Scottish clan (from Gaelic clann, "children") is a kinship group
among the Scottish people. Clans give a sense of shared identity and
descent to members, and in modern times have an official structure
recognised by the Court of the Lord Lyon, which regulates Scottish
heraldry and coats of arms. Most clans have their own tartan patterns,
usually dating from the 19th century, which members may incorporate
into kilts or other clothing.
The modern image of clans, each with their own tartan and specific
land, was promulgated by the Scottish author
Sir Walter Scott
Sir Walter Scott after
influence by others. Historically, tartan designs were associated with
Lowland and Highland districts whose weavers tended to produce cloth
patterns favoured in those districts. By process of social evolution,
it followed that the clans/families prominent in a particular district
would wear the tartan of that district, and it was but a short step
for that community to become identified by it.
Many clans have their own clan chief; those that do not are known as
armigerous clans. Clans generally identify with geographical areas
originally controlled by their founders, sometimes with an ancestral
castle and clan gatherings, which form a regular part of the social
scene. The most notable gathering of recent times was "The Gathering
2009", which included a "clan convention" in the Scottish
It is a common misconception that every person who bears a clan's name
is a lineal descendant of the chiefs. Many clansmen although not
related to the chief took the chief's surname as their own to either
show solidarity, or to obtain basic protection or for much needed
sustenance. Most of the followers of the clan were tenants, who
supplied labour to the clan leaders. Contrary to popular belief,
the ordinary clansmen rarely had any blood tie of kinship with the
clan chiefs, but they took the chief's surname as their own when
surnames came into common use in the sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries. Thus by the eighteenth century the myth had arisen that
the whole clan was descended from one ancestor, with the Scottish
Gaelic of "clan" meaning "children" or "offspring".
1.2 Authority of the clans (the dùthchas and the oighreachd)
1.3 Clans, the law and the legal process
1.4 Social ties
Clan disputes and disorder
2 Lowland clans
3.2 Civil wars and Jacobitism
3.3 Collapse of the clan system
3.4 Romantic memory
4.2 Crest badge
5 See also
9 External links
The word clan is derived from the Gaelic word clanna, meaning
children. However, the need for proved descent from a common
ancestor related to the chiefly house is too restrictive. Clans
developed a territory based on the native men who came to accept the
authority of the dominant group in the vicinity. A clan also
included a large group of loosely related septs – dependent
families – all of whom looked to the clan chief as their head
and their protector.
A romantic depiction of Highland Chiefs from 1831
According to the former Lord Lyon, Sir Thomas Innes of Learney, a clan
is a community that is distinguished by heraldry and recognised by the
Sovereign. Learney considered clans to be a "noble incorporation"
because the arms borne by a clan chief are granted or otherwise
recognised by the
Lord Lyon as an officer of the Crown, thus
conferring royal recognition of the entire clan. Clans with recognised
chiefs are therefore considered a noble community under Scots law. A
group without a chief recognised by the Sovereign, through the Lord
Lyon, has no official standing under Scottish law. Claimants to the
title of chief are expected to be recognised by the
Lord Lyon as the
rightful heir to the undifferenced arms of the ancestor of the clan of
which the claimant seeks to be recognized as chief. A chief of a clan
is the only person who is entitled to bear the undifferenced arms of
the ancestral founder of the clan. The clan is considered to be the
chief's heritable estate and the chief's Seal of Arms is the seal of
the clan as a "noble corporation". Under Scots law, the chief is
recognised as the head of the clan and serves as the lawful
representative of the clan community.
Historically, a clan was made up of everyone who lived on the chief's
territory, or on territory of those who owed allegiance to the said
chief. Through time, with the constant changes of "clan boundaries",
migration or regime changes, clans would be made up of large numbers
of members who were unrelated and who bore different surnames. Often,
those living on a chief's lands would, over time, adopt the clan
surname. A chief could add to his clan by adopting other families, and
also had the legal right to outlaw anyone from his clan, including
members of his own family. Today, anyone who has the chief's surname
is automatically considered to be a member of the chief's clan. Also,
anyone who offers allegiance to a chief becomes a member of the
chief's clan, unless the chief decides not to accept that person's
Clan membership goes through the surname, except when a married
woman takes that of her husband's surname, and then on to her
children. Children who take their father's surname are part of their
father's clan and not their mother's. However, there have been several
cases where a descendant through the maternal line has changed their
surname in order to claim the chiefship of a clan, such as the late
chief of the
Clan MacLeod who was born John Wolridge-Gordon and
changed his name to the maiden name of his maternal grandmother in
order to claim the chiefship of the MacLeods. Today, clans may
have lists of septs. Septs are surnames, families or clans that
historically, currently or for whatever reason the chief chooses, are
associated with that clan. There is no official list of clan septs,
and the decision of what septs a clan has is left up to the clan
itself. Confusingly, sept names can be shared by more than one
clan, and it may be up to the individual to use his or her family
history or genealogy to find the correct clan they are associated
Several clan societies have been granted coats of arms. In such cases,
these arms are differenced from the chief's, much like a clan armiger.
