Scotland (/ˈskɒtlənd/; Scots: [ˈskɔtlənd]; Scottish Gaelic:
Alba [ˈal̪ˠapə] ( listen)) is a country that is part of
United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of
Great Britain. It shares a border with
England to the
south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the
North Sea to the east and the North Channel and
Irish Sea to the
south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of
more than 790 islands, including the
Northern Isles and the
Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in
Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By
inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England
and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three
Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with
the Kingdom of
England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of
Great Britain. The union also created a new
Great Britain, which succeeded both the
Scotland and the
Parliament of England. In 1801,
Great Britain itself entered into a
political union with the
Kingdom of Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland to create the United
Great Britain and Ireland.
Within Scotland, the monarchy of the
United Kingdom has continued to
use a variety of styles, titles and other royal symbols of statehood
specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland. The legal system within
Scotland has also remained separate from those of
England and Wales
and Northern Ireland;
Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in
both public and private law. The continued existence of legal,
educational, religious and other institutions distinct from those in
the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of
Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with
In 1997, a Scottish
Parliament was re-established, in the form of a
devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having
authority over many areas of domestic policy.
represented in the
Parliament by 59 MPs and in the
Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is also a member of the
British–Irish Council, and sends five members of the Scottish
Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly.
1.2 Early history
1.3 Roman influence
1.4 Middle Ages
1.5 Early modern period
1.6 18th century
1.7 19th century
1.8 Early 20th century
1.9 Modern day
2 Geography and natural history
2.1 Geology and geomorphology
2.3 Flora and fauna
5 Politics and government
5.1 Devolved government relations
5.2 International diplomacy
5.3 Constitutional changes
5.4 Administrative subdivisions
6 Law and criminal justice
7 Health care
11.1 Scottish music
11.3 Celtic connections
11.4 National identity
13.3 Commonwealth Games
14.6 Renewable energy
15 See also
18 Further reading
18.1 Specialized monographs
19 External links
Main article: History of Scotland
Main article: Etymology of Scotland
"Scotland" comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels. The Late
Scotia ("land of the Gaels") was initially used to refer to
Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest,
Scotia was being used
to refer to (Gaelic-speaking)
Scotland north of the River Forth,
alongside Albania or Albany, both derived from the Gaelic Alba.
The use of the words Scots and
Scotland to encompass all of what is
Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages.
Main article: Prehistoric Scotland
See also: Timeline of prehistoric Scotland
Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern
Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have
existed before the Mesolithic period. It is believed the first
post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in
12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last
Scara Brae. A
Neolithic settlement, located on the west coast of
The groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses
on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around
6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of
Skara Brae on the
Orkney dates from this period.
burial, and ritual sites are particularly common and well preserved in
Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to
most structures being built of local stone.
The 2009 discovery in
Scotland of a 4000-year-old tomb with burial
treasures at Forteviot, near Perth, the capital of a Pictish Kingdom
in the 8th and 9th centuries AD, is unrivalled anywhere in Britain. It
contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white
quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was also discovered for the first
time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their
Scotland may have been part of a Late Bronze Age maritime trading
culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age, which included other Celtic
nations, and the areas that became England, France, Spain, and
In the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread
damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm
stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, known as "Skerrabra".
When the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a
village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs.
William Watt of Skaill, the local laird, began an amateur excavation
of the site, but after uncovering four houses, the work was abandoned
in 1868. The site remained undisturbed until 1913, when during a
single weekend the site was plundered by a party with shovels who took
away an unknown quantity of artefacts. In 1924, another storm
swept away part of one of the houses and it was determined the site
should be made secure and more seriously investigated. The job was
given to University of Edinburgh's Professor
Vere Gordon Childe
Vere Gordon Childe who
Skara Brae for the first time in mid-1927.
Scotland during the Roman Empire
One part of a distance slab found at
Bo'ness dated ca. AD 142
depicting Roman cavalryman trampling Caledonians. Original at the NMS
(with a full replica at Bo'ness)
The written protohistory of
Scotland began with the arrival of the
Roman Empire in southern and central Great Britain, when the Romans
occupied what is now
England and Wales, administering it as a province
called Britannia. Roman invasions and occupations of southern Scotland
were a series of brief interludes.
According to the Roman historian Tacitus, the
Caledonians "turned to
armed resistance on a large scale", attacking Roman forts and
skirmishing with their legions. In a surprise night-attack, the
Caledonians very nearly wiped out the whole
9th Legion until it was
saved by Agricola's cavalry.
In AD 83–84, the General
Gnaeus Julius Agricola
Gnaeus Julius Agricola defeated the
Caledonians at the Battle of Mons Graupius.
Tacitus wrote that, before
the battle, the Caledonian leader, Calgacus, gave a rousing speech in
which he called his people the "last of the free" and accused the
Romans of "making the world a desert and calling it peace" (freely
translated). After the Roman victory, Roman forts were briefly set
Gask Ridge close to the Highland line (only Cawdor near
Inverness is known to have been constructed beyond that line). Three
years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern
The Romans erected
Hadrian's Wall to control tribes on both sides of
the wall so the
Limes Britannicus became the northern border of
the Roman Empire; although the army held the
Antonine Wall in the
Central Lowlands for two short periods – the last during the reign
Septimius Severus from 208 until 210.
The Roman military occupation of a significant part of what is now
Scotland lasted only about 40 years; although their influence
on the southern section of the country, occupied by Brythonic tribes
such as the
Votadini and Damnonii, would still have been considerable
between the first and fifth centuries. The Welsh term
Hen Ogledd ("Old
North") is used by scholars to describe what is now the North of
England and the South of
Scotland during its habitation by
Brittonic-speaking people around AD 500 to 800. According to
writings from the 9th and 10th centuries, the Gaelic kingdom of Dál
Riata was founded in the 6th century in western Scotland. The
'traditional' view is that settlers from
Ireland founded the kingdom,
bringing Gaelic language and culture with them. However, some
archaeologists have argued against this view, saying there is no
archaeological or placename evidence for a migration or a takeover by
a small group of elites.
Scotland in the Early Middle Ages,
Scotland in the High
Middle Ages, and
Scotland in the Late Middle Ages
The class I
Pictish stone at Aberlemno known as Aberlemno 1 or the
The Kingdom of the
Picts (based in
Fortriu by the 6th century) was the
state that eventually became known as "Alba" or "Scotland". The
development of "Pictland", according to the historical model developed
by Peter Heather, was a natural response to Roman imperialism.
Another view places emphasis on the Battle of Dun Nechtain, and the
reign of Bridei m. Beli (671–693), with another period of
consolidation in the reign of Óengus mac Fergusa (732–761).
The Kingdom of the
Picts as it was in the early 8th century, when Bede
was writing, was largely the same as the kingdom of the Scots in the
reign of Alexander I (1107–1124). However, by the tenth century, the
Pictish kingdom was dominated by what we can recognise as Gaelic
culture, and had developed a traditional story of an Irish conquest
around the ancestor of the contemporary royal dynasty, Cináed mac
Ailpín (Kenneth MacAlpin).
From a base of territory in eastern
Scotland north of the River Forth
and south of the River Oykel, the kingdom acquired control of the
lands lying to the north and south. By the 12th century, the kings of
Alba had added to their territories the English-speaking land in the
south-east and attained overlordship of Gaelic-speaking
Norse-speaking Caithness; by the end of the 13th century, the kingdom
had assumed approximately its modern borders. However, processes of
cultural and economic change beginning in the 12th century ensured
Scotland looked very different in the later Middle Ages.
The push for this change was the reign of David I and the Davidian
Revolution. Feudalism, government reorganisation and the first legally
recognised towns (called burghs) began in this period. These
institutions and the immigration of French and Anglo-French knights
and churchmen facilitated cultural osmosis, whereby the culture and
language of the low-lying and coastal parts of the kingdom's original
territory in the east became, like the newly acquired south-east,
English-speaking, while the rest of the country retained the Gaelic
language, apart from the
Northern Isles of
Orkney and Shetland, which
remained under Norse rule until 1468. The Scottish state
entered a largely successful and stable period between the 12th and
14th centuries, there was relative peace with England, trade and
educational links were well developed with the Continent and at the
height of this cultural flowering
John Duns Scotus
John Duns Scotus was one of Europe's
most important and influential philosophers.
Wallace Monument commemorates William Wallace, the 13th-century
The death of Alexander III in March 1286, followed by that of his
granddaughter Margaret, Maid of Norway, broke the centuries-old
succession line of Scotland's kings and shattered the 200-year golden
age that began with David I. Edward I of
England was asked to
arbitrate between claimants for the Scottish crown, and he organised a
process known as the Great Cause to identify the most legitimate
John Balliol was pronounced king in the Great Hall of
Berwick Castle on 17 November 1292 and inaugurated at Scone on 30
November, St. Andrew's Day. Edward I, who had coerced recognition as
Lord Paramount of Scotland, the feudal superior of the realm, steadily
undermined John's authority. In 1294, Balliol and other Scottish
lords refused Edward's demands to serve in his army against the
French. Instead, the Scottish parliament sent envoys to France to
negotiate an alliance.
Scotland and France sealed a treaty on 23
October 1295, known as the
Auld Alliance (1295–1560). War ensued and
King John was deposed by Edward who took personal control of Scotland.
Andrew Moray and
William Wallace initially emerged as the principal
leaders of the resistance to English rule in what became known as the
Wars of Scottish Independence
Wars of Scottish Independence (1296–1328).
The nature of the struggle changed significantly when Robert the
Bruce, Earl of Carrick, killed his rival John Comyn on 10 February
Greyfriars Kirk in Dumfries. He was crowned king (as
Robert I) less than seven weeks later. Robert I battled to restore
Scottish Independence as King for over 20 years, beginning by winning
Scotland back from the Norman English invaders piece by piece. Victory
Battle of Bannockburn
Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 proved the Scots had regained
control of their kingdom. In 1315, Edward Bruce, brother of the King,
was briefly appointed
High King of Ireland
High King of Ireland during an ultimately
unsuccessful Scottish invasion of
Ireland aimed at strengthening
Scotland's position in its wars against England. In 1320 the world's
first documented declaration of independence, the Declaration of
Arbroath, won the support of Pope John XXII, leading to the legal
recognition of Scottish sovereignty by the English Crown.
However, war with
England continued for several decades after the
death of Bruce. A civil war between the Bruce dynasty and their
long-term Comyn-Balliol rivals lasted until the middle of the 14th
century. Although the Bruce dynasty was successful, David II's lack of
an heir allowed his half-nephew Robert II to come to the throne and
establish the Stewart Dynasty. The Stewarts ruled
the remainder of the Middle Ages. The country they ruled experienced
greater prosperity from the end of the 14th century through the
Scottish Renaissance to the Reformation. This was despite continual
warfare with England, the increasing division between Highlands and
Lowlands, and a large number of royal minorities.
This period was the height of the Franco-Scottish alliance. The Scots
Guard – la
Garde Écossaise – was founded in 1418 by Charles VII
of France. The Scots soldiers of the
Garde Écossaise fought alongside
Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc against
England during the Hundred Years' War. In
March 1421, a Franco-Scots force under John Stewart, 2nd Earl of
Buchan, and Gilbert de Lafayette, defeated a larger English army at
the Battle of Baugé. Three years later, at the Battle of Verneuil,
the French and Scots lost around 7000 men. The Scottish
intervention contributed to France's victory in the war.
Early modern period
Scotland in the early modern period
James VI succeeded to the English and Irish thrones in 1603.
James IV of Scotland
James IV of Scotland signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace
with Henry VII of England. He also married Henry's daughter, Margaret
Tudor, setting the stage for the Union of the Crowns. For Henry, the
marriage into one of Europe's most established monarchies gave
legitimacy to the new Tudor royal line. A decade later, James made
the fateful decision to invade
England in support of France under the
terms of the Auld Alliance. He was the last British monarch to die in
battle, at the Battle of Flodden. Within a generation the Auld
Alliance was ended by the Treaty of Edinburgh. France agreed to
withdraw all land and naval forces. In the same year, 1560, John Knox
realised his goal of seeing
Scotland become a
Protestant nation and
the Scottish parliament revoke papal authority in Scotland. Mary,
Queen of Scots, a Catholic and former queen of France, was forced to
abdicate in 1567.
In 1603, James VI, King of Scots inherited the thrones of the Kingdom
England and the Kingdom of Ireland, and became King James I of
England and Ireland, and left
Edinburgh for London. With the
exception of a short period under the Protectorate,
a separate state, but there was considerable conflict between the
crown and the
Covenanters over the form of church government. The
Glorious Revolution of 1688–89 saw the overthrow of King James VII
Scotland and II of
England by the English
Parliament in favour of
William III and Mary II.
In common with countries such as France, Norway, Sweden and Finland,
Scotland experienced famines during the 1690s. Mortality, reduced
childbirths and increased emigration reduced the population of parts
of the country by between 10 and 15 percent.
In 1698, the
Company of Scotland
Company of Scotland attempted a project to secure a
trading colony on the Isthmus of Panama. Almost every Scottish
landowner who had money to spare is said to have invested in the
Darien scheme. Its failure bankrupted these landowners, but not the
burghs. Nevertheless, the nobles' bankruptcy, along with the threat of
an English invasion, played a leading role in convincing the Scots
elite to back a union with England.
On 22 July 1706, the
Treaty of Union
Treaty of Union was agreed between
representatives of the Scots
Parliament and the
Parliament of England
and the following year twin Acts of Union were passed by both
parliaments to create the united Kingdom of
Great Britain with effect
from 1 May 1707; there was popular opposition and anti-union riots
in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere.
David Morier's depiction of the Battle of Culloden
With trade tariffs with
England now abolished, trade blossomed,
especially with Colonial America. The clippers belonging to the
Tobacco Lords were the fastest ships on the route to Virginia.
American War of Independence
American War of Independence in 1776,
Glasgow was the
world's premier tobacco port, dominating world trade. The
disparity between the wealth of the merchant classes of the Scottish
Lowlands and the ancient clans of the
Scottish Highlands grew,
amplifying centuries of division.
The deposed Jacobite Stuart claimants had remained popular in the
Highlands and north-east, particularly amongst non-Presbyterians,
including Roman Catholics and Episcopalian Protestants. However, two
major Jacobite risings launched in 1715 and 1745 failed to remove the
House of Hanover
House of Hanover from the British throne. The threat of the Jacobite
movement to the
United Kingdom and its monarchs effectively ended at
the Battle of Culloden, Great Britain's last pitched battle. This
defeat paved the way for large-scale removals of the indigenous
populations of the Highlands and Islands, known as the Highland
Scottish Enlightenment and the
Industrial Revolution made Scotland
into an intellectual, commercial and industrial powerhouse–so
Voltaire said "We look to
Scotland for all our ideas of
civilisation." With the demise of
Jacobitism and the advent of the
Union, thousands of Scots, mainly Lowlanders, took up numerous
positions of power in politics, civil service, the army and navy,
trade, economics, colonial enterprises and other areas across the
nascent British Empire. Historian Neil Davidson notes "after 1746
there was an entirely new level of participation by Scots in political
life, particularly outside Scotland." Davidson also states "far from
being 'peripheral' to the British economy,
Scotland – or more
precisely, the Lowlands – lay at its core."
