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The Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service (Scottish Gaelic: Seirbheis Charbadan-eiridinn na h-Alba) is the NHS Ambulance
Ambulance
Services Trust, part of NHS Scotland, which serves all of Scotland's population.[1] Uniquely, the Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service is considered a special health board and is funded directly by the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.[2] It is the sole public emergency medical service covering Scotland's mainland and islands; providing a paramedic-led accident and emergency service to respond to 999 calls,[3] a patient transport service which provides transport to lower-acuity patients,[4] and provides for a wide variety of supporting roles including helicopter emergency medical services,[5][6] specialist operations including response to HAZCHEM or CBRN incidents[7] and specialist transport and retrieval.[8]

Contents

1 History 2 Structure 3 Fleet, Equipment & Uniform 4 Organisation 5 Patient Transport 6 Air Operations

6.1 Charity-funded air ambulance

7 Special
Special
Operations Response Team (SORT) 8 ScotSTAR 9 Training Academy 10 Facts and figures 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

History[edit] In 1948, the newly formed National Health Service
National Health Service
contracted two voluntary organisations, the St Andrew's Ambulance Association
St Andrew's Ambulance Association
and the British Red Cross, to jointly provide a national ambulance provision for Scotland, known then as the St Andrew's and Red Cross Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service. [9] The British Red Cross
British Red Cross
withdrew from the service in 1967; the service was renamed the St Andrew's Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service. In 1974, with the reorganisation of the National Health Service, ambulance provision in Scotland
Scotland
was taken over by the NHS, with the organisational title being shortened to the now-current Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service. [9] St. Andrew's First Aid, which is the trading name of St. Andrew's Ambulance
Ambulance
Association, continues as a voluntary organisation and provides first aid training and provision in a private capacity.[10] Structure[edit] The Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service now continues in its current form as one of the largest emergency medical providers in the UK, employing more than 4,000 staff in a variety of roles and responding to 740,631 emergency incidents in 2015/2016 alone.[11] The service, like the rest of the National Health Service
National Health Service
is free at point of access and is widely utilised by the public and healthcare professionals alike. Employing almost 1,300 paramedic staff, and a further 1,200 technicians, the accident and emergency service is accessed through the public 999 system. Ambulance
Ambulance
responses are evolving in Scotland
Scotland
and are now prioritised on patient requirement; a traditional, double-crewed ambulance, single response car or a paramedic practitioner may attend emergencies of differing dispositions. The Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service also maintains three command and control centres in Scotland, which facilitate handling of 999 calls and dispatch of ambulances; a further 350-400 staff employed as call handlers and dispatchers fulfil this role[11] across three locations - Edinburgh, Glasgow
Glasgow
and Inverness. These three centres (which, through use of software operate as one integrated unit) have been in use since 2004 and handle over 800,000 calls per year. The AMPDS system is used for call prioritisation, and provides post-dispatch instructions to callers allowing for medical advice to be given over the phone, prior to ambulance arrival.[12] Clinical staff are present to provide clinical oversight and tertiary triage. Co-located with the Ambulance Control Centres (or ACC) are patient transport booking and control services, which handle approximately 1 million patient journeys per year.[12] Fleet, Equipment & Uniform[edit]

A New Peugeot Boxer
Peugeot Boxer
ambulance of the Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service

The Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service maintains a varied fleet of around 1,500 vehicles.[13] This includes Accident and Emergency
Accident and Emergency
ambulances[13] single-response vehicles such as cars and small vans for paramedics, patient-transport ambulances which come in the form of adapted minibuses, lorries and support vehicles for major incidents and events, and specialist vehicles such as 4x4s and tracked vehicles for difficult access.[14] The unique geography of Scotland, which includes urban centres such as Edinburgh
Edinburgh
and Glasgow, areas of relatively low-population such as Grampian
Grampian
and the Highlands, and the Island communities mean that fleet provision has to be flexible and include different approaches to vehicle construction. In the past, 4x4-build ambulances on van chassis have been used in more rural areas, and traditional van-conversions in more urban.[13] With a large fleet upgrade project being commissioned in 2016, the business case was made to move to a solely box-body on chassis build, to provide some flexibility and more resilient parts procurement. Most of these replacement ambulances have been based on either Mercedes or Volkswagen
Volkswagen
chassis, with a mixture of automatic or manual transmissions.[13] The equipment used on board Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service vehicles broadly falls in line with NHS Scotland
NHS Scotland
and allows for intraoperability in most cases. Equipment is standardised nationally and replaced at regular service intervals; for example, high-cost items such as defibrillators are costed and changed every 7 years according to clinical need.[15] The uniform falls in line with the NHS Scotland
NHS Scotland
National Uniform standard,[16] which is in keeping with the uniform standard described by the National Ambulance
Ambulance
Uniform Procurement group in 2016.[17] Amongst cost and comfort considerations, all Scottish Ambulance Service Staff now wear the national uniform which comprises a dark green trouser / shirt combination.[18] Personal Protective Equipment (boots, helmet and protective jackets) are issued to all staff and denote rank / clinical rank by way of epaulette and helmet markings.[18] Organisation[edit]

Map of the five regional divisions within the Scottish Ambulance Service.

The national headquarters are in west side of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
and there are five divisions within the Service, namely:

Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service Divisions

Division Covering Area in Square Miles Divisional HQ

North Highlands, Western Isles, Grampian, Orkney, Shetland[19] 15,607 Raigmore Gardens, Inverness, IV2 3UL

East Central Fife, Forth Valley, Tayside[20] 4,421 76 West School Road, Dundee, DD3 8PQ

West Central Greater Glasgow, Lanarkshire[21] 1,054 Range Road, Motherwell, ML1 2JE

South East Edinburgh, Lothian and Borders[22] 2,457 Kings Haugh, Peffermill Industrial Estate, Edinburgh, EH16 5UY

South West Argyll, Argyll islands, Clyde islands, Ayrshire, Dumfries and Galloway[23] 6,670 Maryfield Road, Ayr, KA8 9DF

A PRU ( Paramedic
Paramedic
Response Unit). A Honda CRV
Honda CRV
4X4

Beech King Air

G-SASN - A Babcock operated H145, with the callsign 'Helimed 02'

