Dummer's War
(1722–25) War of Jenkins' Ear
War of Jenkins' Ear
(1740–42) King George's War
King George's War
(1744–48) Carnatic Wars
Carnatic Wars
(1746–63) Nova Scotia (1749–55) French and Indian War
French and Indian War
(1754–63) Seven Years' War (1756–63) Anglo–Cherokee War (1758–61) Jamaica (1762) Anglo-Spanish War (1762–63) Pontiac's War
Pontiac's War
(1763–66) Lord Dunmore's War
Lord Dunmore's War
(1774) American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
(1775–83) First Anglo–Maratha War (1775–82) Second Anglo–Mysore War (1779–84) Gold Coast (1781–82) Sumatra (1782–84) Australian Frontier Wars (1788–1934) Nootka Sound (1789) Third Anglo–Mysore War (1789–92) Cotiote (Wayanad) War (1793–1806) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795) Jamaica (1795–96) Ceylon (1795) Kandyan Wars
Kandyan Wars
(1796–1818) Malta (1798–1800) Fourth Anglo–Mysore War (1798–99) Dwyer's Guerrilla
Guerrilla
Campaign (1799–1803)

19th century

Newfoundland (1800) Castle Hill convict rebellion Second Anglo–Maratha War (1803–05) Suriname (1804) Guiana (1804) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1806) Río de la Plata (1806–07) Egypt (1807) Froberg mutiny
Froberg mutiny
(1807) Reunion (1809) Seychelles (1809) Mauritius (1810) Java (1810–11) Xhosa Wars
Xhosa Wars
(1811–79) Martinique (1809) Guadeloupe (1810) USA (1812–15) Nepal (1814–16) Guadeloupe (1815) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1815) Third Anglo-Maratha War
Third Anglo-Maratha War
(1817–18) Guiana (1823) Anglo-Ashanti wars
Anglo-Ashanti wars
(1824–1901) First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–26) Black War
Black War
(Van Diemen's Land) 1828–32) Jamaica (1831–32) Malacca (1831–33) Lower Canada
Canada
(1837–38) Upper Canada
Canada
(1837–38) Egyptian–Ottoman War (1839–41) First Anglo-Afghan War
First Anglo-Afghan War
(1839–42) First Opium War
First Opium War
(1839–42) New Zealand
New Zealand
Wars (1845–72) First Anglo–Sikh War (1845–46) Río de la Plata (1845–50) Ceylon (1848) Second Anglo–Sikh War (1848–49) Second Anglo–Burmese War (1852) Eureka Rebellion
Eureka Rebellion
(1852) Anglo–Persian War (1856–57) Second Opium War
Second Opium War
(1856–60) Indian Rebellion (1857–59) Ambela Campaign (1863–64) Bhutan War
Bhutan War
(1864–65) Fenian Rebellion in Canada
Canada
(1866–71) Abyssinia (1868) Manitoba (1870) Perak (1875–76) Anglo–Zulu War (1879) Second Anglo-Afghan War
Second Anglo-Afghan War
(1879–80) Basutoland (1880–81) First Boer War
First Boer War
(1880–81) Mahdist War
Mahdist War
(1881–99) Anglo-Egyptian War
Anglo-Egyptian War
(1882) Saskatchewan (1885) Central Africa (1886–89) Third Anglo-Burmese War
Third Anglo-Burmese War
(1885) Mashonaland (1890) Hunza-Nagar Campaign (1891) Anglo-Manipur War
Anglo-Manipur War
(1891) Matabeleland (1893–94) North Borneo (1894–1905) Chitral Expedition
Chitral Expedition
(1895) Jameson Raid
Jameson Raid
South Africa
South Africa
(1896) Anglo–Zanzibar War (1896) Matabeleland (1896–97) Benin Expedition (1897) Siege
Siege
of Malakand (1897) First Mohmand Campaign (1897–98) Tirah Campaign
Tirah Campaign
(1897–98) Six-Day War (1899) Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
(1898–1901) Second Boer
Boer
War (1899–1902)

20th century

Somaliland (1900–20) West Africa (1901–02) Tibet expedition (1903–04) Bambatha Rebellion
Bambatha Rebellion
(1906) Nyasaland (1915) Nigeria (1915) Nigeria (1918) Third Anglo-Afghan War
Third Anglo-Afghan War
(1919) Waziristan campaign (1919–1920) Iraq (1920) Malabar Rebellion (1921) Kurdistan (1922–24) Transjordan (1923) Pink's War
Pink's War
(1925) Ikhwan Revolt
Ikhwan Revolt
(1927–30) Barzani revolt (1931–32) Second Mohmand Campaign (1935) Palestine (1936–39) Waziristan campaign (1936–1939) Ethiopia (1943) Indochina (1945–46) Indonesia (1945) Sarawak (1946–50) Malayan Emergency
Malayan Emergency
(1948–60) Mau Mau Uprising
Mau Mau Uprising
Kenya (1952–60) Oman (1954–59) Cyprus Emergency
Cyprus Emergency
(1955–59) Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
(1956) Oman (1962–76) Brunei (1962) Sarawak (1962–90) Malaysia (1962–66) Aden (1963–67) Falklands (1982)

Authority control

GND: 4147009-6

v t e

Major armed conflicts involving the Armed Forces of Sri Lanka

Domestic

1971 JVP Insurrection 1987–89 JVP Insurrection Sri Lankan Civil War

Foreign

Battle of Vijithapura Pandyan Civil War (1169-1177) Ming–Kotte War Kotte conquest of the Jaffna Kingdom Sinhalese–Portuguese War Portuguese conquest of the Jaffna kingdom Dutch–Portuguese War British Expedition to Ceylon Kandyan Wars
Kandyan Wars
(Great Rebellion of 1817–18) Matale Rebellion Second Boer
Boer
War World War I World War II

Peacekeeping

United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon

Related articles

Military history Ceyl

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