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The Sea of Galilee, also Kinneret or Kinnereth,[3] Lake
Lake
of Gennesaret, or Lake
Lake
Tiberias
Tiberias
(Hebrew: יָם כִּנֶּרֶת‬, Judeo-Aramaic: יַמּא דטבריא; גִּנֵּיסַר Arabic: بحيرة طبريا‎), is a freshwater lake in Israel. It is approximately 53 km (33 mi) in circumference, about 21 km (13 mi) long, and 13 km (8.1 mi) wide. Its area is 166.7 km2 (64.4 sq mi) at its fullest, and its maximum depth is approximately 43 m (141 feet).[4] At levels between 215 metres (705 ft) and 209 metres (686 ft) below sea level,[5] it is the lowest freshwater lake on Earth
Earth
and the second-lowest lake in the world (after the Dead Sea, a saltwater lake).[6] The lake is fed partly by underground springs although its main source is the Jordan River
Jordan River
which flows through it from north to south.

Contents

1 Geography 2 Names and their etymology 3 History

3.1 Prehistory 3.2 Antiquity 3.3 Middle Ages 3.4 Modern era

4 Archaeology 5 Water use 6 Tourism 7 Flora and fauna 8 Panoramic and satellite views 9 See also 10 References 11 External links 12 Further reading

Geography[edit]

Sea of Galilee
Galilee
in relation to the Dead Sea

The Sea of Galilee
Galilee
is situated in northeast Israel, between the Golan Heights and the Galilee
Galilee
region, in the Jordan
Jordan
Rift Valley, the valley caused by the separation of the African and Arabian Plates. Consequently, the area is subject to earthquakes, and in the past, volcanic activity. This is evident by the abundant basalt and other igneous rocks that define the geology of the Galilee. Names and their etymology[edit] The lake has been called by different names throughout its history, usually depending on the dominant settlement on its shores. With changing fate of the towns, the lake's name also changed.

Lake
Lake
or Sea of Kinneret

The modern Hebrew
Hebrew
name, Kinneret, comes from the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible, the main source of the Christian Old Testament, where it appears as the "sea of Kinneret" in Numbers 34:11 and Joshua 13:27, spelled כנרו ת "Kinnerot" in Hebrew
Hebrew
in Joshua 11:2. This name was also found in the scripts of Ugarit, in the Aqhat Epic. Kinneret was listed among the "fenced cities" in Joshua 19:35. A persistent, though likely erroneous popular etymology of the name presumes that the name Kinneret may originate from the Hebrew
Hebrew
word kinnor ("harp" or "lyre"), in view of the shape of the lake.[7] The scholarly consensus though is that the origin of the name lies with the important Bronze and Iron Age city of Kinneret, excavated at Tell el-'Oreimeh.[8] However, there is no evidence that the city of Kinneret itself was not named after the body of water rather than vice versa, or for the origin of the town's name.

Lake
Lake
of Gennesaret

All Old and New Testament
New Testament
writers use the term "sea" ( Hebrew
Hebrew
יָם yam, Greek θάλασσα), with the exception of Luke who calls it "the Lake
Lake
of Gennesaret" (Luke 5:1), from the Greek λίμνη Γεννησαρέτ (limnē Gennēsaret), the "Grecized form of Chinnereth" according to Easton (1897).[9]

Sea of Ginosar

The Babylonian Talmud, as well as Flavius Josephus
Josephus
mention the sea by the name "Sea of Ginosar" after the small fertile plain of Ginosar that lies on its western side.[citation needed] Ginosar
Ginosar
is yet another name derived from "Kinneret".[8]

Sea of Galilee, Sea of Tiberias, Lake
Lake
Tiberias

In the New Testament
New Testament
the term "sea of Galilee" (Greek: θάλασσαν τῆς Γαλιλαίας, thalassan tēs Galilaias) is used in the gospel of Matthew 4:18; 15:29, the gospel of Mark 1:16; 7:31, and in the gospel of John 6:1 as "the sea of Galilee, which is the sea of Tiberias" (θαλάσσης τῆς Γαλιλαίας τῆς Τιβεριάδος, thalassēs tēs Galilaias tēs Tiberiados), the late 1st century CE name.[10] Sea of Tiberias
Tiberias
is also the name mentioned in Roman texts and in the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud, and was adopted into Arabic as  Buhairet Tabariyya (help·info) (بحيرة طبريا), " Lake
Lake
Tiberias".