Scotland in the modern era
Shipping on the Clyde, by John Atkinson Grimshaw, 1881
Scottish Reform Act 1832 increased the number of Scottish MPs and
widened the franchise to include more of the middle classes. From
the mid-century, there were increasing calls for Home Rule for
Scotland and the post of
Secretary of State for Scotland
Secretary of State for Scotland was
revived. Towards the end of the century Prime Ministers of
Scottish descent included William Gladstone, and the Earl of
Rosebery. In the later 19th century the growing importance of the
working classes was marked by Keir Hardie's success in the Mid
Lanarkshire by-election, 1888, leading to the foundation of the
Scottish Labour Party, which was absorbed into the Independent Labour
Party in 1895, with Hardie as its first leader.
Glasgow became one of the largest cities in the world and known as
"the Second City of the Empire" after London. After 1860 the
Clydeside shipyards specialised in steamships made of iron (after
1870, made of steel), which rapidly replaced the wooden sailing
vessels of both the merchant fleets and the battle fleets of the
world. It became the world's pre-eminent shipbuilding centre. The
industrial developments, while they brought work and wealth, were so
rapid that housing, town-planning, and provision for public health did
not keep pace with them, and for a time living conditions in some of
the towns and cities were notoriously bad, with overcrowding, high
infant mortality, and growing rates of tuberculosis.
Walter Scott, whose
Waverley Novels helped define Scottish identity in
the 19th century.
Scottish Enlightenment is traditionally considered to have
concluded toward the end of the 18th century, disproportionately
large Scottish contributions to British science and letters continued
for another 50 years or more, thanks to such figures as the physicists
James Clerk Maxwell
James Clerk Maxwell and Lord Kelvin, and the engineers and inventors
James Watt and William Murdoch, whose work was critical to the
technological developments of the
Industrial Revolution throughout
Britain. In literature, the most successful figure of the mid-19th
century was Walter Scott. His first prose work, Waverley in 1814, is
often called the first historical novel. It launched a highly
successful career that probably more than any other helped define and
popularise Scottish cultural identity. In the late 19th century, a
number of Scottish-born authors achieved international reputations,
such as Robert Louis Stevenson, Arthur Conan Doyle,
J. M. Barrie
J. M. Barrie and
Scotland also played a major part in the
development of art and architecture. The
Glasgow School, which
developed in the late 19th century, and flourished in the early 20th
century, produced a distinctive blend of influences including the
Celtic Revival the Arts and Crafts movement, and Japonism, which found
favour throughout the modern art world of continental
helped define the
Art Nouveau style. Proponents included architect and
artist Charles Rennie Mackintosh.
This period saw a process of rehabilitation for Highland culture. In
the 1820s, as part of the Romantic revival, tartan and the kilt were
adopted by members of the social elite, not just in Scotland, but
across Europe, prompted by the popularity of Macpherson's
Ossian cycle and then Walter Scott's Waverley novels.
However, the Highlands remained very poor and traditional. The
desire to improve agriculture and profits led to the Highland
Clearances, in which much of the population of the Highlands suffered
forced displacement as lands were enclosed, principally so that they
could be used for sheep farming. The clearances followed patterns of
agricultural change throughout Britain, but were particularly
notorious as a result of the late timing, the lack of legal protection
for year-by-year tenants under Scots law, the abruptness of the change
from the traditional clan system, and the brutality of many
evictions. One result was a continuous exodus from the land—to
the cities, or further afield to England, Canada, America or
Australia. The population of
Scotland grew steadily in the 19th
century, from 1,608,000 in the census of 1801 to 2,889,000 in 1851 and
4,472,000 in 1901. Even with the development of industry, there
were not enough good jobs. As a result, during the period 1841–1931,
about 2 million Scots migrated to North America and Australia, and
another 750,000 Scots relocated to England.
The Disruption Assembly; painted by David Octavius Hill.
After prolonged years of struggle in the Kirk, in 1834 the
Evangelicals gained control of the General Assembly and passed the
Veto Act, which allowed congregations to reject unwanted "intrusive"
presentations to livings by patrons. The following "Ten Years'
Conflict" of legal and political wrangling ended in defeat for the
non-intrusionists in the civil courts. The result was a schism from
the church by some of the non-intrusionists led by Dr Thomas Chalmers,
known as the Great Disruption of 1843. Roughly a third of the clergy,
mainly from the North and Highlands, formed the separate Free Church
of Scotland. In the late 19th century growing divisions between
fundamentalist Calvinists and theological liberals resulted in a
further split in the Free Church as the rigid Calvinists broke away to
form the Free
Presbyterian Church in 1893. Catholic emancipation
in 1829 and the influx of large numbers of Irish immigrants,
particularly after the famine years of the late 1840s, mainly to the
growing lowland centres like Glasgow, led to a transformation in the
fortunes of Catholicism. In 1878, despite opposition, a Roman Catholic
ecclesiastical hierarchy was restored to the country, and Catholicism
became a significant denomination within Scotland.
Industrialisation, urbanisation and the
Disruption of 1843
Disruption of 1843 all
undermined the tradition of parish schools. From 1830 the state began
to fund buildings with grants; then from 1846 it was funding schools
by direct sponsorship; and in 1872
Scotland moved to a system like
England of state-sponsored largely free schools, run by local
school boards. The historic University of
Glasgow became a leader
in British higher education by providing the educational needs of
youth from the urban and commercial classes, as opposed to the upper
The University of St Andrews
The University of St Andrews pioneered the admission of
women to Scottish universities. From 1892
Scottish universities could
admit and graduate women and the numbers of women at Scottish
universities steadily increased until the early 20th century.
Early 20th century
Royal Scots with a captured Japanese Hinomaru Yosegaki flag, Burma,
Scotland played a major role in the British effort in the First World
War. It especially provided manpower, ships, machinery, fish and
money. With a population of 4.8 million in 1911,
over half a million men to the war, of whom over a quarter died in
combat or from disease, and 150,000 were seriously wounded. Field
Douglas Haig was Britain's commander on the Western Front.
The war saw the emergence of a radical movement called "Red Clydeside"
led by militant trades unionists. Formerly a Liberal stronghold, the
industrial districts switched to Labour by 1922, with a base among the
Irish Catholic working-class districts. Women were especially active
in building neighbourhood solidarity on housing issues. However, the
"Reds" operated within the Labour Party and had little influence in
Parliament and the mood changed to passive despair by the late
The shipbuilding industry expanded by a third and expected renewed
prosperity, but instead, a serious depression hit the economy by 1922
and it did not fully recover until 1939. The interwar years were
marked by economic stagnation in rural and urban areas, and high
unemployment. Indeed, the war brought with it deep social,
cultural, economic, and political dislocations. Thoughtful Scots
pondered their declension, as the main social indicators such as poor
health, bad housing, and long-term mass unemployment, pointed to
terminal social and economic stagnation at best, or even a downward
spiral. Service abroad on behalf of the Empire lost its allure to
ambitious young people, who left
Scotland permanently. The heavy
dependence on obsolescent heavy industry and mining was a central
problem, and no one offered workable solutions. The despair reflected
what Finlay (1994) describes as a widespread sense of hopelessness
that prepared local business and political leaders to accept a new
orthodoxy of centralised government economic planning when it arrived
during the Second World War.
During the Second World War,
Scotland was targeted by Nazi Germany
largely due to its factories, shipyards, and coal mines. Cities
Edinburgh were targeted by German bombers, as were
smaller towns mostly located in the central belt of the country.
Perhaps the most significant air-raid in
Scotland was the Clydebank
Blitz of March 1941, which intended to destroy naval shipbuilding in
the area. 528 people were killed and 4,000 homes totally
Deputy Führer of Nazi Germany, crashed his plane at
Bonnyton Moor in the Scottish central belt in an attempt to make peace
Perhaps Scotland's most unusual wartime episode occurred in 1941 when
Rudolf Hess flew to Renfrewshire, possibly intending to broker a peace
deal through the Duke of Hamilton. Before his departure from
Germany, Hess had given his adjutant, Karlheinz Pintsch, a letter
addressed to Hitler that detailed his intentions to open peace
negotiations with the British. Pintsch delivered the letter to Hitler
at the Berghof around noon on 11 May.
Albert Speer later said
Hitler described Hess's departure as one of the worst personal blows
of his life, as he considered it a personal betrayal. Hitler
worried that his allies, Italy and Japan, would perceive Hess's act as
an attempt by Hitler to secretly open peace negotiations with the
As in World War I,
Scapa Flow in
Orkney served as an important Royal
Navy base. Attacks on
Scapa Flow and
Rosyth gave RAF fighters their
first successes downing bombers in the
Firth of Forth
Firth of Forth and East
Lothian. The shipyards and heavy engineering factories in Glasgow
and Clydeside played a key part in the war effort, and suffered
attacks from the Luftwaffe, enduring great destruction and loss of
life. As transatlantic voyages involved negotiating north-west
Scotland played a key part in the battle of the North
Atlantic. Shetland's relative proximity to occupied Norway
resulted in the
Shetland bus by which fishing boats helped Norwegians
flee the Nazis, and expeditions across the
North Sea to assist
Scottish industry came out of the depression slump by a dramatic
expansion of its industrial activity, absorbing unemployed men and
many women as well. The shipyards were the centre of more activity,
but many smaller industries produced the machinery needed by the
British bombers, tanks and warships. Agriculture prospered, as
did all sectors except for coal mining, which was operating mines near
exhaustion. Real wages, adjusted for inflation, rose 25 percent, and
unemployment temporarily vanished. Increased income, and the more
equal distribution of food, obtained through a tight rationing system,
dramatically improved the health and nutrition; the average height of
Glasgow increased by 2 inches.
The official reconvening of the Scottish
Parliament in July 1999 with
Donald Dewar, then
First Minister of Scotland
First Minister of Scotland (left) with Queen
Elizabeth II (centre) and Presiding Officer
Sir David Steel
Sir David Steel (right)
After 1945, Scotland's economic situation worsened due to overseas
competition, inefficient industry, and industrial disputes. Only
in recent decades has the country enjoyed something of a cultural and
economic renaissance. Economic factors contributing to this recovery
included a resurgent financial services industry, electronics
manufacturing, (see Silicon Glen), and the
North Sea oil and gas
industry. The introduction in 1989 by Margaret Thatcher's
government of the Community Charge (widely known as the Poll Tax) one
year before the rest of Great Britain, contributed to a growing
movement for Scottish control over domestic affairs. Following a
referendum on devolution proposals in 1997, the
Scotland Act 1998
was passed by the UK Parliament, which established a devolved Scottish
Scottish Government with responsibility for most laws
specific to Scotland. The Scottish
Parliament was reconvened in
Edinburgh on 4 July 1999. The first First Minister of Scotland
was Donald Dewar, who served until his sudden death in 2000.
Parliament Building at Holyrood itself did not open until
October 2004, after lengthy construction delays and running over
budget. The Scottish
Parliament has a form of proportional
representation (the additional member system), which normally results
in no one party having an overall majority. The pro-independence
Scottish National Party
Scottish National Party led by
Alex Salmond achieved this in the 2011
election, winning 69 of the 129 seats available. The success of
the SNP in achieving a majority in the Scottish
Parliament paved the
way for the September 2014 referendum on Scottish independence. The
majority voted against the proposition, with 55% voting no to
independence. More powers, particularly in relation to taxation,
were devolved to the Scottish
Parliament after the referendum,
following cross-party talks in the Smith Commission.
Geography and natural history
Main article: Geography of Scotland
The island of
Little Cumbrae with
Isle of Arran
Isle of Arran in the background
(left). Traigh Seilebost Beach on the
Isle of Harris
Isle of Harris (right)
The mainland of
Scotland comprises the northern third of the land mass
of the island of Great Britain, which lies off the north-west coast of
Continental Europe. The total area is 78,772 km2
(30,414 sq mi), comparable to the size of the Czech
Republic. Scotland's only land border is with England, and runs for 96
kilometres (60 mi) between the basin of the
River Tweed on the
east coast and the
Solway Firth in the west. The Atlantic Ocean
borders the west coast and the
North Sea is to the east. The island of
Ireland lies only 21 kilometres (13 mi) from the south-western
peninsula of Kintyre; Norway is 305 kilometres (190 mi) to
the east and the Faroes, 270 kilometres (168 mi) to the north.
The territorial extent of
Scotland is generally that established by
Treaty of York
Treaty of York between
Scotland and the Kingdom of
England and the 1266
Treaty of Perth between
Norway. Important exceptions include the Isle of Man, which having
been lost to
England in the 14th century is now a crown dependency
outside of the United Kingdom; the island groups
Orkney and Shetland,
which were acquired from Norway in 1472; and Berwick-upon-Tweed,
England in 1482.
The geographical centre of
Scotland lies a few miles from the village
Newtonmore in Badenoch. Rising to 1,344 metres (4,409 ft)
above sea level, Scotland's highest point is the summit of Ben Nevis,
in Lochaber, while Scotland's longest river, the River Tay, flows for
a distance of 190 kilometres (118 mi).
Geology and geomorphology
Main article: Geology of Scotland
The Scottish Highlands, geographically located in the north west of
Scotland, is considered to have some of the world's best views
Scotland as seen from satellite
The whole of
Scotland was covered by ice sheets during the Pleistocene
ice ages and the landscape is much affected by glaciation. From a
geological perspective, the country has three main sub-divisions.
Highlands and Islands
Highlands and Islands lie to the north and west of the Highland
Boundary Fault, which runs from Arran to Stonehaven. This part of
Scotland largely comprises ancient rocks from the
Precambrian, which were uplifted during the later Caledonian orogeny.
It is interspersed with igneous intrusions of a more recent age,
remnants of which formed mountain massifs such as the
A significant exception to the above are the fossil-bearing beds of
Old Red Sandstones found principally along the
Moray Firth coast. The
Highlands are generally mountainous and the highest elevations in the
British Isles are found here.
Scotland has over 790 islands divided
into four main groups: Shetland, Orkney, and the Inner
Outer Hebrides. There are numerous bodies of freshwater including Loch
Lomond and Loch Ness. Some parts of the coastline consist of machair,
a low-lying dune pasture land.
Central Lowlands is a rift valley mainly comprising Paleozoic
formations. Many of these sediments have economic significance for it
is here that the coal and iron bearing rocks that fuelled Scotland's
industrial revolution are found. This area has also experienced
Arthur's Seat in
Edinburgh being the remnant of a
once much larger volcano. This area is relatively low-lying, although
even here hills such as the Ochils and
Campsie Fells are rarely far
Southern Uplands are a range of hills almost 200 kilometres
(124 mi) long, interspersed with broad valleys. They lie south of
a second fault line (the
Southern Uplands fault) that runs from Girvan
to Dunbar. The geological foundations largely comprise
Silurian deposits laid down some 4–500 million years ago. The
high point of the
Southern Uplands is Merrick with an elevation of
843 m (2,766 ft). The
Southern Uplands is
home to the UK's highest village,
Wanlockhead (430 m or
1,411 ft above sea level).
Tiree, one of the sunniest locations in Scotland
Main article: Climate of Scotland
The climate of
Scotland is temperate and oceanic, and tends to be very
changeable. As it is warmed by the
Gulf Stream from the Atlantic, it
has much milder winters (but cooler, wetter summers) than areas on
similar latitudes, such as Labrador, southern Scandinavia, the Moscow
region in Russia, and the
Kamchatka Peninsula on the opposite side of
Eurasia. However, temperatures are generally lower than in the rest of
the UK, with the coldest ever UK temperature of −27.2 °C
(−17.0 °F) recorded at
Braemar in the Grampian Mountains, on
11 February 1895. Winter maxima average 6 °C (43 °F)
in the Lowlands, with summer maxima averaging 18 °C
(64 °F). The highest temperature recorded was 32.9 °C
(91.2 °F) at Greycrook,
Scottish Borders on 9 August 2003.
