HOME
The Info List - Scotland



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

SCOTLAND (/ˈskɒt.lənd/ ; Scots : ; Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
: _ Alba
Alba
_ ( listen )) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
. It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides
Hebrides
.

The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI , King of Scots , became King of England and King of Ireland
Ireland
, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms . Scotland
Scotland
subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England
England
on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain
Great Britain
. The union also created a new Parliament
Parliament
of Great Britain , which succeeded both the Parliament
Parliament
of Scotland
Scotland
and the Parliament
Parliament
of England
England
. In 1801, Great Britain
Great Britain
itself entered into a political union with the Kingdom of Ireland to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland
Ireland
.

Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
has continued to use a variety of styles, titles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland. The legal system within Scotland
Scotland
has also remained separate from those of England
England
and Wales and Northern Ireland
Ireland
; Scotland
Scotland
constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law. The continued existence of legal , educational , religious and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England.

In 1997, a Scottish Parliament
Parliament
was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members , having authority over many areas of domestic policy . Scotland
Scotland
is represented in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Parliament
Parliament
by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament
Parliament
by 6 MEPs . Scotland
Scotland
is also a member of the British–Irish Council , and sends five members of the Scottish Parliament
Parliament
to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Etymology * 1.2 Early history * 1.3 Roman influence * 1.4 Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* 1.5 Early modern era * 1.6 18th century * 1.7 19th century * 1.8 Early 20th century * 1.9 Post-World War II * 1.10 Education

* 2 Geography and natural history

* 2.1 Geology and geomorphology * 2.2 Climate * 2.3 Flora and fauna

* 3 Demographics * 4 Religion

* 5 Politics and government

* 5.1 Devolved government relations * 5.2 International diplomacy * 5.3 Constitutional changes * 5.4 Administrative subdivisions

* 6 Law and criminal justice * 7 Health care

* 8 Economy

* 8.1 Currency

* 9 Military * 10 Education

* 11 Culture

* 11.1 Cuisine

* 12 Media * 13 Sport

* 14 Infrastructure

* 14.1 Transport
Transport
* 14.2 Road * 14.3 Air * 14.4 Rail * 14.5 Water * 14.6 Renewable energy

* 15 See also * 16 Notes * 17 References

* 18 Further reading

* 18.1 Specialized monographs

* 19 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of Scotland

ETYMOLOGY

Main article: Etymology of Scotland

"Scotland" comes from _ Scoti
Scoti
_, the Latin name for the Gaels . The Late Latin word _ Scotia
Scotia
_ ("land of the Gaels") was initially used to refer to Ireland
Ireland
. By the 11th century at the latest, _Scotia_ was being used to refer to (Gaelic-speaking) Scotland
Scotland
north of the River Forth , alongside _Albania_ or _Albany_, both derived from the Gaelic _ Alba
Alba
_. The use of the words _Scots_ and _Scotland_ to encompass all of what is now Scotland
Scotland
became common in the Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
.

EARLY HISTORY

Main article: Prehistoric Scotland See also: Timeline of prehistoric Scotland
Scotland

Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period . It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland
Scotland
around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation . Scara Brae . A Neolithic
Neolithic
settlement, located on the west coast of Mainland, Orkney .

The groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney
Orkney
dates from this period. Neolithic
Neolithic
habitation, burial and ritual sites are particularly common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles , where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone.

The 2009 discovery in Scotland
Scotland
of a 4000-year-old tomb with burial treasures at Forteviot , near Perth , the capital of a Pictish Kingdom in the 8th and 9th centuries AD, is unrivalled anywhere in Britain. It contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was also discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves.

Scotland
Scotland
may have been part of a Late Bronze Age maritime trading culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age
Atlantic Bronze Age
, which included other Celtic nations , and the areas that became England, France, Spain, and Portugal.

In the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, known as "Skerrabra". When the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the local laird , began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses, the work was abandoned in 1868. The site remained undisturbed until 1913, when during a single weekend the site was plundered by a party with shovels who took away an unknown quantity of artefacts. In 1924, another storm swept away part of one of the houses and it was determined the site should be made secure and more seriously investigated. The job was given to University of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
's Professor Vere Gordon Childe
Vere Gordon Childe
who travelled to Skara Brae for the first time in mid-1927.

ROMAN INFLUENCE

Main article: Scotland during the Roman Empire Tablet found at Bo\'ness dated ca. AD 142 depicting Roman cavalryman trampling Caledonians . Now at the NMS

The written protohistory of Scotland
Scotland
began with the arrival of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in southern and central Great Britain, when the Romans occupied what is now England
England
and Wales, administering it as a province called _Britannia _. Roman invasions and occupations of southern Scotland
Scotland
were a series of brief interludes.

According to the Roman historian Tacitus
Tacitus
, the Caledonians "turned to armed resistance on a large scale", attacking Roman forts and skirmishing with their legions . In a surprise night-attack, the Caledonians very nearly wiped out the whole 9th Legion until it was saved by Agricola's cavalry.

In AD 83–84, the General Gnaeus Julius Agricola defeated the Caledonians at the Battle of Mons Graupius . Tacitus
Tacitus
wrote that, before the battle, the Caledonian leader, Calgacus , gave a rousing speech in which he called his people the "last of the free" and accused the Romans of "making the world a desert and calling it peace" (freely translated). After the Roman victory, Roman forts were briefly set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line (only Cawdor near Inverness
Inverness
is known to have been constructed beyond that line). Three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands .

The Romans erected Hadrian\'s Wall to control tribes on both sides of the wall so the _ Limes Britannicus _ became the northern border of the Roman Empire; although the army held the Antonine Wall
Antonine Wall
in the Central Lowlands for two short periods – the last during the reign of Emperor Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
from 208 until 210.

The Roman military occupation of a significant part of what is now northern Scotland
Scotland
lasted only about 40 years; although their influence on the southern section of the country, occupied by Brythonic tribes such as the Votadini and Damnonii , would still have been considerable between the first and fifth centuries. The Welsh term Hen Ogledd ("Old North") is used by scholars to describe what is now the North of England
England
and the South of Scotland
Scotland
during its habitation by Brittonic -speaking people around AD 500 to 800. According to writings from the 9th and 10th centuries, the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata was founded in the 6th century in western Scotland. The 'traditional' view is that settlers from Ireland
Ireland
founded the kingdom, bringing Gaelic language and culture with them. However, some archaeologists have argued against this view, saying there is no archaeological or placename evidence for a migration or a takeover by a small group of elites.

MIDDLE AGES

Main articles: Scotland
Scotland
in the Early Middle Ages , Scotland
Scotland
in the High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, and Scotland in the Late Middle Ages The class I Pictish stone at Aberlemno known as Aberlemno 1 or the Serpent Stone

The Kingdom of the Picts
Picts
(based in Fortriu by the 6th century) was the state that eventually became known as "Alba" or "Scotland". The development of "Pictland", according to the historical model developed by Peter Heather , was a natural response to Roman imperialism. Another view places emphasis on the Battle of Dun Nechtain , and the reign of Bridei m. Beli (671–693), with another period of consolidation in the reign of Óengus mac Fergusa (732–761).

The Kingdom of the Picts
Picts
as it was in the early 8th century, when Bede
Bede
was writing, was largely the same as the kingdom of the Scots in the reign of Alexander I (1107–1124). However, by the tenth century, the Pictish kingdom was dominated by what we can recognise as Gaelic culture, and had developed a traditional story of an Irish conquest around the ancestor of the contemporary royal dynasty, Cináed mac Ailpín (Kenneth MacAlpin).

From a base of territory in eastern Scotland
Scotland
north of the River Forth and south of the River Oykel , the kingdom acquired control of the lands lying to the north and south. By the 12th century, the kings of Alba
Alba
had added to their territories the English -speaking land in the south-east and attained overlordship of Gaelic -speaking Galloway
Galloway
and Norse -speaking Caithness
Caithness
; by the end of the 13th century, the kingdom had assumed approximately its modern borders. However, processes of cultural and economic change beginning in the 12th century ensured Scotland
Scotland
looked very different in the later Middle Ages.

The push for this change was the reign of David I and the Davidian Revolution . Feudalism, government reorganisation and the first legally recognised towns (called burghs ) began in this period. These institutions and the immigration of French and Anglo-French knights and churchmen facilitated cultural osmosis, whereby the culture and language of the low-lying and coastal parts of the kingdom's original territory in the east became, like the newly acquired south-east, English-speaking, while the rest of the country retained the Gaelic language, apart from the Northern Isles of Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland, which remained under Norse rule until 1468. The Scottish state entered a largely successful and stable period between the 12th and 14th centuries, there was relative peace with England, trade and educational links were well developed with the Continent and at the height of this cultural flowering John Duns Scotus was one of Europe's most important and influential philosophers. The Wallace Monument commemorates William Wallace , the 13th-century Scottish hero.

The death of Alexander III in March 1286, followed by that of his granddaughter Margaret, Maid of Norway , broke the centuries-old succession line of Scotland's kings and shattered the 200-year golden age that began with David I. Edward I of England
England
was asked to arbitrate between claimants for the Scottish crown, and he organised a process known as the Great Cause to identify the most legitimate claimant. John Balliol was pronounced king in the Great Hall of Berwick Castle on 17 November 1292 and inaugurated at Scone on 30 November, St. Andrew\'s Day . Edward I, who had coerced recognition as Lord Paramount of Scotland , the feudal superior of the realm, steadily undermined John's authority. In 1294, Balliol and other Scottish lords refused Edward's demands to serve in his army against the French. Instead the Scottish parliament sent envoys to France to negotiate an alliance. Scotland
Scotland
and France sealed a treaty on 23 October 1295, known as the Auld Alliance (1295–1560). War ensued and King John was deposed by Edward who took personal control of Scotland. Andrew Moray and William Wallace initially emerged as the principal leaders of the resistance to English rule in what became known as the Wars of Scottish Independence (1296–1328).