Lord Lyon King of Arms,
Thomas Innes of Learney
Thomas Innes of Learney stated that
such societies, according to the Law of Arms, are considered an
Authority of the clans (the dùthchas and the oighreachd)
Scottish clanship contained two complementary but distinct concepts of
heritage. These were firstly the collective heritage of the clan,
known as their duthchas, which was their prescriptive right to settle
in the territories in which the chiefs and leading gentry of the clan
customarily provided protection. This concept was where all
clansmen recognised the personal authority of the chiefs and leading
gentry as trustees for their clan. The second concept was the
wider acceptance of the granting of charters by the Crown and other
powerful land owners to the chiefs, chieftains and lairds which
defined the estate settled by their clan. This was known as their
oighreachd and gave a different emphasis to the clan chief's authority
in that it gave the authority to the chiefs and leading gentry as
landed proprietors, who owned the land in their own right, rather than
just as trustees for the clan. From the beginning of Scottish
clanship, the clan warrior elite, who were known as the ‘fine’,
strove to be landowners as well as territorial war lords.
Clans, the law and the legal process
The concept of duthchas mentioned above held precedence in the Middle
Ages; however, by the early modern period the concept of oigreachd was
favoured. This shift reflected the importance of
Scots law in
shaping the structure of clanship in that the fine were awarded
charters and the continuity of heritable succession was secured.
The heir to the chief was known as the tainistear and was usually the
direct male heir. However, in some cases the direct heir was set
aside for a more politically accomplished or belligerent relative.
There were not many disputes over succession after the 16th century
and, by the 17th century, the setting aside of the male heir was a
rarity. This was governed and restricted by the law of Entail,
which prevented estates from being divided up amongst female heirs and
therefore also prevented the loss of clan territories.
The main legal process used within the clans to settle criminal and
civil disputes was known as arbitration, in which the offending and
aggrieved sides put their cases to a panel that was drawn from the
leading gentry and was overseen by the clan chief. There was no
appeal against the decision made by the panel, which was usually
recorded in the local Royal or Burgh court.
Manrent were the most important forms of social bonding
in the clans. In the case of fosterage, the chief's children would
be brought up by a favored member of the leading clan gentry and in
turn their children would be favored by members of the clan.
In the case of manrent, this was a bond contracted by the heads of
families looking to the chief for territorial protection, though not
living on the estates of the clan elite. These bonds were
reinforced by calps, death duties paid to the chief as a mark of
personal allegiance by the family when their head died, usually in the
form of their best cow or horse. Although calps were banned by
Parliament in 1617, manrent continued covertly to pay for
The marriage alliance reinforced links with neighboring clans as well
as with families within the territory of the clan. The marriage
alliance was also a commercial contract involving the exchange of
livestock, money and land through payments in which the bride was
known as the tocher and the groom was known as the dowry.
Rents, known as calps, from those living within the clan estate were
collected by the tacksmen. These lesser gentry acted as estate
managers, allocating the
Run rig strips of land, lending seed-corn and
tools and arranging the droving of cattle to the Lowlands for sale,
taking a minor share of the payments made to the clan nobility, the
fine. They had the important military role of mobilizing the Clan
Host, both when required for warfare and more commonly as a large turn
out of followers for weddings and funerals, and traditionally in
August for hunts which included sports for the followers, the
predecessors of the modern Highland games.
