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Coordinates: 30°54′N 31°7′E / 30.900°N 31.117°E / 30.900; 31.117

NASA
NASA
satellite photograph of the Nile
Nile
Delta (shown in false color)

The Nile
Nile
Delta at night as seen from the ISS in October 2010.

The Nile
Nile
Delta (Arabic: دلتا النيل‎ Delta n-Nīl or simply الدلتا ed-Delta) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt
Egypt
(Lower Egypt) where the Nile
Nile
River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea. It is one of the world's largest river deltas—from Alexandria
Alexandria
in the west to Port Said
Port Said
in the east, it covers 240 km (150 mi) of Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coastline—and is a rich agricultural region. From north to south the delta is approximately 160 km (99 mi) in length. The Delta begins slightly down-river from Cairo. The Nile
Nile
Delta is an area of the world that lacks the detailed ground truth data and monitoring stations. Despite the economic importance of the Nile
Nile
Delta, it could be considered as one of the most data-poor regions with respect to sea level rise.[1]

Contents

1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Ancient branches of the Nile

3 Population 4 Wildlife 5 Climate 6 Sea level 7 Governorates 8 References 9 External links

Geography[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Nile
Nile
River and Delta

From north to south, the delta is approximately 160 km (99 mi) in length. From west-to-east, it covers some 240 km (150 mi) of coastline. The delta is sometimes divided into sections, with the Nile
Nile
dividing into two main distributaries, the Damietta
Damietta
and the Rosetta, flowing into the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
at port cities with the same name. In the past, the delta had several distributaries, but these have been lost due to flood control, silting and changing relief. One such defunct distributary is Wadi Tumilat. The Suez Canal
Suez Canal
is located to the east of the delta and enters the coastal Lake Manzala
Lake Manzala
in the north-east of the delta. To the north-west are three other coastal lakes or lagoons: Lake Burullus, Lake Idku and Lake Maryut. The Nile
Nile
is considered to be an "arcuate" delta (arc-shaped), as it resembles a triangle or flower when seen from above. The outer edges of the delta are eroding, and some coastal lagoons have seen increasing salinity levels as their connection to the Mediterranean Sea increases. Since the delta no longer receives an annual supply of nutrients and sediments from upstream due to the construction of the Aswan High Dam, the soils of the floodplains have become poorer, and large amounts of fertilizers are now used. Topsoil
Topsoil
in the delta can be as much as 21 m (70 ft) in depth. History[edit]

Ancient branches of the Nile, showing Wadi Tumilat, and the lakes east of the Delta

People have lived in the Delta region for thousands of years, and it has been intensively farmed for at least the last five thousand years. The Delta River used to flood on an annual basis, but this ended with the construction of the Aswan Dam. Ancient branches of the Nile[edit]

The Nile
Nile
delta at the time of Herodotus, according to James Rennell (1800)

Records from ancient times (such as by Pliny the Elder) show that the delta had seven distributaries (from east to west):

the Pelusiac, the Tanitic (or Saitic), the Mendesian, the Phatnitic (or Phatmetic),[2] the Sebennytic, the Bolbitine, and the Canopic (also called the Herakleotic[3] and the Agathodaemon[5])

There are now only two main branches, due to flood control, silting and changing relief: the Damietta
Damietta
(corresponding to the Phatnitic) to the east, and the Rosetta
Rosetta
(corresponding to the Bolbitine)[6] in the western part of the Delta. The Rosetta
Rosetta
Stone was found in the Nile
Nile
Delta in 1799 in the port city of Rosetta
Rosetta
(anglicized name of Rashid). The delta was a major constituent of Lower Egypt. There are many archaeological sites in and around the Nile
Nile
Delta.[7] Population[edit]

Population density

About 39 million people live in the Delta region. Outside of major cities, population density in the delta averages 1,000/km2 (2,600/sq mi) or more. Alexandria
Alexandria
is the largest city in the delta with an estimated population of more than 4.5 million. Other large cities in the delta include Shubra al Khaymah, Port Said, El-Mahalla El-Kubra, El Mansura, Tanta, and Zagazig.[8] Wildlife[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Whiskered tern