The nature of the struggle changed significantly when Robert the Bruce, Earl of Carrick , killed his rival John Comyn on 10 February 1306 at Greyfriars Kirk
Greyfriars Kirk
in Dumfries
Dumfries
. He was crowned king (as Robert I) less than seven weeks later. Robert I battled to restore Scottish Independence as King for over 20 years, beginning by winning Scotland back from the Norman English invaders piece by piece. Victory at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 proved the Scots had regained control of their kingdom. In 1315, Edward Bruce , brother of the King, was briefly appointed High King of Ireland
Ireland
during an ultimately unsuccessful Scottish invasion of Ireland
Ireland
aimed at strengthening Scotland's position in its wars against England. In 1320 the world's first documented declaration of independence, the Declaration of Arbroath , won the support of Pope John XXII , leading to the legal recognition of Scottish sovereignty by the English Crown.

However, war with England
England
continued for several decades after the death of Bruce. A civil war between the Bruce dynasty and their long-term Comyn-Balliol rivals lasted until the middle of the 14th century. Although the Bruce dynasty was successful, David II\'s lack of an heir allowed his half-nephew Robert II to come to the throne and establish the Stewart Dynasty . The Stewarts ruled Scotland
Scotland
for the remainder of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. The country they ruled experienced greater prosperity from the end of the 14th century through the Scottish Renaissance to the Reformation . This was despite continual warfare with England, the increasing division between Highlands and Lowlands , and a large number of royal minorities.

This period was the height of the Franco-Scottish alliance. The Scots Guard – la Garde Écossaise – was founded in 1418 by Charles VII of France . The Scots soldiers of the Garde Écossaise fought alongside Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
against England
England
during the Hundred Years War . In March 1421, a Franco-Scots force under John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan , and Gilbert de Lafayette, defeated a larger English army at the Battle of Baugé . Three years later, at the Battle of Verneuil , the French and Scots lost around 7000 men. The Scottish intervention contributed to France's victory in the war.

EARLY MODERN ERA

Main article: Scotland in the Early Modern Era James VI succeeded to the English and Irish thrones in 1603.

In 1502, James IV of Scotland
James IV of Scotland
signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Henry VII of England
England
. He also married Henry's daughter, Margaret Tudor , setting the stage for the Union of the Crowns . For Henry, the marriage into one of Europe's most established monarchies gave legitimacy to the new Tudor royal line. A decade later, James made the fateful decision to invade England
England
in support of France under the terms of the Auld Alliance . He was the last British monarch to die in battle, at the Battle of Flodden . Within a generation the Auld Alliance was ended by the Treaty of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
. France agreed to withdraw all land and naval forces. In the same year, 1560, John Knox realised his goal of seeing Scotland
Scotland
become a Protestant
Protestant
nation and the Scottish parliament revoke papal authority in Scotland. Mary, Queen of Scots , a Catholic and former queen of France, was forced to abdicate in 1567.

In 1603, James VI, King of Scots inherited the thrones of the Kingdom of England
England
and the Kingdom of Ireland , and became King James I of England
England
and Ireland, and left Edinburgh
Edinburgh
for London. With the exception of a short period under the Protectorate , Scotland
Scotland
remained a separate state, but there was considerable conflict between the crown and the Covenanters over the form of church government . The Glorious Revolution of 1688–89 saw the overthrow of King James VII of Scotland
Scotland
and II of England
England
by the English Parliament
Parliament
in favour of William III and Mary II .

In common with countries such as France, Norway, Sweden and Finland, Scotland
Scotland
experienced famines during the 1690s. Mortality, reduced childbirths and increased emigration reduced the population of parts of the country by between 10 and 15 per cent.

In 1698, the Company of Scotland
Company of Scotland
attempted project to secure a trading colony on the Isthmus of Panama . Almost every Scottish landowner who had money to spare is said to have invested in the Darien scheme . Its failure bankrupted these landowners, but not the burghs. Nevertheless, the nobles' bankruptcy, along with the threat of an English invasion, played a leading role in convincing the Scots elite to back a union with England.

On 22 July 1706, the Treaty of Union
Treaty of Union
was agreed between representatives of the Scots Parliament
Parliament
and the Parliament
Parliament
of England and the following year twin Acts of Union were passed by both parliaments to create the united Kingdom of Great Britain
Great Britain
with effect from 1 May 1707; there was popular opposition and anti-union riots in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
, Glasgow
Glasgow
, and elsewhere.

18TH CENTURY

David Morier's depiction of the Battle of Culloden
Battle of Culloden

With trade tariffs with England
England
now abolished, trade blossomed, especially with Colonial America . The clippers belonging to the Glasgow
Glasgow
Tobacco Lords were the fastest ships on the route to Virginia . Until the American War of Independence in 1776, Glasgow
Glasgow
was the world's premier tobacco port, dominating world trade. The disparity between the wealth of the merchant classes of the Scottish Lowlands and the ancient clans of the Scottish Highlands grew, amplifying centuries of division.

The deposed Jacobite Stuart claimants had remained popular in the Highlands and north-east, particularly amongst non-Presbyterians , including Roman Catholics and Episcopalian Protestants . However, two major Jacobite Risings launched in 1715 and 1745 failed to remove the House of Hanover from the British throne. The threat of the Jacobite movement to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and its monarchs effectively ended at the Battle of Culloden
Battle of Culloden
, Great Britain's last pitched battle . This defeat paved the way for large-scale removals of the indigenous populations of the Highlands and Islands, known as the Highland Clearances .

The Scottish Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution made Scotland
Scotland
into an intellectual, commercial and industrial powerhouse –so much so Voltaire
Voltaire
said "We look to Scotland
Scotland
for all our ideas of civilisation." With the demise of Jacobitism and the advent of the Union, thousands of Scots, mainly Lowlanders, took up numerous positions of power in politics, civil service, the army and navy, trade, economics, colonial enterprises and other areas across the nascent British Empire
British Empire
. Historian Neil Davidson notes "after 1746 there was an entirely new level of participation by Scots in political life, particularly outside Scotland." Davidson also states "far from being 'peripheral' to the British economy, Scotland
Scotland
– or more precisely, the Lowlands – lay at its core."

19TH CENTURY

Main article: Scotland in the modern era _ Shipping on the Clyde_, by John Atkinson Grimshaw
John Atkinson Grimshaw
, 1881

The Scottish Reform Act 1832 increased the number of Scottish MPs and widened the franchise to include more of the middle classes. From the mid-century there were increasing calls for Home Rule for Scotland
Scotland
and the post of Secretary of State for Scotland was revived. Towards the end of the century Prime Ministers of Scottish descent included William Gladstone
William Gladstone
, and the Earl of Rosebery . In the later 19th century the growing importance of the working classes was marked by Keir Hardie
Keir Hardie
's success in the Mid Lanarkshire by-election, 1888 , leading to the foundation of the Scottish Labour Party , which was absorbed into the Independent Labour Party in 1895, with Hardie as its first leader.

Glasgow
Glasgow
became one of the largest cities in the world, and known as "the Second City of the Empire" after London. After 1860 the Clydeside shipyards specialised in steamships made of iron (after 1870, made of steel), which rapidly replaced the wooden sailing vessels of both the merchant fleets and the battle fleets of the world. It became the world's pre-eminent shipbuilding centre. The industrial developments, while they brought work and wealth, were so rapid that housing, town-planning, and provision for public health did not keep pace with them, and for a time living conditions in some of the towns and cities were notoriously bad, with overcrowding, high infant mortality, and growing rates of tuberculosis. Walter Scott , whose Waverley Novels helped define Scottish identity in the 19th century.

While the Scottish Enlightenment is traditionally considered to have concluded toward the end of the 18th century, disproportionately large Scottish contributions to British science and letters continued for another 50 years or more, thanks to such figures as the physicists James Clerk Maxwell
James Clerk Maxwell
and Lord Kelvin , and the engineers and inventors James Watt
James Watt
and William Murdoch , whose work was critical to the technological developments of the Industrial Revolution throughout Britain. In literature the most successful figure of the mid-19th century was Walter Scott . His first prose work, Waverley in 1814, is often called the first historical novel. It launched a highly successful career that probably more than any other helped define and popularise Scottish cultural identity. In the late 19th century, a number of Scottish-born authors achieved international reputations, such as Robert Louis Stevenson , Arthur Conan Doyle , J. M. Barrie and George MacDonald . Scotland
Scotland
also played a major part in the development of art and architecture. The Glasgow
Glasgow
School , which developed in the late 19th century, and flourished in the early 20th century, produced a distinctive blend of influences including the Celtic Revival the Arts and Crafts Movement , and Japonisme , which found favour throughout the modern art world of continental Europe
Europe
and helped define the Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
style. Proponents included architect and artist Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Charles Rennie Mackintosh
.

This period saw a process of rehabilitation for Highland culture. In the 1820s, as part of the Romantic revival , tartan and the kilt were adopted by members of the social elite, not just in Scotland, but across Europe, prompted by the popularity of Macpherson's Ossian cycle and then Walter Scott's Waverley novels. However, the Highlands remained very poor and traditional. The desire to improve agriculture and profits led to the Highland Clearances , in which much of the population of the Highlands suffered forced displacement as lands were enclosed, principally so that they could be used for sheep farming. The clearances followed patterns of agricultural change throughout Britain, but were particularly notorious as a result of the late timing, the lack of legal protection for year-by-year tenants under Scots law , the abruptness of the change from the traditional clan system, and the brutality of many evictions. One result was a continuous exodus from the land—to the cities, or further afield to England, Canada, America or Australia. The population of Scotland grew steadily in the 19th century, from 1,608,000 in the census of 1801 to 2,889,000 in 1851 and 4,472,000 in 1901. Even with the development of industry there were not enough good jobs. As a result, during the period 1841–1931, about 2 million Scots migrated to North America and Australia, and another 750,000 Scots relocated to England. The Disruption Assembly; painted by David Octavius Hill .

After prolonged years of struggle in the Kirk, in 1834 the Evangelicals gained control of the General Assembly and passed the Veto Act, which allowed congregations to reject unwanted "intrusive" presentations to livings by patrons. The following "Ten Years' Conflict" of legal and political wrangling ended in defeat for the non-intrusionists in the civil courts. The result was a schism from the church by some of the non-intrusionists led by Dr Thomas Chalmers , known as the Great Disruption of 1843
Disruption of 1843
. Roughly a third of the clergy, mainly from the North and Highlands, formed the separate Free Church of Scotland
Church of Scotland
. In the late 19th century growing divisions between fundamentalist Calvinists and theological liberals resulted in a further split in the Free Church as the rigid Calvinists broke away to form the Free Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in 1893. Catholic Emancipation in 1829 and the influx of large numbers of Irish immigrants, particularly after the famine years of the late 1840s, mainly to the growing lowland centres like Glasgow, led to a transformation in the fortunes of Catholicism. In 1878, despite opposition, a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical hierarchy was restored to the country, and Catholicism became a significant denomination within Scotland.