The west of
Scotland is usually warmer than the east, owing to the
influence of Atlantic ocean currents and the colder surface
temperatures of the North Sea. Tiree, in the Inner Hebrides, is one of
the sunniest places in the country: it had more than 300 hours of
sunshine in May 1975. Rainfall varies widely across Scotland. The
western highlands of
Scotland are the wettest, with annual rainfall in
a few places exceeding 3,000 mm (120 in). In
comparison, much of lowland
Scotland receives less than 800 mm
(31 in) annually. Heavy snowfall is not common in the
lowlands, but becomes more common with altitude.
Braemar has an
average of 59 snow days per year, while many coastal areas
average fewer than 10 days of lying snow per year.
Flora and fauna
A mountain hare (Lepus timidus) in Findhorn Valley, May 2004
Fauna of Scotland
Fauna of Scotland and Flora of Scotland
Scotland's wildlife is typical of the north-west of Europe, although
several of the larger mammals such as the lynx, brown bear, wolf, elk
and walrus were hunted to extinction in historic times. There are
important populations of seals and internationally significant nesting
grounds for a variety of seabirds such as gannets. The golden
eagle is something of a national icon.
On the high mountain tops, species including ptarmigan, mountain hare
and stoat can be seen in their white colour phase during winter
months. Remnants of the native
Scots pine forest exist and
within these areas the Scottish crossbill, the UK's only endemic bird
species and vertebrate, can be found alongside capercaillie, Scottish
wildcat, red squirrel and pine marten. Various animals
have been re-introduced, including the white-tailed sea eagle in 1975,
the red kite in the 1980s, and there have been experimental
projects involving the beaver and wild boar. Today, much of the
Caledonian Forest lies within the
Park and remnants of the forest remain at 84 locations across
Scotland. On the west coast, remnants of ancient Celtic Rainforest
still remain, particularly on the Taynish peninsula in Argyll, these
forests are particularly rare due to high rates of deforestation
throughout Scottish history.
The flora of the country is varied incorporating both deciduous and
coniferous woodland and moorland and tundra species. However, large
scale commercial tree planting and the management of upland moorland
habitat for the grazing of sheep and commercial field sport activities
impacts upon the distribution of indigenous plants and animals.
The UK's tallest tree is a grand fir planted beside Loch Fyne, Argyll
in the 1870s, and the
Fortingall Yew may be 5,000 years old and is
probably the oldest living thing in Europe.[dubious –
discuss] Although the number of native vascular plants
is low by world standards, Scotland's substantial bryophyte flora is
of global importance.
by ethnic group (2011)
% of total
White Other British
Other White ethnic group
Caribbean or Black Other
Caribbean or Black
Mixed or multiple ethnic groups
Other ethnic group
Demography of Scotland
See also: Languages of Scotland, Religion in Scotland, and Scottish
The population of
Scotland at the 2001 Census was 5,062,011. This rose
to 5,295,400, the highest ever, at the 2011 Census.
In the 2011 Census, 62% of Scotland's population stated their national
identity as 'Scottish only', 18% as 'Scottish and British', 8% as
'British only', and 4% chose 'other identity only'.
Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland, the largest city is
Glasgow, which has just over 584,000 inhabitants. The Greater Glasgow
conurbation, with a population of almost 1.2 million, is home to
nearly a quarter of Scotland's population. The
Central Belt is
where most of the main towns and cities are located, including
Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dundee, and Perth. Scotland's only major city
Central Belt is Aberdeen.
In general, only the more accessible and larger islands remain
inhabited. Currently, fewer than 90 remain inhabited. The Southern
Uplands are essentially rural in nature and dominated by agriculture
and forestry. Because of housing problems in
Edinburgh, five new towns were designated between 1947 and 1966. They
are East Kilbride, Glenrothes, Cumbernauld, Livingston, and
Immigration since World War II has given Glasgow, Edinburgh, and
Dundee small South Asian communities. In 2011, there were an
estimated 49,000 ethnically Pakistani people living in Scotland,
making them the largest non-White ethnic group. Since the
Enlargement of the European Union
Enlargement of the European Union more people from Central and Eastern
Europe have moved to Scotland, and the 2011 census indicated that
Poles live there.
Scotland population cartogram. The size of councils is in proportion
to their population.
Scotland has three officially recognised languages: English, Scots,
and Scottish Gaelic. Scottish Standard English, a variety of
English as spoken in Scotland, is at one end of a bipolar linguistic
continuum, with broad Scots at the other. Scottish Standard
English may have been influenced to varying degrees by
Scots. The 2011 census indicated that 63% of the population
had "no skills in Scots". Others speak Highland English. Gaelic
is mostly spoken in the Western Isles, where a large proportion of
people still speak it; however, nationally its use is confined to just
1% of the population. The number of Gaelic speakers in Scotland
dropped from 250,000 in 1881 to 60,000 in 2008.
There are many more people with Scottish ancestry living abroad than
the total population of Scotland. In the 2000 Census, 9.2 million
Americans self-reported some degree of Scottish descent. Ulster's
Protestant population is mainly of lowland Scottish descent, and
it is estimated that there are more than 27 million descendants
of the Scots-Irish migration now living in the US. In
Scottish-Canadian community accounts for 4.7 million
people. About 20% of the original European settler population of
New Zealand came from Scotland.
In August 2012, the Scottish population reached an all-time high of
5.25 million people. The reasons given were that, in Scotland,
births were outnumbering the number of deaths, and immigrants were
Scotland from overseas. In 2011, 43,700 people moved from
Northern Ireland or
England to live in Scotland.
The total fertility rate (TFR) in
Scotland is below the replacement
rate of 2.1 (the TFR was 1.73 in 2011). The majority of births
are to unmarried women (51.3% of births were outside of marriage in
Largest cities or towns in Scotland
Scotland's Census 2011 
City of Edinburgh
Perth and Kinross
Life expectancy for those born in
Scotland between 2012 and 2014 is
77.1 years for males and 81.1 years for females. This is the
lowest of any of the four countries of the UK.
Main article: Religion in Scotland
Iona Abbey, an early centre of Christianity in Scotland
Just over half (54%) of the Scottish population reported being a
Christian while nearly 37% reported not having a religion in a 2011
census. Since the
Scottish Reformation of 1560, the national
church (the Church of Scotland, also known as The Kirk) has been
Protestant in classification and Reformed in theology. Since 1689 it
has had a
Presbyterian system of church government and enjoys
independence from the state. Its membership is 398,389, about
7.5% of the total population, though according to the 2014 Scottish
Annual Household Survey, 27.8%, or 1.5 million adherents, identified
Church of Scotland
Church of Scotland as their religion. The Church operates a
territorial parish structure, with every community in
a local congregation.
Scotland also has a significant Roman Catholic population, 19%
professing that faith, particularly in Greater
Glasgow and the
north-west. After the Reformation, Roman Catholicism in Scotland
continued in the Highlands and some western islands like
Barra, and it was strengthened during the 19th century by immigration
from Ireland. Other Christian denominations in
Scotland include the
Free Church of Scotland, and various other
"Scotland's third largest church" is the Scottish Episcopal
Islam is the largest non-Christian religion (estimated at around
75,000, which is about 1.4% of the population), and there
are also significant Jewish, Hindu and
Sikh communities, especially in
Samyé Ling monastery near Eskdalemuir, which
celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2007, is the first Buddhist
monastery in western Europe.
Politics and government
Main articles: Politics of Scotland, Scottish Parliament, and Scottish
Queen Elizabeth II
The head of state of the
United Kingdom is the monarch, currently
Elizabeth II (since 1952). The regnal numbering ("Elizabeth II")
caused controversy around the time of her coronation because there had
never been an Elizabeth I in Scotland. The British government stated
in April 1953 that future British monarchs would be numbered according
to either their English or their Scottish predecessors, whichever
number would be higher. For instance, any future King James would
be styled James VIII—since the last Scottish King James was James
VII (also James II of England, etc.)—while the next King Henry would
be King Henry IX throughout the UK even though there have been no
Scottish kings of that name. A legal action, MacCormick v Lord
Advocate (1953 SC 396), was brought in
Scotland to contest the right
of the Queen to entitle herself "Elizabeth II" within Scotland, but
the Crown won the case.
The monarchy of the
United Kingdom continues to use a variety of
styles, titles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to
pre-union Scotland, including: the Royal Standard of Scotland, the
Royal coat of arms used in
Scotland together with its associated Royal
Standard, royal titles including that of Duke of Rothesay, certain
Great Officers of State, the chivalric
Order of the Thistle
Order of the Thistle and, since
1999, reinstating a ceremonial role for the
Crown of Scotland
Crown of Scotland after a
Scotland has limited self-government within the United Kingdom, as
well as representation in the UK Parliament. Executive and legislative
powers respectively have been devolved to the
Scottish Government and
Parliament at Holyrood in
Edinburgh since 1999. The UK
Parliament retains control over reserved matters specified in the
Scotland Act 1998, including UK taxes, social security, defence,
international relations and broadcasting. The Scottish Parliament
has legislative authority for all other areas relating to Scotland. It
initially had only a limited power to vary income tax, but powers
over taxation and social security were significantly expanded by the
Scotland Acts of 2012 and 2016.
Parliament can give legislative consent over devolved
matters back to the UK
Parliament by passing a Legislative Consent
Motion if United Kingdom-wide legislation is considered more
appropriate for a certain issue. The programmes of legislation enacted
by the Scottish
Parliament have seen a divergence in the provision of
public services compared to the rest of the UK. For instance,
university education and care services for the elderly are free at
point of use in Scotland, while fees are paid in the rest of the UK.
Scotland was the first country in the UK to ban smoking in enclosed
Bute House is the official residence and workplace of the First
Holyrood is the seat of the national parliament of Scotland
Parliament is a unicameral legislature with 129 members
(MSPs): 73 of them represent individual constituencies and are elected
on a first-past-the-post system; the other 56 are elected in eight
different electoral regions by the additional member system. MSPs
serve for a four-year period (exceptionally five years from
Parliament nominates one of its Members, who is then
appointed by the Monarch to serve as First Minister. Other ministers
are appointed by the First Minister and serve at his/her discretion.
Together they make up the Scottish Government, the executive arm of
the devolved government. The
Scottish Government is headed by the
First Minister, who is accountable to the Scottish
Parliament and is
the minister of charge of the Scottish Government. The First Minister
is also the political leader of Scotland. The
Scottish Government also
comprises the Deputy First Minister, currently
John Swinney MSP, who
deputises for the First Minister during a period of absence of
overseas visits. Alongside the Deputy First Minister's requirements as
Deputy, the minister also has a cabinet ministerial responsibility.
Swinney is also currently Cabinet Secretary for Education and
Skills. The Scottish Government's cabinet comprises nine cabinet
secretaries, who form the Cabinet of Scotland. There are also twelve
other ministers, who work alongside the cabinet secretaries in their
appointed areas. As a result, junior ministers do not attend
In the 2016 election, the
Scottish National Party
Scottish National Party (SNP) won 63 of the
129 seats available. Nicola Sturgeon, the leader of the SNP, has been
the First Minister since November 2014. The Conservative Party became
the largest opposition party in the 2016 elections, with the Labour
Party, Liberal Democrats and the Green Party also represented in the
Parliament. The next Scottish
Parliament election is due to be held on
6 May 2021.
Scotland is represented in the British House of Commons by 59 MPs
elected from territory-based Scottish constituencies. In the 2017
general election, the SNP won 35 of the 59 seats. This
represented a significant decline from the 2015 general election, when
the SNP won 56 seats. Conservative, Labour and Liberal
Democrat parties also represent Scottish constituencies in the House
of Commons. The next
United Kingdom general election is scheduled for
5 May 2022. The
Scotland Office represents the UK government in
Scotland on reserved matters and represents Scottish interests within
the UK government. The
Scotland Office is led by the Secretary of
State for Scotland, who sits in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom; the
incumbent is Conservative MP David Mundell.
Devolved government relations
Scottish First Minister, Nicola Sturgeon, meeting with British Prime
Minister, Theresa May, at
Bute House in 2016.
The relationships between the central UK Government and devolved
governments of Scotland,
Northern Ireland are based on the
extra-statutory principles and agreements with the main elements are
set out in a Memorandum of Understanding between the UK government and
the devolved governments of Scotland,
Wales and Northern Ireland. The
MOU lays emphasis on the principles of good communication,
consultation and co-operation.
Since devolution in 1999,
Scotland has devolved stronger working
relations across the two other devolved governments, the Welsh
Northern Ireland Executive. Whilst there are no formal
concordats between the Scottish Government,
Welsh Government and
Northern Ireland Executive, ministers from each devolved government
meet at various points throughout the year at various events such as
the British-Irish Council and also meet to discuss matters and issues
that is devolved to each government. Scotland, along with the
Welsh Government, British Government as well as the Northern Ireland
executive, participate in the Joint Ministerial Committee (JMC) which
allows each government to discuss policy issues together and work
together across each government to find solutions. The Scottish
Government considers the successful re-establishment of the Plenary,
and establishment of the Domestic fora to be important facets of the
relationship with the UK Government and the other devolved
In the aftermath of the United Kingdom's decision to withdraw from the
European Union in 2016, the
Scottish Government has called for there
to be a joint approach from each of the devolved governments. In early
2017, the devolved governments met to discuss Brexit and agree on
Brexit strategies from each devolved government which lead for
Theresa May to issue a statement that claims that the devolved
governments will not have a central role or decision making process in
the Brexit process, but that the UK Government plans to "fully engage"
Scotland in talks alongside the governments of
Wales and Northern
Former First Minister
Jack McConnell welcomes then-President of the
George W. Bush
George W. Bush to
Glasgow Prestwick Airport at the start
of the G8 Summit, July 2005
Whilst foreign policy remains a reserved matter, the Scottish
Government still has the power and ability to strengthen and develop
Scotland, the economy and Scottish interests on the world stage and
encourage foreign businesses, international devolved, regional and
central governments to invest in Scotland. Whilst the First
Minister usually undertakes a number of foreign and international
visits to promote Scotland, international relations, European and
Commonwealth relations are also included within the portfolios of both
the Cabinet Secretary for Culture,
Tourism and External Affairs
(responsible for international development) and the Minister for
International Development and
Europe (responsible for European Union
relations and international relations).
G8 Summit in 2005, then First Minister Jack McConnell
welcomed each head of government of the G8 nations to the countries
Glasgow Prestwick Airport on behalf of then UK Prime Minister
Tony Blair. At the same time, McConnell and the then Scottish
Executive pioneered the way forward to launch what would become the
Scotland Malawi Partnership
Scotland Malawi Partnership which co-ordinates Scottish activities to
strengthen existing links with Malawi. During McConnell's time as
First Minister, several relations with Scotland, including Scottish
and Russian relations strengthened following a visit by President of
Vladimir Putin to Edinburgh. McConnell, speaking at the end,
highlighted that the visit by Putin was a "post-devolution" step
Scotland regaining it's international identity".
Under the Salmond administration, Scotland's trade and investment
deals with countries such as China and Canada, where Salmond
Canada Plan 2010–2015 which aimed to strengthen "the
important historical, cultural and economic links" between both Canada
and Scotland. To promote Scotland's interests and Scottish
businesses in North America, there is a Scottish Affairs Office
Washington, D.C. with the aim to promoting
Scotland in both
United States and Canada.