Clan disputes and disorder
Where the oighreachd (land owned by the clan elite or fine) did not
match the common heritage of the dùthchas (the collective territory
of the clan) this led to territorial disputes and warfare. The
fine resented their clansmen paying rent to other landlords. Some
clans used disputes to expand their territories. Most notably, the
Clan Campbell and the
Clan Mackenzie were prepared to play off
territorial disputes within and among clans to expand their own land
and influence. Feuding on the western seaboard was conducted with
such intensity that the
Clan MacLeod and the
Clan MacDonald on the
Skye were reputedly reduced to eating dogs and cats in the
Feuding was further compounded by the involvement of Scottish clans in
the wars between the Irish
Gaels and the English Tudor monarchy in the
16th century. Within these clans, there evolved a military caste
of members of the lesser gentry who were purely warriors and not
managers, and who migrated seasonally to Ireland to fight as
There was heavy feuding between the clans during the civil wars of the
1640s; however, by this time, the chiefs and leading gentry preferred
increasingly to settle local disputes by recourse to the law.
After the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, the incidents of
feuding between clans declined considerably. The last "clan" feud
that led to a battle and that was not part of a civil war was the
Battle of Mulroy, which took place on 4 August 1688.
Cattle raiding, known as "reiving", had been normal practice prior to
the 17th century. It was also known as creach, where young men
took livestock from neighbouring clans. By the 17th century, this
had declined and most reiving was known as the sprèidh, where smaller
numbers of men raided the adjoining Lowlands and the livestock taken
usually being recoverable on payment of tascal (information money) and
guarantee of no prosecution. Some clans, such as the Clan
MacFarlane and the
Clan Farquharson, offered the Lowlanders protection
against such raids, on terms not dissimilar to blackmail.
An Act of the Scottish
Parliament of 1597 talks of the "Chiftanis and
chieffis of all clannis...duelland in the hielands or bordouris" –
thus using the word clan and chief to describe both Highland and
Border families. The act goes on to list the various Lowland
clans, including the Maxwells, Johnstones, Turnbulls and other famous
Border Reivers names. Further, Sir George MacKenzie of Rosehaugh,
Lord Advocate (Attorney General) writing in 1680, said: "By the
term 'chief' we call the representative of the family from the word
chef or head and in the Irish (Gaelic) with us the chief of the family
is called the head of the clan". So it can be seen that, all
along, the words "chief" or "head", and "clan" or "family", are
interchangeable. It is therefore quite correct to talk of the
MacDonald family or the Stirling clan. The idea that Highlanders
should be listed as clans while the Lowlanders should be termed as
families was merely a 19th-century convention.
Clan MacDuff are described specifically as a "clan" in
legislation of the Scottish
Parliament in 1384.
Colin Campbell of Glenorchy
Many clans have often claimed mythological founders that reinforced
their status and gave a romantic and glorified notion of their
origins. Most powerful clans gave themselves origins based on
Irish mythology. For example, there have been claims that the Clan
Donald were descended from either Conn, a second-century king of
Ulster, or Cuchulainn, the legendary hero of Ulster. Whilst their
political enemies the
Clan Campbell have claimed as their progenitor
Diarmaid the Boar, who was rooted in the Fingalian or Fenian
On the other hand, the Clans Mackinnon and Gregor claimed ancestry
Siol Alpin family, who descend from Alpin, father of Kenneth
MacAlpin, who united the Scottish kingdom in 843. Only one
confederation of clans, which included the
Clan MacLachlan and
Clan MacNeill, can trace their
ancestry back to the fifth century Niall of the Nine Hostages, High
King of Ireland.
However, in reality, the progenitors of clans can rarely be
authenticated further back than the 11th century, and a continuity of
lineage in most cases cannot be found until the 13th or 14th
The emergence of clans had more to do with political turmoil than
ethnicity. The Scottish Crown's conquest of
Argyll and the Outer
Hebrides from the
Norsemen in the 13th century, which followed on from
the pacification of the
Mormaer of Moray and the northern rebellions
of the 12th and 13th centuries, created the opportunity for war lords
to impose their dominance over local families who accepted their
protection. These warrior chiefs can largely be categorized as Celtic;
however, their origins range from Gaelic to Norse-Gaelic and
British. By the 14th century, there had been further influx of
kindreds whose ethnicity ranged from Norman or Anglo-Norman and
Flemish, such as the
Clan Menzies, Clan
During the Wars of Scottish Independence, feudal tenures were
Robert the Bruce
Robert the Bruce that harnessed and controlled the
prowess of clans by the award of charters for land in order to gain
support in the national cause against the English. For example,
Clan MacDonald were elevated above the
Clan MacDougall, two clans
who shared a common descent from a great Norse-Gaelic warlord named
Somerled of the 12th century. Clanship was thus not only a strong
tie of local kinship but also of
Feudalism to the Scottish Crown. It
is this feudal component, reinforced by Scots law, that separates
Scottish clanship from the tribalism that is found in aboriginal
groups in Australasia, Africa and the Americas.