Sea of Minya

From the Umayyad
Umayyad
through the Mamluk
Mamluk
period the lake was known in Arabic as "Bahr al-Minya", the "Sea of Minya", after the Umayyad
Umayyad
qasr complex whose ruins are still visible at Khirbat al-Minya. This is the name employed by the medieval Persian and Arab scholars Al-Baladhuri, Al-Tabari and Ibn Kathir.[11] History[edit] Prehistory[edit] In 1989, remains of a hunter-gatherer site were found under the water at the southern end. Remains of mud huts were found which are the oldest known buildings in the world. See Ohalo. Nahal Ein Gev, located about 3 km east of the lake, contains a village from the late Natufian period. The site is considered one of the first permanent human settlements in the world from a time predating the Neolithic revolution. Antiquity[edit]

Jesus
Jesus
appears on the shore of Lake
Lake
Tiberias
Tiberias
by James Tissot

Jesus
Jesus
and the miraculous catch of fish, in the Sea of Galilee, by Raphael

The Sea of Galilee
Galilee
lies on the ancient Via Maris, which linked Egypt with the northern empires. The Greeks, Hasmoneans, and Romans founded flourishing towns and settlements on the land-locked lake including Hippos
Hippos
and Tiberias. The first-century historian Flavius Josephus
Josephus
was so impressed by the area that he wrote, "One may call this place the ambition of Nature"; he also reported a thriving fishing industry at this time, with 230 boats regularly working in the lake. Archaeologists discovered one such boat, nicknamed the Jesus
Jesus
Boat, in 1986. In the Bible, much of the ministry of Jesus
Jesus
occurred on the shores of Lake
Lake
Galilee. In those days, there was a continuous ribbon development of settlements and villages around the lake and plenty of trade and ferrying by boat. The Synoptic Gospels
Synoptic Gospels
of Mark (1:14–20), Matthew (4:18–22), and Luke (5:1–11) describe how Jesus
Jesus
recruited four of his apostles from the shores of Lake
Lake
Galilee: the fishermen Simon and his brother Andrew and the brothers John and James. One of Jesus' famous teaching episodes, the Sermon on the Mount, is supposed to have been given on a hill overlooking the lake. Many of his miracles are also said to have occurred here including his walking on water, calming the storm, the disciples and the miraculous catch of fish, and his feeding five thousand people (in Tabgha). In John's Gospel
John's Gospel
the sea provides the setting for Jesus' third post-resurrection appearance to his disciples (John 21). In 135 CE, Bar Kokhba's revolt
Bar Kokhba's revolt
was put down. The Romans responded by banning all Jews from Jerusalem. The center of Jewish culture and learning shifted to the region of the Galilee
Galilee
and the Kinneret, particularly the city of Tiberias. It was in this region that the Jerusalem Talmud
Jerusalem Talmud
was compiled.[12]

Middle Ages[edit] The lake's importance declined when the Byzantines lost control and the area was conquered by the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate and subsequent Islamic empires. Apart from Tiberias, the major towns and cities in the area were gradually abandoned.[citation needed] The palace Khirbat al-Minya was built by the lake during the reign of the Umayyad
Umayyad
caliph al-Walid I (705–715 CE). In 1187, Saladin
Saladin
defeated the armies of the Crusades at the Battle of Hattin, largely because he was able to cut the Crusaders off from the valuable fresh water of the Sea of Galilee.