Patient Transport[edit] The Patient Transport Service carries over 1.3 million patients every year[24]. This service is provided to patients who are physically or medically unfit to travel to hospital out-patient appointments by any other means can still make their appointments. The service also handles non-emergency admissions, discharges, transport of palliative care patients and a variety of other specialised roles.[25] Patient Transport Vehicles come in a variety of forms and are staffed by Ambulance
Ambulance
Care Assistants, whom work either double or single crewed. They are trained to look after patients during the journey, and to provide basic emergency care.[26] Air Operations[edit] The service has the only government-funded air ambulance service in the UK,[27] operated under contract by Gama Aviation. The fleet consists of two Airbus H145 helicopters[28] (operated under sub-contract by Babcock Mission Critical Services Onshore
Babcock Mission Critical Services Onshore
Ltd.) and two Beechcraft B200C King Air fixed-wing aircraft, which provide emergency response and transfers of patients to and from remote areas of Scotland. In 2015/16, the air ambulance crews flew 3,849 missions. One helicopter and one King Air are based at a Gama Aviation
Gama Aviation
facility at Glasgow
Glasgow
Airport. The other operating bases are Inverness
Inverness
Airport (helicopter) and Aberdeen Airport
Aberdeen Airport
(King Air).[29] The aircraft based in Glasgow
Glasgow
are regularly used by the Emergency Medical Retrieval Service. The air ambulance service was occasionally featured as part of the popular Channel 5 television documentary series Highland Emergency. Charity-funded air ambulance[edit] In late 2012 a charity was founded to provide a further air ambulance, based at Perth Airport, to work alongside the state-funded aircraft.[30] Scotland's Charity Air Ambulance
Ambulance
(SCAA) commenced operations in May 2013 with a Bolkow 105 airframe. Since November 2015, SCAA operates a Eurocopter EC-135
Eurocopter EC-135
helicopter.[31] The EC135 was previously operated by the state-funded service, until they replaced the fleet with H145s. The helicopter is crewed by Scottish Ambulance Service paramedics, tasking is from the SAS ambulance control centre at Cardonald. Special
Special
Operations Response Team (SORT)[edit] The SORT service is identical to the Hazardous Area Response Team in England and Wales ambulance service. In 2010 the service established three teams of specialist accident & emergency ambulance personnel who were given specialist training.[32] This £4.3 million initiative was to provide additional preparedness to be able to respond to large-scale hazardous incidents, such as those that might involve chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear material.[33] The work was in concert with the UK government.[33] As of 2016[update] there are five SORT teams, three full-time and two on-call.[citation needed] These teams provide a specialist response to major incidents, and provide paramedic care in hostile environments. The team provides capability in arenas such as water rescue, safe working at height, search and rescue including the use of breathing apparatus, and confined space working. The SORT teams also provide a full-time emergency decontamination and inner-cordon capability. ScotSTAR[edit] With the remote towns and villages in Scotland
Scotland
often being hours away from advanced medical treatment, ScotSTAR (incorporating paediatric and neo-natal retrieval and transfer teams and the Emergency Medical Retrieval Service) were set up. The ScotSTAR service was set up on the 1 April 2014 and transported 2,654 patients 2014/2015. The service uses multiple vehicles, either owned by the ambulance service or other organisation: Specialist ambulances, 4 air ambulance helicopters and HM Coastguard
HM Coastguard
helicopters. The service is based at Glasgow
Glasgow
Heliport, alongside one air ambulance helicopter. The Emergency Medical Retrieval Service
Emergency Medical Retrieval Service
was started in 2004 by 10 Emergency Medical Consultants from Glasgow
Glasgow
and Paisley. Providing aeromedical cover to six hospitals within Argyll and Bute. The 10 Emergency Medical Consultants only had £40,000 worth of funding for medical equipment. In its first year the service transported 40 patients. In years to follow the clinical crew began to gather evidence for the lifesaving and cost effectiveness of the service. In 2010 the service was opened up to the whole of the country, thanks to backing by permanent funding. The service is staffed by 27 part-time consultants, 2 full-time registrars and seven critical care practitioners. Training Academy[edit] The Service has its own dedicated training academy within the campus of Glasgow
Glasgow
Caledonian University, which opened in June 2011.[34] The facility has purpose built classrooms, lecture theatres, syndicate rooms and a clinical simulation area that recreates a 16-bed hospital ward and Accident & Emergency department
Emergency department
allowing realistic interaction with other trainee healthcare professionals.[35] Prior to April 2011, the service used its own dedicated training college located at Barony Castle in Eddleston
Eddleston
near Peebles. Set in 25 acres (100,000 m2) of formal gardens and woodlands, Barony was a residential training and conference centre with 78 bedrooms that allowed the service to carry out all its training in house. Facts and figures[edit] In 2016/17, the service:[36]

Responded to 740,637 accident and emergency incidents. Carried out 778,070 non-emergency patient journeys. Flew 3,543 air ambulance missions. % of Cat A. immediately life-threatening incidents responded to within 8 minutes was 63.8%.

See also[edit]

Ambulance
Ambulance
services in the United Kingdom Emergency Medical Retrieval Service NHS Scotland

Other Scottish emergency and non-emergency services:

NHS 24 Police Scotland Scottish Fire and Rescue Service

References[edit]