During a 2017 visit to the United States, First Minister Nicola
Sturgeon met with Jerry Brown, Governor of California, where both
signed an agreement committing both the Government of California and
Scottish Government to work together to tackle climate
change, as well as Sturgeon signing a £6.3 million deal for
Scottish investment from American businesses and firms promoting
trade, tourism and innovation. During an official visit to the
Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland in 2016, Sturgeon claimed that is it "important
Scotland and the whole of the
British Isles that
Ireland has a strong ally in Scotland". During the same
engagement, Sturgeon became the first head of government to address
the Seanad Éireann, the Upper House of the Irish Parliament.
The debating chamber within the Scottish
A policy of devolution had been advocated by the three main UK parties
with varying enthusiasm during recent history. A previous Labour
leader. John Smith, described the revival of a Scottish parliament as
the "settled will of the Scottish people". The devolved Scottish
Parliament was created after a referendum in 1997 found majority
support for both creating the
Parliament and granting it limited
powers to vary income tax. The constitutional status of
nonetheless subject to ongoing debate.
Scottish National Party
Scottish National Party (SNP), which supports Scottish
independence, was first elected to form the
Scottish Government in
2007. The new government established a "National Conversation" on
constitutional issues, proposing a number of options such as
increasing the powers of the Scottish Parliament, federalism, or a
Scottish independence from the United Kingdom. In
rejecting the last option, the three main opposition parties in the
Parliament created a commission to investigate the
distribution of powers between devolved Scottish and UK-wide
Scotland Act 2012, based on proposals by the
commission, was subsequently enacted devolving additional powers to
the Scottish Parliament.
In August 2009 the SNP proposed a bill to hold a referendum on
independence in November 2010. Opposition from all other major parties
led to an expected defeat. After the 2011 elections
gave the SNP an overall majority in the Scottish Parliament, a
referendum on independence for
Scotland was held on 18 September
2014. The referendum resulted in a rejection of independence, by
55.3% to 44.7%. During the campaign, the three main parties
in the UK
Parliament pledged to extend the powers of the Scottish
Parliament. An all-party commission chaired by Lord Smith of
Kelvin was formed, which led to a further devolution of powers
Scotland Act 2016.
Following a referendum on the UK's membership of the European Union on
23 June 2016, where a UK-wide majority voted to withdraw from the EU
whilst a majority within
Scotland voted to remain, Scotland's First
Minister, Nicola Sturgeon, announced that as a result a new
independence referendum was "highly likely".
Main article: Subdivisions of Scotland
Glasgow City Chambers, seat of
Glasgow City Council
Historical subdivisions of
Scotland included the mormaerdom,
stewartry, earldom, burgh, parish, county and regions and districts.
Some of these names are still sometimes used as geographical
Scotland is subdivided in various ways depending on the
purpose. In local government, there have been 32 single-tier council
areas since 1996, whose councils are responsible for the
provision of all local government services. Community councils are
informal organisations that represent specific sub-divisions of a
In the Scottish Parliament, there are 73 constituencies and eight
regions. For the
Parliament of the United Kingdom, there are 59
constituencies. Until 2013, the Scottish fire brigades and police
forces were based on a system of regions introduced in 1975. For
healthcare and postal districts, and a number of other governmental
and non-governmental organisations such as the churches, there are
other long-standing methods of subdividing
Scotland for the purposes
City status in the
United Kingdom is conferred by letters patent.
There are seven cities in Scotland: Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh,
Stirling and Perth.
Law and criminal justice
Main article: Scots law
High Court of Justiciary, Edinburgh
Scots law has a basis derived from Roman law, combining features
of both uncodified civil law, dating back to the Corpus Juris Civilis,
and common law with medieval sources. The terms of the Treaty of Union
England in 1707 guaranteed the continued existence of a separate
legal system in
Scotland from that of
England and Wales. Prior to
1611, there were several regional law systems in Scotland, most
Udal law in
Orkney and Shetland, based on old Norse law.
Various other systems derived from common Celtic or Brehon laws
survived in the Highlands until the 1800s.
Scots law provides for three types of courts responsible for the
administration of justice: civil, criminal and heraldic. The supreme
civil court is the Court of Session, although civil appeals can be
taken to the Supreme Court of the
United Kingdom (or before 1 October
2009, the House of Lords). The
High Court of Justiciary
High Court of Justiciary is the supreme
criminal court in Scotland. The
Court of Session
Court of Session is housed at
Parliament House, in Edinburgh, which was the home of the pre-Union
Scotland with the
High Court of Justiciary
High Court of Justiciary and the
Supreme Court of Appeal currently located at the Lawnmarket. The
sheriff court is the main criminal and civil court, hearing most
cases. There are 49 sheriff courts throughout the country.
District courts were introduced in 1975 for minor offences and small
claims. These were gradually replaced by Justice of the Peace Courts
from 2008 to 2010. The
Court of the Lord Lyon
Court of the Lord Lyon regulates heraldry.
For many decades the Scots legal system was unique for being the only
legal system without a parliament. This ended with the advent of the
Scottish Parliament, which legislates for Scotland. Many features
within the system have been preserved. Within criminal law, the Scots
legal system is unique in having three possible verdicts: "guilty",
"not guilty" and "not proven". Both "not guilty" and "not proven"
result in an acquittal, typically with no possibility of retrial in
accordance with the rule of double jeopardy. There is, however, the
possibility of a retrial where new evidence emerges at a later date
that might have proven conclusive in the earlier trial at first
instance, where the person acquitted subsequently admits the offence
or where it can be proved that the acquittal was tainted by an attempt
to pervert the course of justice – see the provisions of the Double
Jeopardy (Scotland) Act 2011. Many laws differ between
the other parts of the United Kingdom, and many terms differ for
certain legal concepts. Manslaughter, in
England and Wales, is broadly
similar to culpable homicide in Scotland, and arson is called wilful
fire raising. Indeed, some acts considered crimes in
Wales, such as forgery, are not so in Scotland. Procedure also
differs. Scots juries, sitting in criminal cases, consist of fifteen
jurors, which is three more than is typical in many countries.
Scottish Prison Service
Scottish Prison Service (SPS) manages the prisons in Scotland,
which collectively house over 8,500 prisoners. The Cabinet
Secretary for Justice is responsible for the Scottish Prison Service
within the Scottish Government.
Main article: Healthcare in Scotland
NHS Scotland's Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow
Health care in
Scotland is mainly provided by NHS Scotland, Scotland's
public health care system. This was founded by the National Health
Service (Scotland) Act 1947 (later repealed by the National Health
Service (Scotland) Act 1978) that took effect on 5 July 1948 to
coincide with the launch of the NHS in
England and Wales. However,
even prior to 1948, half of Scotland's landmass was already covered by
state-funded health care, provided by the Highlands and Islands
Medical Service. Healthcare policy and funding is the
responsibility of the Scottish Government's Health Directorates. The
Cabinet Secretary for Health and Sport
Cabinet Secretary for Health and Sport is Shona Robison
and the Director-General (DG) Health and chief executive, NHS Scotland
is Paul Gray.
In 2008, the NHS in
Scotland had around 158,000 staff including more
than 47,500 nurses, midwives and health visitors and over 3,800
consultants. There are also more than 12,000 doctors, family
practitioners and allied health professionals, including dentists,
opticians and community pharmacists, who operate as independent
contractors providing a range of services within the NHS in return for
fees and allowances. These fees and allowances were removed in May
2010, and prescriptions are entirely free, although dentists and
opticians may charge if the patient's household earns over a certain
amount, about £30,000 per annum.
Main article: Economy of Scotland
A drilling rig located in the North Sea
The Bank of Scotland, located in Edinburgh, is one of the oldest banks
in the world
Economy of Scotland
Economy of Scotland had an estimated nominal gross domestic
product (GDP) of up to £152 billion in 2015. In 2014, Scotland's per
capita GDP was one of the highest in the EU.
Scotland has a
Western-style open mixed economy closely linked with the rest of the
UK and the wider world. Traditionally, the Scottish economy has been
dominated by heavy industry underpinned by shipbuilding in Glasgow,
coal mining and steel industries. Petroleum related industries
associated with the extraction of
North Sea oil have also been
important employers from the 1970s, especially in the north-east of
In February 2012, the Centre for Economics and Business Research
concluded that "
Scotland receives no net subsidy" from the UK, as
greater per capita tax generation in
Scotland balanced out greater per
capita public spending. More recent data, from 2012–13, show
Scotland generated 9.1% (£53.1bn; this included a geographical
North Sea oil revenue – without it, the figures were 8.2%
and £47.6bn) of the UK's tax revenues and received 9.3% (£65.2bn) of
spending. Scotland's public spending deficit in 2012–13 was
£12bn, a £3.5bn increase on the previous year; over the same period,
the UK's deficit decreased by £2.6bn. Over the past thirty
Scotland contributed a relative budget surplus[clarification
needed] of almost £20billion to the UK economy.
In the final quarter of 2016, the Scottish economy contracted by
0.2%; the UK as a whole grew by 0.7% in the same period. As
of September 2015, the Scottish unemployment rate of 5.9% was above
the UK rate of 5.5%, while the Scottish employment rate of 74.0% was
higher than the UK figure of 73.5%. De-industrialisation during
the 1970s and 1980s saw a shift from a manufacturing focus towards a
more service-oriented economy.
Scotland's shipbuilding industry produces world-class ships, including
Queen Elizabeth 2
Queen Elizabeth 2 (pictured).
Edinburgh is the financial services centre of Scotland, with many
large finance firms based there, including: Lloyds Banking Group
(owners of HBOS); the Government-owned Royal
Bank of Scotland
Bank of Scotland and
Edinburgh was ranked 15th in the list of world
financial centres in 2007, but fell to 37th in 2012, following damage
to its reputation, and in 2016 was ranked 56th out of 86.
In 2014, total Scottish exports (excluding intra-UK trade) were
estimated to be £27.5 billion. Scotland's primary exports
include whisky, electronics and financial services. The United
States, Netherlands, Germany, France, and Norway constitute the
country's major export markets. Scotland's Gross Domestic Product
(GDP), including oil and gas produced in Scottish waters, was
estimated at £150 billion for the calendar year 2012. If Scotland
became independent, it would hold 95% of the UK's current oil and gas
reserves if they were split geographically using a median line from
the English-Scottish border. If the reserves were
split by population, that figure would be reduced to 9%.
Whisky is one of Scotland's more known goods of economic activity.
Exports increased by 87% in the decade to 2012 and were valued at
£4.3 billion in 2013, which was 85% of Scotland's food and drink
exports. It supports around 10,000 jobs directly and 25,000
indirectly. It may contribute £400–682 million to Scotland,
rather than several billion pounds, as more than 80% of whisky
produced is owned by non-Scottish companies.
A briefing published in 2002 by the Scottish
Centre (SPICe) for the Scottish Parliament's Enterprise and Life Long
Learning Committee stated that tourism accounted for up to 5% of GDP
and 7.5% of employment.
A £100 Sterling RBS note
Main article: Banknotes of Scotland
Although the Bank of
England is the central bank for the UK, three
Scottish clearing banks issue Sterling banknotes: the Bank of
Scotland; the Royal Bank of Scotland; and the Clydesdale Bank. The
value of the Scottish banknotes in circulation in 2013 was
£3.8 billion; underwritten by the Bank of
England using funds
deposited by each clearing bank, under the Banking Act, (2009), in
order to cover the total value of such notes in circulation.
Main article: Military of Scotland
Challenger 2 main battle tank of the
Royal Scots Dragoon Guards
Of the money spent on UK defence, about £3.3 billion can be
Scotland as of 2013. Although
Scotland has a long
military tradition predating the
Treaty of Union
Treaty of Union with England, its
armed forces now form part of the British Armed Forces, with the
exception of the Atholl Highlanders, Europe's only legal private army.
In 2006, the infantry regiments of the
Scottish Division were
amalgamated to form the Royal Regiment of Scotland. Other
distinctively Scottish regiments in the British Army include the Scots
Royal Scots Dragoon Guards and the 154 (Scottish) Regiment
RLC, an Army Reserve Regiment of the Royal Logistic Corps.
Because of their topography and perceived remoteness, parts of
Scotland have housed many sensitive defence
establishments. Between 1960 and 1991, the Holy Loch
was a base for the US fleet of Polaris ballistic missile
submarines. Today, Her Majesty's Naval Base Clyde, 25 miles (40
kilometres) north-west of Glasgow, is the base for the four
Trident-armed Vanguard class ballistic missile submarines that
comprise the UK's nuclear deterrent.
Scapa Flow was the major Fleet
base for the
Royal Navy until 1956.
A single front-line
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force base is located in Scotland. RAF
Lossiemouth, located in Moray, is the most northerly air defence
fighter base in the
United Kingdom and is home to three fast-jet
squadrons equipped with the Eurofighter Typhoon.
Main article: Education in Scotland
Although operating as
University of the West of Scotland
University of the West of Scotland since 2007,
UWS can trace its history back to 1897 as the University of Paisley
University of St Andrews
University of St Andrews is the oldest University in
third oldest in the world
The Scottish education system has always been distinct from the rest
of the United Kingdom, with a characteristic emphasis on a broad
education. In the 15th century, the Humanist emphasis on
education cumulated with the passing of the Education Act 1496, which
decreed that all sons of barons and freeholders of substance should
attend grammar schools to learn "perfyct Latyne", resulting in an
increase in literacy among a male and wealthy elite. In the
Reformation, the 1560
First Book of Discipline set out a plan for a
school in every parish, but this proved financially impossible.
In 1616 an act in Privy council commanded every parish to establish a
school. By the late seventeenth century there was a largely
complete network of parish schools in the lowlands, but in the
Highlands basic education was still lacking in many areas.
Education remained a matter for the church rather than the state until
the Education Act (1872).
The Curriculum for Excellence, Scotland's national school curriculum,
presently provides the curricular framework for children and young
people from age 3 to 18. All 3- and 4-year-old children in
Scotland are entitled to a free nursery place. Formal primary
education begins at approximately 5 years old and lasts for 7 years
(P1–P7); children in
Scotland study Standard Grades, or Intermediate
qualifications between the ages of 14 and 16. These are being phased
out and replaced by the National Qualifications of the Curriculum for
Excellence. The school leaving age is 16, after which students may
choose to remain at school and study for Access, Intermediate or
Higher Grade and Advanced Higher qualifications. A small number of
students at certain private, independent schools may follow the
English system and study towards GCSEs and A and AS-Levels
There are fifteen Scottish universities, some of which are amongst the
oldest in the world. These include the University of St
Andrews, the University of Glasgow, the University of
Aberdeen and the
University of Edinburgh—many of which are ranked amongst the best in
the UK. Proportionally,
Scotland had more universities in
QS' World University Rankings' top 100 in 2012 than any other
nation. The country produces 1% of the world's published research
with less than 0.1% of the world's population, and higher education
institutions account for 9% of Scotland's service sector
exports. Scotland's University Courts are the only bodies in
Scotland authorised to award degrees.