Modern era[edit]

Duga beach, Kinneret

Southern tip of the lake, seen from Mount Poriya

Throughout the early Ottoman era, the lake had little importance within the Ottoman Empire. Tiberias
Tiberias
did see a significant revival of its Jewish community in the 16th century, but had gradually declined, until in 1660 the city was completely destroyed. In the early 18th century, Tiberias
Tiberias
was rebuilt by Zahir al-Umar, becoming the center of his rule over Galilee, and seeing also a revival of its Jewish community. In 1909, Jewish pioneers established the first cooperative farming village (kibbutz), Kvutzat Kinneret
Kvutzat Kinneret
in the immediate vicinity of the lake. The settlement trained Jewish immigrants in farming and agriculture. Later, Kvutzat Kinneret
Kvutzat Kinneret
pioneers established Kibbutz Degania Alef. The Kvutzat Kinneret
Kvutzat Kinneret
is considered the cradle of the kibbutz culture of early Zionism
Zionism
and is the birthplace of Naomi Shemer and the burial site of Rachel—two of the most prominent Israeli poets. In 1917, the British defeated Ottoman Turkish forces and took control of Palestine, while France took control of Syria. In the carve-up of the Ottoman territories between Britain and France, it was agreed that Britain would retain control of Palestine, while France would control Syria. However, the allies had to fix the border between the Mandatory Palestine and the French Mandate of Syria.[13] The boundary was defined in broad terms by the Franco-British Boundary Agreement of December 1920, which drew it across the middle of the lake.[14] However, the commission established by the 1920 treaty redrew the boundary. The Zionist movement pressured the French and British to assign as many water sources as possible to Mandatory Palestine
Mandatory Palestine
during the demarcating negotiations. The High Commissioner of Palestine, Herbert Samuel, had sought full control of the Sea of Galilee.[15] The negotiations led to the inclusion into the Palestine territory of the whole Sea of Galilee, both sides of the River Jordan, Lake
Lake
Hula, Dan spring, and part of the Yarmouk.[16] The final border approved in 1923 followed a 10-meter wide strip along the lake's northeastern shore,[17] cutting the Mandatory Syria
Mandatory Syria
(State of Damascus) off from the lake. The British and French Agreement provided that existing rights over the use of the waters of the Jordan
Jordan
by the inhabitants of Syria
Syria
would be maintained; the Government of Syria
Syria
would have the right to erect a new pier at Semakh
Semakh
on Lake
Lake
Tiberias
Tiberias
or jointly use the existing pier; persons or goods passing between the landing-stage on the Lake
Lake
of Tiberias
Tiberias
and Semakh
Semakh
would not be subject to customs regulations, and the Syrian government would have access to the said landing-stage; the inhabitants of Syria
Syria
and Lebanon would have the same fishing and navigation rights on Lakes Huleh, Tiberias
Tiberias
and River Jordan, while the Government of Palestine would be responsible for policing of lakes.[18] On May 15, 1948, Syria
Syria
invaded the newborn State of Israel,[19] capturing territory along the Sea of Galilee.[20] Under the 1949 armistice agreement between Israel
Israel
and Syria, Syria
Syria
occupied the northeast shoreline of the Sea of Galilee. The agreement, though, stated that the armistice line was "not to be interpreted as having any relation whatsoever to ultimate territorial arrangements." Syria remained in possession of the lake's northeast shoreline until the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. In the 1950s, Israel
Israel
formulated a plan to link the Kinneret with the rest of the country's water infrastructure via the National Water Carrier, in order to supply the water demand of the growing country. The carrier was completed in 1964. The Israeli plan, to which the Arab League opposed its own plan to divert the headwaters of the Jordan River, sparked political and sometimes even armed confrontations over the Jordan River
Jordan River
basin. After 5 years of drought as of 2018, Sea of Galilee
Galilee
is expected to get to the black line.[21] The black elevation line is the lowest depth from which irreversible damage begin and no water can be pumped out anymore.[22] Israel
Israel
Oceanographic and Limnological Research describe it as "The black line marks -214.87 m, the lowest-ever level reached since 1926 when the water level record began. According to the water authority, the Kinneret water level must not decline below this level."[23] Archaeology[edit] During a routine sonar scan in 2003 (finding published in 2013),[24] archaeologists discovered an enormous conical stone structure. The structure, which has a diameter of around 230 feet (70 m), is made of boulders and stones. The ruins are estimated to be between 2,000 and 12,000 years old, and are about 10 metres (33 ft) underwater.[25] The estimated weight of the monument is over 60,000 tons. Researchers explain that the site resembles early burial sites in Europe
Europe
and was likely built in the early Bronze Age. Water use[edit]