During autumn, parts of the Nile
Nile
River are red with lotus flowers. The Lower Nile
Nile
(North) and the Upper Nile
Nile
(South) have plants that grow in abundance. The Upper Nile
Nile
plant is the Egyptian lotus, and the Lower Nile
Nile
plant is the Papyrus Sedge (Cyperus papyrus), although it is not nearly as plentiful as it once was, and is becoming quite rare. Several hundred thousand water birds winter in the delta, including the world’s largest concentrations of little gulls and whiskered terns. Other birds making their homes in the delta include grey herons, Kentish plovers, shovelers, cormorants, egrets and ibises. Other animals found in the delta include frogs, turtles, tortoises, mongooses, and the Nile
Nile
monitor. Nile
Nile
crocodiles and hippopotamus, two animals which were widespread in the delta during antiquity, are no longer found there. Fish found in the delta include the Striped mullet and soles. Climate[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

See also: Climate of Egypt
Egypt
and northern coast of Egypt The Delta has a hot desert climate (Köppen: BWh) as the rest of Egypt, but its northernmost part, as is the case with the rest of the northern coast of Egypt
Egypt
which is the wettest region in the country, has relatively moderate temperatures, with highs usually not surpassing 31 °C (88 °F) in the summer. Only 100–200 mm (4–8 in) of rain falls on the delta area during an average year, and most of this falls in the winter months. The delta experiences its hottest temperatures in July and August, with maximum average of 34 °C (93 °F). Winter temperatures are normally in the range of 9 °C (48 °F) at nights to 19 °C (66 °F) in the daytime. With cooler temperatures and some rain, the Nile
Nile
Delta region becomes quite humid during the winter months. Sea level[edit] Furthermore, Egypt’s Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coastline is being swallowed up by the sea because of global warming and the rise of the sea level, and the lack of sediments being deposited since the construction of the Aswan Dam, in some places as much as 90 m (100 yd) a year.[9] As the polar ice caps melt, much of the northern delta, including the ancient port city of Alexandria, will disappear under the Mediterranean. Even a 30 cm (12 in) rise in sea level will affect about 6.6 % of the total land cover area in the Nile Delta region; At 1 m SLR, an estimated 887 thousand people will be at risk of inundation and displacement and about 100 km2 (40 sq mi) of vegetation, 16 km2 (10 sq mi) wetland, 402 km2 (160 sq mi) cropland, and 47 km2 (20 sq mi) of urban area land would be destroyed,[10] flooding approximately 450 km2 (170 sq mi).[11] The Nile
Nile
Delta is turning into a salty wasteland by rising sea waters, forcing some farmers off their lands and others to import sand in a desperate bid to turn back the tide. Experts warn that global warming will have a major effect in the delta on agriculture resources, tourism and human migration besides shaking the region's fragile ecosystems. Environmental damage to the Nile
Nile
Delta is not yet one of Egypt's priorities, but experts say if the situation continues to deteriorate, it will trigger massive food shortages which could turn seven million people into "climate refugees" by the end of the century if climate change remains unmitigated.[12] In addition to the effect that the dams on the Nile
Nile
have had on the delta, there has been a tremendous human effect internally with the rise of fisheries, the increased salt production, the building of roads, the heightened agricultural production, and the natural increase in human population in the region.[13] Governorates[edit]

Alexandria Beheira Kafr el Sheikh Gharbiya Minufiya Qalyubiya Dakahlia Damietta Sharqiyah Port Said

Large cities located in the Nile
Nile
Delta:

Abusir Alexandria Avaris Bilbeis Bubastis Canopus Damanhur Desouk Damietta El Mahalla El Kubra Kafr El Sheikh Leontopolis Mendes Mit Abu El Kom Mansoura Naucratis Pelusium Port Said Rosetta Sais Tanis Tanta Zagazig

References[edit]

