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The SEA OF GALILEE, also KINNERET, LAKE OF GENNESARET, or LAKE TIBERIAS ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: יָם כִּנֶּרֶת‎, Judeo-Aramaic : יַמּא דטבריא; גִּנֵּיסַר Arabic : بحيرة طبريا‎‎), is a freshwater lake in Israel
Israel
. It is approximately 53 km (33 mi) in circumference, about 21 km (13 mi) long, and 13 km (8.1 mi) wide. Its area is 166.7 km2 (64.4 sq mi) at its fullest, and its maximum depth is approximately 43 m (141 feet). At levels between 215 metres (705 ft) and 209 metres (686 ft) below sea level, it is the lowest freshwater lake on Earth
Earth
and the second-lowest lake in the world (after the Dead Sea , a saltwater lake ). The lake is fed partly by underground springs although its main source is the Jordan River which flows through it from north to south.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography * 2 Names and their etymology

* 3 History

* 3.1 Prehistory * 3.2 Antiquity * 3.3 Middle Ages * 3.4 Modern era

* 4 Archaeology * 5 Water use * 6 Tourism * 7 Flora and fauna * 8 Panoramic and satellite views * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links * 12 Further reading

GEOGRAPHY

Sea of Galilee
Galilee
in relation to the Dead Sea

The Sea of Galilee
Galilee
is situated in northeast Israel, between the Golan Heights and the Galilee
Galilee
region, in the Jordan Rift Valley , the valley caused by the separation of the African and Arabian Plates . Consequently, the area is subject to earthquakes , and in the past, volcanic activity. This is evident by the abundant basalt and other igneous rocks that define the geology of the Galilee.

NAMES AND THEIR ETYMOLOGY

The lake has been called by different names throughout its history, usually depending on the dominant settlement on its shores. With changing fate of the towns, the lake's name also changed. LAKE OR SEA OF KINNERET

The modern Hebrew
Hebrew
name, _Kinneret_, comes from the Hebrew Bible , the main source of the Christian Old Testament
Old Testament
, where it appears as the "sea of Kinneret" in Numbers 34:11 and Joshua 13:27, spelled כנרות "Kinnerot" in Hebrew
Hebrew
in Joshua 11:2. This name was also found in the scripts of Ugarit , in the Aqhat Epic . _Kinneret_ was listed among the "fenced cities" in Joshua 19:35. A persistent, though likely erroneous popular etymology of the name presumes that the name _Kinneret_ may originate from the Hebrew
Hebrew
word _kinnor _ ("harp" or "lyre"), in view of the shape of the lake. The scholarly consensus though is that the origin of the name lies with the important Bronze and Iron Age
Iron Age
city of Kinneret , excavated at Tell el-'Oreimeh. However, there is no evidence that the city of Kinneret itself was not named after the body of water rather than vice versa, or for the origin of the town's name. LAKE OF GENNESARET

All Old and New Testament
New Testament
writers use the term "sea" ( Hebrew
Hebrew
יָם _yam_, Greek θάλασσα), with the exception of Luke who calls it "the Lake
Lake
of Gennesaret" (Luke 5:1), from the Greek λίμνη Γεννησαρέτ (_limnē Gennēsaret_), the "Grecized form of Chinnereth" according to Easton (1897). SEA OF GINOSAR

The Babylonian Talmud , as well as Flavius Josephus
Josephus
mention the sea by the name "Sea of Ginosar" after the small fertile plain of Ginosar that lies on its western side. Ginosar is yet another name derived from "Kinneret". SEA OF GALILEE, SEA OF TIBERIAS, LAKE TIBERIAS

In the New Testament
New Testament
the term "sea of Galilee" (Greek : θάλασσαν τῆς Γαλιλαίας, _thalassan tēs Galilaias_) is used in the gospel of Matthew 4:18; 15:29, the gospel of Mark 1:16; 7:31, and in the gospel of John 6:1 as "the sea of Galilee, which is _the sea_ of Tiberias" (θαλάσσης τῆς Γαλιλαίας τῆς Τιβεριάδος, _thalassēs tēs Galilaias tēs Tiberiados_), the late 1st century CE name. Sea of Tiberias
Tiberias
is also the name mentioned in Roman texts and in the Jerusalem Talmud , and was adopted into Arabic as _ Buhairet Tabariyya_ (help ·info ) (بحيرة طبريا), " Lake
Lake
Tiberias". SEA OF MINYA

From the Umayyad
Umayyad
through the Mamluk
Mamluk
period the lake was known in Arabic as "Bahr al-Minya", the "Sea of Minya", after the Umayyad
Umayyad
_qasr _ complex whose ruins are still visible at Khirbat al-Minya . This is the name employed by the medieval Persian and Arab scholars Al-Baladhuri , Al-Tabari and Ibn Kathir .

