In games of association football teams compete to score the most goals during the match. A goal is scored when the ball passes completely over a goal line at each end of the field of play between two centrally positioned upright goal posts 24 feet (7.32 m) apart and underneath a horizontal crossbar at a height of 8 feet (2.44 m). This frame is also referred to as a goal. Nets are usually attached to the goal frame to catch goalscoring balls.
Rules concerning goal scoring are described in Law 10 of the Laws of the Game:
A goal is scored when the whole of the ball passes over the goal line, between the goalposts and under the crossbar, provided that no infringement of the Laws of the Game has been committed previously by the team scoring the goal.— Law 10: The Method of Scoring
Even if serious foul play unambiguously prevents scoring (a professional foul), the referee cannot award a goal if the above requirements have not been met—there is no provision for a "penalty goal" equivalent of the penalty try in rugby. As with other cases of the ball travelling out of the field of play, all of the ball must cross all of the line, otherwise play continues.
A goal cannot be scored directly from an indirect free kick or a throw-in. Should the ball go into the goal from these without first being touched by another player, play is restarted with a goal kick. A player cannot score an own goal directly from any restart of play, in that case a corner kick would be awarded. Both of these situations, especially the latter, are exceedingly rare.
If there is time remaining in the session of play, after a goal has been scored play is restarted with a kick-off by the side which conceded the goal.
The sole arbiter of the rules during a game, including decisions as to whether a goal has been scored, is the referee. Referees are advised by assistant referees, whose view across the pitch from the sidelines may in some cases be more useful. In most cases, identifying goals is relatively unambiguous. Occasionally however situations occur when it is difficult for officials to tell if a goal has been scored before a rebound, save, or defender's clearance from the goal area.
Goal nets were introduced to the game in the 1890s to provide a simple way of determining whether a shot passed the correct side of the goal frame. Since 2012, at the very highest levels of play, referees are automatically informed as to whether the ball has passed over the goal line by goal-line technology.
Following successful trials, in July 2012 IFAB voted unanimously to officially amend the Laws of the Game to permit (but not require) goal-line technology.
The Laws make no mention of attributing goals to individual players. Nevertheless, goals are almost always attributed to individual players, that player being the one who provided the final action causing the goal to be scored. Generally, this is the last player to touch the ball, notwithstanding inconsequential deflections such as failed attempts at a save. Should a player cause a goal to be scored against their own team, the goal is recorded as an own goal.
For an individual player, scoring multiple goals in a game is considered a notable achievement. In association football, a hat-trick refers to the uncommon feat of scoring three goals in a single game. Awards exist for individual players who score the most goals in some competitions, such awards are often called the "Golden Boot".
Players will typically celebrate scoring a goal with team mates, occasionally putting on elaborate displays for the crowd. The Laws allow this, but mandate that celebration must not be "excessive".
On average, only a few scores occur per game in association football.
|Competition||Average number of goals per game|
|2015–16 Premier League||2.70|
|2015–16 La Liga||2.74|
|2014 FIFA World Cup||2.67|
|2015 FIFA Women's World Cup||2.81|
An analysis of several years' results from several English leagues found that 1–0 was the most common result, occurring in approximately 20% of games.