^ Hasan, E.; Khan, S. I.; Hong, Y. (2015). "Investigation of Potential Sea Level Rise Impact on the Nile
Nile
Delta, Egypt
Egypt
Using Digital Elevation Models". Environmental Monitoring & Assessment. 187 (10): 649–663. doi:10.1007/s10661-015-4868-9.  ^ Wilson, Ian. The Exodus Enigma (1985), page 46. London: Wiedenfeld & Nicolson. ^ e.g. at Callisthenes Alexander 1.31. ^ 1 ^ e.g. in Ptolemy, Geography.[4] ^ Hayes, W. 'Most Ancient Egypt', p. 87, JNES, 23 (1964), 73-114. ^ Location of the site, Kafr Hassan Dawood On-Line, with map of early sites of the delta. ^ City Population website, citing Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics Egypt
Egypt
(web), accessed 11 April 1908. ^ "Global Warming Threatens Egypt's Coastlines and the Nile
Nile
Delta". Archived from the original on 29 September 2011.  ^ Hasan, E.; Khan, S. I.; Hong, Y. (2015). "Investigation of Potential Sea Level Rise Impact on the Nile
Nile
Delta, Egypt
Egypt
Using Digital Elevation Models". Environmental Monitoring & Assessment. 187 (10): 649–663. doi:10.1007/s10661-015-4868-9.  ^ "Egypt's Nile
Nile
Delta falls prey to climate change".  ^ " Egypt
Egypt
fertile Nile
Nile
Delta falls prey to climate change". Archived from the original on 9 February 2011.  ^ El Banna, Mahmoud M.; Frihy, Omran E. (2009-06-01). "Human-induced changes in the geomorphology of the northeastern coast of the Nile delta, Egypt". Geomorphology. Coastal vulnerability related to sea-level rise. 107 (1–2): 72–78. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2007.06.025. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nile
Nile
Delta.

" Nile
Nile
Delta flooded savanna". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund.  "The Nile
Nile
Under Control"[dead link] — 1937 article on controlling the flow of the Nile. Adaptationlearning.net: UN project for managing sea level rise risks in the Nile
Nile
Delta Keyway.ca:

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile
Nile
Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile
Nile
Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

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The Info List - Sebennytic


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Coordinates: 30°54′N 31°7′E / 30.900°N 31.117°E / 30.900; 31.117

NASA
NASA
satellite photograph of the Nile
Nile
Delta (shown in false color)

The Nile
Nile
Delta at night as seen from the ISS in October 2010.

The Nile
Nile
Delta (Arabic: دلتا النيل‎ Delta n-Nīl or simply الدلتا ed-Delta) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt
Egypt
(Lower Egypt) where the Nile
Nile
River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea. It is one of the world's largest river deltas—from Alexandria
Alexandria
in the west to Port Said
Port Said
in the east, it covers 240 km (150 mi) of Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coastline—and is a rich agricultural region. From north to south the delta is approximately 160 km (99 mi) in length. The Delta begins slightly down-river from Cairo. The Nile
Nile
Delta is an area of the world that lacks the detailed ground truth data and monitoring stations. Despite the economic importance of the Nile
Nile
Delta, it could be considered as one of the most data-poor regions with respect to sea level rise.[1]

Contents

1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Ancient branches of the Nile

3 Population 4 Wildlife 5 Climate 6 Sea level 7 Governorates 8 References 9 External links

Geography[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Nile
Nile
River and Delta

From north to south, the delta is approximately 160 km (99 mi) in length. From west-to-east, it covers some 240 km (150 mi) of coastline. The delta is sometimes divided into sections, with the Nile
Nile
dividing into two main distributaries, the Damietta
Damietta
and the Rosetta, flowing into the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
at port cities with the same name. In the past, the delta had several distributaries, but these have been lost due to flood control, silting and changing relief. One such defunct distributary is Wadi Tumilat. The Suez Canal
Suez Canal
is located to the east of the delta and enters the coastal Lake Manzala
Lake Manzala
in the north-east of the delta. To the north-west are three other coastal lakes or lagoons: Lake Burullus, Lake Idku and Lake Maryut. The Nile
Nile
is considered to be an "arcuate" delta (arc-shaped), as it resembles a triangle or flower when seen from above. The outer edges of the delta are eroding, and some coastal lagoons have seen increasing salinity levels as their connection to the Mediterranean Sea increases. Since the delta no longer receives an annual supply of nutrients and sediments from upstream due to the construction of the Aswan High Dam, the soils of the floodplains have become poorer, and large amounts of fertilizers are now used. Topsoil
Topsoil
in the delta can be as much as 21 m (70 ft) in depth. History[edit]