Industrialisation, urbanisation and the Disruption of 1843
Disruption of 1843
all undermined the tradition of parish schools. From 1830 the state began to fund buildings with grants; then from 1846 it was funding schools by direct sponsorship; and in 1872 Scotland
Scotland
moved to a system like that in England
England
of state-sponsored largely free schools, run by local school boards. The historic University of Glasgow
Glasgow
became a leader in British higher education by providing the educational needs of youth from the urban and commercial classes, as opposed to the upper class. The University of St Andrews pioneered the admission of women to Scottish universities. From 1892 Scottish universities could admit and graduate women and the numbers of women at Scottish universities steadily increased until the early 20th century.

EARLY 20TH CENTURY

Royal Scots
Royal Scots
with a captured Japanese Hinomaru Yosegaki flag, Burma , 1945.

Scotland
Scotland
played a major role in the British effort in the First World War . It especially provided manpower, ships, machinery, fish and money. With a population of 4.8 million in 1911, Scotland
Scotland
sent over half a million men to the war, of whom over a quarter died in combat or from disease, and 150,000 were seriously wounded. Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig was Britain's commander on the Western Front.

The war saw the emergence of a radical movement called "Red Clydeside " led by militant trades unionists. Formerly a Liberal stronghold, the industrial districts switched to Labour by 1922, with a base among the Irish Catholic working class districts. Women were especially active in building neighbourhood solidarity on housing issues. However, the "Reds" operated within the Labour Party and had little influence in Parliament
Parliament
and the mood changed to passive despair by the late 1920s.

The shipbuilding industry expanded by a third and expected renewed prosperity, but instead a serious depression hit the economy by 1922 and it did not fully recover until 1939. The interwar years were marked by economic stagnation in rural and urban areas, and high unemployment. Indeed, the war brought with it deep social, cultural, economic, and political dislocations. Thoughtful Scots pondered their declension, as the main social indicators such as poor health, bad housing, and long-term mass unemployment, pointed to terminal social and economic stagnation at best, or even a downward spiral. Service abroad on behalf of the Empire lost its allure to ambitious young people, who left Scotland
Scotland
permanently. The heavy dependence on obsolescent heavy industry and mining was a central problem, and no one offered workable solutions. The despair reflected what Finlay (1994) describes as a widespread sense of hopelessness that prepared local business and political leaders to accept a new orthodoxy of centralised government economic planning when it arrived during the Second World War
Second World War
.

The Second World War
Second World War
brought renewed prosperity, despite extensive bombing of cities by the Luftwaffe. It saw the invention of radar by Robert Watson-Watt , which was invaluable in the Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain
as was the leadership at RAF Fighter Command of Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh Dowding
Hugh Dowding
.

POST-WORLD WAR II

_ Scotland's economy has become diverse and leading in areas such as gaming. Rockstar North , located in the country's capital Edinburgh are responsible for the Grand Theft Auto _ and _Lemmings _ trilogies

After 1945, Scotland's economic situation became progressively worse due to overseas competition, inefficient industry, and industrial disputes. Only in recent decades has the country enjoyed something of a cultural and economic renaissance. Economic factors contributing to this recovery include a resurgent financial services industry, electronics manufacturing , (see Silicon Glen ), and the North Sea oil and gas industry. The introduction in 1989 by Margaret Thatcher's government of the Community Charge (widely known as the Poll Tax) one year before the rest of the United Kingdom, contributed to a growing movement for a return to direct Scottish control over domestic affairs. Following a referendum on devolution proposals in 1997 , the Scotland Act 1998 was passed by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Parliament
Parliament
to establish a devolved Scottish Parliament
Parliament
and Scottish Government with responsibility for most laws specific to Scotland.

EDUCATION

The Scottish education system has always remained distinct from the rest of the United Kingdom, with a characteristic emphasis on a broad education . In the 15th century, the Humanist emphasis on education cumulated with the passing of the Education Act 1496 , which decreed that all sons of barons and freeholders of substance should attend grammar schools to learn "perfyct Latyne", resulting in an increase in literacy among a male and wealthy elite. In the Reformation the 1560 _ First Book of Discipline _ set out a plan for a school in every parish, but this proved financially impossible. In 1616 an act in Privy council commanded every parish to establish a school. By the late seventeenth century there was a largely complete network of parish schools in the lowlands, but in the Highlands basic education was still lacking in many areas. Education remained a matter for the church rather than the state until the Education Act (1872) .

GEOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY

Main article: Geography of Scotland The island of Little Cumbrae with Isle of Arran in the background (left). Traigh Seilebost Beach on the Isle of Harris (right)

The mainland of Scotland
Scotland
comprises the northern third of the land mass of the island of Great Britain, which lies off the north-west coast of Continental Europe
Europe
. The total area is 78,772 km2 (30,414 sq mi), comparable to the size of the Czech Republic. Scotland's only land border is with England, and runs for 96 kilometres (60 mi) between the basin of the River Tweed on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west. The Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
borders the west coast and the North Sea
North Sea
is to the east. The island of Ireland
Ireland
lies only 21 kilometres (13 mi) from the south-western peninsula of Kintyre
Kintyre
; Norway is 305 kilometres (190 mi) to the east and the Faroes , 270 kilometres (168 mi) to the north.

The territorial extent of Scotland
Scotland
is generally that established by the 1237 Treaty of York between Scotland
Scotland
and the Kingdom of England
England
and the 1266 Treaty of Perth between Scotland
Scotland
and Norway. Important exceptions include the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
, which having been lost to England in the 14th century is now a crown dependency outside of the United Kingdom; the island groups Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland
Shetland
, which were acquired from Norway in 1472; and Berwick-upon-Tweed , lost to England
England
in 1482.

The geographical centre of Scotland
Scotland
lies a few miles from the village of Newtonmore in Badenoch
Badenoch
. Rising to 1,344 metres (4,409 ft) above sea level, Scotland's highest point is the summit of Ben Nevis , in Lochaber , while Scotland's longest river, the River Tay , flows for a distance of 190 kilometres (118 mi).

GEOLOGY AND GEOMORPHOLOGY

Main article: Geology of Scotland Relief map of Scotland
Scotland

The whole of Scotland
Scotland
was covered by ice sheets during the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
ice ages and the landscape is much affected by glaciation. From a geological perspective, the country has three main sub-divisions.

The Highlands and Islands lie to the north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault , which runs from Arran to Stonehaven
Stonehaven
. This part of Scotland
Scotland
largely comprises ancient rocks from the Cambrian
Cambrian
and Precambrian , which were uplifted during the later Caledonian Orogeny . It is interspersed with igneous intrusions of a more recent age, remnants of which formed mountain massifs such as the Cairngorms and Skye
Skye
Cuillins
Cuillins
.

A significant exception to the above are the fossil-bearing beds of Old Red Sandstones found principally along the Moray Firth coast. The Highlands are generally mountainous and the highest elevations in the British Isles
British Isles
are found here. Scotland
Scotland
has over 790 islands divided into four main groups: Shetland, Orkney, and the Inner Hebrides
Hebrides
and Outer Hebrides
Hebrides
. There are numerous bodies of freshwater including Loch Lomond and Loch Ness . Some parts of the coastline consist of machair , a low lying dune pasture land.

The Central Lowlands is a rift valley mainly comprising Paleozoic formations. Many of these sediments have economic significance for it is here that the coal and iron bearing rocks that fuelled Scotland's industrial revolution are found. This area has also experienced intense volcanism, Arthur\'s Seat in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
being the remnant of a once much larger volcano. This area is relatively low-lying, although even here hills such as the Ochils and Campsie Fells are rarely far from view.

The Southern Uplands are a range of hills almost 200 kilometres (124 mi) long, interspersed with broad valleys. They lie south of a second fault line (the Southern Uplands fault) that runs from Girvan to Dunbar
Dunbar
. The geological foundations largely comprise Silurian deposits laid down some 4–500 million years ago. The high point of the Southern Uplands is Merrick with an elevation of 843 m (2,766 ft). The Southern Uplands is home to the UK's highest village, Wanlockhead (430 m or 1,411 ft above sea level).

CLIMATE

Tiree , one of the sunniest locations in Scotland
Scotland
Main article: Climate of Scotland

The climate of Scotland
Scotland
is temperate and oceanic , and tends to be very changeable. As it is warmed by the Gulf Stream from the Atlantic , it has much milder winters (but cooler, wetter summers) than areas on similar latitudes, such as Labrador
Labrador
, southern Scandinavia
Scandinavia
, the Moscow region in Russia, and the Kamchatka Peninsula on the opposite side of Eurasia
Eurasia
. However, temperatures are generally lower than in the rest of the UK, with the coldest ever UK temperature of −27.2 °C (−17.0 °F) recorded at Braemar in the Grampian Mountains , on 11 February 1895. Winter maxima average 6 °C (42.8 °F) in the Lowlands, with summer maxima averaging 18 °C (64.4 °F). The highest temperature recorded was 32.9 °C (91.2 °F) at Greycrook , Scottish Borders on 9 August 2003.

The west of Scotland
Scotland
is usually warmer than the east, owing to the influence of Atlantic ocean currents and the colder surface temperatures of the North Sea
North Sea
. Tiree , in the Inner Hebrides, is one of the sunniest places in the country: it had more than 300 hours of sunshine in May 1975. Rainfall varies widely across Scotland. The western highlands of Scotland
Scotland
are the wettest, with annual rainfall in a few places exceeding 3,000 mm (118.1 in). In comparison, much of lowland Scotland
Scotland
receives less than 800 mm (31.5 in) annually. Heavy snowfall is not common in the lowlands, but becomes more common with altitude. Braemar has an average of 59 snow days per year, while many coastal areas average fewer than 10 days of lying snow per year.

