The SECOND BILL OF RIGHTS is a list of rights that was proposed by
* Employment , Food, clothing, and leisure with enough income to
* Farmers' rights to a fair income
* Freedom from unfair competition and monopolies
* Medical care
Roosevelt stated that having such rights would guarantee American security, and that the US's place in the world depended upon how far the rights had been carried into practice.
* 1 Background * 2 Roosevelt\'s speech * 3 Significance * 4 Found footage * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links
In the runup to the
Second World War
As I see it, the task of government in its relation to business is to assist the development of an economic declaration of rights, an economic constitutional order. This is the common task of statesman and business man. It is the minimum requirement of a more permanently safe order of things.
Throughout Roosevelt's presidency, he returned to the same theme continually over the course of the New Deal . Also, in the Atlantic Charter , an international commitment was made as the Allies thought about how to "win the peace" following victory in the Second World War .
During Roosevelt's January 11, 1944 message to the US Congress on the State of the Union, he said the following:
It is our duty now to begin to lay the plans and determine the strategy for the winning of a lasting peace and the establishment of an American standard of living higher than ever before known. We cannot be content, no matter how high that general standard of living may be, if some fraction of our people—whether it be one-third or one-fifth or one-tenth—is ill-fed, ill-clothed, ill-housed, and insecure.
This Republic had its beginning, and grew to its present strength, under the protection of certain inalienable political rights—among them the right of free speech, free press, free worship, trial by jury, freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures. They were our rights to life and liberty.
As our nation has grown in size and stature, however—as our industrial economy expanded—these political rights proved inadequate to assure us equality in the pursuit of happiness.
We have come to a clear realization of the fact that true individual freedom cannot exist without economic security and independence. “Necessitous men are not free men.” People who are hungry and out of a job are the stuff of which dictatorships are made.
In our day these economic truths have become accepted as self-evident. We have accepted, so to speak, a second Bill of Rights under which a new basis of security and prosperity can be established for all—regardless of station, race, or creed.
Among these are:
* The right to a useful and remunerative job in the industries or shops or farms or mines of the nation; * The right to earn enough to provide adequate food and clothing and recreation; * The right of every farmer to raise and sell his products at a return which will give him and his family a decent living; * The right of every businessman, large and small, to trade in an atmosphere of freedom from unfair competition and domination by monopolies at home or abroad; * The right of every family to a decent home ; * The right to adequate medical care and the opportunity to achieve and enjoy good health; * The right to adequate protection from the economic fears of old age, sickness, accident, and unemployment ; * The right to a good education .
All of these rights spell security. And after this war is won we must be prepared to move forward, in the implementation of these rights, to new goals of human happiness and well-being.
America's own rightful place in the world depends in large part upon how fully these and similar rights have been carried into practice for all our citizens. For unless there is security here at home there cannot be lasting peace in the world.
Roosevelt saw the Economic
Bill of Rights as something that would, at
least initially, be implemented by legislation, but that did not
exclude either the
US Supreme Court
In federal legislation, the key planks for the right to a useful and
remunerative job included the
National Labor Relations Act of 1935 and
Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 . After the war was the
Employment Act of 1946 , which created an objective for the government
to eliminate unemployment, and the
Civil Rights Act of 1964 , which
prohibited unjustified discrimination in the workplace and in access
to public and private services. They remained some of the key elements
US labor law . The rights to food and fair agricultural wages was
assured by numerous Acts on agriculture in the
Later in the 1970s, Czech jurist Karel Vasak would categorize these as the "second generation" rights in his theory of three generations of human rights .
Fireside chat on the State of the Union (January 11, 1944)
Roosevelt presented the January 11, 1944 State of the Union address to the public on radio, as a fireside chat from the White House:
Today I sent my Annual Message to the Congress, as required by the
Constitution. It has been my custom to deliver these Annual Messages
in person, and they have been broadcast to the Nation. I intended to
follow this same custom this year. But like a great many other people,
I have had the "flu", and although I am practically recovered, my
doctor simply would not let me leave the White House to go up to the
Capitol. Only a few of the newspapers of the
He asked that newsreel cameras film the last portion of the address, concerning the Second Bill of Rights. This footage was believed lost until it was uncovered in 2008 in South Carolina by Michael Moore while researching the film _Capitalism: A Love Story _. The footage shows Roosevelt's Second Bill of Rights address in its entirety, as well as a shot of the eight rights printed on a sheet of paper.
_ Wikisource has original text related to this article: FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT\\'S ELEVENTH STATE OF THE UNION ADDRESS
Wikisource has original text related to this article: ROOSEVELT\\'S FIRESIDE CHAT, 11 JANUARY 1944
Bill of Rights
Douglas v. California _, 372 U.S. 353 (1963)
* ^ "The Economic Bill of Rights". Franklin D. Roosevelt American Heritage Center. Retrieved 10 November 2011. * ^ " State of the Union Message to Congress". Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum . * ^ This phrase is found in the old English property law case, _ Vernon v Bethell _ (1762) 28 ER 838, according to Lord Henley LC * ^ _A_ _B_ Roosevelt, Franklin D. "Fireside Chat 28: On the State of the Union (January 11, 1944)". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Retrieved 2015-09-18. * ^ "The Best Scenes From Michael Moore\'s New Movie". The Daily Beast . Sep 22, 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2013. * ^ _Capitalism: A Love Story_ on IMDb (starting approximately at time code 1:55:00) * ^ Moore, Michael ; et al. (2010). _Capitalism: A Love Story_ (DVD). Traverse City, MI: Front Street Productions, LLC. OCLC 443524847 . Retrieved 2015-07-25.