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(i) (i)

†Allomyidae Aplodontiidae Mylagaulidae Sciuridae
Sciuridae
†Reithroparamyidae Gliridae
Gliridae

The term SCIUROMORPHA has referred to numerous groups of rodents , but the only family common to all variations is the Sciuridae, the squirrels . Most definitions also include the mountain beaver .

Traditionally, the term has been defined on the basis of the shape of the infraorbital canal . A sciuromorphous zygomasseteric system is characterized by attachment of the lateral masseter muscle along the side of the rostrum . Unlike hystricomorphous and myomorphous rodents, the medial masseter muscle does not pass through the infraorbital canal. Among extant rodents, only the families Sciuridae, Castoridae , Heteromyidae , and Geomyidae
Geomyidae
are truly sciuromorphous. Some authorities would exclude the Geomyidae
Geomyidae
and Heteromyidae from that list due to the attachment of the medial masseter directly behind the zygomatic arch .

Carleton and Musser (2005) redefined the rodent suborders on morphological and molecular grounds. They defined the Sciuromorpha
Sciuromorpha
as including three families, Sciuridae, Aplodontiidae , and Gliridae
Gliridae
. Of these, only the Sciuridae
Sciuridae
are truly sciuromorphous. The Aplodontiidae are protrogomorphous and the Gliridae
Gliridae
are myomorphous. The connection between Aplodontiidae and Sciuridae
Sciuridae
has been proposed numerous times in the past. The two families have been united into a common infraorder (SCIURIDA) or superfamily (SCIUROIDEA). It has long been suggested that dormice (Gliridae) are not particularly related to the Myomorpha , and their zygomasseteric structure has been termed "pseudomyomorphy". The connection between squirrels and dormice has been almost exclusively suggested through genetic studies, and to a lesser degree via the fossil rodent Reithroparamys . Skull of an oriental giant squirrel displaying a sciuromorphous zygomatic system

CURRENT FAMILIES

The SUBORDER SCIUROMORPHA contains 307 living species in 61 genera and three families. At least three extinct families are also recognised.

* †Allomyidae * Aplodontiidae - mountain beaver * † Mylagaulidae * Sciuridae
Sciuridae
- squirrels, chipmunks, marmots, flying squirrels, etc. * †Reithroparamyidae * Gliridae
Gliridae
- dormice

HISTORICAL FAMILIES

* Castoridae - beavers * Geomyidae
Geomyidae
- pocket gophers * Heteromyidae - kangaroo rats and mice

REFERENCES

* Carleton, M. D. and G. G. Musser. 2005. Order Rodentia. pp745–752 in Mammal Species of the World A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds.). Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to SCIUROMORPHA .

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Extant families in order Rodentia

* Kingdom: Animalia * Phylum: Chordata * Class: Mammalia * Infraclass: Eutheria * Superorder: Euarchontoglires
Euarchontoglires

Sciuromorpha ("Squirrel-like")

* Aplodontiidae (Mountain beaver) * Gliridae
Gliridae
(Dormice) * Sciuridae
Sciuridae
(Squirrels, chipmunks, marmots, susliks and prairie dogs)

Castorimorpha ("Beaver-like") Castoroidea Castoridae (Beavers) Geomyoidea Geomyidae
Geomyidae
(Pocket gophers) Heteromyidae (Kangaroo rats and mice, pocket mice)

Myomorpha ("Mouse-like") Dipodoidea Dipodidae (Jerboas, jumping mice and birch mice) Muroidea Platacanthomyidae (Oriental dormice) Spalacidae
Spalacidae
(Zokors, bamboo rats, mole rats, blind mole rats) Calomyscidae (Mouse-like hamsters) Nesomyidae (Malagasy rats and relatives) Cricetidae (Hamsters and relatives) Muridae
Muridae
(House mouse and relatives)

Anomaluromorpha ("Anomalure-like")

* Anomaluridae (Anomalures) * Pedetidae
Pedetidae
(Springhares)

Hystricomorpha ("Porcupine-like")

* Ctenodactylidae (Gundis) * Diatomyidae (Laotian rock rat) * Hystricidae (Old World porcupines)

Phiomorpha Bathyergidae (Blesmols) Petromuridae (Dassie rat) Thryonomyidae (Cane rats) Caviomorpha (New World hystricognaths) Erethizontidae (New World porcupines) Caviidae (Cavies) Cuniculidae (Pacas) Dasyproctidae (Agoutis and acouchis) Dinomyidae
Dinomyidae
(Pacarana) Capromyidae (Hutias) Ctenomyidae (Tuco-tucos) Echimyidae
Echimyidae
(Spiny rats) Myocastoridae (Coypu, or nutria) Octodontidae (Degus and relatives) Abrocomidae (Chinchilla rats) Chinchillidae (Chinchillas and viscachas)

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Prehistoric families in order Rodentia

* Kingdom: Animalia * Phylum: Chordata * Class: Mammalia * Infraclass: Eutheria * Superorder: Euarchontoglires
Euarchontoglires

SCIUROMORPHA

* Allomyidae * Mylagaulidae * Reithroparamyidae

CASTORIMORPHA

* Eutypomyidae * Rhizospalacidae * Eomyidae * Florentiamyidae * Heliscomyidae

MYOMORPHA

* Armintomyidae * Anomalomyidae * Simimyidae

ANOMALUROMORPHA

* Parapedetidae

HYSTRICOMORPHA

* Tamquammyidae * Gobiomyidae * Yuomyidae * Chapattimyidae * Tsaganomyidae * "Baluchimyinae " * Bathyergoididae * Myophiomyidae * Diamantomyidae * Phiomyidae * Kenyamyidae * Cephalomyidae * Eocardiidae * Neoepiblemidae * Heptaxodontidae

INCERTAE SEDIS

* Eurymylidae * Alagomyidae * Archetypomyidae * Cocomyidae * Ivanantoniidae * Laredomyidae * Ischyromyidae * Theridomyidae * Protoptychidae * Zegdoumyidae * Sciuravidae * Cylindrodontidae * Zelomyidae

See also: Category

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Sciuromorpha
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