HISTORY

PREHISTORY

In 1989 remains of a hunter-gatherer site were found under the water at the southern end. Remains of mud huts were found which are the oldest known buildings in the world. See Ohalo .

ANTIQUITY

_ Jesus
Jesus
appears on the shore of Lake
Lake
Tiberias_ by James Tissot Jesus
Jesus
and the miraculous catch of fish , in the Sea of Galilee, by Raphael
Raphael

The Sea of Galilee
Galilee
lies on the ancient Via Maris , which linked Egypt with the northern empires. The Greeks
Greeks
, Hasmoneans , and Romans founded flourishing towns and settlements on the land-locked lake including Hippos and Tiberias
Tiberias
. The first-century historian Flavius Josephus
Josephus
was so impressed by the area that he wrote, "One may call this place the ambition of Nature." Josephus
Josephus
also reported a thriving fishing industry at this time, with 230 boats regularly working in the lake. Archaeologists discovered one such boat, nicknamed the Jesus Boat , in 1986.

Much of the ministry of Jesus
Jesus
occurred on the shores of Lake
Lake
Galilee. In those days, there was a continuous ribbon development of settlements and villages around the lake and plenty of trade and ferrying by boat. The Synoptic gospels of Mark (1:14–20), Matthew (4:18–22), and Luke (5:1–11) describe how Jesus
Jesus
recruited four of his apostles from the shores of Lake
Lake
Galilee: the fishermen Simon and his brother Andrew and the brothers John and James . One of Jesus' famous teaching episodes, the Sermon on the Mount , is supposed to have been given on a hill overlooking the lake. Many of his miracles are also said to have occurred here including his walking on water , calming the storm , the disciples and the boatload of fish, and his feeding five thousand people (in Tabgha ).

In 135 CE Bar Kokhba\'s revolt was put down. The Romans responded by banning all Jews from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. The center of Jewish culture and learning shifted to the region of the Galilee
Galilee
and the Kinneret, particularly the city of Tiberias
Tiberias
. It was in this region that the Jerusalem Talmud was compiled.

MIDDLE AGES

The lake's importance declined when the Byzantines lost control and the area was conquered by the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate and subsequent Islamic empires. Apart from Tiberias, the major towns and cities in the area were gradually abandoned. The palace Khirbat al-Minya was built by the lake during the reign of the Umayyad
Umayyad
caliph al-Walid I (705–715 CE). In 1187, Saladin
Saladin
defeated the armies of the Crusades
Crusades
at the Battle of Hattin , largely because he was able to cut the Crusaders off from the valuable fresh water of the Sea of Galilee.

MODERN ERA

Duga beach, Kinneret Southern tip of the lake, seen from Mount Poriya

Throughout the early Ottoman era, the lake had little importance within the Ottoman Empire. Tiberias
Tiberias
did see a significant revival of its Jewish community in the 16th century, but had gradually declined, until in 1660 the city was completely destroyed . In the early 18th century, Tiberias
Tiberias
was rebuilt by Zahir al-Umar , becoming the center of his rule over Galilee, and seeing also a revival of its Jewish community.

In 1909, Jewish pioneers established the first cooperative farming village (kibbutz ), Kvutzat Kinneret in the immediate vicinity of the lake. The settlement trained Jewish immigrants in farming and agriculture. Later, Kvutzat Kinneret pioneers established Kibbutz Degania Alef
Degania Alef
. The Kvutzat Kinneret is considered the cradle of the kibbutz culture of early Zionism and is the birthplace of Naomi Shemer and the burial site of Rachel —two of the most prominent Israeli poets.