^ "Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service - The Service". www.scottishambulance.com. Retrieved 2017-08-10.  ^ "Collective Assessment of NHS Scotland
NHS Scotland
Special
Special
Health Boards". Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service.  ^ "Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service - Emergency response". www.scottishambulance.com. Retrieved 2017-08-10.  ^ "Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service - Patient Transport Service". www.scottishambulance.com. Retrieved 2017-08-10.  ^ "Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service - Air Ambulance". www.scottishambulance.com. Retrieved 2017-08-10.  ^ "Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service". www.associationofairambulances.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-08-12.  ^ "Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service - Dealing with Major Incidents". www.scottishambulance.com. Retrieved 2017-08-10.  ^ "Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service - Specialist Transport and Retrieval". www.scottishambulance.com. Retrieved 2017-08-10.  ^ a b "Our History - St Andrews First Aid". St Andrews First Aid. Retrieved 2017-08-10.  ^ "First Aid Delivered With Confidence - St Andrews First Aid". St Andrews First Aid. Retrieved 2017-08-10.  ^ a b "SAS Annual Report 2015/2016" (PDF).  ^ a b "Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service - Behind the Headlines - Ambulance Control Centres". www.scottishambulance.com. Retrieved 2017-08-10.  ^ a b c d "Fleet Replacement Business Case 2016/2017" (PDF).  ^ "FOI Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service Vehicle List".  ^ "SAS Corporate Asset Management Strategy".  ^ ceu@scotland.gsi.gov.uk, Scottish Government, St. Andrew's House, Regent Road, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
EH1 3DG Tel:0131 556 8400 (2012-07-03). "NHS National Uniforms". www.gov.scot. Retrieved 2017-08-11.  ^ "New national ambulance uniform could save the NHS £3.4m - Emergency Services Times". Emergency Services Times. 2017-01-13. Retrieved 2017-08-11.  ^ a b "FOI Response - Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service Uniform".  ^ Locations - North scottishambulance.com, accessed 9 May 2009 ^ Locations - East Central scottishambulance.com, accessed 11 February 2009 ^ Locations - West Central scottishambulance.com, accessed 11 February 2009 ^ Locations - South East scottishambulance.com, accessed 11 February 2009 ^ Locations - South West scottishambulance.com, accessed 11 February 2009 ^ "Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service". Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service. Retrieved 4 November 2017.  ^ "Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service". Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service. Retrieved 4 November 2017.  ^ "Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service" (PDF). Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service. Retrieved 4 November 2017.  ^ "What we do: Air ambulance". Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service. Retrieved 20 December 2014.  ^ "'Technical difficulties' put stop to air ambulance's island tour". STV News. 3 July 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2016.  ^ "What we do: Aircraft". Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service. Retrieved 2 June 2016.  ^ "Perth base for Scotland's charity air ambulance". BBC News. 27 November 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2016.  ^ "New helicopter unveiled for Scotland's Charity Air Ambulance". STV News. 30 October 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2016.  ^ " Ambulance
Ambulance
disaster teams created". BBC News. 11 August 2010.  ^ a b Stephen, Phyllis. "Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service – major incident response boosted". theedinburghreporter.co.uk. Retrieved 19 September 2017.  ^ "Nicola Sturgeon unveils new Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Academy at Glasgow Caledonian University". Daily Record. 27 June 2011. Retrieved 8 April 2016.  ^ "New Academy is a major milestone for Ambulance
Ambulance
professional development" (Press release). Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service. 8 Feb 2011. Archived from the original on 2 Feb 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2014.  ^ "Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service Annual report 2016/17" (PDF). Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service. Retrieved 15 September 2017. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Scottish Air Ambulance
Ambulance
at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Ambulances in Scotland
Scotland
at Wikimedia Commons Official website

v t e

NHS Scotland
NHS Scotland
health boards

Regional health boards

Ayrshire and Arran Borders Dumfries and Galloway Fife Forth Valley Grampian Greater Glasgow
Glasgow
and Clyde Highland Lanarkshire Lothian Orkney Shetland Tayside Western Isles

Special
Special
health boards

The National Waiting Times Centre Board Healthcare Improvement Scotland NHS 24 NHS Education for Scotland NHS Health Scotland NHS National Services Scotland Scottish Ambulance
Ambulance
Service State Hospitals Board for Scotland

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Ambulance
Ambulance
Services in the United Kingdom

England

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Tier 1 Emergency Responders in Scotland

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Ambulance
Service Scottish Environment Protection Agency Scottish NHS health boards Scottish port authorities H

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