Tuition is handled by the Student Awards Agency
Scotland (SAAS), which
does not charge fees to what it defines as "Young Students". Young
Students are defined as those under 25, without children, marriage,
civil partnership or cohabiting partner, who have not been outside of
full-time education for more than three years. Fees exist for those
outside the young student definition, typically from £1,200 to
£1,800 for undergraduate courses, dependent on year of application
and type of qualification. Postgraduate fees can be up to
£3,400. The system has been in place since 2007 when graduate
endowments were abolished. Labour's education spokesperson Rhona
Brankin criticised the Scottish system for failing to address student
Scotland has fewer disadvantaged students than England,
Northern Ireland and disadvantaged students receive around
£560 a year less in financial support than their counterparts in
Scotland's universities are complemented in the provision of Further
and Higher Education by 43 colleges. Colleges offer National
Certificates, Higher National Certificates, and Higher National
Diplomas. These Group Awards, alongside Scottish Vocational
Qualifications, aim to ensure Scotland's population has the
appropriate skills and knowledge to meet workplace needs. In 2014,
research reported by the
Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics found that
Scotland was the most highly educated country in
Europe and among the
most well-educated in the world in terms of tertiary education
attainment, with roughly 40% of people in
Scotland aged 16–64
educated to NVQ level 4 and above. Based on the original data for
EU statistical regions, all four Scottish regions ranked significantly
above the European average for completion of tertiary-level education
by 25- to 64-year-olds.
Culture of Scotland
Culture of Scotland and National symbols of Scotland
See also: Scottish people, Music of Scotland, Scottish literature,
Scottish art, Media of Scotland, and Scottish cuisine
Robert Burns, regarded as the national poet of
Scotland is a well
known and respected poet worldwide (left). The bagpipes are a well
known symbol of
Scotland and an early example of popular Scottish
Main article: Scottish music
Scottish music is a significant aspect of the nation's culture, with
both traditional and modern influences. A famous traditional Scottish
instrument is the Great Highland bagpipe, a wind instrument consisting
of three drones and a melody pipe (called the chanter), which are fed
continuously by a reservoir of air in a bag. Bagpipe bands, featuring
bagpipes and various types of drums, and showcasing Scottish music
styles while creating new ones, have spread throughout the world. The
clàrsach (harp), fiddle and accordion are also traditional Scottish
instruments, the latter two heavily featured in Scottish country dance
bands. There are many successful Scottish bands and individual artists
in varying styles including Annie Lennox, Amy Macdonald, Runrig,
Boards of Canada, Cocteau Twins, Deacon Blue, Franz Ferdinand, Susan
Boyle, Emeli Sandé, Texas, The View, The Fratellis,
Twin Atlantic and
Biffy Clyro. Other Scottish musicians include Shirley Manson, Paolo
Nutini, Andy Stewart and Calvin Harris.
Scotland has a literary heritage dating back to the early Middle Ages.
The earliest extant literature composed in what is now
Scotland was in
Brythonic speech in the 6th century, but is preserved as part of Welsh
literature. Later medieval literature included works in
Latin, Gaelic, Old English and French. The first
surviving major text in
Early Scots is the 14th-century poet John
Barbour's epic Brus, focusing on the life of Robert I, and was
soon followed by a series of vernacular romances and prose works.
In the 16th century, the crown's patronage helped the development of
Scots drama and poetry, but the accession of James VI to the
English throne removed a major centre of literary patronage and Scots
was sidelined as a literary language. Interest in Scots
literature was revived in the 18th century by figures including James
Ossian Cycle made him the first Scottish poet to
gain an international reputation and was a major influence on the
European Enlightenment. It was also a major influence on Robert
Burns, whom many consider the national poet, and Walter Scott,
Waverley Novels did much to define Scottish identity in the 19th
century. Towards the end of the Victorian era a number of
Scottish-born authors achieved international reputations as writers in
English, including Robert Louis Stevenson, Arthur Conan Doyle, J. M.
Barrie and George MacDonald. In the 20th century the Scottish
Renaissance saw a surge of literary activity and attempts to reclaim
Scots language as a medium for serious literature. Members of
the movement were followed by a new generation of post-war poets
including Edwin Morgan, who would be appointed the first Scots Makar
by the inaugural Scottish government in 2004. From the 1980s
Scottish literature enjoyed another major revival, particularly
associated with a group of writers including Irvine Welsh.
Scottish poets who emerged in the same period included Carol Ann
Duffy, who, in May 2009, was the first Scot named UK Poet
Saint Andrew depicted on a 16th-century coat of arms of the burgh of
Scottish country dancing
As one of the Celtic nations,
Scotland and Scottish culture is
represented at interceltic events at home and over the world. Scotland
hosts several music festivals including
Celtic Connections (Glasgow),
Hebridean Celtic Festival (Stornoway). Festivals celebrating
Celtic culture, such as
Festival Interceltique de Lorient
Festival Interceltique de Lorient (Brittany),
Pan Celtic Festival
Pan Celtic Festival (Ireland), and the National Celtic Festival
(Portarlington, Australia), feature elements of Scottish culture such
as language, music and dance.
The image of St. Andrew, martyred while bound to an X-shaped cross,
first appeared in the
Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland during the reign of William
I. Following the death of King Alexander III in 1286 an image of
Andrew was used on the seal of the
Guardians of Scotland
Guardians of Scotland who assumed
control of the kingdom during the subsequent interregnum. Use of
a simplified symbol associated with Saint Andrew, the saltire, has its
origins in the late 14th century; the
in 1385 that Scottish soldiers should wear a white Saint Andrew's
Cross on the front and back of their tunics. Use of a blue
background for the Saint Andrew's Cross is said to date from at least
the 15th century. Since 1606 the saltire has also formed part of
the design of the Union Flag. There are numerous other symbols and
symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the
thistle, the nation's floral emblem (celebrated in the song, The
Thistle o' Scotland), the Declaration of Arbroath, incorporating a
statement of political independence made on 6 April 1320, the textile
pattern tartan that often signifies a particular
Scottish clan and the
royal Lion Rampant flag. Highlanders can thank James
Graham, 3rd Duke of Montrose, for the repeal in 1782 of the Act of
1747 prohibiting the wearing of tartans.
Although there is no official national anthem of Scotland, Flower
Scotland is played on special occasions and sporting events such as
football and rugby matches involving the
Scotland national teams and
since 2010 is also played at the
Commonwealth Games after it was voted
the overwhelming favourite by participating Scottish athletes.
Other currently less popular candidates for the National Anthem of
Scotland the Brave, Highland Cathedral, Scots Wha Hae
and A Man's A Man for A' That.
St Andrew's Day, 30 November, is the national day, although Burns'
Night tends to be more widely observed, particularly outside Scotland.
In 2006, the Scottish
Parliament passed the
St Andrew's Day
St Andrew's Day Bank
Holiday (Scotland) Act 2007, designating the day an official bank
Tartan Day is a recent innovation from Canada.
The national animal of
Scotland is the unicorn, which has been a
Scottish heraldic symbol since the 12th century.
Main article: Scottish cuisine
Scottish cuisine has distinctive attributes and recipes of its own but
shares much with wider British and
European cuisine as a result of
local and foreign influences, both ancient and modern. Traditional
Scottish dishes exist alongside international foodstuffs brought about
by migration. Scotland's natural larder of game, dairy products, fish,
fruit, and vegetables is the chief factor in traditional Scots
cooking, with a high reliance on simplicity and a lack of spices from
abroad, as these were historically rare and expensive.
Irn-Bru is the
most common Scottish carbonated soft drink, often described as
"Scotland's other national drink" (after whisky). During the Late
Middle Ages and early modern era,
French cuisine played a role in
Scottish cookery due to cultural exchanges brought about by the "Auld
Alliance", especially during the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots.
Mary, on her return to Scotland, brought an entourage of French staff
who are considered responsible for revolutionising Scots cooking and
for some of Scotland's unique food terminology.
Haggis, neeps and tatties
Main article: Media of Scotland
John Logie Baird
John Logie Baird demonstrated the first working
television system on 26 January 1926.
National newspapers such as the Daily Record, The Herald, The Scotsman
and The National are all produced in Scotland. Important regional
dailies include the Evening News in
Edinburgh The Courier in
the east, and The Press and Journal serving
Aberdeen and the
Scotland is represented at the Celtic Media Festival,
which showcases film and television from the Celtic countries.
Scottish entrants have won many awards since the festival began in
Scotland is largely the same as UK-wide broadcasts,
however, the national broadcaster is
BBC Scotland, a constituent part
of the British Broadcasting Corporation, the publicly funded
broadcaster of the United Kingdom. It runs three national television
stations, and the national radio stations,
BBC Radio Scotland
BBC Radio Scotland and BBC
Radio nan Gàidheal, amongst others.
Scotland also has some
programming in the Gaelic language.
Alba is the national
Gaelic-language channel. The main Scottish commercial television
station is STV.
Main article: Sport in Scotland
Old Course at St Andrews
Old Course at St Andrews where golf originates from
Scotland national football team
Scotland national football team in competition against Brazil, 2011
Scotland hosts its own national sporting competitions and has
independent representation at several international sporting events,
FIFA World Cup, the Rugby Union World Cup, the Rugby
League World Cup, the Cricket World Cup, the
Netball World Cup
Netball World Cup and the
Scotland has its own national governing bodies,
such as the
Scottish Football Association (the second oldest national
football association in the world) and the Scottish Rugby Union.
Variations of football have been played in
Scotland for centuries,
with the earliest reference dating back to 1424.
Association football is the most popular sport and the
Scottish Cup is
the world's oldest national trophy.
Scotland contested the first
ever international football game in 1872 against England. The
match took place at Hamilton Crescent, Glasgow, home of the West of
Scotland Cricket Club. Scottish clubs have been successful in European
competitions with Celtic winning the European Cup in 1967, Rangers and
Aberdeen winning the
UEFA Cup Winners' Cup
UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1972 and 1983
Aberdeen also winning the
UEFA Super Cup
UEFA Super Cup in 1983.
With the modern game of golf originating in 15th century Scotland, the
country is promoted as the home of golf. To many
golfers the Old Course in the
Fife town of St Andrews, an ancient
links course dating to before 1552, is considered a site of
pilgrimage. In 1764, the standard 18-hole golf course was created
St Andrews when members modified the course from 22 to 18
holes. The world's oldest golf tournament, and golf's first
major, is The Open Championship, which was first played on 17 October
1860 at Prestwick
Golf Club, in Ayrshire, Scotland, with Scottish
golfers winning the earliest majors. There are many other famous
golf courses in Scotland, including Carnoustie, Gleneagles, Muirfield,
and Royal Troon. Other distinctive features of the national sporting
culture include the Highland games, curling and shinty. In boxing,
Scotland has had 13 world champions, including Ken Buchanan, Benny
Lynch and Jim Watt.
Scotland has competed at every
Commonwealth Games since 1930 and has
won 356 medals in total—91 Gold, 104 Silver and 161 Bronze.
Edinburgh played host to the
Commonwealth Games in 1970 and 1986, and
Glasgow in 2014.
Transport in Scotland
Bilingual (Gaelic/English) roadsigns are found throughout the
Highlands and the Hebrides.
The Scottish motorways and major trunk roads are managed by Transport
Scotland. The remainder of the road network is managed by the Scottish
local authorities in each of their areas.
Air Scotland, founded in 2002, largely served as Scotland's flag
carrier until it ceased operations in 2005
Scotland has five main international airports (Glasgow, Edinburgh,
Glasgow Prestwick and Inverness), which together serve 150
international destinations with a wide variety of scheduled and
chartered flights. GIP operates
Edinburgh airport and AGS
Glasgow International, while Highlands and
Islands Airports operates 11 regional airports, including Inverness,
which serve the more remote locations. The Scottish Government
Glasgow Prestwick, having purchased the airport from
a nominal sum.
Over the period of history,
Scotland has had several national airlines
that has acted as the countries flag carrier, however, most of which
are now defunct. Airline companies such as Air Scotland, Caledonian
Scottish Airlines and
Highland Airways (founded as Air Alba),
all at one stage was seen to be Scotland's national airline and flag
carrier. Loganair, still in operation and mostly operations in the
Scottish highlands and serving the outer islands of Scotland, is
largely considered to be the modern day flag carrier of
in 2017 to honour this title,
Loganair revamped and introduced new and
current airlines with their updated
Aircraft livery to help
bring "a new Scottish identify to the skies".
Domestic rail services are operated by Abellio ScotRail.
Network Rail Infrastructure Limited owns and operates the fixed
infrastructure assets of the railway system in Scotland, while the
Scottish Government retains overall responsibility for rail strategy
and funding in Scotland. Scotland's rail network has around 350
railway stations and 3,000 kilometres (1,900 mi) of track. Over
89.3 million passenger journeys are made each year.
The East Coast and West Coast main railway lines connect the major
cities and towns of
Scotland with each other and with the rail network
in England. Virgin Trains provides inter-city rail journeys between
Inverness to London. Domestic rail
Scotland are operated by ScotRail. During the time of
British Rail, the
West Coast Main Line
West Coast Main Line from
London Euston to Glasgow
Central was electrified in the early 1970s, followed by the East Coast
Main Line in the late 1980s.
British Rail created the ScotRail brand.
British Rail existed, many railway lines in Strathclyde were
electrified. Strathclyde Passenger
Transport Executive was at the
forefront with the acclaimed "largest electrified rail network outside
London". Some parts of the network are electrified, but there are no
electrified lines in the Highlands, Angus, Aberdeenshire, the cities
Dundee or Aberdeen, or Perth & Kinross, and none of the islands
has a rail link (although the railheads at
Kyle of Lochalsh
Kyle of Lochalsh and
Mallaig principally serve the islands).
East Coast Main Line
East Coast Main Line crosses the
Firth of Forth
Firth of Forth by the Forth
Bridge. Completed in 1890, this cantilever bridge has been described
as "the one internationally recognised Scottish landmark".
Scotland's rail network is managed by
A Calmac ferry at Greenock
Regular ferry services operate between the Scottish mainland and
outlying islands. Ferries serving both the inner and outer Hebrides
are principally operated by the state-owned enterprise Caledonian
Services to the
Northern Isles are operated by Serco. Other routes,
served by multiple companies, connect southwest
Scotland to Northern
DFDS Seaways operate a freight-only service from Rosyth, near
Edinburgh, to Zeebrugge, Belgium.
Additional routes are operated by local authorities.
Main article: Renewable energy in Scotland
Increasing amounts of Scotland's electricity are generated through
solar power and wind power, a sizable proportion of Scotland's
electricity is generated that way.
United Kingdom portal
Celtic Studies portal
Ethnic groups in Europe
Outline of Scotland
^ "St Andrew—Quick Facts". Scotland. org—The Official Online
Gateway. Archived from the original on 11 November 2007. Retrieved 2
^ "St Andrew". Catholic Online. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
^ "St Margaret of Scotland". Catholic Online. Retrieved 15 November
^ "Patron saints". Catholic Online. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
^ "St Columba". Catholic Online. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
^ a b c "Ethnic groups, Scotland, 2001 and 2011" (PDF). The Scottish
Government. 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
^ "Scotland's Census 2011 – Table KS209SCb" (PDF).
scotlandscensus.gov.uk. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
^ Region and
Country Profiles, Key Statistics and Profiles, October
2013, ONS. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
^ "Scottish population rises to new record".
BBC News. BBC. 27 April
2017. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
^ "Population estimates by sex, age and administrative area, Scotland,
2011 and 2012". National Records of Scotland. 8 August 2013. Retrieved
8 August 2013.
^ a b Office for National Statistics. "Regional gross value added
(income approach), UK: 1997 to 2015, December 2015". Retrieved 24
^ a b c Scottish Government. "Key Economy Statistics". Retrieved 22
^ "European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages". Scottish
Government. Retrieved 23 October 2011. [dead link]
^ Macleod, Angus "Gaelic given official status" (22 April 2005) The
Times. London. Retrieved 2 August 2007.