In 1917, the British defeated Ottoman Turkish forces and took control of Palestine, while France took control of Syria. In the carve-up of the Ottoman territories between Britain and France, it was agreed that Britain would retain control of Palestine , while France would control Syria. However, the allies had to fix the border between the Mandatory Palestine and the French Mandate of Syria . The boundary was defined in broad terms by the Franco-British Boundary Agreement of December 1920, which drew it across the middle of the lake. However, the commission established by the 1920 treaty redrew the boundary. The Zionist movement pressured the French and British to assign as many water sources as possible to Mandatory Palestine
Mandatory Palestine
during the demarcating negotiations. The High Commissioner of Palestine, Herbert Samuel , had sought full control of the Sea of Galilee. The negotiations led to the inclusion into the Palestine territory of the whole Sea of Galilee, both sides of the River Jordan , Lake
Lake
Hula , Dan spring, and part of the Yarmouk . The final border approved in 1923 followed a 10-meter wide strip along the lake's northeastern shore, cutting the Mandatory Syria ( State of Damascus ) off from the lake.

The British and French Agreement provided that existing rights over the use of the waters of the Jordan
Jordan
by the inhabitants of Syria
Syria
would be maintained; the Government of Syria
Syria
would have the right to erect a new pier at Semakh on Lake
Lake
Tiberias
Tiberias
or jointly use the existing pier; persons or goods passing between the landing-stage on the Lake
Lake
of Tiberias
Tiberias
and Semakh would not be subject to customs regulations, and the Syrian government would have access to the said landing-stage; the inhabitants of Syria
Syria
and Lebanon would have the same fishing and navigation rights on Lakes Huleh, Tiberias
Tiberias
and River Jordan, while the Government of Palestine would be responsible for policing of lakes.

On May 15, 1948, Syria
Syria
invaded the newborn State of Israel, capturing territory along the Sea of Galilee. Under the 1949 armistice agreement between Israel
Israel
and Syria, Syria
Syria
occupied the northeast shoreline of the Sea of Galilee. The agreement, though, stated that the armistice line was "not to be interpreted as having any relation whatsoever to ultimate territorial arrangements." Syria remained in possession of the lake's northeast shoreline until the 1967 Arab-Israeli war .

In the 1950s, Israel
Israel
formulated a plan to link the Kinneret with the rest of the country's water infrastructure via the National Water Carrier , in order to supply the water demand of the growing country. The carrier was completed in 1964. The Israeli plan, in line with the Headwater Diversion Plan (Jordan River) of the Arab League, sparked political and sometimes even armed confrontations over the Jordan River basin.

ARCHAEOLOGY

During a routine sonar scan in 2003 (finding published in 2013), archaeologists discovered an enormous conical stone structure. The structure, which has a diameter of around 230 feet (70 m), is made of boulders and stones. The ruins are estimated to be between 2,000 and 12,000 years old, and are about 10 metres (33 ft) underwater. The estimated weight of the monument is over 60,000 tons. Researchers explain that the site resembles early burial sites in Europe
Europe
and was likely built in the early Bronze Age.

WATER USE

Sea of Galilee
Galilee
water levels January 2004 – February 2012

Israel's National Water Carrier , completed in 1964, transports water from the lake to the population centers of Israel, and in the past supplied most of the country's drinking water. Nowadays the lake supplies approximately 10% of Israel's drinking water needs.

In 1964, Syria
Syria
attempted construction of a Headwater Diversion Plan that would have blocked the flow of water into the Sea of Galilee, sharply reducing the water flow into the lake. This project and Israel's attempt to block these efforts in 1965 were factors which played into regional tensions culminating in the 1967 Six-Day War . During the war, Israel
Israel
captured the Golan Heights
Golan Heights
, which contain some of the sources of water for the Sea of Galilee.

The Israeli government monitors water levels and publishes the results daily at this web page . The level over the past eight years can be retrieved from that site. Increasing water demand in Israel, Lebanon and Jordan, as well as dry winters, have resulted in stress on the lake and a decreasing water line to dangerously low levels at times. The Sea of Galilee
Galilee
is at risk of becoming irreversibly salinized by the salt water springs under the lake, which are held in check by the weight of the freshwater on top of them.