FLORA AND FAUNA

_ A mountain hare (Lepus timidus_) in Findhorn Valley, May 2004 Main articles: Fauna of Scotland and Flora of Scotland

Scotland's wildlife is typical of the north-west of Europe, although several of the larger mammals such as the lynx, brown bear, wolf, elk and walrus were hunted to extinction in historic times. There are important populations of seals and internationally significant nesting grounds for a variety of seabirds such as gannets . The golden eagle is something of a national icon.

On the high mountain tops, species including ptarmigan , mountain hare and stoat can be seen in their white colour phase during winter months. Remnants of the native Scots pine forest exist and within these areas the Scottish crossbill , the UK's only endemic bird species and vertebrate , can be found alongside capercaillie , Scottish wildcat , red squirrel and pine marten . Various animals have been re-introduced, including the white-tailed sea eagle in 1975, the red kite in the 1980s, and there have been experimental projects involving the beaver and wild boar . Today, much of the remaining native Caledonian Forest lies within the Cairngorms National Park and remnants of the forest remain at 84 locations across Scotland. On the west coast, remnants of ancient Celtic Rainforest still remain, particularly on the Taynish peninsula in Argyll
Argyll
, these forests are particularly rare due to high rates of deforestation throughout Scottish history.

The flora of the country is varied incorporating both deciduous and coniferous woodland and moorland and tundra species. However, large scale commercial tree planting and the management of upland moorland habitat for the grazing of sheep and commercial field sport activities impacts upon the distribution of indigenous plants and animals. The UK's tallest tree is a grand fir planted beside Loch Fyne , Argyll
Argyll
in the 1870s, and the Fortingall Yew may be 5,000 years old and is probably the oldest living thing in Europe. Although the number of native vascular plants is low by world standards, Scotland's substantial bryophyte flora is of global importance.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Scottish population by ethnic group (2011)

* v * t * e

% of total Population POPULATION

WHITE SCOTTISH 84.0 4,445,678

WHITE OTHER BRITISH 7.9 417,109

WHITE IRISH 1.0 54,090

WHITE GYPSY/TRAVELLER 0.1 4,212

WHITE POLISH 1.2 61,201

OTHER WHITE ETHNIC GROUP 1.9 102,117

WHITE TOTAL 96.0 5,084,407

PAKISTANI 0.9 49,381

INDIAN 0.6 32,706

BANGLADESHI 0.1 3,788

CHINESE 0.6 33,706

OTHER 0.4 21,097

ASIAN 2.7 140,678

CARIBBEAN 0.1 3,430

BLACK _ A Calmac_ ferry at Greenock
Greenock

Regular ferry services operate between the Scottish mainland and outlying islands. Ferries serving both the inner and outer Hebrides are principally operated by the State-owned enterprise Caledonian MacBrayne .

Services to the Northern Isles are operated by Serco
Serco
. Other routes, served by multiple companies, connect southwest Scotland
Scotland
to Northern Ireland
Ireland
. DFDS Seaways operate a freight-only service from Rosyth
Rosyth
, near Edinburgh, to Zeebrugge , Belgium
Belgium
.

Additional routes are operated by local authorities.

RENEWABLE ENERGY

Main article: Renewable energy in Scotland

Increasing amounts of Scotland's electricity are generated through solar power and wind power, a sizable proportion of Scotland's electricity is generated that way.

SEE ALSO

* Scotland
Scotland
portal * United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal * Celtic Studies portal

* Celtic languages * Celts
Celts
* Ethnic groups
Ethnic groups
in Europe
Europe
* Outline of Scotland

NOTES

REFERENCES

* ^ "_St Andrew—Quick Facts_". _Scotland. org—The Official Online Gateway_. Archived from the original on 11 November 2007. Retrieved 2 December 2007. * ^ "St Andrew". _Catholic Online_. Retrieved 15 November 2011. * ^ "St Margaret of Scotland". _Catholic Online_. Retrieved 15 November 2011. * ^ "Patron saints". _Catholic Online_. Retrieved 15 November 2011.

* ^ "St Columba". _Catholic Online_. Retrieved 15 November 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Ethnic groups, Scotland, 2001 and 2011" (PDF). The Scottish Government. 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013. * ^ "Scotland\'s Census 2011 – Table KS209SCb" (PDF). scotlandscensus.gov.uk. Retrieved 26 March 2017. * ^ Region and Country
Country
Profiles, Key Statistics and Profiles, October 2013, ONS. Retrieved 9 August 2015. * ^ "Scottish population rises to new record". _ BBC
BBC
News_. BBC. 27 April 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2017. * ^ "Population estimates by sex, age and administrative area, Scotland, 2011 and 2012". National Records of Scotland. 8 August 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Office for National Statistics. "Regional gross value added (income approach), UK: 1997 to 2015, December 2015". Retrieved 24 April 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Scottish Government. "Key Economy Statistics". Retrieved 22 August 2014. * ^ "European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages". _ Scottish Government _. Retrieved 23 October 2011. * ^ Macleod, Angus "Gaelic given official status" (22 April 2005) _ The Times _. London. Retrieved 2 August 2007. * ^ " Scotland
Scotland
becomes first part of UK to recognise signing for deaf as official language". Herald Scotland. 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2016. * ^ "The Countries of the UK". Office for National Statistics . Retrieved 24 June 2012. * ^ "Countries within a country". _10 Downing Street_. Archived from the original on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2008. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is made up of four countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland
Ireland
* ^ " ISO 3166-2 Newsletter Date: 28 November 2007 No I-9. "Changes in the list of subdivision names and code elements" (Page 11)" (PDF). _ International Organization for Standardization codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 2: Country
Country
subdivision codes_. Retrieved 31 May 2008. SCT Scotland _country_ * ^ "Scottish Executive Resources" (PDF). _ Scotland
Scotland
in Short_. Scottish Executive. 17 February 2007. Retrieved 14 September 2006. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) _Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland_. London. HarperCollins. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Mackie, J.D. (1969) _A History of Scotland_. London. Penguin. * ^ " Parliament
Parliament
and Ireland". London: The Houses of Parliament. Retrieved 26 December 2016. * ^ Collier, J. G. (2001) _Conflict of Laws (Third edition)_(pdf) Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
. "For the purposes of the English conflict of laws , every country in the world which is not part of England
England
and Wales
Wales
is a foreign country and its foreign laws. This means that not only totally foreign independent countries such as France or Russia ... are foreign countries but also British Colonies such as the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
. Moreover, the other parts of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Scotland
Scotland
and Northern Ireland
Ireland
– are foreign countries for present purposes, as are the other British Islands , the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
, Jersey and Guernsey
Guernsey
." * ^ Devine, T. M. (1999), _The Scottish Nation 1700–2000_, P.288–289, ISBN 0-14-023004-1 _"created a new and powerful_ local state _run by the Scottish bourgeoisie and reflecting their political and religious values. It was this local state, rather than a distant and usually indifferent Westminster authority, that in effect routinely governed Scotland"_ * ^ " Devolution
Devolution
Settlement, Scotland". gov.uk. Retrieved 7 May 2017. * ^ "Scottish MEPs". Europarl.org.uk. Archived from the original on 1 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014. * ^ " Scotland
Scotland
/ Alba". British-Irish Council. Retrieved 4 May 2013.