Scotland becomes first part of UK to recognise signing for deaf as
official language". Herald Scotland. 2015. Retrieved 17 January
^ "The Countries of the UK". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved
24 June 2012.
^ "Countries within a country". 10 Downing Street. Archived from the
original on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2008. The United
Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Scotland,
ISO 3166-2 Newsletter Date: 28 November 2007 No I-9. "Changes in
the list of subdivision names and code elements" (Page 11)" (PDF).
International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization codes for the
representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part
Country subdivision codes. Retrieved 31 May 2008. SCT Scotland
^ "Scottish Executive Resources" (PDF).
Scotland in Short. Scottish
Executive. 17 February 2007. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
^ a b c d Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) Collins Encyclopaedia of
Scotland. London. HarperCollins.
^ a b c Mackie, J.D. (1969) A History of Scotland. London. Penguin.
Parliament and Ireland". London: The Houses of Parliament.
Retrieved 26 December 2016.
^ Collier, J. G. (2001) Conflict of Laws (Third edition)(pdf)
Cambridge University Press. "For the purposes of the English conflict
of laws, every country in the world which is not part of
Wales is a foreign country and its foreign laws. This means that not
only totally foreign independent countries such as France or
Russia ... are foreign countries but also
British Colonies such
as the Falkland Islands. Moreover, the other parts of the United
Scotland and Northern Ireland – are foreign
countries for present purposes, as are the other British Islands, the
Isle of Man,
Jersey and Guernsey."
^ Devine, T. M. (1999), The Scottish Nation 1700–2000, P.288–289,
ISBN 0-14-023004-1 "created a new and powerful local state run by
the Scottish bourgeoisie and reflecting their political and religious
values. It was this local state, rather than a distant and usually
indifferent Westminster authority, that in effect routinely governed
Devolution Settlement, Scotland". gov.uk. Retrieved 7 May
^ "Scottish MEPs". Europarl.org.uk. Archived from the original on 1
May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
Scotland / Alba". British-Irish Council. Retrieved 4 May
^ The History Of Ireland. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
^ Ayto, John; Ian Crofton. Brewer's Britain & Ireland: The
History, Culture, Folklore and Etymology of 7500 Places in These
Islands. WN. ISBN 0-304-35385-X.
^ The earliest known evidence is a flint arrowhead from Islay. See
Moffat, Alistair (2005) Before Scotland: The Story of
History. London. Thames & Hudson. Page 42.
^ Sites at
Cramond dated to 8500 BC and near Kinloch,
Rùm from 7700
BC provide the earliest known evidence of human occupation in
Scotland. See "The Megalithic
Portal and Megalith Map: Rubbish dump
reveals time-capsule of Scotland's earliest settlements"
megalithic.co.uk. Retrieved 10 February 2008 and Edwards, Kevin J. and
Whittington, Graeme "Vegetation Change" in Edwards, Kevin J. &
Ralston, Ian B.M. (Eds) (2003)
Scotland After the Ice Age:
Environment, Archaeology and History, 8000 BC–AD 1000. Edinburgh.
Edinburgh University Press. Page 70.
^ Pryor, Francis (2003). Britain BC. London: HarperPerennial.
pp. 98–104 & 246–250. ISBN 978-0-00-712693-4.
^ Keys, David (14 August 2009). "Ancient royal tomb found in
Scotland". The Independent. London. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
^ Brophy, Kenneth; Noble, Gordon; Driscoll, Stephen (2010). "The
Forteviot dagger burial". History Scotland. 10 (1): 12–13.
^ Koch, John. "O'Donnell Lecture 2008 Appendix" (PDF). University of
Wales. Retrieved 27 May 2010.
^ Koch, John (2009). Tartessian: Celtic from the Southwest at the Dawn
of History in Acta Palaeohispanica X Palaeohispanica 9 (2009) (PDF).
Palaeohispanica. pp. 339–351. ISSN 1578-5386. Retrieved 17
^ Koch, John. "New research suggests Welsh Celtic roots lie in Spain
and Portugal". The Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
^ Cunliffe, Barry (2008). A Race Apart: Insularity and Connectivity in
Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 75, 2009, pp. 55–64. The
Prehistoric Society. p. 61.
^ a b c d e Bryson 2010
^ a b "Skara Brae: The Discovery of the Village". Retrieved 17
^ "Roman film now online". Kinneil Estate, Bo'ness. Retrieved 22
^ a b "The Romans in Scotland". BBC.
^ Hanson, William S. The Roman Presence: Brief Interludes, in Edwards,
Kevin J. & Ralston, Ian B.M. (Eds) (2003).
Scotland After the Ice
Age: Environment, Archeology and History, 8000 BC—AD 1000.
Edinburgh University Press.
^ a b Snyder, Christopher A. (2003). The Britons. Blackwell
Publishing. ISBN 0-631-22260-X.
^ Robertson, Anne S. (1960). The Antonine Wall.
^ "Dalriada: The Land of the First Scots".
BBC – Legacies. Retrieved
4 January 2014.
^ "Scot (ancient people)". Encyclopædia Britannica.
^ Campbell, Ewan. (2001). "Were the Scots Irish?" in Antiquity No. 75.
^ Peter Heather, "State Formation in
Europe in the First Millennium
A.D.", in Barbara Crawford (ed.),
Scotland in Dark Ages Europe,
(Aberdeen, 1994), pp. 47–63
^ For instance, Alex Woolf, "The Verturian Hegemony: a mirror in the
North", in M. P. Brown & C. A. Farr, (eds.), Mercia: an
Anglo-Saxon Kingdom in Europe, (Leicester, 2001), pp. 106–11.
^ Brown, Dauvit (2001). "Kenneth mac Alpin". In M. Lynch. The Oxford
Companion to Scottish History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
p. 359. ISBN 978-0-19-211696-3.
^ Brown, Dauvit (1997). "Dunkeld and the origin of Scottish identity".
Innes Review. Glasgow: Scottish Catholic Historical Association (48):
112–124. reprinted in
Dauvit Broun and Thomas Owen Clancy
(eds.), (1999)Spes Scotorum: Hope of Scots, Edinburgh: T.&
T.Clark, pp. 95–111. ISBN 978-0-567-08682-2
^ Foster, Sally (1996). Picts,
Gaels and Scots (Historic Scotland).
London: Batsford. ISBN 978-0-7134-7485-5.
^ Withers, Charles, W.J. (1984). Gaelic in Scotland, 1698–1981.
Edinburgh: John Donald. pp. 16–41;.
^ a b Barrow, Geoffrey, W. S. (2005) . Robert Bruce & the
Community of the Realm of
Scotland (4th ed.).
Press. ISBN 0-7486-2022-2.
^ Thomas Owen Clancy. "Gaelic Scotland: a brief history". Bòrd na
Gàidhlig. Archived from the original on 11 September 2007. Retrieved
21 September 2007.
Scotland Conquered, 1174–1296". National Archives.
Scotland Regained, 1297–1328". National Archives of the United
^ Murison, A. F. (1899). King
Robert the Bruce
Robert the Bruce (reprint 2005 ed.).
Kessinger Publishing. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-4179-1494-4.
^ a b Grant, Alexander (6 June 1991) . Independence and
Nationhood: Scotland, 1306–1469 (New ed.).
Press. pp. 3–57. ISBN 978-0-7486-0273-5.
^ Wormald, Jenny (6 June 1991) . Court,
Kirk and Community:
Scotland (New ed.).
Edinburgh University Press.
^ "Medieval life Garde Ecossaise". Learning Scotland. Archived from
the original on 2 January 2012.
^ The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Warfare. DK Publishing. 2012.
^ "James IV, King of Scots 1488–1513". BBC.
^ "Battle of Flodden, (Sept. 9, 1513),". Encyclopædia
^ "The Scottish Reformation,".
^ "Religion, Marriage and Power in Scotland, 1503–1603". The
National Archives of the United Kingdom.
^ Ross, David (2002). Chronology of Scottish History. Geddes &
Grosset. p. 56. ISBN 1-85534-380-0. 1603: James VI becomes
James I of
England in the Union of the Crowns, and leaves Edinburgh
^ Cullen, Karen J. (15 February 2010). Famine in Scotland: The 'ill
Years' of The 1690s.
Edinburgh University Press. pp. 152–3.
^ "Why did the Scottish parliament accept the Treaty of Union?" (PDF).
Scottish Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2011.
Retrieved 1 May 2013.
^ "Popular Opposition to the Ratification of the Treaty of
Anglo-Scottish Union in 1706–7". scottishhistorysociety.com.
Scottish Historical Society. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
^ Devine, T. M. (1999). The Scottish Nation 1700–2000. Penguin
Books. p. 9. ISBN 0-14-023004-1. From that point on
anti-union demonstrations were common in the capital. In November
rioting spread to the south west, that stronghold of strict Calvinism
and covenanting tradition. The
Glasgow mob rose against union
sympathisers in disturbances that lasted intermittently for over a
^ "Act of Union 1707 Mob unrest and disorder". London: The House of
Lords. 2007. Archived from the original on 1 January 2008. Retrieved
23 December 2007.
^ "The Tobacco Lords: A study of the Tobacco Merchants of
Virginia Historical Society.
^ "Some Dates in Scottish History from 1745 to 1914 Archived 31
October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.", The University of Iowa.
^ "Enlightenment Scotland". Learning and Teaching Scotland.
^ Neil Davidson(2000). The Origins of Scottish Nationhood. London:
Pluto Press. pp. 94–95.
^ T. M. Devine and R. J. Finlay,
Scotland in the Twentieth Century
Edinburgh University Press, 1996), pp. 64–5.
^ F. Requejo and K-J Nagel, Federalism Beyond Federations: Asymmetry
and Processes of Re-symmetrization in
Europe (Aldershot: Ashgate,
2011), p. 39.
^ R. Quinault, "Scots on Top?
Tartan Power at Westminster
1707–2007", History Today, 2007 57(7): 30–36. ISSN 0018-2753
^ K. Kumar, The Making of English National Identity (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 2003), p. 183.
^ D. Howell, British Workers and the Independent Labour Party,
1888–1906 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984), p. 144.
^ J. F. MacKenzie, "The second city of the Empire:
imperial municipality", in F. Driver and D. Gilbert, eds, Imperial
Cities: Landscape, Display and Identity (2003), pp. 215–23.
^ J. Shields, Clyde Built: a History of Ship-Building on the River
^ C. H. Lee,
Scotland and the United Kingdom: the Economy and the
Union in the Twentieth Century (1995), p. 43.
^ M. Magnusson (10 November 2003), "Review of James Buchan, Capital of
the Mind: how
Edinburgh Changed the World", New Statesman, archived
from the original on 29 May 2011
^ E. Wills, Scottish Firsts: a Celebration of Innovation and
Achievement (Edinbugh: Mainstream, 2002).
^ K. S. Whetter (2008), Understanding Genre and Medieval Romance,
Ashgate, p. 28
^ N. Davidson (2000), The Origins of Scottish Nationhood, Pluto Press,
^ "Cultural Profile: 19th and early 20th century developments",
Visiting Arts: Scotland: Cultural Profile, archived from the original
on 5 November 2011
^ Stephan Tschudi-Madsen, The
Art Nouveau Style: a Comprehensive Guide
(Courier Dover, 2002), pp. 283–4.
^ J. L. Roberts, The Jacobite Wars, pp. 193–5.
^ M. Sievers, The Highland Myth as an Invented Tradition of 18th and
19th century and Its Significance for the Image of
Verlag, 2007), pp. 22–5.
^ P. Morère,
Scotland and France in the Enlightenment (Bucknell
University Press, 2004), pp. 75–6.
^ William Ferguson, The identity of the Scottish Nation: an Historic
Edinburgh University Press, 1998), p. 227.
^ Divine, Scottish Nation pp. 292–95.
^ M. Gray, The Highland Economy, 1750–1850 (Greenwood, 1976).
^ E. Richards, The Highland Clearances: People, Landlords and Rural
^ J. Wormald, Scotland: a History (2005), p. 229.
^ A. K. Cairncross, The Scottish Economy: A Statistical Account of
Scottish Life by Members of the Staff of
Glasgow University (Glasgow:
Glasgow University Press, 1953), p. 10.
^ R. A. Houston and W. W. Knox, eds, The New Penguin History of
Scotland (Penguin, 2001), p. xxxii.
^ G. Robb, "Popular Religion and the Christianization of the Scottish
Highlands in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries", Journal of
Religious History, 1990, 16(1): 18–34.
^ a b J. T. Koch, Celtic Culture: a Historical Encyclopedia, Volumes
1–5 (ABC-CLIO, 2006), pp. 416–7.
^ T. M. Devine, The Scottish Nation, pp. 91–100.
^ Paul L. Robertson, "The Development of an Urban University: Glasgow,
1860–1914", History of Education Quarterly, Winter 1990, vol. 30
(1), pp. 47–78.
^ M. F. Rayner-Canham and G. Rayner-Canham, Chemistry was Their Life:
Pioneering British Women Chemists, 1880–1949, (Imperial College
Press, 2008), p. 264.
^ Richard J. Finlay, Modern
Scotland 1914–2000 (2006), pp 1–33
^ R. A. Houston and W. W. J. Knox, eds. The New Penguin History of
Scotland (2001) p 426.
Niall Ferguson points out in "The Pity of
War" that the proportion of enlisted Scots who died was third highest
in the war behind Serbia and Turkey and a much higher proportion than
in other parts of the UK. 
^ Iain McLean, The Legend of
Red Clydeside (1983)
^ Finlay, Modern
Scotland 1914–2000 (2006), pp 34–72
^ Richard J. Finlay, "
National identity in Crisis: Politicians,
Intellectuals and the 'End of Scotland', 1920–1939", History, June
1994, Vol. 79 Issue 256, pp 242–59
^ a b
^ a b http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/landscapes/clydebank_blitz/
^ J. Leasor Rudolf Hess: The Uninvited Envoy (Kelly Bray: House of
Stratus, 2001), ISBN 0-7551-0041-7, p. 15.
^ Evans 2008, p. 168.
^ Sereny 1996, p. 240.
^ P. Wykeham, Fighter Command (Manchester: Ayer, rpt., 1979),
ISBN 0-405-12209-8, p. 87.
^ a b J. Buchanan,
Scotland (Langenscheidt, 3rd edn., 2003),
ISBN 981-234-950-2, p. 51.
^ J. Creswell, Sea Warfare 1939–1945 (Berkeley, University of
California Press, 2nd edn., 1967), p. 52.
^ D. Howarth, The
Shetland Bus: A WWII Epic of Escape, Survival, and
Adventure (Guilford, Delaware: Lyons Press, 2008),
^ T. M. Devine, The Scottish Nation, 1700–2000 (London: Penguin
Books, 2001), ISBN 0-14-100234-4, pp. 549–50.
^ Harvie, Christopher No Gods and Precious Few Heroes (Edward Arnold,
1989) pp 54–63.
^ Stewart, Heather (6 May 2007). "Celtic Tiger Burns Brighter at
Holyrood". The Guardian.
^ "National Planning Framework for Scotland". Retrieved 17 September
^ Torrance, David (30 March 2009). "Modern myth of a poll tax test-bed
lives on". The Scotsman. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
^ "The poll tax in
Scotland 20 years on".
BBC News. BBC. 1 April 2009.
Retrieved 17 September 2014.
Scotland Act 1998" Office of Public Sector Information.