Sea of Galilee
Galilee
water levels January 2004 – February 2012

Israel's National Water Carrier, completed in 1964, transports water from the lake to the population centers of Israel, and in the past supplied most of the country's drinking water.[26] Nowadays the lake supplies approximately 10% of Israel's drinking water needs.[27] In 1964, Syria
Syria
attempted construction of a Headwater Diversion Plan that would have blocked the flow of water into the Sea of Galilee, sharply reducing the water flow into the lake.[28] This project and Israel's attempt to block these efforts in 1965 were factors which played into regional tensions culminating in the 1967 Six-Day War. During the war, Israel
Israel
captured the Golan Heights, which contain some of the sources of water for the Sea of Galilee. The Israeli government monitors water levels and publishes the results daily at this web page. The level over the past eight years can be retrieved from that site.[29] Increasing water demand in Israel, Lebanon and Jordan, as well as dry winters, have resulted in stress on the lake and a decreasing water line to dangerously low levels at times. The Sea of Galilee
Galilee
is at risk of becoming irreversibly salinized by the salt water springs under the lake, which are held in check by the weight of the freshwater on top of them.[30] Up until the mid-2010s, about 400,000,000 cubic metres (1.4×1010 cu ft) of water was pumped through the National Water Carrier each year.[31] Under the terms of the Israel–Jordan peace treaty, Israel
Israel
also supplies 50,000,000 cubic metres (1.8×109 cu ft) of water annually from the lake to Jordan.[32] In recent years the Israeli government has made extensive investments in water conservation, reclamation and desalination infrastructure in the country. This has allowed it to significantly reduce the amount of water pumped from the lake annually in an effort to restore and improve its ecological environment, as well as respond to some of the most extreme drought conditions in hundreds of years affecting the lake's intake basin since 1998. Therefore, it is expected that in 2016 only about 25,000,000 cubic metres (880,000,000 cu ft) of water will be drawn from the lake for Israeli domestic consumption, a small fraction of the amount typically drawn from the lake over the previous decades.[27] Tourism[edit]

Tourists on a boat at Tiberias, 1891

The beach of the Sea of Galilee

Tilapia
Tilapia
zilli (redbelly tilapia, "St. Peter's fish"), served in a Tiberias
Tiberias
restaurant