* ^ http://www.britishirish.org/members-2/ * ^ _The History Of Ireland_. Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ Ayto, John; Ian Crofton. _Brewer's Britain & Ireland: The History, Culture, Folklore and Etymology of 7500 Places in These Islands_. WN. ISBN 0-304-35385-X . * ^ The earliest known evidence is a flint arrowhead from Islay
Islay
. See Moffat, Alistair (2005) _Before Scotland: The Story of Scotland Before History_. London. Thames & Hudson. Page 42. * ^ Sites at Cramond dated to 8500 BC and near Kinloch , Rùm from 7700 BC provide the earliest known evidence of human occupation in Scotland. See "The Megalithic Portal
Portal
and Megalith Map: Rubbish dump reveals time-capsule of Scotland\'s earliest settlements" megalithic.co.uk. Retrieved 10 February 2008 and Edwards, Kevin J. and Whittington, Graeme "Vegetation Change" in Edwards, Kevin J. & Ralston, Ian B.M. (Eds) (2003) _ Scotland
Scotland
After the Ice Age: Environment, Archaeology and History, 8000 BC–AD 1000_. Edinburgh. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press . Page 70. * ^ Pryor, Francis (2003). _Britain BC_. London: HarperPerennial. pp. 98–104 & 246–250. ISBN 978-0-00-712693-4 . * ^ Keys, David (14 August 2009). "Ancient royal tomb found in Scotland". _The Independent_. London. Retrieved 16 August 2009. * ^ Brophy, Kenneth; Noble, Gordon; Driscoll, Stephen (2010). "The Forteviot dagger burial". _History Scotland_. 10 (1): 12–13. ISSN 1475-5270 . * ^ Koch, John. "O\'Donnell Lecture 2008 Appendix" (PDF). University of Wales. Retrieved 27 May 2010. * ^ Koch, John (2009). _Tartessian: Celtic from the Southwest at the Dawn of History in Acta Palaeohispanica X Palaeohispanica 9 (2009)_ (PDF). Palaeohispanica. pp. 339–351. ISSN 1578-5386 . Retrieved 17 May 2010. * ^ Koch, John. "New research suggests Welsh Celtic roots lie in Spain and Portugal". The Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 10 May 2010. * ^ Cunliffe, Barry (2008). _A Race Apart: Insularity and Connectivity in Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 75, 2009, pp. 55–64_. The Prehistoric Society. p. 61. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Bryson 2010 * ^ _A_ _B_ "Skara Brae: The Discovery of the Village". Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ "The Romans in Scotland". BBC. * ^ Hanson, William S. _The Roman Presence: Brief Interludes_, in Edwards, Kevin J. & Ralston, Ian B.M. (Eds) (2003). _ Scotland
Scotland
After the Ice Age: Environment, Archeology and History, 8000 BC—AD 1000._ Edinburgh. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press. * ^ _A_ _B_ Snyder, Christopher A. (2003). _The Britons_. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-22260-X . * ^ Robertson, Anne S. (1960). _The Antonine Wall_. Glasgow Archaeological Society. * ^ "Dalriada: The Land of the First Scots". BBC
BBC
– Legacies. Retrieved 4 January 2014. * ^ "Scot (ancient people)". _ Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
_. * ^ Campbell, Ewan. (2001). "Were the Scots Irish?" in _Antiquity_ No. 75. * ^ Peter Heather, "State Formation in Europe
Europe
in the First Millennium A.D.", in Barbara Crawford (ed.), _ Scotland
Scotland
in Dark Ages Europe_, (Aberdeen, 1994), pp. 47–63 * ^ For instance, Alex Woolf , "The Verturian Hegemony: a mirror in the North", in M. P. Brown & C. A. Farr, (eds.), _Mercia: an Anglo-Saxon Kingdom in Europe_, (Leicester, 2001), pp. 106–11. * ^ Brown, Dauvit (2001). "Kenneth mac Alpin". In M. Lynch. _The Oxford Companion to Scottish History_. Oxford: Oxford University Press . p. 359. ISBN 978-0-19-211696-3 . * ^ Brown, Dauvit (1997). "Dunkeld and the origin of Scottish identity". _Innes Review_. Glasgow: Scottish Catholic Historical Association (48): 112–124. reprinted in Dauvit Broun and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), (1999)_Spes Scotorum: Hope of Scots_, Edinburgh: T.& T.Clark, pp. 95–111. ISBN 978-0-567-08682-2 * ^ Foster, Sally (1996). _Picts, Gaels and Scots (Historic Scotland)_. London: Batsford. ISBN 978-0-7134-7485-5 . * ^ Withers, Charles, W.J. (1984). _Gaelic in Scotland, 1698–1981_. Edinburgh: John Donald. pp. 16–41;. ISBN 978-0-85976-097-3 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Barrow, Geoffrey, W. S. (2005) . _Robert Bruce & the Community of the Realm of Scotland_ (4th ed.). Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press. ISBN 0-7486-2022-2 . * ^ Thomas Owen Clancy. "Gaelic Scotland: a brief history". Bòrd na Gàidhlig. Archived from the original on 11 September 2007. Retrieved 21 September 2007. * ^ " Scotland
Scotland
Conquered, 1174–1296". National Archives. * ^ " Scotland
Scotland
Regained, 1297–1328". National Archives of the United Kingdom. * ^ Murison, A. F. (1899). _King Robert the Bruce_ (reprint 2005 ed.). Kessinger Publishing. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-4179-1494-4 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Grant, Alexander (6 June 1991) . _Independence and Nationhood: Scotland, 1306–1469_ (New ed.). Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press. pp. 3–57. ISBN 978-0-7486-0273-5 . * ^ Wormald, Jenny (6 June 1991) . _Court, Kirk
Kirk
and Community: Scotland_ (New ed.). Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-0276-6 . * ^ "Medieval life Garde Ecossaise". Learning Scotland. Archived from the original on 2 January 2012. * ^ _The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Warfare_. DK Publishing. 2012. p. 391. * ^ "James IV, King of Scots 1488–1513". BBC. * ^ "Battle of Flodden, (Sept. 9, 1513),". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. * ^ "The Scottish Reformation,". BBC
BBC
Scotland. * ^ "Religion, Marriage and Power in Scotland, 1503–1603". The National Archives of the United Kingdom. * ^ Ross, David (2002). _Chronology of Scottish History_. Geddes & Grosset. p. 56. ISBN 1-85534-380-0 . 1603: James VI becomes James I of England
England
in the Union of the Crowns , and leaves Edinburgh
Edinburgh
for London
London
* ^ Cullen, Karen J. (15 February 2010). _Famine in Scotland: The \'ill Years\' of The 1690s_. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press. pp. 152–3. ISBN 0748638873 . * ^ "Why did the Scottish parliament accept the Treaty of Union?" (PDF). Scottish Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2013. * ^ "Popular Opposition to the Ratification of the Treaty of Anglo-Scottish Union in 1706–7". _scottishhistorysociety.com_. Scottish Historical Society. Retrieved 23 March 2017. * ^ Devine, T. M. (1999). _The Scottish Nation 1700–2000_. Penguin Books. p. 9. ISBN 0-14-023004-1 . From that point on anti-union demonstrations were common in the capital. In November rioting spread to the south west, that stronghold of strict Calvinism and covenanting tradition. The Glasgow
Glasgow
mob rose against union sympathisers in disturbances that lasted intermittently for over a month * ^ "Act of Union 1707 Mob unrest and disorder". London: The House of Lords. 2007. Archived from the original on 1 January 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2007. * ^ "The Tobacco Lords: A study of the Tobacco Merchants of Glasgow and their Activities". Virginia
Virginia
Historical Society. JSTOR 4248011 . * ^ "Some Dates in Scottish History from 1745 to 1914 Archived 31 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine .", The University of Iowa. * ^ "Enlightenment Scotland". Learning and Teaching Scotland. * ^ Neil Davidson(2000). _The Origins of Scottish Nationhood_. London: Pluto Press. pp. 94–95. * ^ T. M. Devine and R. J. Finlay, _ Scotland
Scotland
in the Twentieth Century_ (Edinburgh: Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press, 1996), pp. 64–5. * ^ F. Requejo and K-J Nagel, _Federalism Beyond Federations: Asymmetry and Processes of Re-symmetrization in Europe_ (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2011), p. 39. * ^ R. Quinault, "Scots on Top? Tartan
Tartan
Power at Westminster 1707–2007", _History Today_, 2007 57(7): 30–36. ISSN 0018-2753 Fulltext: Ebsco . * ^ K. Kumar, _The Making of English National Identity_ (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), p. 183. * ^ D. Howell, _British Workers and the Independent Labour Party, 1888–1906_ (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984), p. 144. * ^ J. F. MacKenzie, "The second city of the Empire: Glasgow
Glasgow
– imperial municipality", in F. Driver and D. Gilbert, eds, _Imperial Cities: Landscape, Display and Identity_ (2003), pp. 215–23. * ^ J. Shields, _Clyde Built: a History of Ship-Building on the River Clyde_ (1949). * ^ C. H. Lee, _ Scotland
Scotland
and the United Kingdom: the Economy and the Union in the Twentieth Century_ (1995), p. 43. * ^ M. Magnusson (10 November 2003), "Review of James Buchan, _Capital of the Mind: how Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Changed the World_", _New Statesman_, archived from the original on 29 May 2011 * ^ E. Wills, _Scottish Firsts: a Celebration of Innovation and Achievement_ (Edinbugh: Mainstream, 2002). * ^ K. S. Whetter (2008), _Understanding Genre and Medieval Romance_, Ashgate, p. 28 * ^ N. Davidson (2000), _The Origins of Scottish Nationhood_, Pluto Press, p. 136 * ^ "Cultural Profile: 19th and early 20th century developments", _Visiting Arts: Scotland: Cultural Profile_, archived from the original on 5 November 2011 * ^ Stephan Tschudi-Madsen, _The Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
Style: a Comprehensive Guide_ (Courier Dover, 2002), pp. 283–4. * ^ J. L. Roberts, _The Jacobite Wars_, pp. 193–5. * ^ M. Sievers, _The Highland Myth as an Invented Tradition of 18th and 19th century and Its Significance for the Image of Scotland_ (GRIN Verlag, 2007), pp. 22–5. * ^ P. Morère, _ Scotland
Scotland
and France in the Enlightenment_ (Bucknell University Press, 2004), pp. 75–6. * ^ William Ferguson, _The identity of the Scottish Nation: an Historic Quest_ (Edinburgh: Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press, 1998), p. 227. * ^ Divine, _Scottish Nation_ pp. 292–95. * ^ M. Gray, _The Highland Economy, 1750–1850_ (Greenwood, 1976). * ^ E. Richards, _The Highland Clearances: People, Landlords and Rural Turmoil_ (2008). * ^ J. Wormald, _Scotland: a History_ (2005), p. 229. * ^ A. K. Cairncross, _The Scottish Economy: A Statistical Account of Scottish Life by Members of the Staff of Glasgow
Glasgow
University_ (Glasgow: Glasgow
Glasgow
University Press, 1953), p. 10. * ^ R. A. Houston and W. W. Knox, eds, _The New Penguin History of Scotland_ (Penguin, 2001), p. xxxii. * ^ G. Robb, "Popular Religion and the Christianization of the Scottish Highlands in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries", _Journal of Religious History_, 1990, 16(1): 18–34. * ^ _A_ _B_ J. T. Koch, _Celtic Culture: a Historical Encyclopedia, Volumes 1–5_ (ABC-CLIO, 2006), pp. 416–7. * ^ T. M. Devine, _The Scottish Nation_, pp. 91–100. * ^ Paul L. Robertson, "The Development of an Urban University: Glasgow, 1860–1914", _History of Education Quarterly_, Winter 1990, vol. 30 (1), pp. 47–78. * ^ M. F. Rayner-Canham and G. Rayner-Canham, _Chemistry was Their Life: Pioneering British Women Chemists, 1880–1949_, (Imperial College Press, 2008), p. 264. * ^ Richard J. Finlay, _Modern Scotland
Scotland
1914–2000_ (2006), pp 1–33 * ^ R. A. Houston and W.W. J. Knox, eds. _The New Penguin History of Scotland_ (2001) p 426. Niall Ferguson points out in "The Pity of War" that the proportion of enlisted Scots who died was third highest in the war behind Serbia and Turkey and a much higher proportion than in other parts of the UK. * ^ Iain McLean, _The Legend of Red Clydeside_ (1983) * ^ Finlay, _Modern Scotland
Scotland
1914–2000_ (2006), pp 34–72 * ^ Richard J. Finlay, " National identity in Crisis: Politicians, Intellectuals and the 'End of Scotland', 1920–1939," _History,_ June 1994, Vol. 79 Issue 256, pp 242–59 * ^ Finlay, _Modern Scotland
Scotland
1914–2000_ (2006), pp 162–197 * ^ Harvie, Christopher _No Gods and Precious Few Heroes_ (Edward Arnold, 1989) pp 54–63. * ^ See Stewart, Heather, "Celtic Tiger Burns Brighter at Holyrood, _ The Guardian
The Guardian
_, 6 May 2007 for an account of Scotland's economic challenges, especially after the dotcom downturn, as it competes with the emerging Eastern European economies. * ^ "National Planning Framework for Scotland". Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ "The poll tax in Scotland
Scotland
20 years on". Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ "The Scotland
Scotland
Act 1998" Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 22 April 2008. * ^ " Devolution
Devolution
> Scottish responsibilities" Scottish Government publication, (web-page last updated November 2010) * ^ "A Guide to Education and Training in Scotland
Scotland
– "the broad education long regarded as characteristic of Scotland"". Scottish Government. Retrieved 18 October 2007. * ^ P. J. Bawcutt and J. H. Williams, _A Companion to Medieval Scottish Poetry_ (Woodbridge: Brewer, 2006), ISBN 1-84384-096-0 , pp. 29–30. * ^ R. A. Houston, _Scottish Literacy and the Scottish Identity: Illiteracy and Society in Scotland
Scotland
and Northern England, 1600–1800_ (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), ISBN 0-521-89088-8 , p. 5. * ^ "School education prior to 1873", _Scottish Archive Network_, 2010, archived from the original on 2 July 2011 * ^ R. Anderson, "The history of Scottish Education pre-1980", in T. G. K. Bryce and W. M. Humes, eds, _Scottish Education: Post-Devolution_ (Edinburgh: Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press, 2nd edn., 2003), ISBN 0-7486-1625-X , pp. 219–28. * ^ "Schools and schooling" in M. Lynch (ed.), _The Oxford Companion to Scottish History_, (Oxford, 2001), pp. 561–563. * ^ _A_ _B_ _Whitaker's Almanack_ (1991) London. J. Whitaker and Sons. * ^ North Channel, Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2 May 2016. * ^ "Uniting the Kingdoms?". Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ See "Centre of Scotland" Newtonmore.com. Retrieved 7 September 2012. * ^ Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) _Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland_. London. HarperCollins. Pages 734 and 930. * ^ "Tay". Encarta. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 21 March 2008. * ^ "Southern Uplands". Tiscali.co.uk. 16 November 1990. Archived from the original on 28 November 2004. Retrieved 11 June 2009. * ^ "Education Scotland