Civil wars and Jacobitism
Scottish soldiers, identified as of Donald Mackay, 1st Lord Reay's
regiment, in service of Gustavus Adolphus, 1630–31
Civil Wars divided the clans. As the civil wars of the Three
Kingdoms broke out in the mid 17th century, the Covenanters were
supported by the powerful
Clan Campbell and
Clan Sutherland, and were
opposed by the royalist House of Huntly (
Clan Gordon). Clan
support for the royal house of Stuart was based mainly on the
political values of clanship.
Clan support for Charles I was also
more to do with being against the Covenanting movement than that of
supporting an absentee monarch.
Religion was the principal factor that influenced clans to support the
Jacobite rising of 1689. With the restoration of Charles II,
Episcopalianism became widespread among clans as it suited the
hierarchical clan structure and encouraged obedience to Royal
authority, while some other clans were converted by Catholic
missions. In 1682, James Duke of York, Charles' brother,
instituted the Commission for Pacifying the Highlands, which worked in
co-operation with the clan chiefs in maintaining order as well as
redressing Campbell acquisitiveness. When he became King James VII, he
retained popularity with the Highlanders. All these factors
contributed to the continuing support for the Stuarts when James was
deposed by William of Orange in the Glorious Revolution.
Clan support, their remoteness from authority and the ready
mobilisation of the clan hosts made the Highlands the starting point
for the Jacobite risings. In Scottish Jacobite ideology, the
Highlander symbolised patriotic purity as against the corruption of
the Union, and as early as 1689 some Lowlanders wore "Highland habit"
in the Jacobite army.
Many clan chiefs, such as those of the
Clan Mackenzie and the Clan
Macdonald of Sleat, did not take part in the Jacobite rising of 1745
because of the threat of forfeiture. Other chiefs, such as the
chief of the
Clan MacDonell of Glengarry, allowed contingents of their
clan to take part in the rising while they themselves stayed at
Collapse of the clan system
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The extinction of the
Scottish clan system came with the defeat of the
clansmen at the
Battle of Culloden
Battle of Culloden in 1746
The system of clanship was destroyed after the Jacobite rising of
1745. Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, son of George II of
Great Britain carried out policies that, today, could be regarded as
ethnic cleansing. Cumberland authorized the wanton butchery by
government troops and the whole-scale transportation of clans who had
supported the Jacobite cause. Another contributor to the demise of
clanship began after the restoration era of 1660, when some of the
clan chiefs formed
Independent Highland Companies
Independent Highland Companies in support of the
government, which were an early form of the British Highland
regiments, and in doing so the chiefs placed a greater emphasis on
their right as landowners (oighreachd) rather than their role of
trustee for the clan (duthchas). After the 1745 rising, the
government banned the wearing of Highland dress and tartan which was
used as a sense of clan identity, as part of their campaign to quash
any further threat of a Jacobite insurrection. Only the Highland
regiments of the army could legally wear it and it was not until 1782
that James Graham, 3rd Duke of Montrose, spokesman of the Highland
Society of London, succeeded in having the ban overturned.
For nearly two decades before the 1745 rising, many clansmen had been
leaving the Highlands to live in the Americas. They were either
led from Argyll, the central Highlands or
Sutherland by clan gentry
who were trying to establish settlements in Jamaica, Georgia, New York
The Carolinas or they were victims of land raids in the Hebrides,
to be used as cheap labour in colonial plantations. This paved the
way for what became known as the Highland Clearances (mass forced
emigration to the sea coast, the
Scottish Lowlands and the North
American colonies that continued throughout the 19th century).
Romanticism in Scotland
David Wilkie's 1829 flattering portrait of the kilted King George IV,
with lighting chosen to tone down the brightness of his kilt and his
knees shown bare, without the pink tights he wore at the event.
Most of the anti-clan legislation was repealed by the end of the
eighteenth century as the Jacobite threat subsided, with the Dress Act
restricting kilt wearing being repealed in 1782. There was soon a
process of the rehabilitation of highland culture. By the nineteenth
century, tartan had largely been abandoned by the ordinary people of
the region, although preserved in the Highland regiments in the
British army, which poor highlanders joined in large numbers until the
end of the
Napoleonic Wars in 1815. The international craze
for tartan, and for idealising a romanticised Highlands, was set off
Ossian cycle published by
James Macpherson (1736–96).