Up until the mid-2010s, about 400,000,000 cubic metres (1.4×1010 cu ft) of water was pumped through the National Water Carrier each year. Under the terms of the Israel–Jordan peace treaty , Israel
Israel
also supplies 50,000,000 cubic metres (1.8×109 cu ft) of water annually from the lake to Jordan
Jordan
. In recent years the Israeli government has made extensive investments in water conservation, reclamation and desalination infrastructure in the country. This has allowed it to significantly reduce the amount of water pumped from the lake annually in an effort to restore and improve its ecological environment, as well as respond to some of the most extreme drought conditions in hundreds of years affecting the lake's intake basin since 1998. Therefore, it is expected that in 2016 only about 25,000,000 cubic metres (880,000,000 cu ft) of water will be drawn from the lake for Israeli domestic consumption, a small fraction of the amount typically drawn from the lake over the previous decades.

TOURISM

Tourists on a boat at Tiberias, 1891 The beach of the Sea of Galilee
Galilee
Tilapia
Tilapia
zilli (redbelly tilapia, "St. Peter's fish"), served in a Tiberias
Tiberias
restaurant

Tourism around the Sea of Galilee
Galilee
is an important economic branch. Historical and religious sites in the region draw both local and foreign tourists. The Sea of Galilee
Galilee
is an attraction for Christian pilgrims who visit Israel
Israel
to see the places where Jesus
Jesus
performed miracles according the New Testament
New Testament
, such as his walking on water , calming the storm and feeding the multitude . Alonzo Ketcham Parker, a nineteenth-century American traveler, called visiting the Sea of Galilee
Galilee
"a 'fifth gospel' which one read devoutly, his heart overflowing with quiet joy".

In April 2011, Israel
Israel
unveiled a 40-mile (64 km) hiking trail in the Galilee
Galilee
for Christian pilgrims, called the " Jesus Trail ". It includes a network of footpaths, roads and bicycle paths linking sites central to the lives of Jesus
Jesus
and his disciples. It ends at Capernaum on the shores of the Sea of Galilee, where Jesus
Jesus
espoused his teachings.

Another key attraction is the site where the Sea of Galilee's water flows into the Jordan River , to which thousands of pilgrims from all over the world come to be baptized every year.

Israel's most well-known open water swim race, the Kinneret Crossing, is held every year in September, drawing thousands of open water swimmers to participate in competitive and noncompetitive events.

Tourists also partake in the building of rafts on _Lavnun Beach_, called Rafsodia. Here many different age groups work together to build a raft with their bare hands and then sail that raft across the sea.

Other economic activities include fishing in the lake and agriculture , particularly bananas , dates, mangoes, grapes and olives in the fertile belt of land surrounding it.

FLORA AND FAUNA

The warm waters of the Sea of Galilee
Galilee
support various flora and fauna, which have supported a significant commercial fishery for more than two millennia. Local flora include various reeds along most of the shoreline as well as phytoplankton . Fauna include zooplankton , benthos and a number of fish species such as _Acanthobrama terraesanctae _. Fish caught commercially include _Tristramella simonis _ and _ Sarotherodon galilaeus _, locally called "St. Peter’s Fish". In 2005, 300 short tons (270 t) of tilapia were caught by local fishermen. This dropped to 8 short tons (7.3 t) in 2009 due to overfishing.

However, low water levels in drought years have stressed the lake's ecology. This may have been aggravated by over-extraction of water for either the National Water Carrier to supply other parts of Israel
Israel
or, since 1994, for the supply of water to Jordan
Jordan
(see _"Water use"_ section above). Droughts of the early and mid-1990s dried out the marshy northern margin of the lake. A fish species that is unique to the lake, _ Tristramella sacra _, used to spawn in the marsh and has not been seen since the 1990s droughts. Conservationists fear this species may have become extinct . It is hoped that drastic reductions in the amount of water pumped through the National Water Carrier will help restore the lake's ecology over the span of several years. As such, the amount planned to be drawn in 2016 for Israeli domestic water use is expected to be less than 10% of the amount commonly drawn on an annual basis in the decades before the mid-2010s.