Scotland
– Standard Grade Bitesize Revision – Ask a Teacher – Geography – Physical – Question From PN". BBC. Retrieved 11 June 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ " Scotland
Scotland
Today " ITKT". Intheknowtraveler.com. 28 December 2006. Archived from the original on 6 January 2007. Retrieved 11 June 2009. * ^ Murray, W.H. (1973) _The Islands of Western Scotland_. London. Eyre Methuen ISBN 978-0-413-30380-6 * ^ Murray, W.H. (1968) _The Companion Guide to the West Highlands of Scotland_. London. Collins. ISBN 0-00-211135-7 * ^ Johnstone, Scott _et al._ (1990) _The Corbetts and Other Scottish Hills_. Edinburgh. Scottish Mountaineering Trust. Page 9. * ^ " BBC
BBC
Weather: UK Records". BBC.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 21 September 2007. The same temperature was also recorded in Braemar on 10 January 1982 and at Altnaharra , Highland , on 30 December 1995. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Weather extremes". Met Office. Retrieved 23 March 2017. * ^ "Western Scotland: climate". Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Eastern Scotland: climate". Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ "Scottish Weather Part One". BBC. Archived from the original on 26 January 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2007. * ^ Fraser Darling , F. & Boyd, J.M. (1969) _Natural History in the Highlands and Islands._ London. Bloomsbury. * ^ Benvie, Neil (2004) _Scotland's Wildlife_. London. Aurum Press. ISBN 1-85410-978-2 p. 12. * ^ "State of the Park Report. Chapter 2: Natural Resources"(pdf) (2006) Cairngorms National Park Authority. Retrieved 14 October 2007. * ^ Preston, C.D., Pearman, D.A., & Dines, T.D. (2002) _New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora_. Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. * ^ Gooders, J. (1994) _Field Guide to the Birds of Britain and Ireland_. London. Kingfisher. * ^ Matthews, L.H. (1968) _British Mammals_. London. Bloomsbury. * ^ WM Adams (2003). _Future nature:a vision for conservation_. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-85383-998-6 . Retrieved 10 January 2011. * ^ "East Scotland
Scotland
Sea Eagles" RSPB. Retrieved 3 January 2014. * ^ Ross, John (29 December 2006). "Mass slaughter of the red kites". _The Scotsman_. Edinburgh, UK. * ^ Ross, David (26 November 2009) "Wild Boar: our new eco warriors" _The Herald._ Glasgow. * ^ "Beavers return after 400-year gap". BBC
BBC
News. 29 May 2009. Retrieved 5 December 2009. * ^ _Integrated Upland Management for Wildlife, Field Sports, Agriculture & Public Enjoyment_ (pdf) (September 1999) Scottish Natural Heritage . Retrieved 14 October 2007. * ^ "The Fortingall Yew". Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ " Scotland
Scotland
remains home to Britain\'s tallest tree as Dughall Mor reaches new heights". Forestry Commission. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2008. * ^ Copping, Jasper (4 June 2011) "Britain\'s record-breaking trees identified" London. _The Telegraph_. Retrieved 10 July 2011. * ^ "Why Scotland
Scotland
has so many mosses and liverworts". Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ "Bryology (mosses, liverworts and hornworts)". Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ "Scotland\'s Census 2011 - National Records of Scotland
Scotland
Table KS201SC - Ethnic group - Release 3A". National Records for Scotland. 2014-02-27. Retrieved 2014-02-27. * ^ "Scotland\'s Population at its Highest Ever". National Records of Scotland. 30 April 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2015. * ^ Census 2011: Detailed characteristics on Ethnicity, Identity, Language and Religion in Scotland – Release 3A. Scotland
Scotland
Census 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2014. * ^ "Did You Know?—Scotland\'s Cities". Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ Clapperton, C.M. (ed) (1983) _Scotland: A New Study_. London. David & Charles. * ^ Miller, J. (2004) _Inverness_. Edinburgh. Birlinn. ISBN 978-1-84158-296-2 * ^ "New Towns". Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ " Scotland
Scotland
speaks Urdu". Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ _The Pole Position_ (6 August 2005). Glasgow. Sunday Herald newspaper. * ^ Gaelic Language Plan, www.gov.scot. Retrieved 2 October 2014. * ^ Scots Language Policy, www.gov.scot. Retrieved 2 October 2014. * ^ Stuart-Smith J. _Scottish English: Phonology_ in Varieties of English: The British Isles, Kortman & Upton (Eds), Mouton de Gruyter, New York 2008. p.47 * ^ Stuart-Smith J. _Scottish English: Phonology_ in Varieties of English: The British Isles, Kortman & Upton (Eds), Mouton de Gruyter, New York 2008. p.48 * ^ Macafee C. _Scots_ in Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, Vol. 11, Elsevier, Oxford, 2005. p.33 * ^ "Scotland\'s Census 2011". National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 27 May 2014. * ^ Kenneth MacKinnon. "A Century on the Census—Gaelic in Twentieth Century Focus". University of Glasgow
Glasgow
. Archived from the original on 5 September 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2007. * ^ "Can TV\'s evolution ignite a Gaelic revolution?". _The Scotsman_. 16 September 2008. * ^ The US Census 2000. The American Community Survey 2004 by the US Census Bureau estimates 5,752,571 people claiming Scottish ancestry and 5,323,888 people claiming Scotch-Irish ancestry. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 January 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ "The Scotch-Irish". _ American Heritage Magazine _. 22 (1). December 1970. Archived from the original on 20 October 2010. * ^ "Born Fighting: How the Scots-Irish Shaped America". Powells.com. 12 August 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2010. * ^ "Scots-Irish By Alister McReynolds, writer and lecturer in Ulster-Scots
Ulster-Scots
studies". Nitakeacloserlook.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2010. * ^ "2006 Canadian Census". 2 April 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ Linguistic Archaeology: The Scottish Input to New Zealand English Phonology Trudgill et al. Journal of English Linguistics.2003; 31: 103–124 * ^ _A_ _B_ "Scotland\'s population reaches record of high of 5.25 million". The Courier. 3 August 2012. Retrieved 3 January 2014. * ^ "Scotland\'s Population 2011: The Registrar General\'s Annual Review of Demographic Trends 157th Edition". Gro-gov.scot. Retrieved 1 May 2013. * ^ "Table Q1: Births, stillbirths, deaths, marriages and civil partnerships, numbers and rates, Scotland, quarterly, 2002 to 2012" (PDF). General Register Office for Scotland. Retrieved 1 May 2013. * ^ http://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/ods-analyser/jsf/tableView/crosstabTableView.xhtml 2011 Census population data for localities in Scotland. Retrieved 10 July 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ Life Expectancy for Areas within Scotland
Scotland
2012-2014 (PDF) (Report). National Records of Scotland. 13 October 2015. p. 5. Retrieved 22 March 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Scotland\'s Census 2011" (PDF). National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 11 August 2016. * ^ " Church of Scotland
Church of Scotland
‘struggling to stay alive’". _scotsman.com_. * ^ "Survey indicates 1.5 million Scots identify with Church". _www.churchofscotland.org.uk_. Retrieved 29 September 2016. * ^ Andrew Collier, "Scotland's Confident Catholics," _ The Tablet _ 10 January 2009, 16. * ^ " Scottish Episcopal Church could be first in UK to conduct same-sex weddings". _Scottish Legal News_. 20 May 2016. Retrieved 1 October 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Analysis of Religion in the 2001 Census". General Register Office for Scotland. Retrieved 26 September 2007. * ^ "In the Scottish Lowlands, Europe\'s first Buddhist monastery turns 40". Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ HC Deb vol 514 cc 199-201, 15 April 1953, Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
* ^ "Opening of Parliament: Procession of the Crown of Scotland". Scottish Parliament. Retrieved 9 July 2016. * ^ "Government of Scotland
Scotland
Facts". Archived from the original on 3 May 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ "Brown opens door to Holyrood tax powers". _Sunday Herald_. 16 February 2008. Retrieved 4 January 2014. * ^ Fraser, Douglas (2 February 2016). "Scotland\'s tax powers: What it has and what\'s coming?". _ BBC
BBC
News_. BBC. Retrieved 27 April 2017. * ^ BBC Scotland
BBC Scotland
News Online " Scotland
Scotland
begins pub smoking ban", _ BBC Scotland
BBC Scotland
News_, 26 March 2006. Retrieved 17 July 2006. * ^ "People: Who runs the Scottish Government". Scottish Government. 21 November 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2015. * ^ "Deputy First Minister". Gov.scot. 24 May 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2016. * ^ "The Scottish Government". Beta.gov.scot. Retrieved 11 August 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ "General election 2017: SNP lose a third of seats amid Tory surge". _ BBC
BBC
News_. BBC. 9 June 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2017. * ^ "Election 2015: SNP wins 56 of 59 seats in Scots landslide". _ BBC
BBC
News_. BBC. Retrieved 17 May 2015. * ^ " Scotland Office Charter". _ Scotland Office website_. 9 August 2004. Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 22 December 2007. * ^ https://www.gov.uk/guidance/devolution-of-powers-to-scotland-wales-and-northern-ireland * ^ _A_ _B_ http://www.gov.scot/topics/archive/About-Archive/11556 * ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-38670128 * ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/brexit-latest-devolved-government-scotland-northern-ireland-wales-eu-negotiation-talks-article-50-a7552421.html * ^ http://www.parliament.scot/visitandlearn/Education/18642.aspx * ^ http://www.gov.scot/Topics/International * ^ https://beta.gov.scot/about/who-runs-government/cabinet-and-ministers/cabinet-secretary-culture-tourism-external-affairs/ * ^ https://beta.gov.scot/about/who-runs-government/cabinet-and-ministers/minister-international-development-europe/ * ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/4646129.stm * ^ https://www.scotland-malawipartnership.org/who-we-are/about-us/ * ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/3018692.stm * ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-24787204 * ^ http://www.gov.scot/Topics/International/Asia/china-1-1/visitchina2011 * ^ http://www.gov.scot/Topics/International/Americas/north-america/canadaplan * ^ http://www.gov.scot/Topics/International/Americas/north-america/sao * ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-39485807 * ^ http://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/news/scottish-news/nicola-sturgeon-nets-63million-deal-10146762 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ https://firstminister.gov.scot/first-minister-in-dublin-day-2/ * ^ Cavanagh, Michael (2001) _The Campaigns for a Scottish Parliament_. University of Strathclyde . Retrieved 12 April 2008. * ^ "Party people confront new realities". _ BBC
BBC
News_. BBC. Retrieved 18 January 2008. * ^ "Commons clears transfer of power". _The Herald_. Glasgow. January 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2011. * ^ "Referendum Bill". _Official website, About > Programme for Government > 2009–10 > Summaries of Bills > Referendum Bill_. Scottish Government . 2 September 2009. Archived from the original on 10 September 2009. Retrieved 10 September 2009. * ^ MacLeod, Angus (3 September 2009). "Salmond to push ahead with referendum Bill". _The Times_. London. Archived from the original on 10 September 2009. Retrieved 10 September 2009. * ^ " Scottish independence
Scottish independence
plan \'an election issue\'". BBC
BBC
News. 6 September 2010. * ^ Black, Andrew (21 March 2013). "Scottish independence: Referendum to be held on 18 September, 2014". London: BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 21 March 2013. * ^ " Scotland
Scotland
votes no: the union has survived, but the questions for the left are profound". The Guardian. 19 September 2014. * ^ Indyref. " Scotland
Scotland
decides". _BBC_. Retrieved 19 September 2014. * ^ Scottish Independence Referendum: statement by the Prime Minister, UK Government * ^ _A_ _B_ Scottish referendum: Who is Lord Smith of Kelvin?, BBC News * ^ "Scottish Leader Nicola Sturgeon Announces Plans for Second Independence Referendum". _Time_. 24 June 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2016. * ^ "Brexit: Nicola Sturgeon says second Scottish independence
Scottish independence
vote \'highly likely\'". BBC
BBC
News. 24 June 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2016. * ^ "Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994" Archived 1 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine . Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 26 September 2007. * ^ "City status". Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ "UK Cities". Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ "History of the Faculty of Law". The University of Edinburgh School of Law. Archived from the original on 22 November 2007. Retrieved 22 October 2007. * ^ The Articles: legal and miscellaneous, UK Parliament
Parliament