Retrieved 22 April 2008.
Devolution > Scottish responsibilities" Scottish Government
publication, (web-page last updated November 2010)
^ a b Whitaker's Almanack (1991) London. J. Whitaker and Sons.
^ North Channel, Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
^ "Uniting the Kingdoms?". Retrieved 17 September 2014.
^ See "Centre of Scotland" Newtonmore.com. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
^ Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland.
London. HarperCollins. Pages 734 and 930.
^ "Tay". Encarta. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved
21 March 2008.
^ "Southern Uplands". Tiscali.co.uk. 16 November 1990. Archived from
the original on 28 November 2004. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
Standard Grade Bitesize Revision – Ask a
Teacher – Geography – Physical – Question From PN". BBC.
Retrieved 11 June 2009.
^ a b "
Scotland Today " ITKT". Intheknowtraveler.com. 28 December
2006. Archived from the original on 6 January 2007. Retrieved 11 June
^ Murray, W.H. (1973) The Islands of Western Scotland. London. Eyre
Methuen ISBN 978-0-413-30380-6
^ Murray, W.H. (1968) The Companion Guide to the West Highlands of
Scotland. London. Collins. ISBN 0-00-211135-7
^ Johnstone, Scott et al. (1990) The Corbetts and Other Scottish
Hills. Edinburgh. Scottish Mountaineering Trust. Page 9.
BBC Weather: UK Records". BBC.co.uk. Archived from the original on
2 December 2010. Retrieved 21 September 2007. The same
temperature was also recorded in
Braemar on 10 January 1982 and at
Altnaharra, Highland, on 30 December 1995.
^ a b "Weather extremes". Met Office. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
^ "Western Scotland: climate". Archived from the original on 8 October
2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
^ a b "Eastern Scotland: climate". Archived from the original on 8
October 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
^ "Scottish Weather Part One". BBC. Archived from the original on 26
January 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2007.
^ Fraser Darling, F. & Boyd, J. M. (1969) Natural History in the
Highlands and Islands. London. Bloomsbury.
^ Benvie, Neil (2004) Scotland's Wildlife. London. Aurum Press.
ISBN 1-85410-978-2 p. 12.
^ "State of the Park Report. Chapter 2: Natural Resources"(pdf) (2006)
Cairngorms National Park Authority. Retrieved 14 October 2007.
^ Preston, C. D., Pearman, D. A., & Dines, T. D. (2002) New Atlas
of the British and Irish Flora. Oxford University Press.
^ Gooders, J. (1994) Field Guide to the Birds of Britain and Ireland.
^ Matthews, L. H. (1968) British Mammals. London. Bloomsbury.
^ WM Adams (2003). Future nature:a vision for conservation.
p. 30. ISBN 978-1-85383-998-6. Retrieved 10 January
Scotland Sea Eagles" RSPB. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
^ Ross, John (29 December 2006). "Mass slaughter of the red kites".
The Scotsman. Edinburgh.
^ Ross, David (26 November 2009) "Wild Boar: our new eco warriors" The
^ "Beavers return after 400-year gap".
BBC News. 29 May 2009.
Retrieved 5 December 2009.
^ Integrated Upland Management for Wildlife, Field Sports, Agriculture
& Public Enjoyment (pdf) (September 1999) Scottish Natural
Heritage. Retrieved 14 October 2007.
^ "The Fortingall Yew". Archived from the original on 6 December 2008.
Retrieved 17 September 2014.
Scotland remains home to Britain's tallest tree as Dughall Mor
reaches new heights". Forestry Commission. Archived from the original
on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2008.
^ Copping, Jasper (4 June 2011) "Britain's record-breaking trees
identified" London. The Telegraph. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
Scotland has so many mosses and liverworts". Retrieved 17
^ "Bryology (mosses, liverworts and hornworts)". Retrieved 17
^ "Scotland's Census 2011 - National Records of
Scotland Table KS201SC
- Ethnic group - Release 3A". National Records for Scotland.
2014-02-27. Retrieved 2014-02-27. [dead link]
^ "Scotland's Population at its Highest Ever". National Records of
Scotland. 30 April 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
^ Census 2011: Detailed characteristics on Ethnicity, Identity,
Religion in Scotland
Religion in Scotland – Release 3A.
2011. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
^ "Did You Know?—Scotland's Cities". Retrieved 17 September
^ Clapperton, C.M. (ed) (1983) Scotland: A New Study. London. David
^ Miller, J. (2004) Inverness. Edinburgh. Birlinn.
^ "New Towns". Retrieved 17 September 2014.
Scotland speaks Urdu". Retrieved 17 September 2014.
^ The Pole Position (6 August 2005). Glasgow. Sunday Herald newspaper.
^ Gaelic Language Plan, www.gov.scot. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
^ Scots Language Policy, www.gov.scot. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
^ Stuart-Smith J. Scottish English: Phonology in Varieties of English:
The British Isles, Kortman & Upton (Eds), Mouton de Gruyter, New
York 2008. p.47
^ Stuart-Smith J. Scottish English: Phonology in Varieties of English:
The British Isles, Kortman & Upton (Eds), Mouton de Gruyter, New
York 2008. p.48
^ Macafee C. Scots in Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, Vol.
11, Elsevier, Oxford, 2005. p.33
^ "Scotland's Census 2011". National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 27
^ Kenneth MacKinnon. "A Century on the Census—Gaelic in Twentieth
Century Focus". University of Glasgow. Archived from the original on 5
September 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2007.
^ "Can TV's evolution ignite a Gaelic revolution?". The Scotsman. 16
^ The US Census 2000. The  American Community Survey 2004 by the US
Census Bureau estimates 5,752,571 people claiming Scottish ancestry
and 5,323,888 people claiming Scotch-Irish ancestry. "Archived copy".
Archived from the original on 8 January 2012. Retrieved 5 February
2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ "The Scotch-Irish". American Heritage Magazine. 22 (1). December
1970. Archived from the original on 20 October 2010.
^ "Born Fighting: How the Scots-Irish Shaped America". Powells.com. 12
August 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
^ "Scots-Irish By Alister McReynolds, writer and lecturer in
Ulster-Scots studies". Nitakeacloserlook.gov.uk. Archived from the
original on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
^ "2006 Canadian Census". 2 April 2008. Retrieved 17 September
^ Linguistic Archaeology: The Scottish Input to
New Zealand English
Phonology Trudgill et al. Journal of English Linguistics.2003; 31:
^ a b "Scotland's population reaches record of high of 5.25 million".
The Courier. 3 August 2012. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
^ "Scotland's Population 2011: The Registrar General's Annual Review
of Demographic Trends 157th Edition". Gro-gov.scot. Retrieved 1 May
^ "Table Q1: Births, stillbirths, deaths, marriages and civil
partnerships, numbers and rates, Scotland, quarterly, 2002 to 2012"
(PDF). General Register Office for Scotland. Retrieved 1 May
2011 Census population data for localities in Scotland. Retrieved 10
^ a b Life Expectancy for Areas within
Scotland 2012–2014 (PDF)
(Report). National Records of Scotland. 13 October 2015. p. 5.
Retrieved 22 March 2017.
^ a b "Scotland's Census 2011" (PDF). National Records of Scotland.
Retrieved 11 August 2016.
Church of Scotland
Church of Scotland 'struggling to stay alive'". scotsman.com.
^ "Survey indicates 1.5 million Scots identify with Church".
www.churchofscotland.org.uk. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
^ Andrew Collier, "Scotland's Confident Catholics",
The Tablet 10
January 2009, 16.
Scottish Episcopal Church
Scottish Episcopal Church could be first in UK to conduct same-sex
weddings". Scottish Legal News. 20 May 2016. Retrieved 1 October
^ a b "Analysis of Religion in the 2001 Census". General Register
Office for Scotland. Retrieved 26 September 2007.
^ "In the Scottish Lowlands, Europe's first Buddhist monastery turns
40". Retrieved 17 September 2014.
HC Deb vol 514 cc 199–201, 15 April 1953, Prime Minister Winston
^ "Opening of Parliament: Procession of the Crown of Scotland".
Scottish Parliament. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
^ "Government of
Scotland Facts". Archived from the original on 3 May
2010. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
^ "Brown opens door to Holyrood tax powers". Sunday Herald. 16
February 2008. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
^ Fraser, Douglas (2 February 2016). "Scotland's tax powers: What it
has and what's coming?".
BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
BBC Scotland News Online "
Scotland begins pub smoking ban", BBC
Scotland News, 26 March 2006. Retrieved 17 July 2006.
^ "People: Who runs the Scottish Government". Scottish Government. 21
November 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
^ "Deputy First Minister". Gov.scot. 24 May 2016. Retrieved 11 August
^ "The Scottish Government". Beta.gov.scot. Retrieved 11 August
^ a b "General election 2017: SNP lose a third of seats amid Tory
BBC News. BBC. 9 June 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
^ "Election 2015: SNP wins 56 of 59 seats in Scots landslide". BBC
News. BBC. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
Scotland Office Charter".
Scotland Office website. 9 August 2004.
Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 22 December
^ a b http://www.gov.scot/topics/archive/About-Archive/11556
^ a b https://firstminister.gov.scot/first-minister-in-dublin-day-2/
^ Cavanagh, Michael (2001) The Campaigns for a Scottish Parliament.
University of Strathclyde. Retrieved 12 April 2008.
^ "Party people confront new realities".
BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 18
^ "Commons clears transfer of power". The Herald. Glasgow. January
2011. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
^ "Referendum Bill". Official website, About > Programme for
Government > 2009–10 > Summaries of Bills > Referendum
Bill. Scottish Government. 2 September 2009. Archived from the
original on 10 September 2009. Retrieved 10 September 2009.
^ MacLeod, Angus (3 September 2009). "Salmond to push ahead with
referendum Bill". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 10
September 2009. Retrieved 10 September 2009.
Scottish independence plan 'an election issue'".
BBC News. 6
^ Black, Andrew (21 March 2013). "Scottish independence: Referendum to
be held on 18 September, 2014".
BBC News. London. Retrieved 21 March
Scotland votes no: the union has survived, but the questions for
the left are profound". The Guardian. 19 September 2014.
^ Indyref. "
Scotland decides". BBC. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
^ Scottish Independence Referendum: statement by the Prime Minister,
^ a b Scottish referendum: Who is Lord Smith of Kelvin?,
^ "Scottish Leader
Nicola Sturgeon Announces Plans for Second
Independence Referendum". Time. 24 June 2016. Retrieved 24 June
Nicola Sturgeon says second
Scottish independence vote
BBC News. 24 June 2016. Retrieved 24 June
^ "Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994" Archived 1 March 2010 at
the Wayback Machine. Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 26
^ "City status". Retrieved 17 September 2014.
^ "UK Cities". Retrieved 17 September 2014.
^ "History of the Faculty of Law". The University of
of Law. Archived from the original on 22 November 2007. Retrieved 22
^ The Articles: legal and miscellaneous, UK
Parliament House of Lords
(2007). "Article 19: The Scottish legal system and its courts was to
remain unchanged":"Act of Union 1707". House of Lords. Archived from
the original on 14 November 2007. Retrieved 22 October 2007.
^ "Law and institutions, Gaelic" & "Law and lawyers" in M. Lynch
(ed.), The Oxford Companion to Scottish History, (Oxford, 2001), pp.
381–382 & 382–386. Udal Law remains relevant to land law in
Orkney and Shetland: "A General History of Scots Law (20th century)"
(PDF). Law Society of Scotland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25
September 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2007.
^ "Court Information" www.scotcourts.gov.uk. Retrieved 26 September
207. Archived 20 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "The case for keeping 'not proven' verdict". Retrieved 17 September
^ "Scotland's unique 15-strong juries will not be abolished". The
Scotsman. 11 May 2009. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
^ "Prisoner Population". Sps.gov.uk. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
Highlands and Islands
Highlands and Islands Medical Service (HIMS)
www.60yearsofnhsscotland.co.uk. Retrieved 28 July 2008.
^ "Cabinet and ministers – gov.scot". beta.gov.scot. Retrieved 11
^ "Strategic Board of the Scottish Government". Scottish Government.
Retrieved 8 June 2014.
^ "About the NHS in Scotland". Archived from the original on 28 June
2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
^ Centre for Economics & Business Research. "How money in some
regions subsidises others". Archived from the original on 12 October
2013. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
^ "Government Expenditure & Revenue
Scotland 2012–13". p. 4.
Retrieved 12 March 2014.
^ Johnson, Simon (12 March 2014) "Scots Each Receive £1,300 More
Spending Despite Oil Tax Drop". The Daily Telegraph.
^ Scottish Government. "Scotland's Balance Sheet" (PDF). Retrieved 12
^ "Scotland's GDP 2016 Q4" (5 April 2017). Scottish Government.
^ BBC. "Scottish economic output falls by 0.2%". Retrieved 7 April
^ Scottish Office. "Scottish Labour Market Statistics September 2015".
Retrieved 15 January 2016.
^ Askeland, Erikka (20 March 2012) "Scots Cities Slide down Chart of
the World's Top Financial Centres". The Scotsman.
Global Financial Centres Index 19". Long Finance. March
^ Scottish Government. "Export Statistics
Scotland – Publication".
Retrieved 14 December 2014.
^ a b "Economy Statistics". The Scottish Government. Retrieved 26 May
^ Macalister, Terry (2 March 2012). "Who would get the oil revenues if
Scotland became independent?". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 October
Whisky Exports Hit Record Level". Scotch
2 April 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
Whisky Exports Remain Flat".
BBC News. Retrieved 17
Whisky Briefing 2014". Scotch
Whisky Association. Retrieved
30 May 2014.
^ Carrell, Severin; Griffiths, Ian; Terry Macalister, Terry (29 May
2014). "New Doubt Cast over Alex Salmond's Claims of Scottish Wealth".
The Guardian. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
^ "The Economics of Tourism" (PDF). SPICe. 2002. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 6 November 2005. Retrieved 22 October 2007.
^ "Scottish Banknotes: The Treasury's Symbolic Hostage in the
Independence Debate". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
^ The large number of military bases in
Scotland led some to use the
euphemism "Fortress Scotland". See Spaven, Malcolm (1983) Fortress
Scotland. London. Pluto Press in association with Scottish CND.
^ "Pensioner, 94, in nuclear protest". Retrieved 17 September
^ "Reprieve for
RAF Lossiemouth base". Retrieved 17 September
^ "Dunoon and the US Navy". Retrieved 17 September 2014.
^ "A Guide to Education and Training in
Scotland – "the broad
education long regarded as characteristic of Scotland"". Scottish
Government. Retrieved 18 October 2007.
^ P. J. Bawcutt and J. H. Williams, A Companion to Medieval Scottish
Poetry (Woodbridge: Brewer, 2006), ISBN 1-84384-096-0,
^ R. A. Houston, Scottish Literacy and the Scottish Identity:
Illiteracy and Society in
Scotland and Northern England, 1600–1800
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002),
ISBN 0-521-89088-8, p. 5.
^ "School education prior to 1873", Scottish Archive Network, 2010,
archived from the original on 2 July 2011
^ R. Anderson, "The history of Scottish Education pre-1980", in T. G.
K. Bryce and W. M. Humes, eds, Scottish Education: Post-Devolution
Edinburgh University Press, 2nd edn., 2003),
ISBN 0-7486-1625-X, pp. 219–28.
^ "Schools and schooling" in M. Lynch (ed.), The Oxford Companion to
Scottish History, (Oxford, 2001), pp. 561–563.