PANORAMIC AND SATELLITE VIEWS

Panoramic view of the Sea of Galilee
Galilee
View of the Sea of Galilee
Galilee
from space Panoramic view of the south end of the Sea of Galilee, taken from Switzerland Forest near Tiberias
Tiberias

SEE ALSO

* Water portal * Israel
Israel
portal * Bible portal

* Sea of Galilee
Galilee
Boat * Miracles of Jesus
Jesus
* Tiberias
Tiberias
* Galilee
Galilee
* Tourism in Israel
Israel

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ Aaron T. Wolf, Hydropolitics along the Jordan
Jordan
River, United Nations University Press, 1995 * ^ _A_ _B_ Exact-me.org * ^ _A_ _B_ Data Summary: Lake
Lake
Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) * ^ "Kinneret – General" (in Hebrew). Israel
Israel
Oceanographic & Limnological Research Ltd. * ^ The 1996-discovered subglacial Lake
Lake
Vostok challenges both records; it is estimated to be 200 m (660 ft) to 600 m (2,000 ft) below sea level. * ^ Easton's Revised Bible Dictionary, Chinnereth. Another speculation is that the name comes from a fruit called in Biblical Hebrew
Hebrew
_kinar_, which is thought to be the fruit of Ziziphus spina-christi . * ^ _A_ _B_ Avraham Negev, Shimon Gibson, ed. (2001). _Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land_. New York, London: Continuum. p. 285. ISBN 0-8264-1316-1 . * ^ Easton, _Gennesaret_. * ^ Easton, _Tiberias_ * ^ "Khirbet Al-Minya". _Jalili48_. Professor Dr. Moslih Kanaaneh. 12 May 2006. Retrieved 3 February 2015. * ^ In the time of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, the lake's significance in Jesus' life made it a major destination for Christian pilgrims . This led to the growth of a full-fledged tourist industry, complete with package tours and plenty of comfortable inns. * ^ The Preamble of the League of Nations Mandate Archived 2016-04-21 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Franco-British Convention on Certain Points Connected with the Mandates for Syria
Syria
and the Lebanon, Palestine and Mesopotamia, signed Dec. 23, 1920. Text available in _American Journal of International Law_, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1922, 122–126. * ^ _The boundaries of modern Palestine, 1840–1947_ (2004), by Gideon Biger. Publisher Rutledge Curzon. ISBN 978-0-7146-5654-0 , p. 130. * ^ _The boundaries of modern Palestine, 1840–1947_, p. 150. and 130. * ^ _The boundaries of modern Palestine, 1840–1947_, p. 145. * ^ Agreement between His Majesty\'s Government and the French Government respecting the Boundary Line between Syria
Syria
and Palestine from the Mediterranean to El Hámmé Archived 2008-09-09 at the Wayback Machine ., Treaty Series No. 13 (1923), Cmd. 1910. Page 7. * ^ " Israel
Israel
and the Palestinians - a history - guardian.co.uk - guardian.co.uk". * ^ The Year of 1948 * ^ Paz, Yitzhak; Moshe, Reshef; Ben-Avraham, Zvie ; Shmuel, Marco; Tibor, Gideon; Nadel, Dani (2013). "A Submerged Monumental Structure in the Sea of Galilee, Israel". _International Journal of Nautical Archaeology_. 42 (1): 189–193. doi :10.1111/1095-9270.12005 . * ^ "Mysterious structure found at bottom of ancient lake". CNN.com. Retrieved 2013-05-23. * ^ "Black gold under the Golan". _ The Economist _. 7 November 2015. Retrieved 8 November 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Amit, Hagai (1 June 2016). "הקו האדום של הכנרת נהפך לבעיה של הירדנים" . TheMarker . Retrieved 12 June 2016. * ^ Fischhendler, Itay (2008). "When Ambiguity in Treaty Design Becomes Destructive: A Study of Transboundary Water". _Global Environmental Politics _. Retrieved 2008-11-28. * ^ Kinneret Basin Water Level * ^ Skynews report, 5 May 2009: Race To Save Sea Of Galilee
Galilee
From Disaster * ^ Shmuel Kantor. "The National Water Carrier". * ^ "Developments related to the Middle East
Middle East
Peace Process". UN. Retrieved 2008-02-20. * ^ Parker, A. K., "The Sea of Galilee" in _The Biblical World_, Vol. 7, No. 4 (April 1896), pages 264–272 * ^ Daniel Estrin, Canadian Press (April 15, 2011). " Israel