House of Lords (2007). "Article 19: The Scottish legal system and its courts was to remain unchanged":"Act of Union 1707". House of Lords. Archived from the original on 14 November 2007. Retrieved 22 October 2007. * ^ "Law and institutions, Gaelic" & "Law and lawyers" in M. Lynch (ed.), _The Oxford Companion to Scottish History_, (Oxford, 2001), pp. 381–382 ">(PDF). Law Society of Scotland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2007. * ^ "Court Information" www.scotcourts.gov.uk. Retrieved 26 September 207. Archived 20 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "The case for keeping \'not proven\' verdict". Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ "Scotland\'s unique 15-strong juries will not be abolished". _The Scotsman_. 11 May 2009. Retrieved 13 March 2017. * ^ "Prisoner Population". Sps.gov.uk. Retrieved 8 July 2009. * ^ Highlands and Islands Medical Service (HIMS) www.60yearsofnhsscotland.co.uk. Retrieved 28 July 2008. * ^ "Strategic Board of the Scottish Government". Scottish Government . Retrieved 8 June 2014. * ^ "About the NHS in Scotland". Archived from the original on 28 June 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/economics/11084406/The-Scottish-economy-in-ten-essential-charts.html * ^ Centre for Economics & Business Research. "How money in some regions subsidises others". Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2013. * ^ "Government Expenditure ">(PDF). Retrieved 12 June 2013. * ^ "Scotland\'s GDP 2016 Q4" (5 April 2017). Scottish Government. * ^ BBC. "Scottish economic output falls by 0.2%". Retrieved 7 April 2017. * ^ Scottish Office. "Scottish Labour Market Statistics September 2015". Retrieved 15 January 2016. * ^ Askeland, Erikka (20 March 2012) "Scots Cities Slide down Chart of the World\'s Top Financial Centres". _The Scotsman_. * ^ "The Global Financial Centres Index 19". Long Finance. March 2016. * ^ Scottish Government. "Export Statistics Scotland
Scotland
– Publication". Retrieved 14 December 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Economy Statistics". The Scottish Government. Retrieved 26 May 2014. * ^ Macalister, Terry (2 March 2012). "Who would get the oil revenues if Scotland
Scotland
became independent?". _The Guardian_. Retrieved 14 October 2012. * ^ "Scotch Whisky
Whisky
Exports Hit Record Level". Scotch Whisky Association. 2 April 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2013. * ^ "Scotch Whisky
Whisky
Exports Remain Flat". _ BBC
BBC
News_. Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ "Scotch Whisky
Whisky
Briefing 2014". Scotch Whisky
Whisky
Association. Retrieved 30 May 2014. * ^ Carrell, Severin; Griffiths, Ian; Terry Macalister, Terry (29 May 2014). "New Doubt Cast over Alex Salmond\'s Claims of Scottish Wealth". _The Guardian_. Retrieved 30 May 2014. * ^ "The Economics of Tourism" (PDF). SPICe. 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 November 2005. Retrieved 22 October 2007. * ^ "Scottish Banknotes: The Treasury\'s Symbolic Hostage in the Independence Debate". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 May 2014. * ^ The large number of military bases in Scotland
Scotland
led some to use the euphemism "Fortress Scotland". See Spaven, Malcolm (1983) _Fortress Scotland_. London. Pluto Press in association with Scottish CND. * ^ "Pensioner, 94, in nuclear protest". Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ "Reprieve for RAF Lossiemouth base". Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ "Dunoon and the US Navy". Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ " Curriculum for Excellence – Aims, Purposes and Principles". Scottish Government. Archived from the original on 1 August 2010. * ^ "The Scottish Exam System". Archived from the original on 14 February 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ "Welcome to the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland". Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 18 October 2007. * ^ "Understanding Scottish Qualifications". Scottish Agricultural College. Archived from the original on 22 May 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2007. * ^ "RAE 2008: results for UK universities". _The Guardian_. London. 18 December 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2009. * ^ Foster, Patrick. " The Times Good University Guide 2009 – league table". _The Times_. London. Retrieved 30 April 2010. * ^ " Scotland
Scotland
tops global university rankings". Newsnet Scotland. 11 September 2012. Archived from the original on 9 March 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2013. * ^ "A Framework for Higher Education in Scotland: Higher Education Review Phase 2". Scottish Government. Retrieved 18 October 2007. * ^ "What is higher education?" (PDF). Universities Scotland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 March 2004. Retrieved 18 October 2007. * ^ http://www.saas.gov.uk/_forms/fees_student.pdf * ^ " Scottish Government - Graduate endowment scrapped". Retrieved 29 October 2014. * ^ "MSPs vote to scrap endowment fee". BBC
BBC
News. 2008-02-28. Retrieved 2011-02-12. * ^ Cite error: The named reference NS122015 was invoked but never defined (see the help page ). * ^ ITV (5 June 2014). " Scotland
Scotland
\'most highly educated country in Europe\'". Retrieved 8 June 2014. * ^ "Tertiary educational attainment, age group 25–64 by sex and NUTS 2 regions". Eurostat. 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014. * ^ "Best Scottish Band of All Time". The List. Retrieved 2 August 2006. * ^ R. T. Lambdin and L. C. Lambdin, _Encyclopedia of Medieval Literature_ (London: Greenwood, 2000), ISBN 0-313-30054-2 , p. 508. * ^ I. Brown, T. Owen Clancy, M. Pittock, S. Manning, eds, _The Edinburgh
Edinburgh
History of Scottish Literature: From Columba to the Union, until 1707_ (Edinburgh: Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press, 2007), ISBN 0-7486-1615-2 , p. 94. * ^ J. T. Koch, _Celtic Culture: a Historical Encyclopedia_ (ABC-CLIO, 2006), ISBN 1-85109-440-7 , p. 999. * ^ E. M. Treharne, _Old and Middle English c.890-c.1400: an Anthology_ (Wiley-Blackwell, 2004), ISBN 1-4051-1313-8 , p. 108. * ^ M. Fry, _Edinburgh_ (London: Pan Macmillan, 2011), ISBN 0-330-53997-3 . * ^ N. Jayapalan, _History of English Literature_ (Atlantic, 2001), ISBN 81-269-0041-5 , p. 23. * ^ J. Wormald, _Court, Kirk, and Community: Scotland, 1470–1625_ (Edinburgh: Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press, 1991), ISBN 0-7486-0276-3 , pp. 60–7. * ^ I. Brown, T. Owen Clancy, M. Pittock, S. Manning, eds, _The Edinburgh
Edinburgh
History of Scottish Literature: From Columba to the Union, until 1707_ (Edinburgh: Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press, 2007), ISBN 0-7486-1615-2 , pp. 256–7. * ^ R. D. S. Jack, "Poetry under King James VI", in C. Cairns, ed., _The History of Scottish Literature_ ( Aberdeen
Aberdeen
University Press, 1988), vol. 1, ISBN 0-08-037728-9 , pp. 137–8. * ^ J. Buchan (2003). _Crowded with Genius_. Harper Collins. p. 163. ISBN 0-06-055888-1 . * ^ L. McIlvanney (Spring 2005). "Hugh Blair, Robert Burns, and the Invention of Scottish Literature". _Eighteenth-Century Life_. 29 (2): 25–46. doi :10.1215/00982601-29-2-25 . * ^ N. Davidson (2000). _The Origins of Scottish Nationhood_. Pluto Press. p. 136. ISBN 0-7453-1608-5 . * ^ "Cultural Profile: 19th and early 20th century developments". _Visiting Arts: Scotland: Cultural Profile_. Archived from the original on 5 November 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ "The Scottish \'Renaissance\' and beyond". _Visiting Arts: Scotland: Cultural Profile_. Archived from the original on 5 November 2011. * ^ "The Scots Makar". The Scottish Government. 16 February 2004. Archived from the original on 5 November 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2007. * ^ "Duffy reacts to new Laureate post". BBC
BBC
News. 1 May 2009. Archived from the original on 5 November 2011. * ^ Harvey, David; Jones, Rhys; McInroy, Neil; et al., eds. (2002). _Celtic geographies: old culture, new times_. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Routledge . p. 142. ISBN 978-0-415-22396-6 . * ^ Pittock, Murray (1999). _Celtic identity and the British image_. Manchester: Manchester University Press . pp. 1–5. ISBN 0-7190-5826-0 . * ^ "Celtic connections:Scotland\'s premier winter music festival". _Celtic connections website_. Celtic Connections . 2010. Retrieved 23 January 2010. * ^ "\' Hebridean Celtic Festival 2010 – the biggest homecoming party of the year". _ Hebridean Celtic Festival website_. Hebridean Celtic Festival . 2009. Retrieved 23 January 2010. * ^ "Site Officiel du Festival Interceltique de Lorient". _Festival Interceltique de Lorient website_. Festival Interceltique de Lorient . 2009. Archived from the original on 5 March 2010. Retrieved 23 January 2010. * ^ "Welcome to the Pan Celtic 2010 Home Page". _Pan Celtic Festival 2010 website_. Fáilte Ireland
Ireland
. 2010. Retrieved 26 January 2010. * ^ "About the Festival". _National Celtic Festival website_. National Celtic Festival. 2009. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2010. * ^ "Feature: Saint Andrew seals Scotland\'s independence" Archived 16 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine ., _The National Archives of Scotland_, 28 November 2007, retrieved 12 September 2009. * ^ "Feature: Saint Andrew seals Scotland\'s independence". The National Archives of Scotland. 28 November 2007. Archived from the original on 16 September 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2009. * ^ Dickinson, Donaldson, Milne (eds.), A Source Book Of Scottish History, Nelson and Sons Ltd, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
1952, p.205 * ^ G. Bartram, www.flaginstitute.org _British Flags & Emblems_ Archived 9 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine . (Edinburgh: Tuckwell Press, 2004), ISBN 1-86232-297-X , p. 10. * ^ "National identity" in M. Lynch (ed.), _The Oxford Companion to Scottish History_, (Oxford, 2001), pp. 437–444. * ^ Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) _Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland_. London. HarperCollins. Page 936. * ^ "Symbols of Scotland—Index". Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ Bain, Robert (1959). Margaret O. MacDougall (ed.), ed. _Clans & Tartans of Scotland
Scotland
(revised)_. P.E. Stewart-Blacker (heralidic advisor), forward by The R. Hon. C/refountess of Erroll. William Collins Sons & Co., Ltd. p. 108. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link ) * ^ "Action call over national anthem". BBC
BBC
News. 21 March 2006. Retrieved 3 November 2011. * ^ "Games team picks new Scots anthem". BBC. 9 January 2010. * ^ "Explanatory Notes to St. Andrew\'s Day Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act 2007" Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 22 September 2007. * ^ "Scottish fact of the week: Scotland\'s official animal, the Unicorn". Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ Gail Kilgore. "The Auld Alliance and its Influence on Scottish Cuisine". Retrieved 29 July 2006. * ^ "Who invented the television? How people reacted to John Logie Baird\'s creation 90 years ago". _The Telegraph_. 26 January 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Newspapers and National Identity in Scotland" (PDF). IFLA University of Stirling. Retrieved 12 December 2006. * ^ "About Us::Celtic Media Festival". _Celtic Media Festival website_. Celtic Media Festival
Celtic Media Festival
. 2014. Retrieved 3 January 2014. * ^ Soccer in South Asia: Empire, Nation, Diaspora. By James Mills, Paul Dimeo: Page 18 – Oldest Football Association is England's FA, then Scotland
Scotland
and third oldest is the Indian FA. * ^ Gerhardt, W. "The colourful history of a fascinating game. More than 2000 Years of Football". FIFA
FIFA
. Archived from the original on 10 August 2006. Retrieved 11 August 2006. * ^ "Official site of the Tennents Scottish Cup". The Tennents Scottish Cup. Retrieved 10 December 2006. * ^ Paul Mitchell . "The first international football match". BBC. Retrieved 21 September 2014. * ^ " Scotland
Scotland
is the home of golf". PGA Tour official website. Archived from the original on 28 August 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2008. Scotland
Scotland
is the home of golf... * ^ "The Home of Golf". Scottish Government . Retrieved 4 December 2008. The Royal & Ancient and three public sector agencies are to continue using the Open Championship to promote Scotland
Scotland
as the worldwide home of golf. * ^ Keay (1994) _op cit_ page 839. "In 1834 the Royal and Ancient Golf
Golf
Club declared St. Andrews 'the Alma Mater of golf'". * ^ Cochrane, Alistair (ed) _Science and Golf
Golf
IV: proceedings of the World Scientific Congress of Golf_. Page 849. Routledge. * ^ Forrest L. Richardson (2002). "Routing the Golf
Golf
Course: The Art & Science That Forms the Golf
Golf
Journey". p. 46. John Wiley & Sons * ^ The Open Championship – More Scottish than British Archived 2 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine . PGA Tour. Retrieved 23 September 2011 * ^ "Medal Tally". Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ "Overview and History". Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ _The Scotsman_ 27 March 2007. " Special
Special
Report—Business Class" * ^ " Highlands and Islands Airports – Airport Information". Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ "Prestwick Airport to be nationalised in bid to safeguard jobs". _The Herald _. 8 October 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2013. * ^ "Disaggregating Network Rail\'s expenditure and revenue allowance and future price control framework: a consultation (June 2005)" Office of Rail Regulation . Retrieved 2 November 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Rail". _www.transport.gov.scot_. Transport
Transport
Scotland. Retrieved 15 December 2016. * ^ Keay, J. -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;">