Ancient branches of the Nile, showing Wadi Tumilat, and the lakes east of the Delta

People have lived in the Delta region for thousands of years, and it has been intensively farmed for at least the last five thousand years. The Delta River used to flood on an annual basis, but this ended with the construction of the Aswan Dam. Ancient branches of the Nile[edit]

The Nile
Nile
delta at the time of Herodotus, according to James Rennell (1800)

Records from ancient times (such as by Pliny the Elder) show that the delta had seven distributaries (from east to west):

the Pelusiac, the Tanitic (or Saitic), the Mendesian, the Phatnitic (or Phatmetic),[2] the Sebennytic, the Bolbitine, and the Canopic (also called the Herakleotic[3] and the Agathodaemon[5])

There are now only two main branches, due to flood control, silting and changing relief: the Damietta
Damietta
(corresponding to the Phatnitic) to the east, and the Rosetta
Rosetta
(corresponding to the Bolbitine)[6] in the western part of the Delta. The Rosetta
Rosetta
Stone was found in the Nile
Nile
Delta in 1799 in the port city of Rosetta
Rosetta
(anglicized name of Rashid). The delta was a major constituent of Lower Egypt. There are many archaeological sites in and around the Nile
Nile
Delta.[7] Population[edit]

Population density

About 39 million people live in the Delta region. Outside of major cities, population density in the delta averages 1,000/km2 (2,600/sq mi) or more. Alexandria
Alexandria
is the largest city in the delta with an estimated population of more than 4.5 million. Other large cities in the delta include Shubra al Khaymah, Port Said, El-Mahalla El-Kubra, El Mansura, Tanta, and Zagazig.[8] Wildlife[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Whiskered tern

During autumn, parts of the Nile
Nile
River are red with lotus flowers. The Lower Nile
Nile
(North) and the Upper Nile
Nile
(South) have plants that grow in abundance. The Upper Nile
Nile
plant is the Egyptian lotus, and the Lower Nile
Nile
plant is the Papyrus Sedge (Cyperus papyrus), although it is not nearly as plentiful as it once was, and is becoming quite rare. Several hundred thousand water birds winter in the delta, including the world’s largest concentrations of little gulls and whiskered terns. Other birds making their homes in the delta include grey herons, Kentish plovers, shovelers, cormorants, egrets and ibises. Other animals found in the delta include frogs, turtles, tortoises, mongooses, and the Nile
Nile
monitor. Nile
Nile
crocodiles and hippopotamus, two animals which were widespread in the delta during antiquity, are no longer found there. Fish found in the delta include the Striped mullet and soles. Climate[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