Tourism around the Sea of Galilee
Galilee
is an important economic branch. Historical and religious sites in the region draw both local and foreign tourists. The Sea of Galilee
Galilee
is an attraction for Christian pilgrims who visit Israel
Israel
to see the places where Jesus
Jesus
performed miracles according the New Testament, such as his walking on water, calming the storm and feeding the multitude. Alonzo Ketcham Parker, a nineteenth-century American traveler, called visiting the Sea of Galilee
Galilee
"a 'fifth gospel' which one read devoutly, his heart overflowing with quiet joy".[33] In April 2011, Israel
Israel
unveiled a 40-mile (64 km) hiking trail in the Galilee
Galilee
for Christian pilgrims, called the " Jesus
Jesus
Trail". It includes a network of footpaths, roads and bicycle paths linking sites central to the lives of Jesus
Jesus
and his disciples. It ends at Capernaum on the shores of the Sea of Galilee, where Jesus
Jesus
espoused his teachings.[34] Another key attraction is the site where the Sea of Galilee's water flows into the Jordan
Jordan
River, to which thousands of pilgrims from all over the world come to be baptized every year.[citation needed] Israel's most well-known open water swim race, the Kinneret Crossing, is held every year in September, drawing thousands of open water swimmers to participate in competitive and noncompetitive events.[citation needed] Tourists also partake in the building of rafts on Lavnun Beach, called Rafsodia. Here many different age groups work together to build a raft with their bare hands and then sail that raft across the sea.[citation needed] Other economic activities include fishing in the lake and agriculture, particularly bananas, dates, mangoes, grapes and olives in the fertile belt of land surrounding it.[citation needed] Flora and fauna[edit] The warm waters of the Sea of Galilee
Galilee
support various flora and fauna, which have supported a significant commercial fishery for more than two millennia. Local flora include various reeds along most of the shoreline as well as phytoplankton. Fauna include zooplankton, benthos and a number of fish species such as Acanthobrama terraesanctae. Fish caught commercially include Tristramella simonis
Tristramella simonis
and Sarotherodon galilaeus, locally called "St. Peter’s Fish".[4] In 2005, 300 short tons (270 t) of tilapia were caught by local fishermen. This dropped to 8 short tons (7.3 t) in 2009 due to overfishing.[35] However, low water levels in drought years have stressed the lake's ecology. This may have been aggravated by over-extraction of water for either the National Water Carrier to supply other parts of Israel
Israel
or, since 1994, for the supply of water to Jordan
Jordan
(see "Water use" section above). Droughts of the early and mid-1990s dried out the marshy northern margin of the lake.[36] A fish species that is unique to the lake, Tristramella sacra, used to spawn in the marsh and has not been seen since the 1990s droughts.[36] Conservationists fear this species may have become extinct.[36] It is hoped that drastic reductions in the amount of water pumped through the National Water Carrier will help restore the lake's ecology over the span of several years. As such, the amount planned to be drawn in 2016 for Israeli domestic water use is expected to be less than 10% of the amount commonly drawn on an annual basis in the decades before the mid-2010s.[27]

Panoramic and satellite views[edit]

Panoramic view of the Sea of Galilee

View of the Sea of Galilee
Galilee
from space

Panoramic view of the south end of the Sea of Galilee, taken from Switzerland Forest near Tiberias

See also[edit]

Water portal Israel
Israel
portal Bible portal

Sea of Galilee
Galilee
Boat Miracles of Jesus Tiberias Galilee Tourism in Israel

References[edit]