* Devine, T. M. (2000). _The Scottish Nation 1700–2000_ (New Ed. edition). London:Penguin. ISBN 0-14-023004-1 * Donnachie, Ian and George Hewitt. _Dictionary of Scottish History._ (2001). 384 pp. * Keay, John, and Julia Keay. _Collins Encyclopedia of Scotland_ (2nd ed. 2001), 1101pp; 4000 articles; emphasis on history * Koch, J. T. _Celtic Culture: a Historical Encyclopedia_ (ABC-CLIO, 2006), ISBN 1-85109-440-7 , 999pp * Tabraham, Chris, and Colin Baxter. _The Illustrated History of Scotland_ (2004) excerpt and text search * Trevor-Roper, Hugh , _The Invention of Scotland: Myth and History_, Yale, 2008, ISBN 0-300-13686-2 * Watson, Fiona, _Scotland; From Prehistory to the Present._ Tempus, 2003. 286 pp. * Wilson, Neil. _Lonely Planet Scotland_ (2013) excerpt and text search * Wormald, Jenny, _The New History of Scotland_ (2005) excerpt and text search

SPECIALIZED MONOGRAPHS

* Brown, Dauvit, (1999) _Anglo-French acculturation and the Irish element in Scottish Identity_ in Smith, Brendan (ed.), _Insular Responses to Medieval European Change_, Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
, pp. 135–53 * Brown, Michael (2004) _The Wars of Scotland, 1214–1371_, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press., pp. 157–254 * Dumville, David N. (2001). "St Cathróe of Metz and the Hagiography of Exoticism". _Irish Hagiography: Saints and Scholars_. Dublin: Four Courts Press. pp. 172–176. ISBN 978-1-85182-486-1 . * Flom, George Tobias . _Scandinavian influence on Southern Lowland Scotch. A Contribution to the Study of the Linguistic Relations of English and Scandinavian_ ( Columbia University Press , New York. 1900) * Herbert, Maire (2000). "Rí Érenn, Rí Alban, kingship and identity in the ninth and tenth centuries". In Simon Taylor (ed.). _Kings, Clerics and Chronicles in Scotland, 500–1297_. Dublin: Four Courts Press. pp. 63–72. ISBN 1-85182-516-9 . CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link ) * MacLeod, Wilson (2004) _Divided Gaels: Gaelic Cultural Identities in Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland: c.1200–1650_. Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. * Pope, Robert (ed.), _Religion and National Identity: Wales
Wales
and Scotland, c.1700–2000_ ( University of Wales Press , 2001) * Sharp, L. W. _The Expansion of the English Language in Scotland_, (Cambridge University PhD thesis, 1927), pp. 102–325;

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to SCOTLAND _.

_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for SCOTLAND _.

Find more aboutSCOTLANDat's sister projects

* _Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews *

.