Curriculum for Excellence – Aims, Purposes and Principles".
Scottish Government. Archived from the original on 1 August
^ "The Scottish Exam System". Archived from the original on 14
February 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
^ "Welcome to the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland".
Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland. Archived from the
original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 18 October 2007.
^ "Understanding Scottish Qualifications". Scottish Agricultural
College. Archived from the original on 22 May 2012. Retrieved 18
^ "RAE 2008: results for UK universities". The Guardian. London. 18
December 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
^ Foster, Patrick. "
The Times Good University Guide 2009 – league
table". The Times. London. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
Scotland tops global university rankings". Newsnet Scotland. 11
September 2012. Archived from the original on 9 March 2013. Retrieved
11 January 2013.
^ "A Framework for Higher Education in Scotland: Higher Education
Review Phase 2". Scottish Government. Retrieved 18 October 2007.
^ "What is higher education?" (PDF). Universities Scotland. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 16 March 2004. Retrieved 18 October
Scottish Government – Graduate endowment scrapped". Retrieved 29
^ "MSPs vote to scrap endowment fee".
BBC News. 2008-02-28. Retrieved
^ Cite error: The named reference NS122015 was invoked but never
defined (see the help page).
^ ITV (5 June 2014). "
Scotland 'most highly educated country in
Europe'". Retrieved 8 June 2014.
^ "Tertiary educational attainment, age group 25–64 by sex and NUTS
2 regions". Eurostat. 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
^ "Best Scottish Band of All Time". The List. Retrieved 2 August
^ R. T. Lambdin and L. C. Lambdin, Encyclopedia of Medieval Literature
(London: Greenwood, 2000), ISBN 0-313-30054-2, p. 508.
^ I. Brown, T. Owen Clancy, M. Pittock, S. Manning, eds, The Edinburgh
History of Scottish Literature: From Columba to the Union, until 1707
Edinburgh University Press, 2007),
ISBN 0-7486-1615-2, p. 94.
^ J. T. Koch, Celtic Culture: a Historical Encyclopedia (ABC-CLIO,
2006), ISBN 1-85109-440-7, p. 999.
^ E. M. Treharne, Old and Middle English c.890-c.1400: an Anthology
(Wiley-Blackwell, 2004), ISBN 1-4051-1313-8, p. 108.
^ M. Fry,
Edinburgh (London: Pan Macmillan, 2011),
^ N. Jayapalan, History of English Literature (Atlantic, 2001),
ISBN 81-269-0041-5, p. 23.
^ J. Wormald, Court, Kirk, and Community: Scotland, 1470–1625
Edinburgh University Press, 1991),
ISBN 0-7486-0276-3, pp. 60–7.
^ I. Brown, T. Owen Clancy, M. Pittock, S. Manning, eds, The Edinburgh
History of Scottish Literature: From Columba to the Union, until 1707
Edinburgh University Press, 2007),
ISBN 0-7486-1615-2, pp. 256–7.
^ R. D. S. Jack, "Poetry under King James VI", in C. Cairns, ed., The
History of Scottish Literature (
Aberdeen University Press, 1988), vol.
1, ISBN 0-08-037728-9, pp. 137–8.
^ J. Buchan (2003). Crowded with Genius. Harper Collins. p. 163.
^ L. McIlvanney (Spring 2005). "Hugh Blair, Robert Burns, and the
Invention of Scottish Literature". Eighteenth-Century Life. 29 (2):
^ N. Davidson (2000). The Origins of Scottish Nationhood. Pluto Press.
p. 136. ISBN 0-7453-1608-5.
^ "Cultural Profile: 19th and early 20th century developments".
Visiting Arts: Scotland: Cultural Profile. Archived from the original
on 5 November 2011.
^ a b "The Scottish 'Renaissance' and beyond". Visiting Arts:
Scotland: Cultural Profile. Archived from the original on 5 November
^ "The Scots Makar". The Scottish Government. 16 February 2004.
Archived from the original on 5 November 2011. Retrieved 28 October
^ "Duffy reacts to new Laureate post".
BBC News. 1 May 2009. Archived
from the original on 5 November 2011.
^ Harvey, David; Jones, Rhys; McInroy, Neil; et al., eds. (2002).
Celtic geographies: old culture, new times. Stroud, Gloucestershire:
Routledge. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-415-22396-6.
^ Pittock, Murray (1999). Celtic identity and the British image.
Manchester: Manchester University Press. pp. 1–5.
^ "Celtic connections:Scotland's premier winter music festival".
Celtic connections website. Celtic Connections. 2010. Retrieved 23
Hebridean Celtic Festival 2010 – the biggest homecoming party of
Hebridean Celtic Festival website. Hebridean Celtic
Festival. 2009. Retrieved 23 January 2010.
^ "Site Officiel du Festival Interceltique de Lorient". Festival
Interceltique de Lorient website. Festival Interceltique de Lorient.
2009. Archived from the original on 5 March 2010. Retrieved 23 January
^ "Welcome to the Pan Celtic 2010 Home Page".
Pan Celtic Festival
Pan Celtic Festival 2010
website. Fáilte Ireland. 2010. Retrieved 26 January 2010.
^ "About the Festival". National Celtic Festival website. National
Celtic Festival. 2009. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012.
Retrieved 23 January 2010.
Saint Andrew seals Scotland's independence" Archived 16
September 2013 at the Wayback Machine., The National Archives of
Scotland, 28 November 2007, retrieved 12 September 2009.
Saint Andrew seals Scotland's independence". The National
Archives of Scotland. 28 November 2007. Archived from the original on
16 September 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
^ Dickinson, Donaldson, Milne (eds.), A Source Book Of Scottish
History, Nelson and Sons Ltd,
Edinburgh 1952, p.205
^ G. Bartram, www.flaginstitute.org British Flags & Emblems
Archived 9 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine. (Edinburgh: Tuckwell
Press, 2004), ISBN 1-86232-297-X, p. 10.
^ "National identity" in M. Lynch (ed.), The Oxford Companion to
Scottish History, (Oxford, 2001), pp. 437–444.
^ Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland.
London. HarperCollins. Page 936.
^ "Symbols of Scotland—Index". Retrieved 17 September 2014.
^ Bain, Robert (1959). Margaret O. MacDougall (ed.), ed. Clans &
Scotland (revised). P.E. Stewart-Blacker (heralidic
advisor), forward by The R. Hon. C/refountess of Erroll. William
Collins Sons & Co., Ltd. p. 108. CS1 maint: Extra text:
editors list (link)
^ "Action call over national anthem".
BBC News. 21 March 2006.
Retrieved 3 November 2011.
^ "Games team picks new Scots anthem". BBC. 9 January 2010.
^ "Explanatory Notes to
St. Andrew's Day
St. Andrew's Day Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act
2007" Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 22 September
^ "Scottish fact of the week: Scotland's official animal, the
Unicorn". Retrieved 17 September 2014.
^ Gail Kilgore. "The
Auld Alliance and its Influence on Scottish
Cuisine". Retrieved 29 July 2006.
^ "Who invented the television? How people reacted to John Logie
Baird's creation 90 years ago". The Telegraph. 26 January 2016.
^ a b "Newspapers and National Identity in Scotland" (PDF). IFLA
University of Stirling. Retrieved 12 December 2006.
^ "About Us::Celtic Media Festival".
Celtic Media Festival
Celtic Media Festival website.
Celtic Media Festival. 2014. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
^ Soccer in South Asia: Empire, Nation, Diaspora by James Mills, Paul
Dimeo: Page 18 – Oldest Football Association is England's FA, then
Scotland and third oldest is the Indian FA.
^ Gerhardt, W. "The colourful history of a fascinating game. More than
2000 Years of Football". FIFA. Archived from the original on 10 August
2006. Retrieved 11 August 2006.
^ "Official site of the Tennents Scottish Cup". The Tennents Scottish
Cup. Retrieved 10 December 2006.
^ Paul Mitchell. "The first international football match". BBC.
Retrieved 21 September 2014.
Scotland is the home of golf".
PGA Tour official website. Archived
from the original on 28 August 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2008.
Scotland is the home of golf...
^ "The Home of Golf". Scottish Government. Retrieved 4 December 2008.
The Royal & Ancient and three public sector agencies are to
continue using the Open Championship to promote
Scotland as the
worldwide home of golf.
^ Keay (1994) op cit page 839. "In 1834 the Royal and Ancient Golf
St. Andrews 'the Alma Mater of golf'".
^ Cochrane, Alistair (ed) Science and
Golf IV: proceedings of the
World Scientific Congress of Golf. Page 849. Routledge.
^ Forrest L. Richardson (2002). "Routing the
Golf Course: The Art
& Science That Forms the
Golf Journey". p. 46. John Wiley &
The Open Championship
The Open Championship – More Scottish than British Archived 2
October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. PGA Tour. Retrieved 23 September
^ "Medal Tally". Retrieved 17 September 2014.
^ "Overview and History". Retrieved 17 September 2014.
^ "The Scotsman" 27 March 2007. "
Special Report—Business Class"
Highlands and Islands
Highlands and Islands Airports Airport Information". Retrieved 17
^ "Prestwick Airport to be nationalised in bid to safeguard jobs". The
Herald. 8 October 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
^ "Disaggregating Network Rail's expenditure and revenue allowance and
future price control framework: a consultation (June 2005)" Office of
Rail Regulation. Retrieved 2 November 2007.
^ a b "Rail". www.transport.gov.scot.
Transport Scotland. Retrieved 15
^ Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland.
London. HarperCollins.ISBN 0-00-255082-2
^ 'Extraordinary' month for Scottish renewable energy BBC
Devine, T. M.  (2000). The Scottish Nation 1700–2000 (New Ed.
edition). London:Penguin. ISBN 0-14-023004-1
Donnachie, Ian and George Hewitt. Dictionary of Scottish History.
(2001). 384 pp.
Keay, John, and Julia Keay. Collins Encyclopedia of
Scotland (2nd ed.
2001), 1101pp; 4000 articles; emphasis on history
Koch, J. T. Celtic Culture: a Historical Encyclopedia (ABC-CLIO,
2006), ISBN 1-85109-440-7, 999pp
Tabraham, Chris, and Colin Baxter. The Illustrated History of Scotland
(2004) excerpt and text search
Trevor-Roper, Hugh, The Invention of Scotland: Myth and History, Yale,
2008, ISBN 0-300-13686-2
Watson, Fiona, Scotland; From Prehistory to the Present. Tempus, 2003.
Wilson, Neil. Lonely Planet
Scotland (2013) excerpt and text
Wormald, Jenny, The New
History of Scotland
History of Scotland (2005) excerpt and text
Brown, Dauvit, (1999) Anglo-French acculturation and the Irish element
in Scottish Identity in Smith, Brendan (ed.), Insular Responses to
Medieval European Change, Cambridge University Press,
Brown, Michael (2004) The Wars of Scotland, 1214–1371, Edinburgh
University Press., pp. 157–254
Dumville, David N. (2001). "St Cathróe of Metz and the Hagiography of
Exoticism". Irish Hagiography: Saints and Scholars. Dublin: Four
Courts Press. pp. 172–176. ISBN 978-1-85182-486-1.
Flom, George Tobias. Scandinavian influence on Southern Lowland
Scotch. A Contribution to the Study of the Linguistic Relations of
English and Scandinavian (Columbia University Press, New York. 1900)
Herbert, Maire (2000). "Rí Érenn, Rí Alban, kingship and identity
in the ninth and tenth centuries". In Simon Taylor (ed.). Kings,
Clerics and Chronicles in Scotland, 500–1297. Dublin: Four Courts
Press. pp. 63–72. ISBN 1-85182-516-9. CS1 maint:
Extra text: editors list (link)
MacLeod, Wilson (2004) Divided Gaels: Gaelic Cultural Identities in
Scotland and Ireland: c.1200–1650. Oxford University Press.
Pope, Robert (ed.), Religion and National Identity:
Scotland, c.1700–2000 (University of
Wales Press, 2001)
Sharp, L. W. The Expansion of the English Language in Scotland,
(Cambridge University PhD thesis, 1927), pp. 102–325;
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Scotland.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Scotland.
Find more aboutScotlandat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Data from Wikidata
Visit Scotland, official site of Scotland's national tourist board.
Maps and digital collections at the National Library of Scotland.
National Archives of Scotland, official site of the National Archives
Scotland at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Scottish Census Results On Line, official government site for
Scotland's census results.
Scottish economic statistics from the Scottish Government.
Scottish Government, official site of the Scottish Government.
Scotland.org, the official online gateway to
Scotland managed by the
Scottish Parliament, official site of the Scottish Parliament.
ScotlandsPeople, official government resource for Scottish genealogy.
statistics.gov.scot, open access to a range of official statistics
Scotland including small area statistics.
Gazetteer for Scotland, an extensive guide to the places and people of
Scotland by the
Royal Scottish Geographical Society
Royal Scottish Geographical Society and University of
Streets of Scotland, photos from Scotland's streets.
Geographic data related to
Scotland at OpenStreetMap
Links to related articles
List of topics
Early Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
Wars of Independence
Late Middle Ages
Colonisation of the Americas
1707 Acts of Union
Mountains and hills
Secretary of State
College of Justice
Bank of Scotland
North Sea oil
Royal Bank of Scotland
Inventions and discoveries
Royal National Mòd
coat of arms
World Heritage Sites
British Sign Language
Church of Scotland
Scottish Episcopal Church
United Kingdom (England
Isle of Man
United Kingdom relations
British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference
British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly
Common Travel Area
Islands of the Clyde
Isle of Man
Isles of Scilly
Lists of islands of
Bailiwick of Guernsey
Bailiwick of Jersey
Isle of Man
Isle of Man
Irish Free State
Kingdom of England
Principality of Wales
Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Ireland
Kingdom of Scotland
United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Ireland
British Sign Language
Irish Sign Language
Northern Ireland Sign Language
British Virgin Islanders
Hongkongers (British Nationals (Overseas))
Turks and Caicos Islanders
Celtic League definition
Isle of Man
Breton nationalism (history)
Irish nationalism (incl. Republicanism)
Brythonic (Breton, Cornish & Welsh)
Goidelic (Irish, Manx & Scottish Gaelic)
Shelta & Bungee)
Britons (Bretons, Cornish & Welsh)
Gaels (Irish incl. Irish Travellers, Manx & Highland Scots incl.
Isle of Man
Isle of Man
Festival Interceltique de Lorient
Pan Celtic Festival
Hebridean Celtic Festival
Celtic Media Festival
Gaelic football (Ladies')
Good Friday Agreement
Isle of Man
Government of the United Kingdom
Government of Ireland
Policy Council of Guernsey
Isle of Man
Isle of Man Government
Council of Ministers of Jersey
Northern Ireland Executive
Indigenous, minority and lesser-used languages
Misuse of drugs
Representatives of states
Council areas of Scotland
Argyll and Bute
Dumfries and Galloway
Na h-Eileanan Siar (Western Isles)
Perth and Kinross
List by area, population, density
Click on a coloured area to see an article about English in that
country or region
History of the English language
English in the Commonwealth of Nations
List of countries by English-speaking population
List of countries where English is an official language
Countries and territories where English is the national language or
the native language of the majority
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Antigua and Barbuda
British Virgin Islands
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Trinidad and Tobago
Turks and Caicos Islands
United States Virgin Islands
Isle of Man
Countries and territories where English is an official language, but
not the majority first language
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Special Administrative Region
Northern Mariana Islands
Papua New Guinea
Dependencies shown in italics.