^ a b Aaron T. Wolf, Hydropolitics along the Jordan
Jordan
River, United Nations University Press, 1995 ^ a b Exact-me.org ^ The Hebrew
Hebrew
letter "ת" (Tav) is often transliterated as "Th". ^ a b Data Summary: Lake
Lake
Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) Archived 2014-02-03 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Kinneret – General" (in Hebrew). Israel
Israel
Oceanographic & Limnological Research Ltd.  ^ The 1996-discovered subglacial Lake
Lake
Vostok challenges both records; it is estimated to be 200 m (660 ft) to 600 m (2,000 ft) below sea level. ^ Easton's Revised Bible Dictionary, Chinnereth. Another speculation is that the name comes from a fruit called in Biblical Hebrew
Hebrew
kinar, which is thought to be the fruit of Ziziphus spina-christi. ^ a b Avraham Negev, Shimon Gibson, ed. (2001). Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land. New York, London: Continuum. p. 285. ISBN 0-8264-1316-1.  ^ Easton, Gennesaret. ^ Easton, Tiberias ^ "Khirbet Al-Minya". Jalili48. Professor Dr. Moslih Kanaaneh. 12 May 2006. Retrieved 3 February 2015.  ^ In the time of the Byzantine Empire, the lake's significance in Jesus' life made it a major destination for Christian pilgrims. This led to the growth of a full-fledged tourist industry, complete with package tours and plenty of comfortable inns. ^ The Preamble of the League of Nations Mandate Archived 2016-04-21 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Franco-British Convention on Certain Points Connected with the Mandates for Syria
Syria
and the Lebanon, Palestine and Mesopotamia, signed Dec. 23, 1920. Text available in American Journal of International Law, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1922, 122–126. ^ The boundaries of modern Palestine, 1840–1947 (2004), by Gideon Biger. Publisher Rutledge Curzon. ISBN 978-0-7146-5654-0, p. 130. ^ The boundaries of modern Palestine, 1840–1947, p. 150. and 130. ^ The boundaries of modern Palestine, 1840–1947, p. 145. ^ Agreement between His Majesty's Government and the French Government respecting the Boundary Line between Syria
Syria
and Palestine from the Mediterranean to El Hámmé Archived 2008-09-09 at the Wayback Machine., Treaty Series No. 13 (1923), Cmd. 1910. Page 7. ^ " Israel
Israel
and the Palestinians - a history - guardian.co.uk - guardian.co.uk".  ^ The Year of 1948 ^ http://www.israelhayom.co.il/article/528479 ^ https://www.makorrishon.co.il/nrg/online/1/ART1/753/814.html ^ http://kinneret.ocean.org.il/level_grp.aspx ^ Paz, Yitzhak; Moshe, Reshef; Ben-Avraham, Zvie; Shmuel, Marco; Tibor, Gideon; Nadel, Dani (2013). "A Submerged Monumental Structure in the Sea of Galilee, Israel". International Journal of Nautical Archaeology. 42 (1): 189–193. doi:10.1111/1095-9270.12005.  ^ "Mysterious structure found at bottom of ancient lake". CNN.com. Retrieved 2013-05-23.  ^ "Black gold under the Golan". The Economist. 7 November 2015. Retrieved 8 November 2015.  ^ a b c Amit, Hagai (1 June 2016). "הקו האדום של הכנרת נהפך לבעיה של הירדנים" [The Kinneret's Red Line has Turned into Jordan's Problem]. TheMarker. Retrieved 12 June 2016.  ^ Fischhendler, Itay (2008). "When Ambiguity in Treaty Design Becomes Destructive: A Study of Transboundary Water". Global Environmental Politics. Retrieved 2008-11-28.  ^ Kinneret Basin Water Level ^ Skynews report, 5 May 2009: Race To Save Sea Of Galilee
Galilee
From Disaster Archived 2009-05-08 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Shmuel Kantor. "The National Water Carrier".  ^ "Developments related to the Middle East
Middle East
Peace Process". UN. Retrieved 2008-02-20.  ^ Parker, A. K., "The Sea of Galilee" in The Biblical World, Vol. 7, No. 4 (April 1896), pages 264–272 ^ Daniel Estrin, Canadian Press (April 15, 2011). " Israel
Israel
unveils hiking trail in Galilee
Galilee
for Christian pilgrims". Yahoo! News. Archived from the original on March 13, 2013. Retrieved 2011-05-16.  ^ "Still Fishers of Men". Vermont Catholic. 1 (12): 3. June 2010.  ^ a b c Goren, M. (2006). "Tristramella sacra". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2011-06-13. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sea of Galilee.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Sea of Galilee.

World Lakes Database entry for Sea of Galilee Kinneret Data Center // Kinneret Limnological Laboratory Sea of Galilee
Galilee
(Kinneret) // Israel
Israel
Ministry of Environmental Protection Bibleplaces.com: Sea of Galilee Peace Mural of the Sea of Galilee
Galilee
in the Chapel of the Good Shephard – Ramallah Updated elevation of the Kinneret's level (Hebrew). Elevation (meters below sea level) is shown on the line following the date line. Virtual Map of Israel: Kinneret Sea Of Galilee
Galilee
Water Level Application [Google Store] Israel
Israel
Bans Fishing in Sea of Galilee The Road To The Sea Of Galilee

Further reading[edit]

Tamar Zohary, Assaf Sukenik, Tom Berman (2014). Lake
Lake
Kinneret: Ecology and Management. Springer. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) C. Serruya (1978). Lake
Lake
Kinneret. ISBN 90-6193-085-5. 

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Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

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Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

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Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake
Lake
Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

  Book   Category

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New Testament
New Testament
places associated with Jesus

Galilee

Ænon Bethsaida Cana Capernaum Chorazin Gennesaret Mount of Transfiguration Nain Nazareth Sea of Galilee

Judea

Bethany Bethesda Bethlehem Bethphage Calvary Emmaus Gabbatha Gethsemane Jericho Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Temple Mount of Olives

Other

Al-Maghtas Bethabara Caesarea Maritima Caesarea Philippi Egypt Gerasa Road to Damascus Sychar Umm Qais

C

.