Macpherson claimed to have found poetry written by the ancient bard
Ossian, and published translations that acquired international
popularity. Highland aristocrats set up Highland Societies in
Edinburgh (1784) and other centres including London (1788). The
image of the romantic highlands was further popularised by the works
of Walter Scott. His "staging" of the royal visit of King George IV to
Scotland in 1822 and the king's wearing of tartan, resulted in a
massive upsurge in demand for kilts and tartans that could not be met
by the Scottish linen industry. The designation of individual clan
tartans was largely defined in this period and they became a major
symbol of Scottish identity. This "Highlandism", by which all of
Scotland was identified with the culture of the Highlands, was
cemented by Queen Victoria's interest in the country, her adoption of
Balmoral Castle as a major royal retreat from and her interest in
Main article: List of Scottish clans
The revival of interest, and demand for clan ancestry, has led to the
production of lists and maps covering the whole of
clan names and showing territories, sometimes with the appropriate
tartans. While some lists and clan maps confine their area to the
Highlands, others also show Lowland clans or families. Territorial
areas and allegiances changed over time, and there are also differing
decisions on which (smaller) clans and families should be omitted.
Some alternative online sources are listed in the External links
This list of Clans contains clans registered with the
Lord Lyon Court.
Lyon Court defines a clan or family as a legally recognised
group, but does not differentiate between Families and Clans as it
recognises both terms as being interchangeable. Clans or families
thought to have had a Chief in the past but not currently recognised
Lord Lyon are listed at armigerous clans.
Tartan and Kilt
MacArthur tartan as published in the Vestiarium Scoticum
Ever since the Victorian "tartan craze", tartans and "clan tartans"
have been an important part of a Scottish clans. Almost all Scottish
clans have more than one tartan attributed to their surname. Although
there are no rules on who can or cannot wear a particular tartan, and
it is possible for anyone to create a tartan and name it almost any
name they wish, the only person with the authority to make a clan's
tartan "official" is the chief. In some cases, following such
recognition from the clan chief, the clan tartan is recorded and
registered by the Lord Lyon. Once approved by the Lord Lyon, after
recommendation by the Advisory Committee on Tartan, the clan tartan is
then recorded in the
Lyon Court Books. In at least one instance a
clan tartan appears in the heraldry of a clan chief and the Lord Lyon
considers it to be the "proper" tartan of the clan.[note 1]
Originally, there appears to have been no association of tartans with
specific clans; instead, highland tartans were produced to various
designs by local weavers and any identification was purely regional,
but the idea of a clan-specific tartan gained currency in the late
18th century and in 1815 the
Highland Society of London began the
naming of clan-specific tartans. Many clan tartans derive from a
19th-century hoax known as the Vestiarium Scoticum. The Vestiarium was
composed by the "Sobieski Stuarts", who passed it off as a
reproduction of an ancient manuscript of clan tartans. It has since
been proven a forgery, but despite this, the designs are still highly
regarded and they continue to serve their purpose to identify the clan
Scottish crest badge
Scottish crest badge and List of crest badges used by
Scottish clan members
Crest badge suitable for members of
A sign of allegiance to a certain clan chief is the wearing of a crest
badge. The crest badge suitable for a clansman or clanswoman consists
of the chief's heraldic crest encircled with a strap and buckle and
which contains the chief's heraldic motto or slogan. Although it is
common to speak of "clan crests", there is no such thing. In
Scotland (and indeed all of UK) only individuals, not clans, possess a
heraldic coat of arms. Even though any clansmen and clanswomen may
purchase crest badges and wear them to show their allegiance to his or
her clan, the heraldic crest and motto always belong to the chief
alone. In principle, these badges should only be used with the
permission of the clan chief; and the
Lyon Court has intervened in
cases where permission has been withheld. Scottish crest badges,
much like clan-specific tartans, do not have a long history, and owe
Victorian era romanticism, having only been worn on the bonnet
since the 19th century. The concept of a clan badge or form of
identification may have some validity, as it is commonly stated that
the original markers were merely specific plants worn in bonnets or
hung from a pole or spear.
Juniper is attributed as the clan badge of the Gunns, Macleods,
Murrays, Nicolsons (of Skye), and Rosses.