See also: Climate of Egypt
Egypt
and northern coast of Egypt The Delta has a hot desert climate (Köppen: BWh) as the rest of Egypt, but its northernmost part, as is the case with the rest of the northern coast of Egypt
Egypt
which is the wettest region in the country, has relatively moderate temperatures, with highs usually not surpassing 31 °C (88 °F) in the summer. Only 100–200 mm (4–8 in) of rain falls on the delta area during an average year, and most of this falls in the winter months. The delta experiences its hottest temperatures in July and August, with maximum average of 34 °C (93 °F). Winter temperatures are normally in the range of 9 °C (48 °F) at nights to 19 °C (66 °F) in the daytime. With cooler temperatures and some rain, the Nile
Nile
Delta region becomes quite humid during the winter months. Sea level[edit] Furthermore, Egypt’s Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coastline is being swallowed up by the sea because of global warming and the rise of the sea level, and the lack of sediments being deposited since the construction of the Aswan Dam, in some places as much as 90 m (100 yd) a year.[9] As the polar ice caps melt, much of the northern delta, including the ancient port city of Alexandria, will disappear under the Mediterranean. Even a 30 cm (12 in) rise in sea level will affect about 6.6 % of the total land cover area in the Nile Delta region; At 1 m SLR, an estimated 887 thousand people will be at risk of inundation and displacement and about 100 km2 (40 sq mi) of vegetation, 16 km2 (10 sq mi) wetland, 402 km2 (160 sq mi) cropland, and 47 km2 (20 sq mi) of urban area land would be destroyed,[10] flooding approximately 450 km2 (170 sq mi).[11] The Nile
Nile
Delta is turning into a salty wasteland by rising sea waters, forcing some farmers off their lands and others to import sand in a desperate bid to turn back the tide. Experts warn that global warming will have a major effect in the delta on agriculture resources, tourism and human migration besides shaking the region's fragile ecosystems. Environmental damage to the Nile
Nile
Delta is not yet one of Egypt's priorities, but experts say if the situation continues to deteriorate, it will trigger massive food shortages which could turn seven million people into "climate refugees" by the end of the century if climate change remains unmitigated.[12] In addition to the effect that the dams on the Nile
Nile
have had on the delta, there has been a tremendous human effect internally with the rise of fisheries, the increased salt production, the building of roads, the heightened agricultural production, and the natural increase in human population in the region.[13] Governorates[edit]

Alexandria Beheira Kafr el Sheikh Gharbiya Minufiya Qalyubiya Dakahlia Damietta Sharqiyah Port Said

Large cities located in the Nile
Nile
Delta:

Abusir Alexandria Avaris Bilbeis Bubastis Canopus Damanhur Desouk Damietta El Mahalla El Kubra Kafr El Sheikh Leontopolis Mendes Mit Abu El Kom Mansoura Naucratis Pelusium Port Said Rosetta Sais Tanis Tanta Zagazig

References[edit]

^ Hasan, E.; Khan, S. I.; Hong, Y. (2015). "Investigation of Potential Sea Level Rise Impact on the Nile
Nile
Delta, Egypt
Egypt
Using Digital Elevation Models". Environmental Monitoring & Assessment. 187 (10): 649–663. doi:10.1007/s10661-015-4868-9.  ^ Wilson, Ian. The Exodus Enigma (1985), page 46. London: Wiedenfeld & Nicolson. ^ e.g. at Callisthenes Alexander 1.31. ^ 1 ^ e.g. in Ptolemy, Geography.[4] ^ Hayes, W. 'Most Ancient Egypt', p. 87, JNES, 23 (1964), 73-114. ^ Location of the site, Kafr Hassan Dawood On-Line, with map of early sites of the delta. ^ City Population website, citing Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics Egypt
Egypt
(web), accessed 11 April 1908. ^ "Global Warming Threatens Egypt's Coastlines and the Nile
Nile
Delta". Archived from the original on 29 September 2011.  ^ Hasan, E.; Khan, S. I.; Hong, Y. (2015). "Investigation of Potential Sea Level Rise Impact on the Nile
Nile
Delta, Egypt
Egypt
Using Digital Elevation Models". Environmental Monitoring & Assessment. 187 (10): 649–663. doi:10.1007/s10661-015-4868-9.  ^ "Egypt's Nile
Nile
Delta falls prey to climate change".  ^ " Egypt
Egypt
fertile Nile
Nile
Delta falls prey to climate change". Archived from the original on 9 February 2011.  ^ El Banna, Mahmoud M.; Frihy, Omran E. (2009-06-01). "Human-induced changes in the geomorphology of the northeastern coast of the Nile delta, Egypt". Geomorphology. Coastal vulnerability related to sea-level rise. 107 (1–2): 72–78. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2007.06.025. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nile
Nile
Delta.

" Nile
Nile
Delta flooded savanna". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund.  "The Nile
Nile
Under Control"[dead link] — 1937 article on controlling the flow of the Nile. Adaptationlearning.net: UN project for managing sea level rise risks in the Nile
Nile
Delta Keyway.ca:

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile
Nile
Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile
Nile
Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

Authority control

.

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