Clan badges are another means of showing one's allegiance to a
Scottish clan. These badges, sometimes called plant badges, consist of
a sprig of a particular plant. They are usually worn in a bonnet
behind the Scottish crest badge; they can also be attached at the
shoulder of a lady's tartan sash, or be tied to a pole and used as a
standard. Clans which are connected historically, or that occupied
lands in the same general area, may share the same clan badge.
According to popular lore, clan badges were used by Scottish clans as
a form of identification in battle. However, the badges attributed to
clans today can be completely unsuitable for even modern clan
Clan badges are commonly referred to as the original clan
Thomas Innes of Learney
Thomas Innes of Learney claimed the heraldic flags of
clan chiefs would have been the earliest means of identifying Scottish
clans in battle or at large gatherings.
Chief of the name
History of Scotland
List of Scottish clans
Scottish clan chief
Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs
Statutes of Iona
^ The crest of the chief of
Clan MacLennan is A demi-piper all Proper,
garbed in the proper tartan of the
^ Mollison, Hazel (27 July 2009). "The Gathering is hailed big success
after 50,000 flock to Holyrood Park". Scotsman.com. Retrieved 30 July
^ a b www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk. "
Scottish surnames or variants".
Scotland's People. Archived from the original on 25 June 2012.
Retrieved 28 January 2012.
^ a b c J. L. Roberts, Clan, King, and Covenant: History of the
Highland Clans from the Civil War to the Glencoe Massacre (Edinburgh:
Edinburgh University Press, 2000), ISBN 0-7486-1393-5, p.13.
^ Way of Plean; Squire (1994): p.21.
^ a b Way of Plean; Squire (1994): p.28.
^ Way of Plean; Squire (1994): p.29.
^ Agnew of Lochnaw, Crispin. "Clans, Families and Septs".
www.electricscotland.com. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
^ "What is a clan?". Court of the Lord Lyon. Archived from the
original on 17 January 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
^ a b "Who is a member of a clan?". Court of the Lord Lyon. Retrieved
26 February 2008.
^ a b Court of the Lord Lyon. "Information Leaflet No.2".
www.electricscotland.com. Retrieved 25 April 2009.
^ "John MacLeod Of MacLeod". The Independent. London. 17 March
^ Innes of Learney (1971): pp.55-57.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Way of Plean; Squire (1994): p.14.
^ a b c d e f Way of Plean; Squire (1994): p.15.
^ a b Way of Plean; Squire (1994): pp.15–16.
^ Way of Plean; Squire (1994): pp.15–16 .
^ a b c d Way of Plean; Squire (1994): p.16.
^ Way of Plean; Squire (1994): p.16 .
^ Way of Plean; Squire (1994): pp.16–17.
^ a b c d e f g Way of Plean; Squire (1994): p.17.
^ a b c d e f Agnew, Sir Crispin of Lochnaw Bt. (2001). Clans,
Families and Septs electricscotland.com. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
^ Grant, Alexander & Stringer, Keith J. (1998). Medieval Scotland:
Crown, Lordship and Community. pp.21–22.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Way of Plean; Squire (1994): pp.13–14.
^ a b c d e f Way of Plean; Squire (1994): p.18.
^ Way of Plean; Squire (1994): p.19.
^ Way of Plean; Squire (1994): pp.19–20.
^ a b c d e f g h i Way of Plean; Squire (1994): p.20.
^ a b Way of Plean; Squire (1994): p.36.
^ Roberts (2002) pp.193-5.
^ a b Sievers (2007), pp.22-5.
^ Morère (2004), pp.75-6.
^ Ferguson (1998), p.227.
^ Buchan (2003), p.163.
^ Calloway (2008), p.242.
^ Milne (2010), p.138.
^ "Tartans". Court of the Lord Lyon. Archived from the original on 14
January 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
^ Campbell of Airds (2000): pp.259-261.
^ Way of Plean; Squire (2000): p.214.
^ "Crests". Court of the Lord Lyon. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
^ "The History of Arms". Court of the Lord Lyon. Retrieved 26 February
^ Adam; Innes of Learney (1970)
^ Campbell of Airds (2002): pp.289-290.
^ Moncreiffe of that Ilk (1967): p.20.
^ Adam; Innes of Learney (1970): pp.541-543
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Buchan, James (2003). Crowded with Genius. London: Harper Collins.
Calloway, C. G. (2008). White People, Indians, and Highlanders: Tribal
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